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Sample records for ambient fine particulate

  1. Seasonal variability of endotoxin in ambient fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Carty, Cara L; Gehring, Ulrike; Cyrys, Josef; Bischof, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2003-12-01

    Endotoxin is a toxic, pro-inflammatory compound that has been detected in indoor air and dust in homes and occupational settings, and also in outdoor air. Data on the outdoor sampling of endotoxin are limited. Currently, little is known about the seasonal variation and influence of temperature on outdoor endotoxin levels. In the present study, we report endotoxin levels in fine fraction particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameter of 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and describe the seasonal variation of endotoxin in Munich, Germany. In 1999-2000, PM2.5 was collected at forty outdoor monitoring sites across Munich. Approximately four samples were collected at each site for a total of 158 samples. Endotoxin concentrations in the PM2.5 samples were determined using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The geometric mean endotoxin concentration was 1.07 EU mg PM2.5(-1) (95% C.I.: 0.915-1.251) or 0.015 EU m(-3) of sampled air (95% C.I.: 0.013-0.018). Munich endotoxin levels were significantly related to ambient temperature (p < 0.0001) and percent relative humidity (p < 0.0001). Sampling periods with higher average temperatures yielded higher levels of endotoxin in PM2.5 (r = 0.641), whereas decreases in percent relative humidity were associated with increased endotoxin levels in PM2.5 (r = -0.388). Endotoxin levels were significantly higher during the warmer seasons of spring [means ratio (MR): 2.5-2.7] and summer (MR: 2.1-3.0) than during winter. Although temperature and relative humidity do not explain all of the variability in endotoxin levels, their effects were significant in our data set. Temperature effects and seasonal variation of endotoxin should be considered in future studies of outdoor endotoxin.

  2. Ambient fine particulate matter alters cerebral hemodynamics in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Wellenius, Gregory A; Boyle, Luke D; Wilker, Elissa H; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2013-06-01

    Short-term elevations in fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) are associated with increased risk of acute cerebrovascular events. Evidence from the peripheral circulation suggests that vascular dysfunction may be a central mechanism. However, the effects of PM2.5 on cerebrovascular function and hemodynamics are unknown. We used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to measure beat-to-beat blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery at rest and in response to changes in end-tidal CO2 (cerebral vasoreactivity) and arterial blood pressure (cerebral autoregulation) in 482 participants from the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) of Boston study. We used linear mixed effects models with random subject intercepts to evaluate the association between cerebrovascular hemodynamic parameters and mean PM2.5 levels 1 to 28 days earlier adjusting for age, race, medical history, meteorologic covariates, day of week, temporal trends, and season. An interquartile range increase (3.0 µg/m(3)) in mean PM2.5 levels during the previous 28 days was associated with an 8.6% (95% confidence interval, 3.7%-13.8%; P<0.001) higher cerebral vascular resistance and a 7.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.2%-10.6%; P<0.001) lower blood flow velocity at rest. Measures of cerebral vasoreactivity and autoregulation were not associated with PM2.5 levels. In this cohort of community-dwelling seniors, exposure to PM2.5 was associated with higher resting cerebrovascular resistance and lower cerebral blood flow velocity. If replicated, these findings suggest that alterations in cerebrovascular hemodynamics may underlie the increased risk of particle-related acute cerebrovascular events.

  3. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; ...

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrationsmore » were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.« less

  4. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  6. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  7. Biomass Burning as a Source of Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kulka, Ryan; Lavigne, Eric; van Rijswijk, David; Brauer, Michael; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Stieb, Dave; Joseph, Lawrence; Burnett, Rick T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biomass burning is an important source of ambient fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) in many regions of the world. Methods: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study of ambient PM2.5 and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in three regions of British Columbia, Canada. Daily hospital admission data were collected between 2008 and 2015 and PM2.5 data were collected from fixed site monitors. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) describing the association between PM2.5 and the risk of hospital admission for MI. We used stratified analyses to evaluate effect modification by biomass burning as a source of ambient PM2.5 using the ratio of levoglucosan/PM2.5 mass concentrations. Results: Each 5 µg/m3 increase in 3-day mean PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of MI among elderly subjects (≥65 years; OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.08); risk was not increased among younger subjects. Among the elderly, the strongest association occurred during colder periods (<6.44°C); when we stratified analyses by tertiles of monthly mean biomass contributions to PM2.5 during cold periods, ORs of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.36), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.09), and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.06) were observed in the upper, middle, and lower tertiles (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. Conclusion: Short-term changes in ambient PM2.5 were associated with an increased risk of MI among elderly subjects. During cold periods, increased biomass burning contributions to PM2.5 may modify its association with MI. PMID:28177951

  8. Origin-Oriented Elemental Profile of Fine Ambient Particulate Matter in Central European Suburban Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Barbara; Klejnowski, Krzysztof; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm) were collected in a suburban (quasi-rural) area in Racibórz (Poland) between 1 January 2011 and 26 December 2012. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 28 elements. Sources of PM2.5 were identified and the contribution of each source to the PM2.5 concentration was assessed using an enrichment factor (EF) analysis, a principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). In the cold season (January–March and October–December 2011–2012), the mean ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Racibórz was 48.7 ± 39.4 µg·m−3, which was much higher than at other suburban or rural sites in Europe. Additionally the ambient concentrations of some toxic PM2.5-bound elements were also high, i.e., the mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound As, Cd, and Pb were 11.3 ± 11.5, 5.2 ± 2.5, and 34.0 ± 34.2 ng·m−3, respectively. In the warm season (April–September 2011–2012), the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound element concentrations in Racibórz were comparable to the concentrations noted at other suburban (or rural) sites in Europe. Our findings suggest that elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 in Racibórz are mainly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, i.e., the energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, traffic, and industry. PMID:27428988

  9. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    PubMed

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J.

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  11. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality among Survivors of Myocardial Infarction: Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T.; Copes, Ray; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Kopp, Alexander; Tu, Jack V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk of dying within several hours to days following exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Little is known, however, about the influence of long-term (months to years) air pollution exposure on survival after AMI. Objective: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on post-AMI survival. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 8,873 AMI patients who were admitted to 1 of 86 hospital corporations across Ontario, Canada in 1999–2001. Mortality follow-up for this cohort extended through 2011. Cumulative time-weighted exposures to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations based on participants’ annual residences during follow-up. We used standard and multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Between 1999 and 2011, we identified 4,016 nonaccidental deaths, of which 2,147 were from any cardiovascular disease, 1,650 from ischemic heart disease, and 675 from AMI. For each 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR10) of nonaccidental mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.45]. The association with PM2.5 was robust to sensitivity analyses and appeared stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality: ischemic heart (HR10 = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.83) and AMI (HR10 = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.40). We estimated that 12.4% of nonaccidental deaths (or 497 deaths) could have been averted if the lowest measured concentration in an urban area (4 μg/m3) had been achieved at all locations over the course of the study. Conclusions: Long-term air pollution exposure adversely affects the survival of AMI patients. Citation: Chen H, Burnett RT, Copes R, Kwong JC, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Brook RD, van Donkelaar A, Jerrett M, Martin RV, Brook JR, Kopp A, Tu JV. 2016. Ambient fine

  12. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality: Adjustment of the Meteorological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Ruiming; Li, Runkui; Xu, Qun; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explicitly explored the impacts of the extensive adjustment (with a lag period of more than one week) of temperature and humidity on the association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality. In a time stratified case-crossover study, we used a distributed lag nonlinear model to assess the impacts of extensive adjustments of temperature and humidity for longer lag periods (for 7, 14, 21, 28 and 40 days) on effects of PM2.5 on total cardiovascular mortality and mortality of cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease and corresponding exposure-response relationships in Beijing, China, between 2008 and 2011. Compared with results only controlled for temperature and humidity for 2 days, the estimated effects of PM2.5 were smaller and magnitudes of exposure-response curves were decreased when longer lag periods of temperature and relative humidity were included for adjustments, but these changes varied across subpopulation, with marked decreases occurring in males and the elderly who are more susceptible to PM2.5-related mortalities. Our findings suggest that the adjustment of meteorological factors using lag periods shorter than one week may lead to overestimated effects of PM2.5. The associations of PM2.5 with cardiovascular mortality in susceptible populations were more sensitive to further adjustments for temperature and relative humidity. PMID:27827945

  13. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Savitz, David A.; Elston, Beth; Shmool, Jessie L.C.; Dominici, Francesca; Ross, Zev; Clougherty, Jane E.; Matte, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. Objective: We aimed to assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008–2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. Methods: We analyzed 258,294 singleton births with 22–42 completed weeks gestation to nonsmoking mothers. Exposures to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the first, second, and cumulative third trimesters within 300 m of maternal address were estimated using data from the NYC Community Air Survey and regulatory monitors. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm (gestation < 37 weeks) births for the first- and second-trimester exposures in a logistic mixed model, and the third-trimester cumulative exposures in a discrete time survival model, adjusting for maternal characteristics and delivery hospital. Spatial and temporal components of estimated exposures were also separately analyzed. Results: PM2.5 was not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. NO2 in the second trimester was negatively associated with spontaneous preterm birth in the adjusted model (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97 per 20 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth based on adjusted models of temporal exposures, whereas the spatial exposures showed significantly reduced odds ratios (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96 per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per 20 ppb NO2). Without adjustment for hospital, these negative associations were stronger. Conclusion: Neither PM2.5 nor NO2 was positively associated with spontaneous preterm delivery in NYC. Delivery hospital was an important spatial confounder. Citation: Johnson S, Bobb JF, Ito K, Savitz DA, Elston B, Shmool JL, Dominici F, Ross Z, Clougherty JE, Matte T. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and

  14. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Savitz, David A; Elston, Beth; Shmool, Jessie L C; Dominici, Francesca; Ross, Zev; Clougherty, Jane E; Matte, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. We aimed to assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008-2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. We analyzed 258,294 singleton births with 22-42 completed weeks gestation to nonsmoking mothers. Exposures to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the first, second, and cumulative third trimesters within 300 m of maternal address were estimated using data from the NYC Community Air Survey and regulatory monitors. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm (gestation < 37 weeks) births for the first- and second-trimester exposures in a logistic mixed model, and the third-trimester cumulative exposures in a discrete time survival model, adjusting for maternal characteristics and delivery hospital. Spatial and temporal components of estimated exposures were also separately analyzed. PM2.5 was not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. NO2 in the second trimester was negatively associated with spontaneous preterm birth in the adjusted model (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97 per 20 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth based on adjusted models of temporal exposures, whereas the spatial exposures showed significantly reduced odds ratios (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96 per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per 20 ppb NO2). Without adjustment for hospital, these negative associations were stronger. Neither PM2.5 nor NO2 was positively associated with spontaneous preterm delivery in NYC. Delivery hospital was an important spatial confounder. Johnson S, Bobb JF, Ito K, Savitz DA, Elston B, Shmool JL, Dominici F, Ross Z, Clougherty JE, Matte T. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and preterm birth in New York City. Environ Health Perspect 124

  15. Source apportionments of ambient fine particulate matter in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Abdeen, Ziad; Qasrawi, Radwan; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Sharf, Geula; Shpund, Kobby; Schauer, James J

    2017-06-01

    This manuscript evaluates spatial and temporal variations of source contributions to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected every six days over a 1-year period (January to December 2007) in four cities in Israel (West Jerusalem, Eilat, Tel Aviv, and Haifa), four cities in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Rahma, and Zarka), and three cities in Palestine (Nablus, East Jerusalem, and Hebron). The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for major chemical components, including organic carbon and elemental carbon, ions, and metals, and the results were used in a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 mass. Nine sources, including secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, mobile, industrial lead sources, dust, construction dust, biomass burning, fuel oil combustion and sea salt, were identified across the sampling sites. Secondary sulfate was the dominant source, contributing 35% of the total PM2.5 mass, and it showed relatively homogeneous temporal trends of daily source contribution in the study area. Mobile sources were found to be the second greatest contributor to PM2.5 mass in the large metropolitan cities, such as Tel Aviv, Hebron, and West and East Jerusalem. Other sources (i.e. industrial lead sources, construction dust, and fuel oil combustion) were closely related to local emissions within individual cities. This study demonstrates how international cooperation can facilitate air pollution studies that address regional air pollution issues and the incremental differences across cities in a common airshed. It also provides a model to study air pollution in regions with limited air quality monitoring capacity that have persistent and emerging air quality problems, such as Africa, South Asia and Central America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ambient Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Air Pollution Attributable to Household Cooking Fuel in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, Z.; Mehta, S.; Smith, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), we estimate the proportion of fine particulate ambient air pollution (PM2.5) attributable to household fuel use for cooking in Asia. This analysis considers primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in two years: 1990 and 2005. Only emissions from household cooking fuels-not heating or lighting-are considered. Due to data availability, this analysis focuses solely on Asian countries, notably India and China which are home to about half of the households using solid fuel use worldwide. Forest and grassland fires, dust, and other "natural" particle sources were omitted from this analysis. The impact of emission sources on secondary particles from aerosol precursors was not determined. In China, the proportion of total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 attributable to household cooking decreased from 44% to 31% between 1990 and 2005. In India, the percent of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions attributable to household cooking decreased from 55% to 49% between 1990 and 2005. Total mass change in primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions was much more variable by state in India, between 1990 and 2005, than by province in China (where there was a general downward trend in the total mass emitted). Similarly, growth in industrial emissions was much more variable at the sub-national level, between 1990 and 2005, in India than in China. Energy production played a more prominent role in the growth of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in India than it did in China. Forward-looking GAINS scenarios show that the contribution of household cooking to total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions is much greater than that from on-road transport in India and China between 1990 and 2030. On-road cars, trucks, and other transport vehicles are, however, the cause of important pollutants other than PM2.5 (as are as cooking stoves that do

  17. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Richard T; Pope, C Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Smith, Kirk R; Balmes, John R; Bruce, Nigel G; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-04-01

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. We fit an integrated exposure-response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. We developed a fine particulate mass-based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available.

  18. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR

  19. Size distribution of acidic sulfate ions in fine ambient particulate matter and assessment of source region effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazi, Y.; Heikkinen, M. S. A.; Cohen, B. S.

    Human exposure studies strongly suggested that the fine fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM) and its associated acidic sulfates are closely correlated with observed adverse health effects. Acidic sulfates are the products of atmospheric sulfur dioxide oxidation and neutralization processes. Few data are available on the amount and size distribution of acidic sulfates within the fine fraction of ambient PM. Knowledge of this distribution will help to understand their toxic mechanisms in the human respiratory tract. The goals of this research were: (1) to measure the size distribution of hydrogen ion, sulfate, and ammonium within the fine fraction of the ambient aerosol in air masses originating from different source regions; and (2) to examine the effect of the source region and the seasons on the sampled PM composition. Six size fractions within the fine ambient PM were collected using a micro-orifice impactor. Results from 30 sampling sessions demonstrated that higher total concentrations of these three ions were observed during the warm months than during the cold months of the year. Size distribution results show that the midpoint diameter of the fraction of particles with the largest fraction of hydrogen, sulfate and ammonium ions was 0.38 μm. Although most of the mass containing hydrogen and sulfate ions was measured in the fraction of particles with 0.38 μm midpoint diameter, the ultrafine fraction (<0.1 μm) was found to be more acidic. Ambient ion concentrations varied between sampling sessions and seasons, but the overall size distribution profiles are similar. Air mass back trajectories were used to identify the source region of the sampled aerosols. No apparent source region effect was observed in terms of the distribution profile of the ions. However, samples collected from air masses that originated from, or passed over, high sulfur dioxide emission areas demonstrated higher concentrations of the different ions.

  20. The Association between Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence: Results from the AHSMOG-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Gharibvand, Lida; Shavlik, David; Ghamsary, Mark; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Soret, Samuel; Knutsen, Raymond; Knutsen, Synnove F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a positive association between ambient fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and incidence and mortality of lung cancer (LC), but few studies have assessed the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and LC among never smokers. Objectives: We assessed the association between PM2.5 and risk of LC using the Adventist Health and Smog Study-2 (AHSMOG-2), a cohort of health conscious nonsmokers where 81% have never smoked. Methods: A total of 80,285 AHSMOG-2 participants were followed for an average of 7.5 years with respect to incident LC identified through linkage with U.S. state cancer registries. Estimates of ambient air pollution levels at participants’ residences were obtained for 2000 and 2001, the years immediately prior to the start of the study. Results: A total of 250 incident LC cases occurred during 598,927 person-years of follow-up. For each 10-μg/m3 increment in PM2.5, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for LC incidence was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.84) in the two-pollutant multivariable model with ozone. Among those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors or who had lived 5 or more years at their enrollment address, the HR was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.22) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.04), respectively. Conclusion: Increased risk estimates of LC were observed for each 10-μg/m3 increment in ambient PM2.5 concentration. The estimate was higher among those with longer residence at enrollment address and those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors. Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer incidence: results from the AHSMOG-2 study. Environ Health Perspect 125:378–384; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP124Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer

  1. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  2. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  3. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Study of University Retirees in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongjun; An, Ruopeng; Andrade, Flavia

    2017-07-01

    We examined the longitudinal relationship between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and physical activity-related health behaviors among university retirees in Beijing, China. Annual health surveys of retirees were conducted at Tsinghua University during 2011-2016. We conducted linear individual fixed-effect regression analyses to estimate the impact of ambient PM2.5 concentration on physical activity-related health behaviors among survey participants, adjusting for various time-variant individual characteristics and environmental measures. An increase in ambient PM2.5 concentration by one standard deviation (56.6 μg/m³) was associated with a reduction in weekly total hours of walking by 4.69 (95% confidence interval=1.30-8.08), a reduction in leisure-time Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score by 71.16 (28.91-113.41), and a reduction in total PASE score by 110.67 (59.25-162.08). An increase in ambient PM2.5 concentration by one standard deviation was associated with an increase in daily average hours of nighttime/daytime sleeping by 1.75 (1.24-2.26). The impact of ambient PM2.5 concentration on weekly hours of walking tended to be greater among men than among women. Air pollution significantly discouraged Chinese older adults from engaging in daily physical activities. Policy interventions are needed to reduce air pollution in China's urban areas.

  4. Ambient air concentrations exceeded health-based standards for fine particulate matter and benzene during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Nance, Earthea; King, Denae; Wright, Beverly; Bullard, Robert D

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is considered one of the largest marine oil spills in the history of the United States. Air emissions associated with the oil spill caused concern among residents of Southeast Louisiana. The purpose of this study was to assess ambient concentrations of benzene (n=3,887) and fine particulate matter (n=102,682) during the oil spill and to evaluate potential exposure disparities in the region. Benzene and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the targeted parishes were generally higher following the oil spill, as expected. Benzene concentrations reached 2 to 19 times higher than background, and daily exceedances of PM2.5 were 10 to 45 times higher than background. Both benzene and PM2.5 concentrations were considered high enough to exceed public health criteria, with measurable exposure disparities in the coastal areas closer to the spill and clean-up activities. These findings raise questions about public disclosure of environmental health risks associated with the oil spill. The findings also provide a science-based rationale for establishing health-based action levels in future disasters. Benzene and particulate matter monitoring during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill revealed that ambient air quality was a likely threat to public health and that residents in coastal Louisiana experienced significantly greater exposures than urban residents. Threshold air pollution levels established for the oil spill apparently were not used as a basis for informing the public about these potential health impacts. Also, despite carrying out the most comprehensive air monitoring ever conducted in the region, none of the agencies involved provided integrated analysis of the data or conclusive statements about public health risk. Better information about real-time risk is needed in future environmental disasters.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminassab, S.; Daher, N.; Saffari, A.; Wang, D.; Ostro, B. D.; Sioutas, C.

    2014-11-01

    To identify major sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5, dp < 2.5 μm) and quantify their contributions in the state of California, a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was applied on Speciation Trends Network (STN) data, collected between 2002 and 2007 at eight distinct sampling locations, including El Cajon, Rubidoux, Los Angeles, Simi Valley, Bakersfield, Fresno, San Jose, and Sacramento. Between five to nine sources of fine PM were identified at each sampling site, several of which were common among multiple locations. Secondary aerosols, including secondary ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were the most abundant contributor to ambient PM2.5 mass at all sampling sites, except for San Jose, with an annual average cumulative contribution of 26 to 63%, across the state. On an annual average basis, vehicular emissions (including both diesel and gasoline vehicles) were the largest primary source of fine PM at all sampling sites in southern California (17-18% of total mass), whereas in Fresno and San Jose, biomass burning was the most dominant primary contributor to ambient PM2.5 (27 and 35% of total mass, respectively), in general agreement with the results of previous source apportionment studies in California. In Bakersfield and Sacramento, vehicular emissions and biomass burning displayed relatively equal annual contributions to ambient PM2.5 mass (12 and 25%, respectively). Other commonly identified sources at all sites included aged and fresh sea salt and soil, which contributed to 0.5-13%, 2-27%, and 1-19% of the total mass, respectively, across all sites and seasons. In addition, a few minor sources were identified exclusively at some of the sites (e.g., chlorine sources, sulfate-bearing road dust, and different types of industrial emissions). These sources overall accounted for a small fraction of the total PM mass across the sampling locations (1 to 15%, on an annual average basis).

  6. Modeling Of In-Vehicle Human Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A method for estimating in-vehicle PM2.5 exposure as part of a scenario-based population simulation model is developed and assessed. In existing models, such as the Stochastic Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM), in-vehicle exposure is estimated using linear regression based on area-wide ambient PM2.5 concentration. An alternative modeling approach is explored based on estimation of near-road PM2.5 concentration and an in-vehicle mass balance. Near-road PM2.5 concentration is estimated using a dispersion model and fixed site monitor (FSM) data. In-vehicle concentration is estimated based on air exchange rate and filter efficiency. In-vehicle concentration varies with road type, traffic flow, windspeed, stability class, and ventilation. Average in-vehicle exposure is estimated to contribute 10 to 20 percent of average daily exposure. The contribution of in-vehicle exposure to total daily exposure can be higher for some individuals. Recommendations are made for updating exposure models and implementation of the alternative approach. PMID:23101000

  7. Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot

    2006-11-15

    This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Induces Apoptosis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Xie, Xiaoyun; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jason Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. Some environmental insults, like fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair cardiovascular functions. However, the mechanisms for PM-induced adverse effects on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown. The present research was to study the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods PM was intranasal-distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry was used to measure the number of EPCs, apoptosis level of circulating EPCs and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using ELISA. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in EPC apoptosis, PM was co-administrated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in wild type mice or used in a triple transgenic mouse line (TG) with overexpression of antioxidant enzyme network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx-1) with decreased in vivo ROS production. Results PM treatment significantly decreased circulating EPC population, promoted apoptosis of EPCs in association with increased ROS production and serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels, which could be effectively reversed by either NAC treatment or overexpression of AON. Conclusion PM exposure significantly decreased circulating EPCs population due to increased apoptosis via ROS formation in mice. PMID:25591776

  9. The Association between Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence: Results from the AHSMOG-2 Study.

    PubMed

    Gharibvand, Lida; Shavlik, David; Ghamsary, Mark; Beeson, W Lawrence; Soret, Samuel; Knutsen, Raymond; Knutsen, Synnove F

    2017-03-01

    There is a positive association between ambient fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and incidence and mortality of lung cancer (LC), but few studies have assessed the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and LC among never smokers. We assessed the association between PM2.5 and risk of LC using the Adventist Health and Smog Study-2 (AHSMOG-2), a cohort of health conscious nonsmokers where 81% have never smoked. A total of 80,285 AHSMOG-2 participants were followed for an average of 7.5 years with respect to incident LC identified through linkage with U.S. state cancer registries. Estimates of ambient air pollution levels at participants' residences were obtained for 2000 and 2001, the years immediately prior to the start of the study. A total of 250 incident LC cases occurred during 598,927 person-years of follow-up. For each 10-μg/m(3) increment in PM2.5, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for LC incidence was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.84) in the two-pollutant multivariable model with ozone. Among those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors or who had lived 5 or more years at their enrollment address, the HR was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.22) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.04), respectively. Increased risk estimates of LC were observed for each 10-μg/m(3) increment in ambient PM2.5 concentration. The estimate was higher among those with longer residence at enrollment address and those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors. Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer incidence: results from the AHSMOG-2 study. Environ Health Perspect 125:378-384; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP124.

  10. Ambient fine particulate concentrations and chemical composition at two sampling sites in metropolitan Pittsburgh: a 2001 intensive summer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modey, William K.; Eatough, Delbert J.; Anderson, Richard R.; Martello, Donald V.; Takahama, Satoshi; Lucas, Leonard J.; Davidson, Cliff I.

    The concentration and chemical composition of ambient fine particulate material (PM 2.5) is reported for two sampling sites in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania metropolitan area: the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) PM study site south of the city center, and the Carnegie Mellon Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) site 5 km east of central Pittsburgh established with funding by the EPA Supersites Program and by DOE-NETL. Data from these sampling sites were characterized by one to three-day episodes with PM 2.5 concentrations (constructed from the sum of the chemical components) exceeding 40.0 μg m -3. The episodes were dominated by high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The fine particle concentrations were compared with meteorological data from surface weather maps and a Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT model), with back-trajectories estimated over 24 h. High PM 2.5 concentrations were associated with transition from a high pressure to a low pressure regime in advance of an approaching frontal system indicating long-range transport of pollutants. In contrast, fine particulate organic material appeared to be dominated by nearby sources. Distinct differences were observed in the diurnal variations in concentration between the two sites. The NETL site showed clear maximum concentrations of semi-volatile organic material (SVOM) during midday, and minimum concentrations of nonvolatile organic compounds in the afternoon. In contrast, the Carnegie Mellon PAQS site showed an absence of diurnal variation in SVOM, but still with minimum concentrations of nonvolatile organic compounds in the afternoon and evening. Neither site showed significant diurnal variation in ammonium sulfate.

  11. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Outdoor Temperature, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wallwork, Rachel S; Colicino, Elena; Zhong, Jia; Kloog, Itai; Coull, Brent A; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel D; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air pollution and temperature have been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome and its components-abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose concentration, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia-predict cardiovascular disease, but the environmental causes are understudied. In this study, we prospectively examined the long-term associations of air pollution, defined as particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and temperature with the development of metabolic syndrome and its components. Using covariate-adjustment Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated associations of mean annual PM2.5 concentration and temperature with risk of incident metabolic dysfunctions between 1993 and 2011 in 587 elderly (mean = 70 (standard deviation, 7) years of age) male participants in the Normative Aging Study. A 1-μg/m(3) increase in mean annual PM2.5 concentration was associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.52), an elevated fasting blood glucose level (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.39), and hypertriglyceridemia (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.30). Our findings for metabolic syndrome and high fasting blood glucose remained significant for PM2.5 levels below the Environmental Protection Agency's health-safety limit (12 μg/m(3)). A 1°C increase in mean annual temperature was associated with a higher risk of developing elevated fasting blood glucose (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.56). Men living in neighborhoods with worse air quality-with higher PM2.5 levels and/or temperatures than average-showed increased risk of developing metabolic dysfunctions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Engineering system for simultaneous inhalation exposures of rodents to fine and ultrafine concentrated ambient particulate matter from a common air source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 11m (PM2.5) has been associated with adverse health effects in both humans and animals. Specific properties of either fine (0.1-2.5 11m), or ultrafine « 0.1 11m) PM responsible for exposure related he...

  13. Engineering system for simultaneous inhalation exposures of rodents to fine and ultrafine concentrated ambient particulate matter from a common air source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 11m (PM2.5) has been associated with adverse health effects in both humans and animals. Specific properties of either fine (0.1-2.5 11m), or ultrafine « 0.1 11m) PM responsible for exposure related he...

  14. Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in inflammatory immune responses induced by fine and coarse ambient air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Shoenfelt, Joanna; Mitkus, Robert J.; Zeisler, Rolf; Spatz, Rabia O.; Powell, Jan; Fenton, Matthew J.; Squibb, Katherine A.; Medvedev, Andrei E.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of proinflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient air particulate matter has been suggested to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases in the lungs. However, receptors and mechanisms underlying these responses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether TLR2, TLR4, and the key adaptor protein, MyD88, mediate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fine and coarse PM. TLR2 deficiency blunted macrophage TNF-α and IL-6 expression in response to fine (PM2.5), while not affecting cytokine-inducing ability of coarse NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1648) particles. In contrast, TLR4−/− macrophages showed inhibited cytokine expression upon stimulation with NIST SRM 1648 but exhibited normal responses to PM2.5. Preincubation with polymyxin B markedly suppressed the capacity of NIST SRM 1648 to elicit TNF-α and IL-6, indicating endotoxin as a principal inducer of cytokine responses. Overexpression of TLR2 in TLR2/4-deficient human embryonic kidney 293 cells imparted PM2.5 sensitivity, as judged by IL-8 gene expression, whereas NIST SRM 1648, but not PM2.5 elicited IL-8 expression in 293/TLR4/MD-2 transfectants. Engagement of TLR4 by NIST SRM 1648 induced MyD88-independent expression of the chemokine RANTES, while TLR2-reactive NIST IRM PM2.5 failed to up-regulate this response. Consistent with the shared use of MyD88 by TLR2 and TLR4, cytokine responses of MyD88−/− macrophages to both types of air PM were significantly reduced. These data indicate differential utilization of TLR2 and TLR4 but shared use of MyD88 by fine and coarse air pollution particles. PMID:19406832

  15. Monitoring of ambient fine particulate matter concentrations from space: application to European and African cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léon, Jean-Francois; Liousse, Cathy; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Doumbia, Thierno; Cachier, Hélène

    2010-10-01

    Air pollution is a major issue for global environment as well as human health and well-being. Recently, satellites which are equipped with relevant air quality instruments have been placed into orbit. In this paper, we first present a review on satellite remote sensing of particulate pollution. We then present new results for Europe and on African cities particulate air pollutants using POLDER satellite data. Based on satellite AOD observations, we show that the number of days exceeding the 15.4 μg/m3 threshold is twice frequent in Ouagadougou, Burkina- Faso than in Paris, France. At the regional scale, we observe that the northern coast of the golf of Guinea is dramatically impacted by poor air quality.

  16. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and physical activity: a cohort study of university students living in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongjun; Yu, Miao; Gordon, Shelby Paige; Zhang, Ruiling

    2017-10-05

    Air pollution has become a substantial environmental issue affecting human health and health-related behavior in China. Physical activity is widely accepted as a method to promote health and well-being and is potentially influenced by air pollution. Previous population-based studies have focused on the impact of air pollution on physical activity in the U.S. using a cross-sectional survey method; however, few have examined the impact on middle income countries such as China using follow-up data. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on physical activity among freshmen students living in Beijing by use of follow-up data. We conducted 4 follow-up health surveys on 3445 freshmen students from Tsinghua University from 2012 to 2013 and 2480 freshmen completed all 4 surveys. Linear individual fixed-effect regressions were performed based on repeated-measure physical activity-related health behaviors and ambient PM2.5 concentrations among the follow-up participants. An increase in ambient PM2.5 concentration by one standard deviation (44.72 μg/m(3)) was associated with a reduction in 22.32 weekly minutes of vigorous physical activity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 24.88-19.77), a reduction in 10.63 weekly minutes of moderate physical activity (95% CI = 14.61-6.64), a reduction in 32.45 weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (95% CI = 37.63-27.28), and a reduction in 226.14 weekly physical activity MET-minute scores (95% CI = 256.06-196.21). The impact of ambient PM2.5 concentration on weekly total minutes of moderate physical activity tended to be greater among males than among females. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution significantly discouraged physical activity among Chinese freshmen students living in Beijing. Future studies are warranted to replicate study findings in other Chinese cities and universities, and policy interventions are urgently needed to reduce air

  17. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth.

  18. Ambient fine particulate matters induce cell death and inflammatory response by influencing mitochondria function in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Chae, Jae-Byoung; Lyu, Jungmook; Yoon, Cheolho; Kim, Sanghwa; Yeom, Changjoo; Kim, Younghun; Chang, Jaerak

    2017-11-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (AFP) is a main risk factor for the cornea as ultraviolet light. However, the mechanism of corneal damage following exposure to AFP has been poorly understood. In this study, we first confirmed that AFP can penetrate the cornea of mice, considering that two-dimensional cell culture systems are limited in reflecting the situation in vivo. Then, we investigated the toxic mechanism using human corneal epithelial (HCET) cells. At 24h after exposure, AFP located within the autophagosome-like vacuoles, and cell proliferation was clearly inhibited in all the tested concentration. Production of ROS and NO and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, conversion of LC3B from I-type to II-type and activation of caspase cascade which show autophagic- and apoptotic cell death, respectively, were observed in cells exposed to AFP. Furthermore, AFP decreased mitochondrial volume, inhibited ATP production, and altered the expression of metabolism-related genes. Taken together, we suggest that AFP induces cell death and inflammatory response by influencing mitochondrial function in HCET cells. In addition, we recommend that stringent air quality regulations are needed for eye health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between ambient fine particulate matter and incident adenocarcinoma subtype of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gharibvand, Lida; Lawrence Beeson, W; Shavlik, David; Knutsen, Raymond; Ghamsary, Mark; Soret, Samuel; Knutsen, Synnove F

    2017-06-24

    Adenocarcinoma (AC) is the most common lung cancer among non-smokers, but few studies have assessed the effect of PM2.5 on AC among never smokers. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between ambient PM2.5 and incident lung AC in the Adventist Health and Smog Study-2 (AHSMOG-2), a cohort of 80,044 non-smokers (81% never smokers) followed for 7.5 years (597,177 person-years) (2002-2011). Incident lung AC was identified through linkage with U.S. state cancer registries. Ambient PM2.5 levels at subjects' residences were estimated for the years 2000 and 2001, immediately prior to study start. A total of 164 incident lung AC occurred during follow-up. Each 10 μg/m(3) increment in PM2.5 was associated with an increase in the hazard rate of lung AC [HR = 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.97)] in the single-pollutant model. Excluding those with prevalent non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) strengthened the association with lung AC (HR = 1.62 (95% CI, 1.11-2.36) for each 10 μg/m(3) PM2.5 increment. Also, limiting the analyses to subjects who spent more than 1 h/day outdoors, increased the estimate (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.30). Increased risk of AC was observed for each 10 μg/m(3) increment in ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The risk was higher among those without prevalent NMSC and those who spent more than 1 h/day outdoors.

  20. Risk estimates of mortality attributed to low concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter in the Canadian community health survey cohort.

    PubMed

    Pinault, Lauren; Tjepkema, Michael; Crouse, Daniel L; Weichenthal, Scott; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Brauer, Michael; Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T

    2016-02-11

    Understanding the shape of the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and health risks is critical for health impact and risk assessment. Studies evaluating the health risks of exposure to low concentrations of PM2.5 are limited. Further, many existing studies lack individual-level information on potentially important behavioural confounding factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted among a subset of participants in a cohort that linked respondents of the Canadian Community Health Survey to mortality (n = 299,500) with satellite-derived ambient PM2.5 estimates. Participants enrolled between 2000 and 2008 were followed to date of death or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality attributed to PM2.5 exposure, adjusted for individual-level and contextual covariates, including smoking behaviour and body mass index (BMI). Approximately 26,300 non-accidental deaths, of which 32.5 % were due to circulatory disease and 9.1 % were due to respiratory disease, occurred during the follow-up period. Ambient PM2.5 exposures were relatively low (mean = 6.3 μg/m(3)), yet each 10 μg/m(3) increase in exposure was associated with increased risks of non-accidental (HR = 1.26; 95 % CI: 1.19-1.34), circulatory disease (HR = 1.19; 95 % CI: 1.07-1.31), and respiratory disease mortality (HR = 1.52; 95 % CI: 1.26-1.84) in fully adjusted models. Higher hazard ratios were observed for respiratory mortality among respondents who never smoked (HR = 1.97; 95 % CI: 1.24-3.13 vs. HR = 1.45; 95 % CI: 1.17-1.79 for ever smokers), and among obese (BMI ≥ 30) respondents (HR = 1.76; 95 % CI: 1.15-2.69 vs. HR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.04-1.91 for normal weight respondents), though differences between groups were not statistically significant. A threshold analysis for non-accidental mortality estimated a threshold concentration of 0

  1. A land use regression model for predicting ambient fine particulate matter across Los Angeles, CA.

    PubMed

    Moore, D K; Jerrett, M; Mack, W J; Künzli, N

    2007-03-01

    Land use regression (LUR) models have been used successfully for predicting local variation in traffic pollution, but few studies have explored this method for deriving fine particle exposure surfaces. The primary purpose of this method is to develop a LUR model for predicting fine particle or PM(2.5) mass over the five county metropolitan statistical area (MSA) of Los Angeles. PM(2.5) includes all particles with diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns. In the Los Angeles MSA, 23 monitors of PM(2.5) were available in the year 2000. This study uses GIS to integrate data regarding land use, transportation and physical geography to derive a PM(2.5) dataset covering Los Angeles. Multiple linear regression was used to create the model for predicting the PM(2.5) surface. Our parsimonious model explained 69% of the variance in PM(2.5) with three predictors: (1) traffic density within 300 m, (2) industrial land area within 5000 m, and (3) government land area within 5000 m of the monitoring site. These results suggest the LUR method can refine exposure models for epidemiologic studies in a North American context.

  2. Sources of ambient fine particulate matter at two community sites in Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Davyda M.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Keeler, Gerald J.; Parker, Edith A.; Kamal, Ali S.; Barres, James A.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    Detroit, Michigan is a non-attainment area of the annual PM 2.5 (particles ⩽2.5 μm in diameter) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), and contains a host of local pollution contributors including high diesel traffic from a nearby international border crossing. A source apportionment analysis was conducted using PM 2.5 data collected from 1999 to 2002 by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) project in Detroit, Michigan. CAAA used a community-based participatory research approach to identify and address the environmental triggers for asthma among children residing in southwest and east Detroit. The data used for the study included 24-h measurements of PM 2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, and a suite of trace element species, along with hourly measurements of PM 2.5 mass and black carbon. Positive matrix factorization (PMF2) was used to quantitatively apportion the sources of ambient PM 2.5 at each of two Detroit community sites. Results showed that southwest Detroit PM 2.5 levels can be apportioned to seven source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, automotive electroplating, and sewage sludge incineration that includes crustal material from runoff. The PMF2 model apportioned the east Detroit PM 2.5 data into five source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, motor vehicles/combustion, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, and automotive electroplating. For both locations, approximately over 60% of the PM 2.5 mass was attributed to secondary sulfate/coal combustion sources, approximately 30% to vehicular sources, and 1-5% to local industrial sources. The unexplained mass accounted for <2% of the measured PM 2.5 mass. This study illustrates that regional secondary sulfate/coal combustion and local motor vehicle emissions alone are enough for this mid-western US city to be in non

  3. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  4. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  5. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  6. Source apportionment of ambient fine particulate matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using hourly resolved PM chemical composition data.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Landis, Matthew S; Norris, Gary A; Vedantham, Ram; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July-August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite of semi-continuous sampling and monitoring instruments. Dynamic variations in the sub-hourly concentrations of source 'marker' elements were observed when discrete plumes from local sources impacted the sampling site. Hourly averaged PM2.5 composition data for 639 samples were used to identify and apportion PM2.5 emission sources using the multivariate receptor modeling techniques EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) v4.2 and EPA Unmix v6.0. Source contribution estimates from PMF and Unmix were then evaluated using the Sustained Wind Instance Method (SWIM), which identified plausible source origins. Ten sources were identified by both PMF and Unmix: (1) secondary sulfate, (2) secondary nitrate characterized by a significant diurnal trend, (3) iron and steel production, (4) a potassium-rich factor attributable to iron/steel slag waste processing, (5) a cadmium-rich factor attributable to incineration, (6) an oil refinery characterized by La/Ce>1 specific to south wind, (7) oil combustion, (8) coal combustion, (9) motor vehicles, and (10) road dust enriched with organic carbon. While both models apportioned secondary sulfate, oil refinery, and oil combustion PM2.5 masses closely, the mobile and industrial source apportionments differed. Analyses were also carried out to help infer time-of-day variations in the contributions of local sources.

  7. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM2.5, maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m(-3), and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m(-3). Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m(-3), and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m(-3). The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m(-3)) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM2.5 (35 μg m(-3)). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire. Published by

  8. Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Ma, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, Chinese Environmental Bureau modified its National Ambient Air Quality Standards to include fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent air pollution monitoring data shows that numerous locations have exceeded this standard, which may have resulted in avoidable adverse health effects. For example, among the 74 Chinese cities with PM2.5 monitoring data in 2013, only three cities attained the annual air quality standard (35 μg/m3). This study aimed to quantify the potential short- and long-term health benefits from achieving the Chinese ambient air quality standard and WHO's air quality objectives. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the short-term association of mortality with changes in daily PM2.5 concentrations, based on which we estimated the potential premature mortality reduction that would have been achieved during the period of 2012-2015 if the daily air quality standard had been met in Guangzhou, China; we also estimated the avoidable deaths if attaining the annual air quality standard using the relative risk obtained from a previous cohort study. During the study period, there were 160 days exceeding the national daily PM2.5 standard (75 μg/m3) in Guangzhou, and the annual average concentration (47.7 μg/m3) was higher than the air quality standard of 35 μg/m3. Significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in daily death counts of 0.95% (95% CI: 0.56%, 1.34%) in natural mortality, 1.31% (95% CI: 0.75%, 1.87%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.94%) in respiratory mortality. The health benefits of attaining the national daily air quality standard of PM2.5 (75 μg/m3) would have prevented 143 [95% confidence interval (CI): 84, 203] fewer natural deaths, including 84 (95% CI: 48, 121) fewer cardiovascular deaths and 27 (95% CI: 5, 49) fewer respiratory deaths. Had the annual PM2.5 levels been reduced to 35 μg/m3, an estimated 3875

  9. Study of personal-indoor-ambient fine particulate matters among school communities in mixed urban-industrial environment in India.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, Neelima M

    2010-06-01

    The present study is focused on the relationship of school community personal exposure of respirable particulate matter (RPM) with its indoor and ambient outdoor component. A representative longitudinal study design has been adopted. School community is divided into two categories: (1) subjects of science discipline and (2) subjects of nonscience discipline. On the basis of local meteorological parameters and school building constructions, three schools have been identified for the study. Selected subjects have been monitored for 24-h personal RPM exposure along with school indoor and respective outdoor RPM. Paired samples of ambient PM(10) and RPM were collected to establish the correlation between them. Regressions between school indoor and ambient outdoor RPM have shown strong positive relationships in case of two schools having moderate ventilation. The highest RPM to PM(10) ratio (0.62) has occurred at school X located near the steel plant downwind. Almost all indoor and ambient outdoor RPM levels exceed Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS; 60 microg m( - 3)). Highest levels of indoor and ambient outdoor RPM have occurred in school X located near the steel plant. Subjects belonging to the school located near the steel plant (school X) have shown five to six times higher values of RPM compared to NAAQS standards.

  10. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  11. Eight-year (2007-2014) trends in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-05-01

    Currently there have been questions about ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada. An investigation of temporal trends in PM2.5 and its chemical components was undertaken in the City of Edmonton within the Capital Region over an 8-year period (2007-2014). A non-parametric trend detection method was adopted to characterize trends in ambient concentrations. No statistically significant change was observed for ambient PM2.5 concentrations during 2007-2014, while significant decreasing trends were found for organic carbon, elemental carbon, oxalate, barium, lead and cadmium. A statistically significant increasing trend was observed for sodium chloride indicating an increase of de-icing salt contribution for winter road maintenance in recent years. Concentrations of potassium ion and zinc exhibited strong and significant seasonal variability with higher concentrations in winter than in summer likely reflecting wood smoke origins more than other potential sources in Edmonton and the surrounding region. No statistically significant changes were observed for all other chemical components examined. Notwithstanding robust population growth that has occurred in Edmonton, these findings reveal that particulate air quality and corresponding trace elements in Edmonton's air has been unchanged or improved over the investigated period (2007-2014). Longer-term air quality monitoring at least over several decades is needed to establish whether trends reported here are actually occurring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of trace elements and ions in ambient fine particulate matter at three elementary schools in Ohio.

    PubMed

    John, Kuruvilla; Karnae, Saritha; Crist, Kevin; Kim, Myoungwoo; Kulkarni, Amol

    2007-04-01

    The results from a chemical characterization study of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measured at three elementary schools in Central and Southeast Ohio is presented here. PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected from outdoor monitors and indoor samplers at each monitoring location during the period of February 1, 1999, through August 31, 2000. The locations included a rural elementary school in Athens, OH, and two urban schools within Columbus, OH. The trace metal and ionic concentrations in the collected samples were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer and ion chromatography unit, respectively. Sulfate ion was found to be the largest component present in the samples at all three of the sites. Other abundant components included nitrate, chloride, ammonium, and sodium ions, as well as calcium, silicon, and iron. The average PM2.5 concentrations showed similar temporal variations among the three sites within the study region. PM2.5 and its major component, sulfate ion, showed strong seasonal variations with maximum concentrations observed during the summer at all three of the sites. The indoor environment was found to be more contaminated during the spring months (March through May) at New Albany (a suburb of Columbus, OH) and East Athens (rural Ohio area). Potential source contribution function analysis showed that particulate matter levels at the monitoring sites were affected by transport from adjoining urban areas and industrial complexes located along the Ohio River Valley. A preliminary outdoor source apportionment using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique was performed. The results from the PCA suggest that the study region was primarily impacted by industrial, fossil fuel combustion, and geological sources. The 2002 emissions inventory data for PM2.5 compiled by Ohio Environmental Protection Agency also showed impacts of similar source types, and this was used to validate the PCA analysis.

  13. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  14. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Suppresses In Vivo Proliferation of Bone Marrow Stem Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Xie, Xiaoyun; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Dylan Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Aims Some environmental insults, such as fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair the function of stem cells. However, it is unknown if PM exposure could affect the population of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The present study was to investigate the effects of PM on BMSCs population and related mechanism(s). Main Metheods PM was intranasally distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry with antibodies for BMSCs, Annexin V and BrdU ware used to determine the number of BMSCs and the levels of their apoptosis and proliferation in vivo. Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) level was determined in the BM cells with western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in BMSCs population, proliferation, and apotosis, experiments were repeated using N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated wild type mice or a triple transgenic mouse line with overexpression of antioxidant network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase-1 with decreased in vivo ROS production. Key Findings PM treatment significantly reduced BMSCs population in association with increased ROS formation, decreased P-Akt level, and inhibition of proliferation of BMSCs without induction of apoptosis. NAC treatment or AON overexpression with reduced ROS formation effectively prevented PM-induced reduction of BMSCs population and proliferation with partial recovery of P-Akt level. Significance PM exposure significantly decreased the population of BMSCs due to diminished proliferation via ROS-mediated mechanism (could be partially via inhibition of Akt signaling). PMID:26058063

  15. Associations between ambient fine particulate air pollution and hypertension: A nationwide cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Yaohui; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Xinxin; Li, Weihua; Kan, Haidong

    2017-04-15

    Limited evidence is available regarding the long-term effects of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution on hypertension in developing countries. This study aimed to explore the associations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 with hypertension prevalence and blood pressure (BP) in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative survey (13,975 participants). We estimated the long-term average exposure to PM2.5 for all subjects during the study period (June 2011 to March 2012) by a satellite-based model with a spatial resolution of 10×10km. We applied multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the associations between PM2.5 and hypertension prevalence and linear regression models for the associations between PM2.5 and systolic BP and diastolic BP. We also explored potential effect modification by stratification analyses. There were 5715 cases of hypertension, accounting for 40.9% of the study population in this analysis. The annual mean exposure to PM2.5 for all participants was 72.8μg/m(3) on average. An interquartile range increase (IQR, 41.7μg/m(3)) in PM2.5 was associated with higher prevalence of hypertension with an odds ratio of 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.17]. Systolic BP increased by 0.60mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 1.15) per an IQR increase in PM2.5. The effects of PM2.5 on hypertension prevalence were stronger among middle-aged, obese and urban participants. This national study indicated that long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increased prevalence of hypertension and slightly higher systolic BP in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fine particulate matter national ambient air quality standards: public health impact on populations in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2005-09-01

    In this article we identify the magnitude of general and susceptible populations within the northeastern United States that would benefit from compliance with alternative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual and 24-hr mass-based standards for particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Understanding the scale of susceptibility in relation to the stringency or protectiveness of PM standards is important to achieving the public health protection required by the Clean Air Act of 1970. Evaluative tools are therefore necessary to place into regulatory context available health and monitoring data appropriate to the current review of the PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Within the New England, New Jersey, and New York study area, 38% of the total population are < 18 or > or =65 years of age, 4-18% of adults have cardiopulmonary or diabetes health conditions, 12-15% of children have respiratory allergies or lifetime asthma, and 72% of all persons (across child, adult, and elderly age groups) live in densely populated urban areas with elevated PM2.5 concentrations likely creating heightened exposure scenarios. The analysis combined a number of data sets to show that compliance with a range of alternative annual and 24-hr PM2.5 standard groupings would affect a large fraction of the total population in the Northeast. This work finds that current PM2.5 standards in the eight-state study area affect only 16% of the general population, who live in counties that do not meet the existing annual/24-hr standard of 15/65 microg/m3. More protective PM2.5 standards recommended or enacted by California and Canada would protect 84-100% of the Northeast population. Standards falling within current ranges recommended by the U.S. EPA would protect 29-100% of the Northeast population. These considerations suggest that the size of general and susceptible populations affected by the stringency of alternative PM standards has

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  19. Global Estimates of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth: Development and Application

    PubMed Central

    van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Kahn, Ralph; Levy, Robert; Verduzco, Carolyn; Villeneuve, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic and health impact studies of fine particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are limited by the lack of monitoring data, especially in developing countries. Satellite observations offer valuable global information about PM2.5 concentrations. Objective In this study, we developed a technique for estimating surface PM2.5 concentrations from satellite observations. Methods We mapped global ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite instruments and coincident aerosol vertical profiles from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Results We determined that global estimates of long-term average (1 January 2001 to 31 December 2006) PM2.5 concentrations at approximately 10 km × 10 km resolution indicate a global population-weighted geometric mean PM2.5 concentration of 20 μg/m3. The World Health Organization Air Quality PM2.5 Interim Target-1 (35 μg/m3 annual average) is exceeded over central and eastern Asia for 38% and for 50% of the population, respectively. Annual mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 80 μg/m3 over eastern China. Our evaluation of the satellite-derived estimate with ground-based in situ measurements indicates significant spatial agreement with North American measurements (r = 0.77; slope = 1.07; n = 1057) and with noncoincident measurements elsewhere (r = 0.83; slope = 0.86; n = 244). The 1 SD of uncertainty in the satellite-derived PM2.5 is 25%, which is inferred from the AOD retrieval and from aerosol vertical profile errors and sampling. The global population-weighted mean uncertainty is 6.7 μg/m3. Conclusions Satellite-derived total-column AOD, when combined with a chemical transport model, provides estimates of global long-term average PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:20519161

  20. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  1. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  2. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  3. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambliss, S. E.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Zeinali, M.; Minjares, R.

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM2.5) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m-3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants.

  4. Two-Step Single Particle Mass Spectrometry for On-Line Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Bente, M.; Sklorz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed as trace products in combustion processes and are emitted to the atmosphere. Larger PAH have low vapour pressure and are predominantly bound to the ambient fine particulate matter (PM). Upon inhalation, PAH show both, chronic human toxicity (i.e. many PAH are potent carcinogens) as well as acute human toxicity (i.e. inflammatory effects due to oxi-dative stress) and are discussed to be relevant for the observed health effect of ambient PM. Therefore a better understanding of the occurrence, dynamics and particle size dependence of particle bound-PAH is of great interest. On-line aerosol mass spectrometry in principle is the method of choice to investigate the size resolved changes in the chemical speciation of particles as well the status of internal vs. external mixing of chemical constituents. However the present available aerosol mass spectrometers (ATOFMS and AMS) do not allow detection of PAH from ambient air PM. In order to allow a single particle based monitoring of PAH from ambient PM a new single particle laser ionisation mass spectrometer was built and applied. The system is based on ATOFMS principle but uses a two- step photo-ionization. A tracked and sized particle firstly is laser desorbed (LD) by a IR-laser pulse (CO2-laser, λ=10.2 μm) and subsequently the released PAH are selectively ionized by an intense UV-laser pulse (ArF excimer, λ=248 nm) in a resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation process (REMPI). The PAH-ions are detected in a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A virtual impactor enrichment unit is used to increase the detection frequency of the ambient particles. With the current inlet system particles from about 400 nm to 10 μm are accessible. Single particle based temporal profiles of PAH containing particles ion (size distribution and PAH speciation) have been recorded in Oberschleissheim, Germany from ambient air. Furthermore profiles of relevant emission sources (e

  5. Ambient fine particulate air pollution triggers ST-elevation myocardial infarction, but not non-ST elevation myocardial infarction: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We and others have shown that increases in particulate air pollutant (PM) concentrations in the previous hours and days have been associated with increased risks of myocardial infarction, but little is known about the relationships between air pollution and specific subsets of myocardial infarction, such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods Using data from acute coronary syndrome patients with STEMI (n = 338) and NSTEMI (n = 339) and case-crossover methods, we estimated the risk of STEMI and NSTEMI associated with increased ambient fine particle (<2.5 um) concentrations, ultrafine particle (10-100 nm) number concentrations, and accumulation mode particle (100-500 nm) number concentrations in the previous few hours and days. Results We found a significant 18% increase in the risk of STEMI associated with each 7.1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration in the previous hour prior to acute coronary syndrome onset, with smaller, non-significantly increased risks associated with increased fine particle concentrations in the previous 3, 12, and 24 hours. We found no pattern with NSTEMI. Estimates of the risk of STEMI associated with interquartile range increases in ultrafine particle and accumulation mode particle number concentrations in the previous 1 to 96 hours were all greater than 1.0, but not statistically significant. Patients with pre-existing hypertension had a significantly greater risk of STEMI associated with increased fine particle concentration in the previous hour than patients without hypertension. Conclusions Increased fine particle concentrations in the hour prior to acute coronary syndrome onset were associated with an increased risk of STEMI, but not NSTEMI. Patients with pre-existing hypertension and other cardiovascular disease appeared particularly susceptible. Further investigation into mechanisms by which PM can preferentially trigger STEMI over NSTEMI

  6. Community-Wide Distribution of a Catalytic Device to Reduce Winter Ambient Fine Particulate Matter from Residential Wood Combustion: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Fay; Todd, John; Williamson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Residential wood combustion is the main source of elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during winter in many towns of Tasmania, Australia. A commercially available firebox catalyst in Australia has previously been shown to reduce visible smoke emissions and the manufacturer reports reductions in particle emissions generated from individual wood heaters in laboratory settings. This study aimed to evaluate the potential for community-wide distribution of the catalyst to improve the ambient winter air quality in the field. The study was set in four rural towns in northern Tasmania with similar topography, population size, and proportion of houses using wood heaters for space heating. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological conditions were monitored in all locations by fixed stations from May-September, 2013 and 2014. In June 2014, residents of one town, Perth, were offered a free catalyst for placement in their fireboxes. A general linear model evaluated the impact of the intervention using an indicator variable adjusted for hourly conditions of weather. Almost 80% of wood heater owners in Perth accepted a catalytic device. However, no significant changes in ambient PM2.5 concentrations were associated with the catalyst trial. Future community-level research should address maintenance of the catalyst in the firebox, and the adequacy of conditions that facilitate catalysed combustion in individual heaters. PMID:27902719

  7. Community-Wide Distribution of a Catalytic Device to Reduce Winter Ambient Fine Particulate Matter from Residential Wood Combustion: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Olivia; Johnston, Fay; Todd, John; Williamson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Residential wood combustion is the main source of elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during winter in many towns of Tasmania, Australia. A commercially available firebox catalyst in Australia has previously been shown to reduce visible smoke emissions and the manufacturer reports reductions in particle emissions generated from individual wood heaters in laboratory settings. This study aimed to evaluate the potential for community-wide distribution of the catalyst to improve the ambient winter air quality in the field. The study was set in four rural towns in northern Tasmania with similar topography, population size, and proportion of houses using wood heaters for space heating. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological conditions were monitored in all locations by fixed stations from May-September, 2013 and 2014. In June 2014, residents of one town, Perth, were offered a free catalyst for placement in their fireboxes. A general linear model evaluated the impact of the intervention using an indicator variable adjusted for hourly conditions of weather. Almost 80% of wood heater owners in Perth accepted a catalytic device. However, no significant changes in ambient PM2.5 concentrations were associated with the catalyst trial. Future community-level research should address maintenance of the catalyst in the firebox, and the adequacy of conditions that facilitate catalysed combustion in individual heaters.

  8. Association of cardiopulmonary health effects with source-appointed ambient fine particulate in Beijing, China: a combined analysis from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Wei, Hongying; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Hao, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Qin, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Xinbiao

    2014-03-18

    Previous studies have associated ambient particulate chemical constituents with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects. However, specific pollution sources behind the cardiopulmonary health effects of ambient particles are uncertain. We examined the cardiopulmonary health effects of fine particles (PM2.5) from different pollution sources in Beijing, China, among a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study subjects were repeatedly examined for a series of cardiopulmonary health indicators during three 2-month-long study periods (suburban period, urban period 1, and urban period 2) in 2010-2011 before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution levels and contents. Daily ambient PM2.5 mass samples were collected over the study and measured for 29 chemical constituents in the laboratory. Source appointment for ambient PM2.5 was performed using Positive Matrix Factorization, and mixed-effects models were used to estimate the cardiopulmonary effects associated with source-specific PM2.5 concentrations. Seven PM2.5 sources were identified as traffic emissions (12.0%), coal combustion (22.0%), secondary sulfate/nitrate (30.2%), metallurgical emission (0.4%), dust/soil (12.4%), industry (6.9%), and secondary organic aerosol (9.9%). Ambient PM2.5 in the suburban campus had larger contributions from secondary sulfate/nitrate (41.8% vs. 22.9%-26.0%) and metallurgical emission (0.7% vs. 0.3%) as compared to that in the urban campus), whereas PM2.5 in the urban campus had larger contributions from traffic emissions (13.0%-16.3% vs. 5.1%), coal combustion (21.0%-30.7% vs. 10.7%), and secondary organic aerosol (9.7%-12.0% vs. 8.7%) as compared to that in the suburban campus. Potential key sources were identified for PM2.5 effects on inflammatory biomarkers (secondary sulfate/nitrate and dust/soil), blood pressure (coal combustion and metallurgical emission), and pulmonary function (dust/soil and industry). Analyses using another

  9. Source apportionment of ambient fine and coarse particulate matter at the Fort McKay community site, in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Landis, Matthew S; Patrick Pancras, J; Graney, Joseph R; White, Emily M; Edgerton, Eric S; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin E

    2017-04-15

    An ambient air particulate matter sampling study was conducted at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) AMS-1 Fort McKay monitoring station in the Athabasca Oil Sand Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada from February 2010 to July 2011. Daily 24h integrated fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter was collected using a sequential dichotomous sampler. Over the duration of the study, 392 valid daily dichotomous PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 sample pairs were collected with concentrations of 6.8±12.9μgm(-3) (mean±standard deviation) and 6.9±5.9μgm(-3), respectively. A subset of 100 filter pairs was selected for element analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Application of the U.S. EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to the study data matrix resolved five PM2.5 sources explaining 96% of the mass including oil sands upgrading (32%), fugitive dust (26%), biomass combustion (25%), long-range Asian transport lead source (9%), and winter road salt (4%). An analysis of historical PM2.5 data at this site shows that the impact of smoke from wildland fires was particularly high during the summer of 2011. PMF resolved six PM10-2.5 sources explaining 99% of the mass including fugitive haul road dust (40%), fugitive oil sand (27%), a mixed source fugitive dust (16%), biomass combustion (12%), mobile source (3%), and a local copper factor (1%). Results support the conclusion of a previous epiphytic lichen biomonitor study that near-field atmospheric deposition in the AOSR is dominated by coarse fraction fugitive dust from bitumen mining and upgrading operations, and suggest that fugitive dust abatement strategies targeting the three major sources of PM10-2.5 (e.g., oil sand mining, haul roads, bulk material stockpiles) would significantly reduce near-field atmospheric deposition gradients in the AOSR and reduce ambient PM concentrations in the Fort McKay community.

  10. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5)DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock

    2003-04-30

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), with a goal of characterizing the ambient fine particulate in this region, including examination of urban/rural variations, correlations between PM{sub 2.5} and gaseous pollutants, and influences of artifacts on PM{sub 2.5} measurements in this region. Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected were all part of existing local and/or state air quality programs. One urban site was located in the Lawrenceville section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at an air quality monitoring station operated by the Allegheny County Health Department. A second urban site was collocated at a West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) monitoring station at the airport in Morgantown, West Virginia. One rural site was collocated with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) at a former NARSTO-Northeast site near Holbrook, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The other rural site was collocated at a site operated by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OHEPA) and managed by the Ohio State Forestry Division in Gifford State Forest near Athens, Ohio. Analysis of data collected to date show that: (1) the median mass and composition of PM{sub 2.5} are similar for both Lawrenceville and Holbrook, suggesting that the sites are impacted more by the regional than by local effects; (2) there was no significant differences in the particulate trending and levels observed at both sites within seasons; (3) sulfate levels predominate at both sites, and (4) PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass concentration levels are consistently higher in summer than in winter, with intermediate levels being observed in the fall and spring. Data analysis focusing on relating the aerometric measurements to local and regional

  11. Fine Ambient Particulate and Ozone Co-Exposures in Durham, North Carolina: Influence of Season on Particle Chemistry and Cardiovascular Responses in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the presence of one air pollutant modifies the cardiovascular health effects of another while controlled exposure studies in humans have documented synergistic effects of co-exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) on bloo...

  12. Fine Ambient Particulate and Ozone Co-Exposures in Durham, North Carolina: Influence of Season on Particle Chemistry and Cardiovascular Responses in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the presence of one air pollutant modifies the cardiovascular health effects of another while controlled exposure studies in humans have documented synergistic effects of co-exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) on bloo...

  13. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  14. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  15. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G. Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly. A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates. A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09–1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81). Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research. PMID:27149464

  16. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock

    2004-03-02

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), with a goal of characterizing the ambient fine particulate in this region, including examination of urban/rural variations, correlations between PM{sub 2.5} and gaseous pollutants, and influences of artifacts on PM{sub 2.5} measurements in this region. Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected were all part of existing local and/or state air quality programs. One urban site was located in the Lawrenceville section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at an air quality monitoring station operated by the Allegheny County Health Department. A second urban site was collocated at a West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) monitoring station at the airport in Morgantown, West Virginia. One rural site was collocated with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) at a former NARSTO-Northeast site near Holbrook, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The other rural site was collocated at a site operated by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OHEPA) and managed by the Ohio State Forestry Division in Gifford State Forest near Athens, Ohio. Previous Semi-Annual Technical Progress Reports presented the following: (1) the median mass and composition of PM{sub 2.5} are similar for both Lawrenceville and Holbrook, suggesting that the sites are impacted more by the regional than by local effects; (2) there was no significant differences in the particulate trending and levels observed at both sites within seasons; (3) sulfate levels predominate at both sites and (4) PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass concentration levels are consistently higher in summer than in winter, with intermediate levels being observed in the fall and spring. Analyses of data conducted during the period from April 1, 2003

  17. Ambient fine particulate matter and ozone exposures induce inflammation in epicardial and perirenal adipose tissues in rats fed a high fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of inhaled air pollutant-mediated metabolic disease. Inflammation in the adipose tissues niches are widely believed to exert important effects on organ dysfunction. Recent data from both human and animal models suggest a role for inflammation and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inhalational exposure to concentrated ambient fine particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) exaggerates inflammation and oxidative stress in EAT and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT). Methods Eight- week-old Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high fructose diet (HFr) for 8 weeks, and then exposed to ambient AIR, CAPs at a mean of 356 μg/m3, O3 at 0.485 ppm, or CAPs (441 μg/m3) + O3 (0.497 ppm) in Dearborn, MI, 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 9 days over 2 weeks. Results EAT and PAT showed whitish color in gross, and less mitochondria, higher mRNA expression of white adipose specific and lower brown adipose specific genes than in brown adipose tissues. Exposure to CAPs and O3 resulted in the increase of macrophage infiltration in both EAT and PAT of HFr groups. Proinflammatory genes of Tnf-α, Mcp-1 and leptin were significantly upregulated while IL-10 and adiponectin, known as antiinflammatory genes, were reduced after the exposures. CAPs and O3 exposures also induced an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, and decrease in mitochondrial area in EAT and PAT. We also found significant increases in macrophages of HFr-O3 rats. The synergetic interaction of HFr and dirty air exposure on the inflammation was found in most of the experiments. Surprisingly, exposure to CAPs or O3 induced more significant inflammation and oxidative stress than co-exposure of CAPs and O3 in EAT and PAT. Conclusion EAT and PAT are both white adipose tissues. Short

  18. Ambient fine particulate matter and ozone exposures induce inflammation in epicardial and perirenal adipose tissues in rats fed a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lixian; Liu, Cuiqing; Xu, Xiaohua; Ying, Zhekang; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Wang, Aixia; Allen, Katryn; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Bramble, Lori A; Morishita, Masako; Wagner, James G; Dvonch, J; Sun, Zhichao; Yan, Xiaowei; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Harkema, Jack R; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie

    2013-08-22

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of inhaled air pollutant-mediated metabolic disease. Inflammation in the adipose tissues niches are widely believed to exert important effects on organ dysfunction. Recent data from both human and animal models suggest a role for inflammation and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inhalational exposure to concentrated ambient fine particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) exaggerates inflammation and oxidative stress in EAT and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT). Eight- week-old Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high fructose diet (HFr) for 8 weeks, and then exposed to ambient AIR, CAPs at a mean of 356 μg/m3, O3 at 0.485 ppm, or CAPs (441 μg/m3) + O3 (0.497 ppm) in Dearborn, MI, 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 9 days over 2 weeks. EAT and PAT showed whitish color in gross, and less mitochondria, higher mRNA expression of white adipose specific and lower brown adipose specific genes than in brown adipose tissues. Exposure to CAPs and O3 resulted in the increase of macrophage infiltration in both EAT and PAT of HFr groups. Proinflammatory genes of Tnf-α, Mcp-1 and leptin were significantly upregulated while IL-10 and adiponectin, known as antiinflammatory genes, were reduced after the exposures. CAPs and O3 exposures also induced an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, and decrease in mitochondrial area in EAT and PAT. We also found significant increases in macrophages of HFr-O3 rats. The synergetic interaction of HFr and dirty air exposure on the inflammation was found in most of the experiments. Surprisingly, exposure to CAPs or O3 induced more significant inflammation and oxidative stress than co-exposure of CAPs and O3 in EAT and PAT. EAT and PAT are both white adipose tissues. Short-term exposure to CAPs and O3, especially with high

  19. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  20. Geographic Variation in the Association between Ambient Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Term Low Birth Weight in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yongping; Strosnider, Heather; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith R

    2016-02-01

    Studies on the association between prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and term low birth weight (LBW) have resulted in inconsistent findings. Most studies were conducted in snapshots of small geographic areas and no national study exists. We investigated geographic variation in the associations between ambient PM2.5 during pregnancy and term LBW in the contiguous United States. A total of 3,389,450 term singleton births in 2002 (37-44 weeks gestational age and birth weight of 1,000-5,500 g) were linked to daily PM2.5 via imputed birth days. We generated average daily PM2.5 during the entire pregnancy and each trimester. Multi-level logistic regression models with county-level random effects were used to evaluate the associations between term LBW and PM2.5 during pregnancy. Without adjusting for covariates, the odds of term LBW increased 2% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03] for every 5-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester only, which remained unchanged after adjusting for county-level poverty (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.04). The odds did change to null after adjusting for individual-level predictors (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02). Multi-level analyses, stratified by census division, revealed significant positive associations of term LBW and PM2.5 exposure (during the entire pregnancy or a specific trimester) in three census divisions of the United States: Middle Atlantic, East North Central, and West North Central, and significant negative association in the Mountain division. Our study provided additional evidence on the associations between PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and term LBW from a national perspective. The magnitude and direction of the estimated associations between PM2.5 exposure and term LBW varied by geographic locations in the United States.

  1. The contribution of motor vehicle emissions to ambient fine particulate matter public health impacts in New York City: a health burden assessment.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Haney, Jay; Douglas, Sharon; Ito, Kazuhiko; Matte, Thomas

    2016-08-26

    On-road vehicles are an important source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in cities, but spatially varying traffic emissions and vulnerable populations make it difficult to assess impacts to inform policy and the public. We estimated PM2.5-attributable mortality and morbidity from on-road vehicle generated air pollution in the New York City (NYC) region using high-spatial-resolution emissions estimates, air quality modeling, and local health incidence data to evaluate variations in impacts by vehicle class, neighborhood, and area socioeconomic status. We developed multiple 'zero-out' emission scenarios focused on regional and local cars, trucks, and buses in the NYC region. We simulated PM2.5 concentrations using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model at a 1-km spatial resolution over NYC and combined modeled estimates with monitored data from 2010 to 2012. We applied health impact functions and local health data to quantify the PM2.5-attributable health burden on NYC residents within 42 city neighborhoods. We estimate that all on-road mobile sources in the NYC region contribute to 320 (95 % Confidence Interval (CI): 220-420) deaths and 870 (95 % CI: 440-1280) hospitalizations and emergency department visits annually within NYC due to PM2.5 exposures, accounting for 5850 (95 % CI: 4020-7620) years of life lost. Trucks and buses within NYC accounted for the largest share of on-road mobile-attributable ambient PM2.5, contributing up to 14.9 % of annual average levels across 1-km grid cells, and were associated with 170 (95 % CI: 110-220) PM2.5-attributable deaths each year. These contributions were not evenly distributed, with high poverty neighborhoods experiencing a larger share of the exposure and health burden than low poverty neighborhoods. Reducing motor vehicle emissions, especially from trucks and buses, could produce significant health benefits and reduce disparities in impacts. Our high-spatial-resolution modeling approach could improve

  2. Characterization of traffic-related ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in an Asian city: Environmental and health implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Khlystov, Andrey; Norford, Leslie K.; Tan, Zhen-Kang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular traffic emission is an important source of particulate pollution in most urban areas. The detailed chemical speciation of traffic-related PM2.5 (fine particles) is relatively sparse in the literature, especially in Asian cities. To fill this knowledge gap, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore from November 2015 to February 2016. PM2.5 samples were collected concurrently at a typical roadside microenvironment and at an urban background site. A detailed chemical speciation of PM2.5 samples was conducted to gain insights into the emission characteristics of traffic-related fine aerosols. Analyses of diagnostic ratios and molecular markers of selected chemical species were explored for source attribution of different classes of chemical constituents in traffic-related PM2.5. The human health risk due to inhalation of the particulate-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and toxic trace elements was estimated for both adults and children. The overall results of the study indicate that gasoline-powered vehicles make a higher contribution to traffic-related fine aerosol components such as organic carbon (OC), particle-bound PAHs and particulate ammonium than that of diesel-powered vehicles. However, both types of vehicles contribute to traffic-related EC emissions significantly. The combustion of petroleum fuels and lubricating oil make significant contributions to the emission of n-alkanes and hopanes into the urban atmosphere, respectively. The study further reveals that some toxic trace elements are emitted from non-exhaust sources and that aromatic acids represent an important component of secondary organic aerosols. The emission of toxic trace elements from non-exhaust sources is of particular concern as they could pose a higher carcinogenic risk to both adults and children than other chemical species.

  3. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5.

  4. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  5. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  6. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh site.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Mangelson, Nolan F; Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K

    2007-10-01

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NO(x), NO2, and O3 concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. These findings are consistent with the majority of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport, and thus decoupled from local

  7. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Nolan F. Mangelson; Richard R. Anderson

    2007-10-15

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NOx, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest from sources including coal-fired power plants, coke processing plants and steel mills, (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. 27 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  9. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  10. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  11. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  12. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  13. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  14. Feasibility of using low-cost portable particle monitors for measurement of fine and coarse particulate matter in urban ambient air.

    PubMed

    Han, Inkyu; Symanski, Elaine; Stock, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is known as a significant risk factor for mortality and morbidity due to cardiorespiratory causes. Owing to increased interest in assessing personal and community exposures to PM, we evaluated the feasibility of employing a low-cost portable direct-reading instrument for measurement of ambient air PM exposure. A Dylos DC 1700 PM sensor was collocated with a Grimm 11-R in an urban residential area of Houston Texas. The 1-min averages of particle number concentrations for sizes between 0.5 and 2.5 µm (small size) and sizes larger than 2.5 µm (large size) from a DC 1700 were compared with the 1-min averages of PM2.5 (aerodynamic size less than 2.5 µm) and coarse PM (aerodynamic size between 2.5 and 10 µm) concentrations from a Grimm 11-R. We used a linear regression equation to convert DC 1700 number concentrations to mass concentrations, utilizing measurements from the Grimm 11-R. The estimated average DC 1700 PM2.5 concentration (13.2 ± 13.7 µg/m(3)) was similar to the average measured Grimm 11-R PM2.5 concentration (11.3 ± 15.1 µg/m(3)). The overall correlation (r(2)) for PM2.5 between the DC 1700 and Grimm 11-R was 0.778. The estimated average coarse PM concentration from the DC 1700 (5.6 ± 12.1 µg/m(3)) was also similar to that measured with the Grimm 11-R (4.8 ± 16.5 µg/m(3)) with an r(2) of 0.481. The effects of relative humidity and particle size on the association between the DC 1700 and the Grimm 11-R results were also examined. The calculated PM mass concentrations from the DC 1700 were close to those measured with the Grimm 11-R when relative humidity was less than 60% for both PM2.5 and coarse PM. Particle size distribution was more important for the association of coarse PM between the DC 1700 and Grimm 11-R than it was for PM2.5. The performance of a low-cost particulate matter (PM) sensor was evaluated in an urban residential area. Both PM2.5 and coarse PM (PM10-2.5) mass concentrations were

  15. Source insights into the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in China as well as the synthetic studies using the new Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) method.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoliang; Chen, Gang; Liu, Guirong; Wang, Haiting; Tian, Yingze; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-10-01

    Modeled results are very important for environmental management. Unreasonable modeled result can lead to wrong strategy for air pollution management. In this work, an improved physically constrained source apportionment (PCSA) technology known as Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) was developed to the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in urban area. Firstly, synthetic studies were carried out to explore the effectiveness of ME2-SR. The estimated source contributions were compared with the true values. The results suggest that, compared with the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, the ME2-SR method could obtain more physically reliable outcomes, indicating that ME2-SR was effective, especially when apportioning the datasets with no unknown source. Additionally, 11-h daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected from Tianjin in China. The sources of the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in China were identified using the new method and the PMF model. The calculated source contributions for ME2-SR for daytime PM2.5 samples are resuspended dust (38.91 μg m(-3), 26.60%), sulfate and nitrate (38.60 μg m(-3), 26.39%), vehicle exhaust and road dust (38.26 μg m(-3), 26.16%) and coal combustion (20.14 μg m(-3), 13.77%), and those for nighttime PM2.5 samples are resuspended dust (18.78 μg m(-3), 12.91%), sulfate and nitrate (41.57 μg m(-3), 28.58%), vehicle exhaust and road dust (38.39 μg m(-3), 26.39%), and coal combustion (36.76 μg m(-3), 25.27%). The comparisons of the constrained versus unconstrained outcomes clearly suggest that the physical meaning of the ME2-SR results is interpretable and reliable, not only for the specified species values but also for source contributions. The findings indicate that the ME2-SR method can be a useful tool in source apportionment studies, for air pollution management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis.

    PubMed

    Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Anderson, Richard R; Davidson, Cliff I; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene; Christensen, William F; Mangelson, Nolan F; Eatough, Delbert J

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  17. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock; Jerry L. Penland

    2004-10-15

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), which included the establishment and operation of four ambient air monitoring sites located in the Upper Ohio River Valley (UORV). Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected for the UOVRP were collocated at existing local and/or state air quality monitoring stations. The goal of the UORVP was to characterize the nature and composition of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases. In the process, the objectives of the UORVP were to examine the ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} as compared with the promulgated PM{sub 2.5} standards, the geographical, seasonal and temporal variations of ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}, the primary chemical constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, and the correlations between ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases, other gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters. A variety of meteorological and pollutant measurement devices, including several different PM{sub 2.5} samplers that provided either real-time or integrated concentration data, were deployed at the monitoring sites. The frequency of integrated sampling varied throughout the UORVP study period and was as follows: ''Intensive'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which samples were collected on a relatively frequent basis (ranged from 6-hour integrated samples collected round-the-clock to one 24-hour integrated sample collected every third day). ''Background'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which 24-hour integrated samples were collected every third or sixth day.

  18. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (p<0.05). For each interquartile range increase in iron (1-day, 0.51 μg/m(3)) and nickel (2-day, 2.5 ng/m(3)), there were a 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2%, 3.7%] increase and a 1.8% (95% CI: 0.2%, 3.4%) increase in Ox-LDL, respectively. We also found that each interquartile range increase in calcium (1-day, 0.7 μg/m(3)) was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 0.7%, 9.1%) increase in sCD36. Among the pollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis.

  19. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock; Jerry L. Penland

    2004-12-27

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), which included the establishment and operation of four ambient air monitoring sites located in the Upper Ohio River Valley (UORV). Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected for the UOVRP were collocated at existing local or state air quality monitoring stations. The goal of the UORVP was to characterize the nature and composition of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases. In the process, the objectives of the UORVP were to examine the ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} as compared with the promulgated PM{sub 2.5} standards, the geographical, seasonal and temporal variations of ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}, the primary chemical constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, and the correlations between ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases, other gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters. A variety of meteorological and pollutant measurement devices, including several different PM{sub 2.5} samplers that provided either real-time or integrated concentration data, were deployed at the monitoring sites. The frequency of integrated sampling varied throughout the UORVP study period and was as follows: (1) ''Intensive'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which samples were collected on a relatively frequent basis (ranged from 6-hour integrated samples collected round-the-clock to one 24-hour integrated sample collected every third day). (2) ''Background'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which 24-hour integrated samples were collected every third or sixth day. Sampling activities for the UORVP were initiated in February 1999 and concluded in February 2003. This Final Technical Progress Report summarizes the data analyses and interpretations conducted

  20. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock; Jerry L. Penland

    2004-04-15

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), which included the establishment and operation of four ambient air monitoring sites located in the Upper Ohio River Valley (UORV). Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected for the UOVRP were collocated at existing local and/or state air quality monitoring stations. The goal of the UORVP was to characterize the nature and composition of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases. In the process, the objectives of the UORVP were to examine the ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} as compared with the promulgated PM{sub 2.5} standards, the geographical, seasonal and temporal variations of ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}, the primary chemical constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, and the correlations between ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases, other gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters. A variety of meteorological and pollutant measurement devices, including several different PM{sub 2.5} samplers that provided either real-time or integrated concentration data, were deployed at the monitoring sites. The frequency of integrated sampling varied throughout the UORVP study period and was as follows: (1) ''Intensive'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which samples were collected on a relatively frequent basis (ranged from 6-hour integrated samples collected round-the-clock to one 24-hour integrated sample collected every third day). (2) ''Background'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which 24-hour integrated samples were collected every third or sixth day. Sampling activities for the UORVP were initiated in February 1999 and concluded in February 2003. This semi-annual Technical Progress Report summarizes the data analyses and interpretations

  1. Association of Short-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter with Skin Symptoms in Schoolchildren: A Panel Study in a Rural Area of Western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Kyoko; Hantan, Degejirihu; Tohda, Yuji; Shimizu, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have unmasked the deleterious effects of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on health. However, epidemiologic evidence focusing on the effects of PM2.5 on skin health remains limited. An important aspect of Asian dust (AD) in relationship to health is the amount of PM2.5 contained therein. Several studies have demonstrated that AD can aggravate skin symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD particles on skin symptoms in schoolchildren. A total of 339 children recorded daily skin symptom scores during February 2015. Light detection and ranging were used to calculate AD particle size. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among skin symptoms and the daily levels of PM2.5 and AD particles. Increases in the levels of PM2.5 and AD particles were not related to an increased risk of skin symptom events, with increases of 10.1 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01 km−1 in AD particles changing odds ratios by 1.03 and 0.99, respectively. These results suggest that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD does not impact skin symptoms in schoolchildren. PMID:28335405

  2. Long-term source apportionment of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Los Angeles Basin: a focus on emissions reduction from vehicular sources.

    PubMed

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Ostro, Bart D; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-10-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was utilized to quantify sources of ambient PM2.5 in central Los Angeles (LA) and Rubidoux, using the Speciation Trends Network data, collected between 2002 and 2013. Vehicular emissions (including gasoline and diesel vehicles) were the second major contributor to PM2.5, following secondary aerosols, with about 20% contribution to total mass in both sites. Starting in 2007, several major federal, state, and local regulations on vehicular emissions were implemented. To assess the effect of these regulations, daily-resolved vehicular source contributions from 2002 to 2006 were pooled together and compared to the combination of 2008 to 2012 datasets. Compared to the 2002-2006 dataset, the median values of vehicular emissions in 2008-2012 statistically significantly decreased by 24 and 21% in LA and Rubidoux, respectively. These reductions were noted despite an overall increase or similarity in the median values of the daily flow of vehicles after 2007, at the sites.

  3. Infant exposure to fine particulate matter and traffic and risk of hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis in a region with lower ambient air pollution✩

    PubMed Central

    Karr, Catherine J.; Rudra, Carole B.; Miller, Kristin A.; Gould, Timothy R.; Larson, Timothy; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Koenig, Jane Q.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies investigate the impact of air pollution on the leading cause of infant morbidity, acute bronchiolitis. We investigated the influence of PM2.5 and other metrics of traffic-derived air pollution exposure using a matched case–control dataset derived from 1997 to 2003 birth and infant hospitalization records from the Puget Sound Region, Washington State. Mean daily PM2.5 exposure for 7, 30, 60 and lifetime days before case bronchiolitis hospitalization date were derived from community monitors. A regional land use regression model of NO2 was applied to characterize subject’s exposure in the month prior to case hospitalization and lifetime average before hospitalization. Subject’s residential proximity within 150 m of highways, major roadways, and truck routes was also assigned. We evaluated 2604 (83%) cases and 23,354 (85%) controls with information allowing adjustment for mother’s education, mother’s smoking during pregnancy, and infant race/ethnicity. Effect estimates derived from conditional logistic regression revealed very modest increased risk and were not statistically significant for any of the exposure metrics in fully adjusted models. Overall, risk estimates were stronger when restricted to bronchiolitis cases attributed to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) versus unspecified and for longer exposure windows. The adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) and 95% confidence interval per 10 mcg/m3 increase in lifetime PM2.5 was 1.14, 0.88–1.46 for RSV bronchiolitis hospitalization. This risk was also elevated for infants who resided within 150 m of a highway (ORadj 1.17, 0.95–1.44). This study supports a developing hypothesis that there may be a modest increased risk of bronchiolitis attributable to chronic traffic-derived particulate matter exposure particularly for infants born just before or during peak RSV season. Future studies are needed that can investigate threshold effects and capture larger variability in spatial contrasts among populations

  4. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, L. E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-04-01

    An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5) reactive oxygen species (ROS) was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH). Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle) ROS components (ROSt) alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg) by means of an inline filter. Particle phase ROS (ROSp) was determined by difference between ROSt and ROSg. The instrument was deployed in urban Atlanta, Georgia, and at a rural site during various seasons. Concentrations from the online instrument generally agreed well with those from an intensive filter measurement of ROSp. Concentrations of the ROSp measurements made with this instrument were lower than reported in other studies, often below the instrument's average limit of detection (0.15 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3). Mean ROSp concentrations were 0.26 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the Atlanta urban sites compared to 0.14 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the rural site.

  5. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, L. E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5) reactive oxygen species (ROS) was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH). Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle) ROS components (ROSt) alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg) by means of an inline filter. Particle phase ROS (ROSp) was determined by the difference between ROSt and ROSg. The instrument was deployed in urban Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and at a rural site during various seasons. Concentrations from the online instrument generally agreed well with those from an intensive filter measurement of ROSp. Concentrations of the ROSp measurements made with this instrument were lower than reported in other studies, often below the instrument's average limit of detection (0.15 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3). Mean ROSp concentrations were 0.26 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the Atlanta urban sites compared to 0.14 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the rural site.

  6. Toxicological and epidemiological studies of cardiovascular effects of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components: coherence and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Morton

    2014-04-01

    Recent investigations on PM2.5 constituents' effects in community residents have substantially enhanced our knowledge on the impacts of specific components, especially the HEI-sponsored National Particle Toxicity Component (NPACT) studies at NYU and UW-LRRI that addressed the impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) effects. NYU's mouse inhalation studies at five sites showed substantial variations in aortic plaque progression by geographic region that was coherent with the regional variation in annual IHD mortality in the ACS-II cohort, with both the human and mouse responses being primarily attributable to the coal combustion source category. The UW regressions of associations of CVD events and mortality in the WHI cohort, and of CIMT and CAC progression in the MESA cohort, indicated that [Formula: see text] had stronger associations with CVD-related human responses than OC, EC, or Si. The LRRI's mice had CVD-related biomarker responses to [Formula: see text]. NYU also identified components most closely associated with daily hospital admissions (OC, EC, Cu from traffic and Ni and V from residual oil). For daily mortality, they were from coal combustion ([Formula: see text], Se, and As). While the recent NPACT research on PM2.5 components that affect CVD has clearly filled some major knowledge gaps, and helped to define remaining uncertainties, much more knowledge is needed on the effects in other organ systems if we are to identify and characterize the most effective and efficient means for reducing the still considerable adverse health impacts of ambient air PM. More comprehensive speciation data are needed for better definition of human responses.

  7. The Adjuvant Effect of Ambient Particulate Matter Is Closely Reflected by the Particulate Oxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Bramble, Lori A.; Schmitz, Debra A.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R.; Nel, Andre E.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization. Redox-active organic chemicals on the particle surface play an important role in PM adverse health effects and may determine the adjuvant effect of different particle types according to their potential to perturb redox equilibrium in the immune system. Objectives We determined whether the adjuvant effect of ambient fine particles versus ultrafine particles (UFPs) is correlated to their prooxidant potential. Methods We have established an intranasal sensitization model that uses ambient PM as a potential adjuvant for sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA), which enhances the capacity for secondary OVA challenge to induce allergic airway inflammation. Results UFPs with a greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and higher oxidant potential enhanced OVA sensitization more readily than did fine particles. This manifests as enhanced allergic inflammation upon secondary OVA challenge, leading to eosinophilic inflammation and mucoid hyperplasia starting at the nasal turbinates all the way down to the small pulmonary airways. The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to suppress some of these sensitization events. Conclusions The adjuvant effects of ambient UFP is determined by their oxidant potential, which likely plays a role in changing the redox equilibrium in the mucosal immune system. PMID:19654922

  8. The adjuvant effect of ambient particulate matter is closely reflected by the particulate oxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Bramble, Lori A; Schmitz, Debra A; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R; Nel, Andre E

    2009-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization. Redox-active organic chemicals on the particle surface play an important role in PM adverse health effects and may determine the adjuvant effect of different particle types according to their potential to perturb redox equilibrium in the immune system. We determined whether the adjuvant effect of ambient fine particles versus ultrafine particles (UFPs) is correlated to their prooxidant potential. We have established an intranasal sensitization model that uses ambient PM as a potential adjuvant for sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA), which enhances the capacity for secondary OVA challenge to induce allergic airway inflammation. UFPs with a greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and higher oxidant potential enhanced OVA sensitization more readily than did fine particles. This manifests as enhanced allergic inflammation upon secondary OVA challenge, leading to eosinophilic inflammation and mucoid hyperplasia starting at the nasal turbinates all the way down to the small pulmonary airways. The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to suppress some of these sensitization events. The adjuvant effects of ambient UFP is determined by their oxidant potential, which likely plays a role in changing the redox equilibrium in the mucosal immune system.

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-30

    The report discusses the following conclusions: (1) The TEOM equipment performed as well as the sequential filter samplers in accounting for ambient PM{sub 2.5} levels; however, the FRM-obtained data was consistently lower than the averages from the TEOM/DRI-SFS measurements; (2) The trending in the PM{sub 2.5} levels was similar for Lawrenceville and Holbrook, which represent an urban and a rural site sixty-five miles apart. This implies that the PM{sub 2.5} levels appear to be impacted more by regional than by local effects; (3) The absolute median PM{sub 2.5} levels were slightly higher for Lawrenceville than for Holbrook, implying that local urban environmental contributions had a minor but measurable effect on total PM{sub 2.5} mass concentration; (4) PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass concentration levels were consistently higher in summer than in winter, with intermediate levels observed in the spring and fall; (5) Sulfate levels predominated in the speciation data obtained from both the Holbrook and the Lawrenceville sites during winter and summer intensive sampling. Sulfate level measured at Holbrook were higher than those taken at Lawrenceville regardless of the season; (6) Ammonium levels remained relatively constant between seasons and between sites; (7) Nitrate levels measured at Lawrenceville were higher than those measured at Holbrook during winter intensive sampling. Nitrate levels measured during the summer intensive period were found to be very low at both locations; (8) In general, the predominant inorganic fraction of the samples analyzed could be described as being composed of a mixture of ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate with minor amounts of ammonium nitrate; (9) The PM10 fraction had a larger percentage of geological material and a smaller percentage of condensable material (ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and total carbon species) than the PM{sub 2.5} fraction for samples collected in winter at Lawrenceville; and

  10. Infrared spectral behavior of fine particulate solids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Transmission and emission spectra of clouds and layers of fine particulate samples of quartz, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide in the 6.5-35-??m wavelength range are presented. They demonstrate that the behavior of layers of particles constitutes a good analogue for a cloud of particles; that individual micrometer-sized particles emit most where they absorb most; that as the size of the particle is increased, the emission features reverse polarity and the spectrum approaches that of one obtained from a polished plate; and that as the particle layer-thickness increases, radiative interaction becomes increasingly important so that the emission maximum shifts from the strongest to weaker features, or produces a maximum at the Christiansen wavelength.

  11. Weekly cycles in fine particulate nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millstein, Dev E.; Harley, Robert A.; Hering, Susanne V.

    Atmospheric responses to changes in emissions are a complex but central issue in control strategy design for pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Here, we investigate fine particle nitrate response to weekly cycles in emissions, which includes a large decrease in diesel NO x emissions among other changes. Nitrate concentrations were measured at 10-min time resolution for a year or longer at four US urban sites: Fresno and Claremont in California, St. Louis, and Pittsburgh. Weekly minima in nitrate concentrations were observed at Fresno, Claremont, and St. Louis, with mean reductions of 21-29% below weekly average values on Sundays or Mondays. The day of week with lowest nitrate varied with site and season. No significant day-of-week variations in nitrate were observed at Pittsburgh. Analysis of ammonium and sulfate measurements at Pittsburgh indicates that weekend sulfate reductions observed at this site during spring/summer months do not increase ammonia availability, but rather lead to more complete neutralization of S(VI). Fine particle nitrate measurements at Claremont were resolved into three size ranges (0.07-0.45, 0.45-1.0, and 1.0-2.5 μm); similar weekly reductions were seen for each size range.

  12. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate (PM2.5) dust emissions.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  13. California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 μm to < 10 μm; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season. PMID:19590679

  14. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  15. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  16. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  17. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  18. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  19. A comprehensive particulate matter monitoring system and dosimetry-based ambient particulate matter standards.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yousheng

    2006-04-01

    A numerical particulate matter (PM) measurement model is developed to characterize and evaluate PM sampling methods. Simulations are conducted using the model to evaluate currently widely used PM samplers, including Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers. The simulations show that current PM samplers are very vulnerable to both changes in measurement target (i.e., natural variability of particle size distribution) and the sampler's design, manufacturing, and operating conditions, potentially resulting in significant errors in the monitoring data. The numerical model is used in conjunction with two types of commercially available PM monitoring devices to form a Comprehensive Particulate Matter Monitoring System (CPMMS). The first type of device can be any mass-based PM monitor with a well-defined sampling efficiency curve. The second type of device is one capable of measuring particle size distribution with a reasonably good relative accuracy between size categories but not necessarily accurate in measuring absolute mass concentrations. This study shows that CPMMS can produce much higher quality PM monitoring data than the current PM samplers under the same conditions. In addition, unlike past and current PM monitoring data such as total suspended particulates, coarse PM (PM10), fine PM (PM2.5), etc., the CPMMS monitoring data will survive changes in PM regulatory definition. A new concept, dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards, is proposed to define ambient PM level based on the deposition fraction of particles in the human respiratory tract. The dosimetry-based PM metrics is more meaningful because it correlates the ambient PM level with the portion that can be deposited in the respiratory tract without an arbitrary cutoff particle diameter. CPMMS makes dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards feasible.

  20. Modeling residential fine particulate matter infiltration for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry U; Setton, Eleanor M; Allen, Ryan W; Keller, Peter C; Brauer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Individuals spend the majority of their time indoors; therefore, estimating infiltration of outdoor-generated fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) can help reduce exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies. As indoor measurements in individual homes are not feasible in large epidemiological studies, we evaluated the potential of using readily available data to predict infiltration of ambient PM(2.5) into residences. Indoor and outdoor light scattering measurements were collected for 84 homes in Seattle, Washington, USA, and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate residential infiltration efficiencies. Meteorological variables and spatial property assessment data (SPAD), containing detailed housing characteristics for individual residences, were compiled for both study areas using a geographic information system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct models of infiltration based on these data. Heating (October to February) and non-heating (March to September) season accounted for 36% of the yearly variation in detached residential infiltration. Two SPAD housing characteristic variables, low building value, and heating with forced air, predicted 37% of the variation found between detached residential infiltration during the heating season. The final model, incorporating temperature and the two SPAD housing characteristic variables, with a seasonal interaction term, explained 54% of detached residential infiltration. Residences with low building values had higher infiltration efficiencies than other residences, which could lead to greater exposure gradients between low and high socioeconomic status individuals than previously identified using only ambient PM(2.5) concentrations. This modeling approach holds promise for incorporating infiltration efficiencies into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification.

  1. Hormesis for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5).

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis of hormesis - that substances that harm health at high exposures can reduce risks below background at low exposures, e.g., if they activate defenses without overwhelming them - becomes important for practical policy making if it holds for regulated substances. Recently, the U.S. EPA concluded that reductions in ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air caused trillions of dollars worth of human health benefits for a compliance cost of only about $65 billion per year. This conclusion depends on an unverified assumption of a positive, causal, straight-line relation between PM2.5 concentrations and mortality risks. We review empirical data on PM2.5 and mortality risks (and their precursors, inflammatory responses) and conclude that the PM2.5 concentration-response relation may be J-shaped, rather than linear. This possibility implies that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment may well have produced no (or negative) human health benefits, rather than the trillions of dollars worth of reduced mortalities ascribed to it by EPA; and that attempts to achieve further risk-reduction benefits by further reducing PM2.5 concentrations may be counterproductive. This creates a very high value for scientific information that better reveals the true shape of the PM2.5 concentration-response function at and below current ambient levels.

  2. Hormesis for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5)

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Louis Anthony (Tony)

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis of hormesis – that substances that harm health at high exposures can reduce risks below background at low exposures, e.g., if they activate defenses without overwhelming them – becomes important for practical policy making if it holds for regulated substances. Recently, the U.S. EPA concluded that reductions in ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air caused trillions of dollars worth of human health benefits for a compliance cost of only about $65 billion per year. This conclusion depends on an unverified assumption of a positive, causal, straight-line relation between PM2.5 concentrations and mortality risks. We review empirical data on PM2.5 and mortality risks (and their precursors, inflammatory responses) and conclude that the PM2.5 concentration-response relation may be J-shaped, rather than linear. This possibility implies that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment may well have produced no (or negative) human health benefits, rather than the trillions of dollars worth of reduced mortalities ascribed to it by EPA; and that attempts to achieve further risk-reduction benefits by further reducing PM2.5 concentrations may be counterproductive. This creates a very high value for scientific information that better reveals the true shape of the PM2.5 concentration-response function at and below current ambient levels. PMID:22740783

  3. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed rule...

  4. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  5. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  6. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Funk, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health.

  8. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  9. Vascular function and short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pope, C Arden; Hansen, Jaron C; Kuprov, Roman; Sanders, Matthew D; Anderson, Michael N; Eatough, Delbert J

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to fine particulate air pollution has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease and mortality. Proposed biological pathways imply that particle-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation play a role in activating the vascular endothelium and altering vascular function. Potential effects of fine particulate pollution on vascular function are explored using controlled chamber exposure and uncontrolled ambient exposure. Research subjects included four panels with a total of 26 healthy nonsmoking young adults. On two study visits, at least 7 days apart, subjects spent 3 hr in a controlled-exposure chamber exposed to 150-200 microg/m3 of fine particles generated from coal or wood combustion and 3 hr in a clean room, with exposure and nonexposure periods alternated between visits. Baseline, postexposure, and post-clean room reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) was conducted. A microvascular responsiveness index, defined as the log of the RH-PAT ratio, was calculated. There was no contemporaneous vascular response to the few hours of controlled exposure. Declines in vascular response were associated with elevated ambient exposures for the previous 2 days, especially for female subjects. Cumulative exposure to real-life fine particulate pollution may affect vascular function. More research is needed to determine the roles of age and gender, the effect of pollution sources, the importance of cumulative exposure over a few days versus a few hours, and the lag time between exposure and response.

  10. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

  11. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

  12. Comparing exposure metrics for the effects of fine particulate matter on emergency hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Sucic, Katarina; Jiao, Wan; Dominici, Francesca; Frey, H Christopher; Reich, Brian; Fuentes, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    A crucial step in an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution is to accurately quantify exposure of the population. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the health effects estimates associated with short-term exposure to fine particulate matter with respect to three potential metrics for daily exposure: ambient monitor data, estimated values from a deterministic atmospheric chemistry model, and stochastic daily average human exposure simulation output. Each of these metrics has strengths and weaknesses when estimating the association between daily changes in ambient exposure to fine particulate matter and daily emergency hospital admissions. Monitor data is readily available, but is incomplete over space and time. The atmospheric chemistry model output is spatially and temporally complete but may be less accurate than monitor data. The stochastic human exposure estimates account for human activity patterns and variability in pollutant concentration across microenvironments, but requires extensive input information and computation time. To compare these metrics, we consider a case study of the association between fine particulate matter and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory cases for the Medicare population across three counties in New York. Of particular interest is to quantify the impact and/or benefit to using the stochastic human exposure output to measure ambient exposure to fine particulate matter. Results indicate that the stochastic human exposure simulation output indicates approximately the same increase in the relative risk associated with emergency admissions as using a chemistry model or monitoring data as exposure metrics. However, the stochastic human exposure simulation output and the atmospheric chemistry model both bring additional information, which helps to reduce the uncertainly in our estimated risk.

  13. Geographic differences in inter-individual variability of human exposure to fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with short and long term adverse health effects. The amount of ambient PM(2.5) that infiltrates indoor locations such as residences depends on air exchange rate (ACH), penetration factor, and deposition rate. ACH varies by climate zone and thus by geographic location. Geographic variability in the ratio of exposure to ambient concentration is estimated based on comparison of three modeling domains in different climate zones: (1) New York City; (2) Harris County in Texas, and (3) a six-county domain along the I-40 corridor in North Carolina. Inter-individual variability in exposure to PM(2.5) was estimated using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model. ACH is distinguishably the most sensitive input for both ambient and nonambient exposure to PM(2.5). High ACH leads to high ambient exposure indoors but lower non-ambient exposure, and vice versa. For summer, the average ratio of exposure to ambient concentration varies by 13 percent among the selected domains, mainly because of differences in housing stock, climate zone, and seasonal ACH. High daily average exposures for some individuals are mainly caused by non-ambient exposure to smoking or cooking. The implications of these results for interpretation of epidemiological studies are discussed.

  14. PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE LEVELS AT UNMONITORED LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November and December of 1999, air concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulate matter were measured at two intensive sites in El Paso, Texas. The intensive sites included collocated measurements of NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air from both...

  15. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  16. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  17. PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE LEVELS AT UNMONITORED LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November and December of 1999, air concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulate matter were measured at two intensive sites in El Paso, Texas. The intensive sites included collocated measurements of NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air from both...

  18. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  20. 76 FR 63251 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone'', which was signed on October 6, 2011 and posted on EPA's...: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals). EPA is...

  1. Smog episodes, fine particulate pollution and mortality in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Maigeng; He, Guojun; Fan, Maoyong; Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Ma, Jing; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Jiangmei; Liu, Yunning; Wang, Linhong; Liu, Yuanli

    2015-01-01

    Starting from early January 2013, northern China was hit by multiple prolonged and severe smog events which were characterized by extremely high-level concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with hourly peaks of PM2.5 over 800 µg/m(3). However, the consequences of this severe air pollution are largely unknown. This study investigates the acute effect of the smog episodes and PM2.5 on mortality for both urban and rural areas in northern China. We collected PM2.5, mortality, and meteorological data for 5 urban city districts and 2 rural counties in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province of China from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013. We employed the generalized additive models to estimate the associations between smog episodes or PM2.5 and daily mortality for each district/county. Without any meteorological control, the smog episodes are positively and statistically significantly associated with mortality in 5 out of 7 districts/counties. However, the findings are sensitive to the meteorological factors. After controlling for temperature, humidity, dew point and wind, the statistical significance disappears in all urban districts. In contrast, the smog episodes are consistently and statistically significantly associated with higher total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular/respiratory diseases in the two rural counties. In Ji County, a smog episode is associated with 6.94% (95% Confidence Interval, -0.20 to 14.58) increase in overall mortality, and in Ci County it is associated with a 19.26% (95% CI, 6.66-33.34) increase in overall mortality. The smog episodes kill people primarily through its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. On average, a smog episode is associated with 11.66% (95% CI, 3.12-20.90) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ji County, and it is associated with a 22.23% (95% CI, 8.11-38.20) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ci County. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2

  2. A review of the impact of fireworks on particulate matter in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chi

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of fireworks (FW) and firecrackers (FC) on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air, we reviewed evidence related to ambient PM during FW/FC periods; specifically, PM concentration, size, morphology, chemical components, including water-soluble ions and trace metals, and associated human health risks caused by exposure to FW/FC PM were reviewed. A large body of research suggests that outdoor ambient PM levels increase significantly during FW/FC displays. Furthermore, FW/FC PM remains suspended in the air, contributing to high PM concentrations for a long period. Increased PM from burning FW and FC mainly comprises fine and ultrafine spherical particles. Elevated levels of various trace metals, ions, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and organics in PM are present during FW/FC periods.

  3. Association between ambient particulate matter and disorders of vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Lim, Youn-Hee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-05-01

    hospital visits were associated with ambient particulate matter exposure. Elderly individuals, in particular, were more susceptible to particulate matter exposure than younger individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: STATIONARY SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION TESTING OF A SMELT TANK AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  5. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  6. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: STATIONARY SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION TESTING OF A SMELT TANK AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  7. Analysis of Fine Particulate Nitrate on Diurnal, Weekly and Seasonal Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millstein, D. E.; Harley, R. A.; Hering, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Particulate nitrate is a secondary pollutant and important contributor to PM2.5; nitrate responses to changes in precursor emissions, meteorology, and atmospheric chemistry are of interest here. Fine particulate nitrate concentrations were analyzed on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal at 4 urban sites in the United States. Clear weekly signals in ambient black carbon concentrations as a result of reduced diesel emissions on weekends have been reported previously. A similar response in particulate nitrate has been hard to discern in the previously available data, despite significant weekend reductions in NOx emissions. Past analyses have been constrained by limited data availability: routine measurement programs typically have involved sampling once every 6 days, or less frequently. Also most measurement programs report 24-h average concentrations, which prevents consideration of diurnal patterns. Here we analyze semi-continuous measurements of fine particulate nitrate at 10-min time resolution. We consider yearlong records of nitrate measured at Fresno (California), Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) and St. Louis (Missouri). At a fourth site (Claremont, California), we analyze particulate nitrate measurements resolved into three size fractions: 0.07-0.45, 0.45-1, and 1-2.5 um. Daily average fine particulate nitrate concentrations were compared to a 7-day moving average at each site. We observed weekly cycles in nitrate at Fresno, Claremont, and St. Louis. The nitrate response was delayed in time relative to weekend decreases in NOx emissions. No weekly cycle in nitrate was observed at Pittsburgh. Analysis of related pollutants at Pittsburgh shows nitrate formation is ammonia-limited during spring, summer and fall; this limits the effect of NOx reductions on nitrate formation. Reductions in sulfate observed on weekends during spring and summer months at Pittsburgh could affect ammonia availability. However, we found in this case that decreases in sulfate led to increased

  8. Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

  9. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  10. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  11. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area.

  12. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  13. Providing Context for Ambient Particulate Matter and Estimates of Attributable Mortality.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2016-09-01

    Four papers on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) by Anenberg et al., Fann et al., Shin et al., and Smith contribute to a growing body of literature on estimated epidemiological associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and increases in health responses relative to baseline notes. This article provides context for the four articles, including a historical review of provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1970, requiring the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants such as particulate matter (PM). The substantial improvements in both air quality for PM and population health as measured by decreased mortality rates are illustrated. The most recent revision of the NAAQS for PM2.5 in 2013 by the Environmental Protection Agency distinguished between (1) uncertainties in characterizing PM2.5 as having a causal association with various health endpoints, and as all-cause mortality, and (2) uncertainties in concentration--excess health response relationships at low ambient PM2.5 concentrations below the majority of annual concentrations studied in the United States in the past. In future reviews, and potential revisions, of the NAAQS for PM2.5 , it will be even more important to distinguish between uncertainties in (1) characterizing the causal associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes, such as all-source mortality, irrespective of the concentrations, (2) characterizing the potency of major constituents of PM2.5 , and (3) uncertainties in the association between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes at various ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The latter uncertainties are of special concern as ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health morbidity and mortality rates approach background or baseline rates.

  14. 77 FR 28785 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone'' as a direct final rule on February 21... Particulate Matter and Ozone'' as a direct final rule on February 21, 2012. See 77 FR 10342. The direct...

  15. 77 FR 10341 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Final Rule and Proposed... Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental... Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals published August 8, 2011). In the...

  16. Hydrocycloning thickening: dewatering and densification of fine particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews integrated ore-dressing machines with particular reference to hydrocyclones and describes a new concept, the cyclo-thick apparatus, which combines features of the hydrocyclone and the thickener in a single machine. Field tests conducted with the cyclo-thick demonstrated that the unit is remarkably simple and clean in design, and can effectively separate, dewater, and densify fine particulates. This unit should be considered as a viable alternative when evaluating potential solutions to a given separation, thickening, or filtration problem. Various practical applications are proposed.

  17. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )...

  18. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year...

  19. Contribution of ship emissions to the fine particulate in the community near an international port in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, P. S.; Lee, S. C.; Cheng, Y.; Huang, Y.; Lai, S. C.; Xu, X. H.

    2013-04-01

    Fine particulates from ship exhaust are proved to be harmful to human health. To better understand the impact of ship emissions on the particulate matter (PM) level of port-side residential areas, fine particulates (PM2.5) were collected near Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Container Terminals (KTCT) in Hong Kong during August 2009 to March 2010. The average PM2.5 concentration was 30.5 μg/m3. The contribution of ship emissions on fine particulates near the container port was demonstrated by source apportionment. By positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, eight potential sources, i.e., residual oil (RO) combustion, marine diesel oil (MDO) combustion, vehicle emission, coal combustion, incineration, crustal and sea-salt, secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate were identified. Among the identified sources, RO combustion and MDO combustion were regarded as ship emissions and accounted for 12% and 7% of PM2.5 respectively. An estimate of 1.8 μg/m3 (6%) of secondary sulfate corresponded to 3.6 μg/m3 of primary fine particulates from RO combustion. Together with primary PM emitted from ships, the total ambient PM2.5 mass associated with ship emissions at the sampling site was 7.6 μg/m3 (25%).

  20. Biomass burning contribution to ambient air particulate levels at Navrongo in the Savannah zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Francis G; Hopke, Philip K; Aboh, Innocent J K; Bamford, Samuel A

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo.

  1. Trends in Motor Vehicle Emissions in Relation to Ambient Concentrations of Particulate Black and Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kirchstetter, T.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study is to relate long-term trends of particulate black and organic carbon (BC and OC) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by motor vehicles to fine particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. The analysis focuses on the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas in California, for the period between 1990 and 2010. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate vehicular emissions of BC and OC using emission factors measured on-road in highway tunnels, and fuel sales reported at the state level, which are then allocated to each region. Emission results for BC are also compared with coefficient of haze data. A meta-analysis of past field studies is performed to derive trends in ambient OC and BC concentrations over the last 25 years. We try to account for differences in sampling and filter analysis protocols across studies, including the use of backup filters and thermal-optical procedures used to distinguish between BC and OC. Between 1990 and 2010, vehicular emissions of BC and primary OC fell by ~50% and ~60%, respectively. Over the same time period, VOC emissions from gasoline vehicles decreased by a factor of ~7. In contrast, ambient OC concentrations as measured in previous field studies have remained approximately constant. Since a majority of organic aerosol is thought to be secondary organic aerosol (SOA), this suggests that VOC emissions from gasoline engines did not figure prominently as a precursor to SOA formation.

  2. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  3. Fine particulate concentrations on sidewalks in five Southern California cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Houston, Douglas; Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Ferguson, Gavin; Pan, Hansheng; Bartolome, Christian

    2011-08-01

    This research provides an exploratory examination of the factors associated with fine particle concentrations in intersection and sidewalk microenvironments in five study areas in the Los Angeles region. The study areas range from low-density, auto-oriented development patterns to dense urban areas with mid- and high-rise buildings. Average concentrations of FP DT (fine particle concentrations measured with DustTrak Aerosol Monitors) ranged from about 20 to 70 μg m -3 across study areas during stationary and mobile (walking) monitoring in morning, midday, and evening periods. Results suggest that fine particle concentrations are highly variable on urban sidewalks. A regression analysis shows that concentrations are associated with traffic and the proximate built environment characteristics after accounting for meteorological factors, time of day, and location in the region. Regressions show higher concentrations were associated with lower wind speeds and higher temperatures, higher adjacent passenger vehicle traffic, higher ambient concentrations, and street canyons with buildings of over five stories. Locations in street canyons with 2-5 story buildings and with more paving and open space had lower concentrations after accounting for other factors. The associations with traffic and built environment variables explained a small amount of the variation in FP DT concentrations, suggesting that future research should examine the relative role of localized traffic and built environment characteristics compared to regional ambient concentrations and meteorology.

  4. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  5. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  6. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  7. [Fine particulate matter and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Li, M; Li, Y M

    2016-09-20

    Fine particulate matter is defined as the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < 2.5 μm, i.e., PM2.5. Its surface absorbs large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances, which can deposit in pulmonary alveoli through respiration and reach other organs through pulmonary ventilation. Many studies have confirmed that PM2.5 is closely associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)has similar risk factors as these diseases, as well as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes, and it is considered a part of metabolic syndrome. In this view, many studies focus on the possible association between PM2.5 and NAFLD in recent years, including epidemiological study and experimental study, so as to investigate possible pathogenic mechanisms. With reference to the research advances in PM2.5 and NAFLD, this article reviews the association between PM2.5 and NAFLD from the aspects of lipid deposition, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

  8. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  9. Characterization of ambient particulate matter in the Paso del Norte region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.W.; Currey, R.M.; Valenzuela, V.H.; Meuzelaar, H.L.C.; Sheya, S.A.; Anderson, J.R.; Banerjee, S.; Griffin, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    Air pollution in the Paso del Norte region, where West Texas abuts the southern boundary of New Mexico and the northern boundary of Chihuahua, Mexico is a common concern to the residents on both sides of the border. Parts of the region fail to meet the US and Mexican Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The regional air pollution problem is complicated due to arid climate, complex terrain topography, frequently occurring temperature inversions, extensive unpaved urban areas, an aging and poorly maintained vehicle fleet, and a number of other uncontrolled anthropogenic emission sources. The issue is further complicated by concerns arising from recent scientific evidence of the health effects associated with exposures to fine particulate matter. A study designed to address particulate matter (PM) air pollution problems in the region is currently undertaken by researchers from member universities of the Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy and several governmental agencies. The study attempts to (1) characterize the fine fraction of PM; (2) identify and characterize the major regional emission sources; (3) apportion the fine fraction of PM to the source emissions; and (4) establish a regional technological information clearinghouse. The short-term goal of this research is to initiate a research program to characterize, identify, and quantify the sources and nature of the PM in the region. The long-term goal of this study is to establish regional research capabilities to continue air quality monitoring, evaluation, modeling, and control after the implementation of the study. A scoping study to collect regional PM was conducted in December 1998.

  10. A Global Perspective of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Its Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-03-31

    Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), its exceedance of national and international standards, sources, mechanism of toxicity, and harmful health effects of PM2.5 and its components. PM2.5 levels and exceedances of national and international standards were several times higher in Asian countries, while levels in Europe and USA were mostly well below the respective standards. Vehicular traffic has a significant influence on PM2.5 levels in urban areas; followed by combustion activities (biomass, industrial, and waste burning) and road dust. In urban atmosphere, fine particles are mostly associated with different health effects with old aged people, pregnant women, and more so children being the most susceptible ones. Fine PM chemical constituents severely effect health due to their carcinogenic or mutagenic nature. Most of the research indicated an exceedance of fine PM level of the standards with a diverse array of health effects based on PM2.5 chemical constituents. Emission reduction policies with epidemiological studies are needed to understand the benefits of sustainable control measures for fine PM mitigation.

  11. 77 FR 34830 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final... Implementation Plans: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals... 5,917 ] Table III-5--2012-2013 Ozone-Season NOX Budgets, New Unit Set-Asides 2012-2013 Indian...

  12. 77 FR 10323 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Final Rule #0;#0... To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection... assumptions regarding flue gas treatment in existing scrubbers at seven units; (4) revise the Arkansas...

  13. 77 FR 10350 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Implementation Plans: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals... ozone in downwind states. After the final rule was published, it was brought to our attention that...

  14. Analysis of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Christian Mark; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2014-10-01

    The mass fraction of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated at a subtropical urban aerosol observatory (TARO, 25.0 °N, 121.5 °E) in Taipei, Taiwan during August 2013. In particular, an integrated Denuder-FDMS-TEOM system was employed to study the effectiveness of the coupling of FDMS and TEOM instruments. The charcoal and MgO denuders used in this study performed a removal efficiency of 89 and 95% for positive interferences in OC and nitrate measurements, respectively, and did not induce a significant particle loss during the field campaign, suggesting that denuders should be considered as a standard device in PM2.5 instrumentation. Analysis on the mass concentration and speciation data found that, as a result of SVM loss, FRM-based measurement underestimated PM2.5 by 21% in our case. Coupling FDMS to TEOM significantly improved the bias in PM2.5 mass concentration from -25% to -14%. The negative bias in FDMS-TEOM was attributed to the failure of FDMS in recovering the mass of lost SVOMs in PM2.5. The results of this study highlight the significance of SVM in a subtropical urban environment, give a warning of underestimated health risk relevant to PM2.5 exposure, and necessitate further development of instrument and/or technique to provide accurate ambient levels of fine particulate matters.

  15. EVALUATION OF AN ANNUAL SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES - WHICH TEMPORAL FEATURES ARE CAPTURED?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motivated by growing concerns about the detrimental effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently promulgated a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5. The PM2.5 standard includes a 24-hour li...

  16. EVALUATION OF AN ANNUAL SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES - WHICH TEMPORAL FEATURES ARE CAPTURED?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motivated by growing concerns about the detrimental effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently promulgated a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5. The PM2.5 standard includes a 24-hour li...

  17. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Korn, Leo; Chapman, Robert S.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with deficits in lung function growth among children in Western countries. However, few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where PM levels are often substantially higher. Methods Children (n=3273) aged 6–12 years were recruited from eight schools in four cities. The lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured using computerized spirometers twice a year for up to three years (1993–1996). Dichotomous samplers placed in each schoolyard were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10, respectively). Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between the quarterly average PM levels and lung function growth over the period of follow-up. Results Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the four cities ranged from 57 to 158 μg/m3 and 95 to 268 μg/m3, respectively. In multivariable models, an increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with decreases of 2.7 ml FEV1 (95% confidence interval= −3.5 to −2.0), 3.5 ml FVC (−4.3 to −2.7), 1.4 ml/year FEV1 growth (−1.8 to −0.9), and 1.5 ml/year FVC growth (−2.0 to −1.0). Similar results were seen with PM10 exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ambient particulate matter was associated with decreased growth in lung function among Chinese children. PMID:22407138

  18. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstroem, Thomas . E-mail: thomas.sandstrom@lung.umu.se; Cassee, Flemming R.; Salonen, Raimo; Dybing, Erik

    2005-09-01

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 {mu}m) and fine (0.1-2.5 {mu}m) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure.

  19. Fine particulate air pollution and total mortality among elderly Californians, 1973-2002.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2005-12-15

    Fine particulate air pollution has been associated with increases in long-term mortality in selected cohort studies, and this association has been influential in the establishment of air quality regulations for fine particles (PM(2.5)). However, this epidemiologic evidence has been questioned because of methodological issues, conflicting findings, and lack of an accepted causal mechanism. To further evaluate this association, the long-term relation between fine particulate air pollution and total mortality was examined in a cohort of 49, 975 elderly Californians, with a mean age of 65 yr as of 1973. These subjects, who resided in 25 California counties, were enrolled in 1959, recontacted in 1972, and followed from 1973 through 2002; 39, 846 deaths were identified. Proportional hazards regression models were used to determine their relative risk of death (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) during 1973-2002 by county of residence. The models adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, race, education, marital status, body mass index, occupational exposure, exercise, and a dietary factor. For the 35, 789 subjects residing in 11 of these counties, county-wide exposure to fine particles was estimated from outdoor ambient concentrations measured during 1979-1983 and RRs were calculated as a function of these PM(2.5) levels (mean of 23.4 microg/m(3)). For the initial period, 1973-1982, a small positive risk was found: RR was 1.04 (1.01-1.07) for a 10-microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5). For the subsequent period, 1983-2002, this risk was no longer present: RR was 1.00 (0.98-1.02). For the entire follow-up period, RR was 1.01 (0.99-1.03). The RRs varied somewhat among major subgroups defined by sex, age, education level, smoking status, and health status. None of the subgroups that had significantly elevated RRs during 1973-1982 had significantly elevated RRs during 1983-2002. The RRs showed no substantial variation by county of residence during any of the three follow

  20. ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Dale R. Tree

    1999-09-01

    The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of pulverized coal flame heat transfer and soot modeling. A method has been investigated using two-color extinction along a line of sight within the flame which provides a continuous real-time measurement of the soot concentration. The method uses two inexpensive HeNe lasers and simple light detectors. The results of testing the method on a pilot scale 0.2 MW pulverized coal reactor demonstrate the method is working well in a qualitative sense and an error analysis performed on the uncertainty of the assumed values demonstrates the method to be accurate to within {+-} 30%. Additional experiments designed to quantify the measurement more accurately are ongoing. Measurements at the end of the reactor just prior to the exit showed soot could not be detected until the overall equivalence ratio became greater than 1.0. The detection limit for the method was estimated to be 1 x 10{sup -8} soot volume fraction. Peak soot concentration was found to approach a level of 0.88 x 10{sup -6} at the sootiest condition. The method was used to obtain an axial profile of soot concentration aligned with the down-fired pulverized coal flame for three different flame swirls of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 and an overall equivalence ratio of 1.2. The axial measurements showed the soot concentration to increase initially and level off to a constant maximum value. At 0.5 swirl the soot volume fraction increased more rapidly near the burner and both the 0.5 and 1.5 swirl cases showed that soot had reached a maximum by 0.9 m, but the 0 swirl soot concentration was still increasing. Previous measurements of species and velocity in the reactor

  1. Evaluation of the TEOM method for measurement of ambient particulate mass in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Allen, G; Sioutas, C; Koutrakis, P; Reiss, R; Lurmann, F W; Roberts, P T

    1997-06-01

    Increased interest in the health effects of ambient particulate mass (PM) has focused attention on the evaluation of existing mass measurement methodologies and the definition of PM in ambient air. The Rupprecht and Patashnick Tapered Element Oscillating MicroBalance (TEOM) method for PM is compared with time-integrated gravimetric (manual) PM methods in large urban areas during different seasons. Comparisons are conducted for both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations. In urban areas, a substantial fraction of ambient PM can be semi-volatile material. A larger fraction of this component of PM10 may be lost from the TEOM-heated filter than the Federal Reference Method (FRM). The observed relationship between TEOM and FRM methods varied widely among sites and seasons. In East Coast urban areas during the summer, the methods were highly correlated with good agreement. In the winter, correlation was somewhat lower, with TEOM PM concentrations generally lower than the FRM. Rubidoux, CA, and two Mexican sites (Tlalnepantla and Merced) had the highest levels of PM10 and the largest difference between TEOM and manual methods. PM2.5 data from collocation of 24-hour manual samples with the TEOM are also presented. As most of the semi-volatile PM is in the fine fraction, differences between these methods are larger for PM2.5 than for PM10.

  2. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  3. Determination of levoglucosan in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Christopher D; Dills, Russell L; Katz, Bethany S; Kalman, David A

    2004-06-01

    A microanalytical method suitable for the quantitative determination of the sugar anhydride levoglucosan in low-volume samples of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM) has been developed and validated. The method incorporates two sugar anhydrides as quality control standards. The recovery standard sedoheptulosan (2,7-anhydro-beta-D-altro-heptulopyranose) in 20 microL solvent is added onto samples of the atmospheric fine PM and aged for 1 hr before ultrasonic extraction with ethylacetate/ triethylamine. The extract is reduced in volume, an internal standard is added (1,5-anhydro-D-mannitol), and a portion of the extract is derivatized with 10% by volume N-trimethylsilylimidazole. The derivatized extract is analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The recovery of levoglucosan using this procedure was 69 +/- 6% from five filters amended with 2 microg levoglucosan, and the reproducibility of the assay is 9%. The limit of detection is approximately 0.1 microg/mL, which is equivalent to approximately 3.5 ng/m3 for a 10 L/min sampler or approximately 8.7 ng/m3 for a 4 L/min personal sampler (assuming 24-hr integrated samples). We demonstrated that levoglucosan concentrations in collocated samples (expressed as ng/m3) were identical irrespective of whether samples were collected by PM with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm or PM with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm impactors. It was also demonstrated that X-ray fluorescence analysis of samples of atmospheric PM, before levoglucosan determinations, did not alter the levels of levoglucosan.

  4. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  5. Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yongping; Balluz, Lina; Strosnider, Heather; Wen, Xiao Jun; Li, Chaoyang; Qualters, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure, and among those that have, results are inconsistent. Objectives To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. Methods We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percentage of adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. Measurements and Main Results We derived county-level average daily concentration levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001–2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007–2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with an increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01–1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% credible interval, 0.99–1.14). Conclusions This study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States. Although we adjusted for selected county-level covariates and unobserved influences through Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling, the possibility of ecologic bias remains. PMID:26017067

  6. Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ryu; Michikawa, Takehiro; Ueda, Kayo; Ago, Tetsuro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Kitazono, Takanari; Kamouchi, Masahiro

    2016-12-01

    There is a strong association between ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular disease. However, it remains unclear whether acute exposure to fine PM (PM2.5) triggers ischemic stroke events and whether the timing of exposure is associated with stroke risk. We, therefore, examined the association between ambient PM2.5 and occurrence of ischemic stroke. We analyzed data for 6885 ischemic stroke patients from a multicenter hospital-based stroke registry in Japan who were previously independent and hospitalized within 24 hours of stroke onset. Time of symptom onset was confirmed, and the association between PM (suspended PM and PM2.5) and occurrence of ischemic stroke was analyzed by time-stratified case-crossover analysis. Ambient PM2.5 and suspended PM at lag days 0 to 1 were associated with subsequent occurrence of ischemic stroke (ambient temperature-adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per 10 μg/m(3): suspended PM, 1.02 [1.00-1.05]; PM2.5, 1.03 [1.00-1.06]). In contrast, ambient suspended PM and PM2.5 at lag days 2 to 3 or 4 to 6 showed no significant association with stroke occurrence. The association between PM2.5 at lag days 0 to 1 and ischemic stroke was maintained after adjusting for other air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, photochemical oxidants, or sulfur dioxide) or influenza epidemics and was evident in the cold season. These findings suggest that short-term exposure to PM2.5 within 1 day before onset is associated with the subsequent occurrence of ischemic stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  8. Fine particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis: Mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuntao; Sun, Qinghua

    2016-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and fibrous plaque in the arteries. Its etiology is very complicated and its risk factors primarily include genetic defects, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, lack of exercise, and infection. Recent studies suggest that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution may also contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. The present review integrates current experimental evidence with mechanistic pathways whereby PM2.5 exposure can promote the development of atherosclerosis. PM2.5-mediated enhancement of atherosclerosis is likely due to its pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects, involving multiple organs, different cell types, and various molecular mediators. Studies about the effects of PM2.5inhalation on atherosclerosis may yield a better understanding of the link between air pollution and major cardiovascular diseases, and provide useful information for policy makers to determine acceptable levels of PM2.5 air quality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring variation and predictors of residential fine particulate matter infiltration.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nina A; Allen, Ryan W; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2010-08-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  10. 76 FR 48207 - Federal Implementation Plans: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ...In this action, EPA is limiting the interstate transport of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) that contribute to harmful levels of fine particle matter (PM2.5) and ozone in downwind states. EPA is identifying emissions within 27 states in the eastern United States that significantly affect the ability of downwind states to attain and maintain compliance with the 1997 and 2006 fine particulate matter national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and the 1997 ozone NAAQS. Also, EPA is limiting these emissions through Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) that regulate electric generating units (EGUs) in the 27 states. This action will substantially reduce adverse air quality impacts in downwind states from emissions transported across state lines. In conjunction with other federal and state actions, it will help assure that all but a handful of areas in the eastern part of the country achieve compliance with the current ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS by the deadlines established in the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act). The FIPs may not fully eliminate the prohibited emissions from certain states with respect to the 1997 ozone NAAQS for two remaining downwind areas and EPA is committed to identifying any additional required upwind emission reductions and taking any necessary action in a future rulemaking. In this action, EPA is also modifying its prior approvals of certain State Implementation Plan (SIP) submissions to rescind any statements that the submissions in question satisfy the interstate transport requirements of the CAA or that EPA's approval of the SIPs affects our authority to issue interstate transport FIPs with respect to the 1997 fine particulate and 1997 ozone standards for 22 states. EPA is also issuing a supplemental proposal to request comment on its conclusion that six additional states significantly affect downwind states' ability to attain and maintain compliance with the 1997 ozone NAAQS.

  11. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate conce...

  12. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  13. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines in ambient air and airborne particulate matters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyüz, Mehmet

    2008-05-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines in ambient air and airborne particulate matters (PMs). The method includes collection of the particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using dichotomous Partisol 2025 sampler followed by extraction of the compounds into acidic solution, and pre-concentration of the compounds by percolating the air samples through the acidic solution, then ion-pair extraction of amines with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate and derivatisation with isobutyl chloroformate prior to their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. In the present study, ambient air and airborne particulate samples collected in Zonguldak province during summer and winter times of 2006-2007 were analysed for aliphatic and aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of these compounds at the levels of pg m-3 in air and airborne particulate samples. The seasonal distributions of bioactive amines in concentrations in ambient air and airborne PMs were evaluated as they are significant for the estimation of their effects on the environment and human health. The concentration levels of water soluble amines fluctuate significantly within a year with higher means and peak concentrations, probably due to the increased emissions from coal-fired domestic and central heating, in the winter times compared to the summer times. The results indicated that the relative amine content in particulates modulates with molecular mass and time of the year and the relative amine content especially in fine fractions of inhalable airborne particulates increases with the molecular mass of species but decreases with temperature.

  14. Estimation of ambient and non-ambient components of particulate matter exposure from a personal monitoring panel study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William E; Brauer, Michael

    2006-05-01

    To provide additional insight into factors affecting exposure to airborne particulate matter and the resultant health effects, we developed a method to estimate the ambient and nonambient components of total personal exposure. The ambient (or outdoor) component of total personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) (called ambient exposure) includes exposure to the ambient PM concentration while outdoors and exposure while indoors to ambient PM that has infiltrated indoors. The nonambient component of total personal exposure to PM (called nonambient exposure) refers to exposure to PM generated by indoor sources and an individual's personal activity. We used data collected from a personal monitoring study in Vancouver, Canada to demonstrate the methodology. In this study, ambient PM(2.5) exposure was 71% of the measured ambient PM(2.5) concentration and was responsible for 44% of the measured total personal PM(2.5) exposure. Regression analysis of the pooled data sets for ambient and total exposure against outdoor concentrations yielded similar slopes (0.76 for ambient and 0.77 for total) but a higher coefficient of determination for ambient exposure (R(2)=0.62) than for total exposure (R(2)=0.072). As expected, the nonambient exposure was not related to the ambient concentration (R(2)<10(-6)). For longitudinal analyses of the relationship between measured personal exposure and ambient concentrations for individual subjects, the correlation of total personal exposure with ambient concentration yielded values of Pearson's r from 0.83 to -0.68 with an average of 0.36. The relationship was statistically significant for only five of the 16 subjects. In contrast, the correlation of the estimated ambient exposure with ambient concentration yielded values of Pearson's r from 0.92 to 0.77 with an average of 0.88; 14 were significant. An example, taken from an epidemiologic analysis using the exposure data from this paper, demonstrates the usefulness of separating total

  15. Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Hertel, Ole; Chawes, Bo L K; Vissing, Nadja; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM(2.5) and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. The concentration of PM(2.5) was 2.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15-23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9-27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12-54%) higher PM(2.5) concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM(2.5) concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  17. Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

  18. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  19. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  20. Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

  1. RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DATA USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION REVIEW OF EXISTING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for apportioning sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm are reviewed. Numerous procedural decisions must be made and algorithmic parameters selected when analyzing PM data with PMF. However, few publications docu...

  2. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  3. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  4. RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DATA USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION REVIEW OF EXISTING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for apportioning sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm are reviewed. Numerous procedural decisions must be made and algorithmic parameters selected when analyzing PM data with PMF. However, few publications docu...

  5. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  6. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  7. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate concentrations. The general approach for research designed to analyze health impacts of exposure to PM2.5 is to use concentration data from the nearest ground-based air quality monitor(s), which typically have missing data on the temporal and spatial scales due to filter sampling schedules and monitor placement, respectively. To circumvent these data gaps, this research project uses a Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) to generate estimates of PM2.5 in areas with and without air quality monitors by combining PM2.5 concentrations measured by monitors, PM2.5 concentration estimates derived from satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, and Community-Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model predictions of PM2.5 concentrations. This methodology represents a substantial step forward in the approach for developing representative PM2.5 concentration datasets to correlate with inpatient hospitalizations and emergency room visits data for asthma and inpatient hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) using case-crossover analysis. There were two key objective of this current study. First was to show that the inputs to the HBM could be expanded to include AOD data in addition t

  8. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  9. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  10. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  11. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  12. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  13. 77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Matter 2002 Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions...

  14. 77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year...

  15. Cardiac effects of seasonal ambient particulate matter and ozone co-exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Farraj, Aimen K; Walsh, Leon; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Malik, Fatiha; McGee, John; Winsett, Darrell; Duvall, Rachelle; Kovalcik, Kasey; Cascio, Wayne E; Higuchi, Mark; Hazari, Mehdi S

    2015-05-06

    The potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscious hypertensive rats co-exposed to concentrated ambient particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) in Durham, NC during the summer and winter, and to analyze responses based on particle mass and chemistry. Rats were exposed once for 4 hrs by whole-body inhalation to fine CAPs alone (target concentration: 150 μg/m3), O3 (0.2 ppm) alone, CAPs plus O3, or filtered air during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Telemetered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from implanted biosensors were analyzed for heart rate (HR), ECG parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), and spontaneous arrhythmia. The sensitivity to triggering of arrhythmia was measured in a separate cohort one day after exposure using intravenously administered aconitine. PM elemental composition and organic and elemental carbon fractions were analyzed by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and thermo-optical pyrolytic vaporization, respectively. Particulate sources were inferred from elemental analysis using a chemical mass balance model. Seasonal differences in CAPs composition were most evident in particle mass concentrations (summer, 171 μg/m3; winter, 85 μg/m3), size (summer, 324 nm; winter, 125 nm), organic:elemental carbon ratios (summer, 16.6; winter, 9.7), and sulfate levels (summer, 49.1 μg/m3; winter, 16.8 μg/m3). Enrichment of metals in winter PM resulted in equivalent summer and winter metal exposure concentrations. Source apportionment analysis showed enrichment for anthropogenic and marine salt sources during winter exposures compared to summer exposures, although only 4% of the total PM mass was attributed to marine salt sources. Single pollutant cardiovascular effects with CAPs and O3 were present during both summer

  16. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year..., a 2002 base year emissions inventory and other planning SIP revisions related to attainment of the...

  17. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways, Fine Particulate Matter, and Hepatic Steatosis: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyuan; Dorans, Kirsten S; Wilker, Elissa H; Rice, Mary B; Long, Michelle T; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R; Fox, Caroline S; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-10-01

    We examined associations between ambient air pollution and hepatic steatosis among 2,513 participants from the Framingham (Massachusetts) Offspring Study and Third Generation Cohort who underwent a computed tomography scan (2002-2005), after excluding men who reported >21 drinks/week and women who reported >14 drinks/week. We calculated each participant's residential-based distance to a major roadway and used a spatiotemporal model to estimate the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter. Liver attenuation was measured by computed tomography, and liver-to-phantom ratio (LPR) was calculated. Lower values of LPR represent more liver fat. We estimated differences in continuous LPR using linear regression models and prevalence ratios for presence of hepatic steatosis (LPR ≤ 0.33) using generalized linear models, adjusting for demographics, individual and area-level measures of socioeconomic position, and clinical and lifestyle factors. Participants who lived 58 m (25th percentile) from major roadways had lower LPR (β = -0.003, 95% confidence interval: -0.006, -0.001) and higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis (prevalence ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.28) than those who lived 416 m (75th percentile) away. The 2003 annual average fine particulate matter concentration was not associated with liver-fat measurements. Our findings suggest that living closer to major roadways was associated with more liver fat. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide exposure concentrations in urban street transport microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Colvile, R. N.

    Personal exposure studies are crucial alongside microenvironment and ambient studies in order to get a better understanding of the health risks posed by fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide in the urban transport microenvironment and for making informed decisions to manage and reduce the health risks. Studies specifically assessing the PM 2.5, ultrafine particle count and carbon monoxide personal exposure concentrations of adults in an urban transport microenvironment have steadily increased in number over the last decade. However, no recent collective summary is available, particularly one which also considers ultrafine particles; therefore, we present a review of the personal exposure concentration studies for the above named pollutants on different modes of surface transportation (walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi) in the urban transport microenvironment. Comparisons between personal exposure measurements and concentrations recorded at fixed monitoring sites are considered in addition to the factors influencing personal exposure in the transport microenvironment. In general, the exposure studies examined revealed pedestrians and cyclists to experience lower fine particulate matter and CO exposure concentrations in comparison to those inside vehicles—the vehicle shell provided no protection to the passengers. Proximity to the pollutant sources had a significant impact on exposure concentration levels experienced, consequently individuals should be encouraged to use back street routes. Fixed monitoring stations were found to be relatively poor predictors of CO and PM 2.5 exposure concentration levels experienced by individuals in the urban transport microenvironment. Although the mode of transport, traffic and meteorology parameters were commonly identified as significant factors influencing exposure concentrations to the different pollutants under examination, a large amount of the exposure concentration variation in the exposure studies remained

  19. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D.; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m3 in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%–55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  20. DNA hypomethylation, ambient particulate matter, and increased blood pressure: findings from controlled human exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Andrea; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Robert D; Scott, Jeremy A; Albetti, Benedetta; Behbod, Behrooz; North, Michelle; Valeri, Linda; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Silverman, Frances; Gold, Diane; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2013-06-19

    Short-term exposures to fine (<2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter) ambient particulate-matter (PM) have been related with increased blood pressure (BP) in controlled-human exposure and community-based studies. However, whether coarse (2.5 to 10 μm) PM exposure increases BP is uncertain. Recent observational studies have linked PM exposures with blood DNA hypomethylation, an epigenetic alteration that activates inflammatory and vascular responses. No experimental evidence is available to confirm those observational data and demonstrate the relations between PM, hypomethylation, and BP. We conducted a cross-over trial of controlled-human exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Fifteen healthy adult participants were exposed for 130 minutes to fine CAPs, coarse CAPs, or HEPA-filtered medical air (control) in randomized order with ≥2-week washout. Repetitive-element (Alu, long interspersed nuclear element-1 [LINE-1]) and candidate-gene (TLR4, IL-12, IL-6, iNOS) blood methylation, systolic and diastolic BP were measured pre- and postexposure. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, fine CAPs exposure lowered Alu methylation (β-standardized=-0.74, adjusted-P=0.03); coarse CAPs exposure lowered TLR4 methylation (β-standardized=-0.27, adjusted-P=0.04). Both fine and coarse CAPs determined significantly increased systolic BP (β=2.53 mm Hg, P=0.001; β=1.56 mm Hg, P=0.03, respectively) and nonsignificantly increased diastolic BP (β=0.98 mm Hg, P=0.12; β=0.82 mm Hg, P=0.11, respectively). Decreased Alu and TLR4 methylation was associated with higher postexposure DBP (β-standardized=0.41, P=0.04; and β-standardized=0.84, P=0.02; respectively). Decreased TLR4 methylation was associated with higher postexposure SBP (β-standardized=1.45, P=0.01). Our findings provide novel evidence of effects of coarse PM on BP and confirm effects of fine PM. Our results provide the first experimental evidence of PM-induced DNA hypomethylation and its correlation to BP.

  1. Assessment of Population and Microenvironmental Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Wan

    A positive relationship exists between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) exposure and adverse health effects. PM2.5 concentration-response functions used in the quantitative risk assessment were based on findings from human epidemiological studies that relied on areawide ambient concentrations as surrogate for actual ambient exposure, which cannot capture the spatial and temporal variability in human exposures. The goal of the study is to assess inter-individual, geographic and seasonal variability in population exposures to inform the interpretation of available epidemiological studies, and to improve the understanding of how exposure-related factors in important exposure microenvironments contribute to the variability in individual PM2.5 exposure. Typically, the largest percentage of time in which an individual is exposed to PM2.5 of ambient origin occurs in indoor residence, and the highest ambient PM2.5 concentrations occur in transportation microenvironments because of the proximity to on-road traffic emissions. Therefore, indoor residence and traffic-related transportation microenvironments were selected for further assessment in the study. Population distributions of individual daily PM2.5 exposures were estimated for the selected regions and seasons using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM). For the indoor residence, the current practice by assuming the entire residence to be one large single zone for calculating the indoor residential PM 2.5 concentration was evaluated by applying an indoor air quality model, RISK, to compare indoor PM2.5 concentrations between single-zone and multi-zone scenarios. For the transportation microenvironments, one field data collection focused on in-vehicle microenvironment and was conducted to quantify the variability in the in-vehicle PM2.5 concentration with respect to the outside vehicle concentration for a wide range of conditions that affect intra-vehicle variability

  2. The relation between past exposure to fine particulate air pollution and prevalent anxiety: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Power, Melinda C; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Hart, Jaime E; Okereke, Olivia I; Laden, Francine; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-03-24

    To determine whether higher past exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with prevalent high symptoms of anxiety. Observational cohort study. Nurses' Health Study. 71,271 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study residing throughout the contiguous United States who had valid estimates on exposure to particulate matter for at least one exposure period of interest and data on anxiety symptoms. Meaningfully high symptoms of anxiety, defined as a score of 6 points or greater on the phobic anxiety subscale of the Crown-Crisp index, administered in 2004. The 71,271 eligible women were aged between 57 and 85 years (mean 70 years) at the time of assessment of anxiety symptoms, with a prevalence of high anxiety symptoms of 15%. Exposure to particulate matter was characterized using estimated average exposure to particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and 2.5 to 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5-10) in the one month, three months, six months, one year, and 15 years prior to assessment of anxiety symptoms, and residential distance to the nearest major road two years prior to assessment. Significantly increased odds of high anxiety symptoms were observed with higher exposure to PM2.5 for multiple averaging periods (for example, odds ratio per 10 µg/m(3) increase in prior one month average PM2.5: 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.19; in prior 12 month average PM2.5: 1.15, 1.06 to 1.26). Models including multiple exposure windows suggested short term averaging periods were more relevant than long term averaging periods. There was no association between anxiety and exposure to PM2.5-10. Residential proximity to major roads was not related to anxiety symptoms in a dose dependent manner. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with high symptoms of anxiety, with more recent exposures potentially more relevant than more distant exposures. Research evaluating whether reductions in exposure to ambient PM2.5 would reduce the population level

  3. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...Based on its review of the air quality criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the EPA is making revisions to the suite of standards for PM to provide requisite protection of public health and welfare and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and to the ambient air monitoring, reporting, and network design......

  4. Exposure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to particulate matter: relationships between personal and ambient air concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ebelt, S T; Petkau, A J; Vedal, S; Fisher, T V; Brauer, M

    2000-07-01

    Mot time-series studies of particulate air pollution and acute health outcomes assess exposure of the study population using fixed-site outdoor measurements. To address the issue of exposure misclassification, we evaluate the relationship between ambient particle concentrations and personal exposures of a population expected to be at risk of particle health effects. Sampling was conducted within the Vancouver metropolitan area during April-September 1998. Sixteen subjects (non-smoking, ages 54-86) with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) wore personal PM2.5 monitors for seven 24-hr periods, randomly spaced approximately 1.5 weeks apart. Time-activity logs and dwelling characteristics data were also obtained for each subject. Daily 24-hr ambient PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured at five fixed sites spaced throughout the study region. SO4(2-), which is found almost exclusively in the fine particle fraction and which does not have major indoor sources, was measured in all PM2.5 samples as an indicator of accumulation mode particulate matter of ambient origin. The mean personal and ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 18 micrograms/m3 and 11 micrograms/m3, respectively. In analyses relating personal and ambient measurements, ambient concentrations were expressed either as an average of the values obtained from five ambient monitoring sites for each day of personal sampling, or as the concentration obtained at the ambient site closest to each subject's home. The mean personal to ambient concentration ratio of all samples was 1.75 (range = 0.24 to 10.60) for PM2.5, and 0.75 (range = 0.09 to 1.42) for SO4(2-). Regression analyses were conducted for each subject separately and on pooled data. The median correlation (Pearson's r) between personal and average ambient PM2.5 concentrations was 0.48 (range = -0.68 to 0.83). Using SO4(2-) as the exposure metric, the median r between personal and average ambient concentrations was 0.96 (range

  5. Right Heart Pressure Increases after Acute Increases in Ambient Particulate Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Rich, David Q.; Freudenberger, Ronald S.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Cho, Yong; Kipen, Howard M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We explored the association between acute changes in daily mean pulmonary artery (PA) and right ventricular (RV) pressures and concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter [PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5)] as an explanation for previous associations between congestive heart failure (HF) hospital admissions and PM. Materials and methods In the Chronicle Offers Management to Patients with Advanced Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure (COMPASS-HF) trial, to see whether management of ambulatory HF could be improved by providing continuous right heart pressure monitoring to physicians, the Chronicle Implantable Hemodynamic Monitor (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) continuously measured multiple right heart hemodynamic parameters, heart rate, and activity trends in subjects with moderate/severe HF. Using these trial data, we calculated daily mean pressures, using only those time intervals where the subject was not physically active (n = 5,807 person-days; n = 11 subjects). We then studied the association between mean daily PA/RV pressures and mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations on the same day and previous 6 days. Results Each 11.62-μg/m3 increase in same-day mean PM2.5 concentration was associated with small but significant increases in estimated PA diastolic pressure [0.19 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05–0.33] and RV diastolic pressure (0.23 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.11–0.34). Although we saw considerable differences in the magnitude of response by COMPASS-HF randomization group (total data access for physicians vs. blocked clinician access), season, left ventricular ejection fraction, and obesity, these effects were not significantly different. Conclusions These pilot study findings provide a potential mechanism for previous findings of increased risk of HF associated with ambient PM. However, because of the small number of subjects, a larger study is needed for confirmation. PMID:18795158

  6. Hydroxyl-radical-dependent DNA damage by ambient particulate matter from contrasting sampling locations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Tingming; Duffin, Rodger; Borm, Paul J.A.; Li Hui; Weishaupt, Christel; Schins, Roel P.F. . E-mail: roel.schins@uni-duesseldorf.de

    2006-05-15

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been reported to be associated with increased respiratory, cardiovascular, and malignant lung disease. Previously we have shown that PM can induce oxidative DNA damage in A549 human lung epithelial cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the variability of the DNA-damaging properties of PM sampled at different locations and times and to relate the observed effects to the hydroxyl-radical ({center_dot}OH)-generating activities of these samples. Weekly samples of coarse (10-2.5 {mu}m) and fine (<2.5 {mu}m) PM from four sites (Nordrheim Westfalen, Germany) were analyzed for hydrogen-peroxide-dependent {center_dot}OH formation using electron paramagnetic resonance and formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in calf thymus DNA using an immuno-dot-blot assay. DNA strand breakage by fine PM in A549 human lung epithelial cells was quantified using the alkaline comet assay. Both PM size distribution fractions elicited {center_dot}OH generation and 8-OHdG formations in calf thymus DNA. Significantly higher {center_dot}OH generation was observed for PM sampled at urban/industrial locations and for coarse PM. Samples of fine PM also caused DNA strand breakage in A549 cells and this damage could be prevented using the hydroxyl-radical scavengers 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observed DNA strand breakage appeared to correlate with the hydroxyl-radical-generating capacities of the PM samples but with different profiles for rural versus urban/industrial samples. In conclusion, when considered at equal mass, {center_dot}OH formation of PM shows considerable variability with regard to the sampling location and time and is correlated with its ability to cause DNA damage.

  7. Contribution of fine particulate matter sources to indoor exposure in bars, restaurants, and cafes.

    PubMed

    Daly, B-J; Schmid, K; Riediker, M

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the contribution of sources and establishment characteristics, on the exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in the non-smoking sections of bars, cafes, and restaurants in central Zurich. PM(2.5)-exposure was determined with a nephelometer. A random sample of hospitality establishments was investigated on all weekdays, from morning until midnight. Each visit lasted 30 min. Numbers of smokers and other sources, such as candles and cooking processes, were recorded, as were seats, open windows, and open doors. Ambient air pollution data were obtained from public authorities. Data were analysed using robust MM regression. Over 14 warm, sunny days, 102 establishments were measured. Average establishment PM(2.5) concentrations were 64.7 microg/m(3) (s.d. = 73.2 microg/m(3), 30-min maximum 452.2 microg/m(3)). PM(2.5) was significantly associated with the number of smokers, percentage of seats occupied by smokers, and outdoor PM. Each smoker increased PM(2.5) on average by 15 microg/m(3). No associations were found with other sources, open doors or open windows. Bars had more smoking guests and showed significantly higher concentrations than restaurants and cafes. Smokers were the most important PM(2.5)-source in hospitality establishments, while outdoor PM defined the baseline. Concentrations are expected to be even higher during colder, unpleasant times of the year. Smokers and ambient air pollution are the most important sources of fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in the non-smoking sections of bars, restaurants, and cafes. Other sources do not significantly contribute to PM(2.5)-levels, while opening doors and windows is not an efficient means of removing pollutants. First, this demonstrates the impact that even a few smokers can have in affecting particle levels. Second, it implies that creating non-smoking sections, and using natural ventilation, is not sufficient to bring PM(2.5) to levels that imply no harm for employees and

  8. Effects of urban fine particulate matter and ozone on HDL functionality.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Gajalakshmi; Yin, Fen; Speck, Mary; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Jeffrey R; Silverman, Frances; Urch, Bruce; Brook, Robert D; Araujo, Jesus A

    2016-05-24

    Exposures to ambient particulate matter (PM) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. PM2.5 (<2.5 μm) and ozone exposures have been shown to associate with carotid intima media thickness in humans. Animal studies support a causal relationship between air pollution and atherosclerosis and identified adverse PM effects on HDL functionality. We aimed to determine whether brief exposures to PM2.5 and/or ozone could induce effects on HDL anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in humans. Subjects were exposed to fine concentrated ambient fine particles (CAP) with PM2.5 targeted at 150 μg/m(3), ozone targeted at 240 μg/m(3) (120 ppb), PM2.5 plus ozone targeted at similar concentrations, and filtered air (FA) for 2 h, on 4 different occasions, at least two weeks apart, in a randomized, crossover study. Blood was obtained before exposures (baseline), 1 h after and 20 h after exposures. Plasma HDL anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity and paraoxonase activity were determined. HDL anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity was assessed by a cell-free fluorescent assay and expressed in units of a HDL oxidant index (HOI). Changes in HOI (ΔHOI) were calculated as the difference in HOI from baseline to 1 h after or 20 h after exposures. There was a trend towards bigger ΔHOI between PM2.5 and FA 1 h after exposures (p = 0.18) but not 20 h after. This trend became significant (p <0.05) when baseline HOI was lower (<1.5 or <2.0), indicating decreased HDL anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity shortly after the exposures. There were no significant effects of ozone alone or in combination with PM2.5 on the change in HOI at both time points. The change in HOI due to PM2.5 showed a positive trend with particle mass concentration (p = 0.078) and significantly associated with the slope of systolic blood pressure during exposures (p = 0.005). Brief exposures to concentrated PM2.5 elicited swift effects on HDL anti

  9. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter in the general population of Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios < 1 accompanied by strong P-C correlations, indicating that these constituents in personal PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, which indicated that among subjects who spent a great amount of time indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient

  10. Quantifying the sources of ozone, fine particulate matter, and regional haze in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Odman, M Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G; Hanedar, Asude; Boylan, James W; Brewer, Patricia F

    2009-07-01

    A detailed sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the contributions of various emission sources to ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and regional haze in the Southeastern United States. O3 and particulate matter (PM) levels were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and light extinction values were calculated from modeled PM concentrations. First, the base case was established using the emission projections for the year 2009. Then, in each model run, SO2, primary carbon (PC), NH3, NO(x) or VOC emissions from a particular source category in a certain geographic area were reduced by 30% and the responses were determined by calculating the difference between the results of the reduced emission case and the base case. The sensitivity of summertime O3 to VOC emissions is small in the Southeast and ground-level NO(x) controls are generally more beneficial than elevated NO(x) controls (per unit mass of emissions reduced). SO2 emission reduction is the most beneficial control strategy in reducing summertime PM2.5 levels and improving visibility in the Southeast and electric generating utilities are the single largest source of SO2. Controlling PC emissions can be very effective locally, especially in winter. Reducing NH3 emissions is an effective strategy to reduce wintertime ammonium nitrate (NO3NH4) levels and improve visibility; NO(x) emissions reductions are not as effective. The results presented here will help the development of specific emission control strategies for future attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the region.

  11. Generation of hydroxyl radicals from ambient fine particles in a surrogate lung fluid solution.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin H; Dillner, Ann M; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-02-01

    While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (*OH), few studies have quantified *OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of *OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol *OH mg(-1)-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles generated *OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at generating *OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in *OH production: on average (+/-sigma), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming *OH) to the SLF removed (90 +/- 5) % of *OH generation. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of *OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of *OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts.

  12. Generation of Hydroxyl Radicals from Ambient Fine Particles in a Surrogate Lung Fluid Solution

    PubMed Central

    Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin; Dillner, Ann M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (·OH), few studies have quantified ·OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of ·OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol ·OH mg−1-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles generated ·OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at generating ·OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in ·OH production: on average (± σ), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming ·OH) to the SLF removed (90 ± 5) % of ·OH generation. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of ·OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of ·OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts. PMID:19245037

  13. Contributions of biomass burning and other sources to fine particulate carbon at rural locations throughout the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schichtel, B. A.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Barna, M. G.; Gebhart, K. A.; Pierce, T. E.; Munchak, L. A.; Collett, J. L.; Malm, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonaceous compounds are a major component of ambient fine particulate matter in rural and urban environments and can contribute to health effects, regional haze, and positive and negative forcing on the earth’s radiation balance. Understanding the sources that contribute to particulate carbon is important for the development of regulations to address these and other issues. A backward Lagrangian particle dispersion chemical transport model was develop to simulate particulate carbon concentrations and the contributions from wildfire, vegetation, mobile, area and other sources at individual receptor sites. This model was used to simulate carbon concentrations at IMPROVE monitoring sites from 2006-2008. IMPROVE monitors fine particulate matter and its composition in mostly rural locations throughout the United States. The simulations were conducted using emission from the 2002 WRAP regional haze emission inventory for all years. Wildfires vary significantly from one year to another, so the WRAP fire emissions were replaced with the NCAR biomass burning emission inventory derived from MODIS satellite data for the modeled years. The Lagrangian model used pseudo-first order rate equations where the physical and chemical rate coefficients are derived by tuning the model to fit measured 2008 particulate carbon concentrations and secondary organic carbon fractions. Contributions of biomass burning to particulate carbon during 2006 were also available from the CMAQ Eulerian chemical transport model operated by the United States EPA. In this presentation, the biomass burning contributions from the two 2006 model runs are compared and seasonal and spatial patterns of the source contributions from 2006 - 2008 simulates are presented. On average, different sources contributed to different seasons. During the summer months, the particulate carbon was predominately due to biomass burning and secondary organic carbon from vegetation. Smaller contributions from area and mobile

  14. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  15. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  16. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsih; Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS), the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a) empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b) the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c) site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan) from 2005-2007.

  17. Fifteen-Year Global Time Series of Satellite-Derived Fine Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boys, B. L.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; MacDonell, R. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Cooper, M. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S. W.

    2014-10-07

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmental risk factor for premature mortality. We use aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from two satellite instruments, MISR and SeaWiFS, to produce a unified 15-year global time series (1998-2012) of ground-level PM2.5 concentration at a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) is used to relate each individual AOD retrieval to ground-level PM2.5. Four broad areas showing significant, spatially coherent, annual trends are examined in detail: the Eastern U.S. (-0.39 +/- 0.10 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)), the Arabian Peninsula (0.81 +/- 0.21 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)), South Asia (0.93 +/- 0.22 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)) and East Asia (0.79 +/- 0.27 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)). Over the period of dense in situ observation (1999-2012), the linear tendency for the Eastern U.S. (-0.37 +/- 0.13 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)) agrees well with that from in situ measurements (-0.38 +/- 0.06 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)). A GEOS-Chem simulation reveals that secondary inorganic aerosols largely explain the observed PM2.5 trend over the Eastern U.S., South Asia, and East Asia, while mineral dust largely explains the observed trend over the Arabian Peninsula.

  18. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  19. Exposure to Fine Airborne Particulate Matters Induces Hepatic Fibrosis in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ze; Zhang, Xuebao; Wang, Jiemei; Dandeka, Aditya; Kim, Hyunbae; Qiu, Yining; Xu, Xiaohua; Cui, Yuqi; Wang, Aixia; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatic fibrosis, featured by accumulation of excessive extracellular matrix in liver tissues, is associated with metabolic disease and cancer. Inhalation exposure to airborne particulate matter in fine ranges (PM2.5) correlates with pulmonary dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrogenesis. Methods Both inhalation exposure of mice and in vitro exposure of specialized cells to PM2.5 were performed to elucidate the effect of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrosis. Histological examinations, gene expression analyses, and genetic animal models were utilized to determine the effect and mechanism by which PM2.5 exposure promotes hepatic fibrosis. Results Inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 induces hepatic fibrosis in mice under the normal chow or high-fat diet. Mice after PM2.5 exposure displayed increased expression of collagens in liver tissues. Exposure to PM2.5 led to activation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-SMAD3 signaling, suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and expression of collagens in hepatic stellate cells. NADPH oxidase plays a critical role in PM2.5-induced liver fibrogenesis. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 exerts discernible effects on promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. NADPH oxidase mediates the effects of PM2.5 exposure on promoting hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26220751

  20. Exposure to fine airborne particulate matters induces hepatic fibrosis in murine models.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ze; Zhang, Xuebao; Wang, Jiemei; Dandekar, Aditya; Kim, Hyunbae; Qiu, Yining; Xu, Xiaohua; Cui, Yuqi; Wang, Aixia; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, featured by the accumulation of excessive extracellular matrix in liver tissue, is associated with metabolic disease and cancer. Inhalation exposure to airborne particulate matter in fine ranges (PM2.5) correlates with pulmonary dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrogenesis. Both inhalation exposure of mice and in vitro exposure of specialized cells to PM2.5 were performed to elucidate the effect of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrosis. Histological examinations, gene expression analyses, and genetic animal models were utilized to determine the effect and mechanism by which PM2.5 exposure promotes hepatic fibrosis. Inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 induces hepatic fibrosis in mice under the normal chow or high-fat diet. Mice after PM2.5 exposure displayed increased expression of collagens in liver tissues. Exposure to PM2.5 led to activation of the transforming growth factor β-SMAD3 signaling, suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and expression of collagens in hepatic stellate cells. NADPH oxidase plays a critical role in PM2.5-induced liver fibrogenesis. Exposure to PM2.5 exerts discernible effects on promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. NADPH oxidase mediates the effects of PM2.5 exposure on promoting hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Metal composition of fine particulate air pollution and acute changes in cardiorespiratory physiology.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Sabit; Dales, Robert; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Mahmud, Mamun; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Vanos, Jennifer; Liu, Ling; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol; Vincent, Renaud; Weichenthal, Scott

    2014-06-01

    Studying the physiologic effects of components of fine particulate mass (PM2.5) could contribute to a better understanding of the nature of toxicity of air pollution. We examined the relation between acute changes in cardiovascular and respiratory function, and PM2.5-associated-metals. Using generalized linear mixed models, daily changes in ambient PM2.5-associated metals were compared to daily changes in physiologic measures in 59 healthy subjects who spent 5-days near a steel plant and 5-days on a college campus. Interquartile increases in calcium, cadmium, lead, strontium, tin, vanadium and zinc were associated with statistically significant increases in heart rate of 1-3 beats per minute, increases of 1-3 mmHg in blood pressure and/or lung function decreases of up to 4% for total lung capacity. Metals contained in PM2.5 were found to be associated with acute changes in cardiovascular and respiratory physiology. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the Ambient Particulate Matter-induced Chromosomal Aberrations Using an In Vitro System.

    PubMed

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Koturbash, Igor; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Kavouras, Ilias; Pathak, Rupak

    2016-12-21

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a major world health concern, which may damage various cellular components, including the nuclear genetic material. To assess the impact of PM on nuclear genetic integrity, structural chromosomal aberrations are scored in the metaphase spreads of mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PM is collected from ambient air with a high volume total suspended particles sampler. The collected material is solubilized and filtered to retain the water-soluble, fine portion. The particles are characterized for chemical composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Different concentrations of particle suspension are added onto an in vitro culture of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages for a total exposure time of 72 hr, along with untreated control cells. At the end of exposure, the culture is treated with colcemid to arrest cells in metaphase. Cells are then harvested, treated with hypotonic solution, fixed in acetomethanol, dropped onto glass slides and finally stained with Giemsa solution. Slides are examined to assess the structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in metaphase spreads at 1,000X magnification using a bright-field microscope. 50 to 100 metaphase spread are scored for each treatment group. This technique is adapted for the detection of structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs), such as chromatid-type breaks, chromatid-type exchanges, acentric fragments, dicentric and ring chromosomes, double minutes, endoreduplication, and Robertsonian translocations in vitro after exposure to PM. It is a powerful method to associate a well-established cytogenetic endpoint to epigenetic alterations.

  3. Smoking increases air pollution levels in city streets: observational and fine particulate data.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2012-09-01

    To address the paucity of research around smokefree streets, we: (i) refined existing data collection methods; (ii) expanded on the meagre previous research in this area; and (iii) compared results by differing size of urban centre. We refined established methods; a solo observer simultaneously observed smoking and measured fine particulate levels (PM(2.5)) on a route of shopping streets in central Lower Hutt City, New Zealand. Over 33.6 h of measurement, mean fine particulate levels were 1.7 times higher when smoking was observed than when it was not (7.9 vs 4.8 μg/m(3); p=0.0001). Smoking appeared to be a substantive contributor to fine particulate air pollution in city streets, when compared to levels adjacent to road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Nicholas M.; Barton, Caleb C.; Ransom, Michael R.; Allen, Ryan T.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors. PMID:26945391

  5. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in Lahore, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Schauer, James; Quraishi, Tauseef A.; Mahmood, Abid

    2010-03-01

    Lahore, Pakistan is an emerging megacity that is heavily polluted with high levels of particle air pollution. In this study, respirable particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) were collected every sixth day in Lahore from 12 January 2007 to 19 January 2008. Ambient aerosol was characterized using well-established chemical methods for mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), ionic species (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, calcium, and potassium), and organic species. The annual average concentration (±one standard deviation) of PM 2.5 was 194 ± 94 μg m -3 and PM 10 was 336 ± 135 μg m -3. Coarse aerosol (PM 10-2.5) was dominated by crustal sources like dust (74 ± 16%, annual average ± one standard deviation), whereas fine particles were dominated by carbonaceous aerosol (organic matter and elemental carbon, 61 ± 17%). Organic tracer species were used to identify sources of PM 2.5 OC and chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to estimate relative source contributions. On an annual basis, non-catalyzed motor vehicles accounted for more than half of primary OC (53 ± 19%). Lesser sources included biomass burning (10 ± 5%) and the combined source of diesel engines and residual fuel oil combustion (6 ± 2%). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was an important contributor to ambient OC, particularly during the winter when secondary processing of aerosol species during fog episodes was expected. Coal combustion alone contributed a small percentage of organic aerosol (1.9 ± 0.3%), but showed strong linear correlation with unidentified sources of OC that contributed more significantly (27 ± 16%). Brick kilns, where coal and other low quality fuels are burned together, are suggested as the most probable origins of unapportioned OC. The chemical profiling of emissions from brick kilns and other sources unique to Lahore would contribute to a better understanding of OC sources in this megacity.

  6. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Hales, Nicholas M; Barton, Caleb C; Ransom, Michael R; Allen, Ryan T; Pope, C Arden

    2016-03-01

    Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors.

  7. Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality Among Canadian Women.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Weichenthal, Scott A; Crouse, Daniel; Miller, Anthony B; To, Teresa; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Wall, Claus; Burnett, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased mortality, especially from cardiovascular disease. There are, however, uncertainties about the nature of the exposure-response relation at lower concentrations. In Canada, where ambient air pollution levels are substantially lower than in most other countries, there have been few attempts to study associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality. We present a prospective cohort analysis of 89,248 women who enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study between 1980 and 1985, and for whom residential measures of PM2.5 could be assigned. We derived individual-level estimates of long-term exposure to PM2.5 from satellite observations. We linked cohort records to national mortality data to ascertain mortality between 1980 and 2005. We used Cox proportional hazards models to characterize associations between PM2.5 and several causes of death. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) computed from these models were adjusted for several individual and neighborhood-level characteristics. The cohort was composed predominantly of Canadian-born (82%) and married (80%) women. The median residential concentration of PM2.5 was 9.1 μg/m(3) (standard deviation = 3.4). In fully adjusted models, a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with elevated risks of nonaccidental (HR: 1.12; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.19), and ischemic heart disease mortality (HR: 1.34; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.66). The findings from this study provide additional support for the hypothesis that exposure to very low levels of ambient PM2.5 increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality.

  8. [Effects of airborne fine particulate matter on human respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Yi; Li, Peng-Kun; Zhao, Jin-Zhuo; Jiang, Rong-Fang; Yang, Bin-Jie; Zhang, Min-Hua; Song, Wei-Min

    2010-10-01

    to explore effects of airborne fine particulate matter exposure on human respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. one hundred and seven field traffic policemen were recruited as airborne fine particulate matter high-exposure group and one hundred and one male residents as common exposure group. The individual sampler was used to measure fine particulate matter exposure levels of the two groups. To obtain personal information, especially respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum, etc. a questionnaire survey was used. The pulmonary ventilation function was detected: forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC), the first 1 second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0), FVC/FEV1.0% and peak flow values (PEF), and the difference of fine particulate matter exposure level and respiratory function of the two groups was compared. 24 h individual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration of traffic police and residents were respectively (115.4 ± 46.17) microg/m(3) and (74.94 ± 40.09) microg/m(3), the traffic police PM2.5 exposure levels were significantly higher than the residents. In the incidence of respiratory symptoms, compared with high-exposure group and common exposure group, coughing, expectoration, throat unwell, asthma, short of breath and nose discomfort, traffic police group was higher than residents group (P < 0.05). The abnormal rate of lung ventilation function indexes, such as FVC and FEV1.0 was 25.23% and 12.15% respectively in high-exposure group, 11.88% and 2.97% in common exposure group, there was no statistical difference between two groups. Besides, the abnormal rate of FVC and FEV1.0, showed rising trend in high-exposure group with seniority. long-term higher levels of airborne fine particulate matter exposure, may impact respiratory health and impair pulmonary function.

  9. Neuropathological Consequences of Gestational Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particles in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Klocke, Carolyn; Allen, Joshua L; Sobolewski, Marissa; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Blum, Jason L; Lauterstein, Dana; Zelikoff, Judith T; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution. We previously reported that postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤100 nm) via the University of Rochester HUCAPS system during a critical developmental window of CNS development, equivalent to human 3rd trimester, produced male-predominant neuropathological and behavioral characteristics common to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in humans. The current study sought to determine whether vulnerability to fine (≤2.5 μm) and UFP air pollution exposure extends to embryonic periods of brain development in mice, equivalent to human 1st and 2nd trimesters. Pregnant mice were exposed 6 h/day from gestational days (GDs) 0.5-16.5 using the New York University VACES system to concentrated ambient fine/ultrafine particles at an average concentration of 92.69 μg/m3 over the course of the exposure period. At postnatal days (PNDs) 11-15, neuropathological consequences were characterized. Gestational air pollution exposures produced ventriculomegaly, increased corpus callosum (CC) area and reduced hippocampal area in both sexes. Both sexes demonstrated CC hypermyelination and increased microglial activation and reduced total CC microglia number. Analyses of iron deposition as a critical component of myelination revealed increased iron deposition in the CC of exposed female offspring, but not in males. These findings demonstrate that vulnerability of the brain to air pollution extends to gestation and produces features of several neurodevelopmental disorders in both sexes. Further, they highlight the importance of the commonalities of components of particulate matter exposures as a source of neurotoxicity and common CNS alterations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  10. Ambient Background Particulate Compositiion Outdoor Natural Background: Interferents/Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    bacterial spores , fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, and animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert...routinely other than for health effects. Allergy caused by pollen (>15 urn) and mold is monitored for health effects by National Allergy 9...occurrence. To achieve this, measurement of pollens, bacteria, and fungal spores and dust particulates were undertaken for weekly periods at four

  11. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles. PMID:26402691

  12. [Form of the particulate matter ambient air standards in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jun-Nan; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Bin; Lin, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Based on the principles from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States, an analysis was conducted to study the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter in China by methods of statistical regression, proportional rollback and controlling contrast maps, using the monitoring data of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) from 120 cities in China during year 2005 to 2012. It was found that for cities in China, when the annual arithmetic mean of PM10 was equal to the national standard, the non-exceedance rates of daily average PM10 in most cities were higher than 95.0% , and the average rate for all cities was 97.1%. The average non-exceedance rate was 96.3% for cities in North China and Northwest China, 96.6% for Northeast China, 97.2% for East China and Central South China, and 98.1% for Southwest China. When the 97th percentile was chosen as the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter for China, the 24-hour standard had an equal controlling strength with the annual standard. The 24-hour standard will become the controlling standard when larger percentiles were chosen, otherwise the contrary. By considering together the statistical characteristics of PM10 level in China, the robustness of the percentiles and protection of human health, the 95th percentile was suitable as the preferred form of the 24-hour standard of PM10 and PM2.5 in China.

  13. The CCRUSH study: Characterization of coarse and fine particulate matter in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas Steven

    Particulate matter in the troposphere adversely impacts human health when inhaled and alters climate through cloud formation processes and by absorbing/scattering light. Particles smaller than 2.5 mum in diameter (fine particulate matter; PM2.5), are typically emitted from combustion-related sources and can form and grow through secondary processing in the atmosphere. Coarse particles (PM10-2.5), ranging 2.5 to 10 mum, are typically generated through abrasive processes, such as erosion of road surfaces, entrained via resuspension, and settle quickly out of the atmosphere due to their large size. After deciding against regulating PM10-2.5 in 2006 citing, among other reasons, mixed results from epidemiological studies of the pollutant and lack of knowledge on health impacts in rural areas, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) funded a series of studies that investigated the ambient composition, toxicology, and epidemiology of PM10-2.5. One such study, The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study, aimed to characterize the composition, sources, and health effects of PM10-2.5 in semi-arid northeastern Colorado and consisted of two field campaigns and an epidemiological study. Summarized here are the results from the two field campaigns, the first of which included over three years of continuous PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentration monitoring at multiple sites in urban-Denver and rural-Greeley, Colorado. This data set was used to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5. During the second year of continuous monitoring, PM 10-2.5 and PM2.5 filter samples were collected for compositional analyses that included: elemental composition, bulk elemental and organic carbon concentrations, water-soluble organic carbon concentrations, UV-vis absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and endotoxin content. Elemental composition was used to understand enrichment of trace elements in atmospheric particles and to

  14. Fine organic particulate matter dominates indoor-generated PM2.5 in RIOPA homes.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Andrea; Turpin, Barbara; Meng, Qing Yu; Lee, Jong Hoon; Weisel, Clifford; Morandi, Maria; Colome, Steven; Stock, Thomas; Winer, Arthur; Zhang, Jim; Kwon, Jaymin; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Shendell, Derek; Jones, Jennifer; Farrar, Corice; Maberti, Silvia

    2006-07-01

    Residential indoor and outdoor fine particle (PM(2.5)) organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations (48 h) were measured at 173 homes in Houston, TX, Los Angeles County, CA, and Elizabeth, NJ as part of the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. The adsorption of organic vapors on the quartz fiber sampling filter (a positive artifact) was substantial indoors and out, accounting for 36% and 37% of measured OC at the median indoor (8.2 microg C/m(3)) and outdoor (5.0 microg C/m(3)) OC concentrations, respectively. Uncorrected, adsorption artifacts would lead to substantial overestimation of particulate OC both indoors and outdoors. After artifact correction, the mean particulate organic matter (OM=1.4 OC) concentration indoors (9.8 microg/m(3)) was twice the mean outdoor concentration (4.9 microg/m(3)). The mean EC concentration was 1.1 microg/m(3) both indoors and outdoors. OM accounted for 29%, 30% and 29% of PM(2.5) mass outdoors and 48%, 55% and 61% of indoor PM(2.5) mass in Los Angeles Co., Elizabeth and Houston study homes, respectively. Indirect evidence provided by species mass balance results suggests that PM(2.5) nitrate (not measured) was largely lost during outdoor-to-indoor transport, as reported by Lunden et al. This results in dramatic changes with outdoor-to-indoor transport in the mass and composition of ambient-generated PM(2.5) at California homes. On average, 71% to 76% of indoor OM was emitted or formed indoors, calculated by (1) Random Component Superposition (RCS) model and (2) non-linear fit of OC and air exchange rate data to the mass balance model. Assuming that all particles penetrate indoors (P=1) and there is no particle loss indoors (k=0), a lower bound estimate of 41% of indoor OM was indoor-generated (mean). OM appears to be the predominant species in indoor-generated PM(2.5), based on species mass balance results. Particulate OM emitted or formed indoors is substantial enough to alter the

  15. Carcinogenicity of airborne fine particulate benzo(a)pyrene: an appraisal of the evidence and the need for control.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F

    1981-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) originating from fossil fuel and other organic combustion processes is largely adsorbed on fine particulate and hence is a widespread atmospheric pollutant. Available emissions and air quality data are based on the total weight of particulate matter without reference to size and give little information on trends and concentrations of fine particulate BaP. Greater reliance on coal, synfuels and diesel fuel for energy production and transportation will significantly increase ambient levels of BaP. Because of the particulate size, BaP is substantially deposited in the lower lung and readily eluted into surrounding tissue. After elution in the lung, BaP is metabolically activated to its electrophilic, carcinogenic from by a complex enzyme system whose activity is increased by prior exposure to air pollutants, cigarette smoke and certain drugs. The resultant diol epoxide metabolite has been shown to bind covalently with the DNA of the lung. In experimental animals, BaP is a potent initiating carcinogen whose action is enhanced by sulfur dioxide, promoting agents and carrier fine particles. The effect of small, divided doses of BaP has been shown to be greater than that of a single high dose; no threshold has been established. Epidemiological studies show that mixtures containing BaP (such as urban air, industrial emissions and cigarette smoke) are carcinogenic and may interact synergistically. Occupational studies indicate that the action of BaP-containing mixtures is enhanced in the presence of SO2. However, quantitative risk assessment for BaP is precluded by problems in extrapolating to the general population from small-scale animal studies; uncertainties in findings of epidemiology; and imprecise exposure data. Existing stationary and mobile controls preferentially remove coarse particulate matter and are inefficient collectors of the particulate BaP. In the current absence of health and environmental standards for BaP, there is little incentive

  16. Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Haberzettl, Petra; O’Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects of PM2.5 remain unclear. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 exposure decreases vascular insulin sensitivity by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress. Methods: Mice fed control (10–13% kcal fat) and high-fat (60% kcal fat, HFD) diets, treated with 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) or mice overexpressing lung-specific extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) were exposed to HEPA-filtered air or to concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) for 9 or 30 days, and changes in systemic and organ-specific insulin sensitivity and inflammation were measured. Results: In control diet–fed mice, exposure to CAP for 30 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in lung, heart, and aorta but not in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and did not affect adiposity or systemic glucose tolerance. In HFD-fed mice, 30-day CAP exposure suppressed insulin-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and increased adipose tissue inflammation and systemic glucose intolerance. In control diet–fed mice, a 9-day CAP exposure was sufficient to suppress insulin-stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and to decrease IκBα (inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB levels in the aorta. Treatment with the antioxidant TEMPOL or lung-specific overexpression of ecSOD prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and inflammation. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 induces vascular insulin resistance and inflammation triggered by a mechanism involving pulmonary oxidative stress. Suppression of vascular insulin signaling by PM2.5 may accelerate the progression to systemic insulin resistance, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity. Citation: Haberzettl P, O

  17. Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Haberzettl, Petra; O'Toole, Timothy E; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects of PM2.5 remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 exposure decreases vascular insulin sensitivity by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress. Mice fed control (10-13% kcal fat) and high-fat (60% kcal fat, HFD) diets, treated with 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) or mice overexpressing lung-specific extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) were exposed to HEPA-filtered air or to concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) for 9 or 30 days, and changes in systemic and organ-specific insulin sensitivity and inflammation were measured. In control diet-fed mice, exposure to CAP for 30 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in lung, heart, and aorta but not in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and did not affect adiposity or systemic glucose tolerance. In HFD-fed mice, 30-day CAP exposure suppressed insulin-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and increased adipose tissue inflammation and systemic glucose intolerance. In control diet-fed mice, a 9-day CAP exposure was sufficient to suppress insulin-stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and to decrease IκBα (inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB levels in the aorta. Treatment with the antioxidant TEMPOL or lung-specific overexpression of ecSOD prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and inflammation. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 induces vascular insulin resistance and inflammation triggered by a mechanism involving pulmonary oxidative stress. Suppression of vascular insulin signaling by PM2.5 may accelerate the progression to systemic insulin resistance, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity. Citation: Haberzettl P, O'Toole TE, Bhatnagar A, Conklin DJ. 2016. Exposure to fine

  18. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  19. Source apportionment of airborne fine particulate matter in an underground mine.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John C; McDaniel, Mark R; Mousset-Jones, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    The chemical mass balance source apportionment technique was applied to an underground gold mine to assess the contribution of diesel exhaust, rock dust, oil mists, and cigarette smoke to airborne fine (<2.5 microm) particulate matter (PM). Apportionments were conducted in two locations in the mine, one near the mining operations and one near the exit of the mine where the ventilated mine air was exhausted. Results showed that diesel exhaust contributed 78-98% of the fine particulate mass and greater than 90% of the fine particle carbon, with rock dust making up the remainder. Oil mists and cigarette smoke contributions were below detection limits for this study. The diesel exhaust fraction of the total fine PM was higher than the recently implemented mine air quality standards based on total carbon at both sample locations in the mine.

  20. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  1. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  2. Variation in characteristics of ambient particulate matter at eight locations in the Netherlands - The RAPTES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strak, Maciej; Steenhof, Maaike; Godri, Krystal J.; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert; Kelly, Frank J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Hoek, Gerard; Janssen, Nicole A. H.

    2011-08-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown health effects related to short- and long-term exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM). It is not clear however which specific characteristics (e.g., size, components) or sources of PM are responsible for the observed effects. The aim of RAPTES (Risk of Airborne Particles: a Toxicological-Epidemiological hybrid Study) was to investigate which specific physical, chemical or oxidative characteristics of ambient PM are associated with adverse effects of PM on health. This was done by performing experimental exposure of human volunteers to air pollution at several real-world settings that had high contrast and low correlation between several PM characteristics. For this goal, eight sites in the Netherlands that differed in local PM emission sources were chosen for extensive air pollution characterization. Measurement sites included an underground train station, three different road traffic sites, an animal farm, a sea harbor, a site located in the vicinity of steelworks, and an urban background site. Five- to six-hours average concentration measurements at each site were made between June 2007 and October 2009. We measured PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentration (PNC), oxidative potential of PM, absorbance, endotoxin content, as well as elemental and chemical composition of PM, and gaseous pollutants concentrations. This paper presents a detailed characterization of particulate air pollution at the sampling sites. We found significant differences in all PM characteristics between the sites. The underground train station, compared to each outdoor location, had substantially higher concentrations of nearly all PM characteristics. The average PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations at the underground train station were 394 μg m -3 and 137 μg m -3, respectively, which was 14.1 and 7.6 times higher than the urban background. The sum of the concentrations of trace metals in fine and coarse PM was nearly

  3. Cellular oxidative response from exposure to size-resolved ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) derived from different sources may differ in toxicity. The goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro effects of ambient PM and PM components from eight different locations in the U.S. and to investigate the effects of ...

  4. EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, and DL Costa1 1US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC; 2UNC SPH and Curriculum in Toxic...

  5. Relationship between chemical composition and pulmonary toxicity of source-specific ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported incidence of cardio-pulmonary disease associated with increase in particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, the pulmonary toxicity potential of combustion and ambient PM were investigated using data from animal studies at the US EPA....

  6. EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, and DL Costa1 1US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC; 2UNC SPH and Curriculum in Toxic...

  7. Relationship between chemical composition and pulmonary toxicity of source-specific ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported incidence of cardio-pulmonary disease associated with increase in particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, the pulmonary toxicity potential of combustion and ambient PM were investigated using data from animal studies at the US EPA....

  8. Cellular oxidative response from exposure to size-resolved ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) derived from different sources may differ in toxicity. The goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro effects of ambient PM and PM components from eight different locations in the U.S. and to investigate the effects of ...

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing for Developing Time and Space Resolved Estimates of Ambient Particulate in Cleveland, OH

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Chu, Allen D.; Foster, Andrew D.; Peters, Thomas; Willis, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article empirically demonstrates the use of fine resolution satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) to develop time and space resolved estimates of ambient particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively). AOD was computed at three different spatial resolutions, i.e., 2 km (means 2 km × 2 km area at nadir), 5 km, and 10 km, by using the data from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Multiresolution AOD from MODIS (AODMODIS) was compared with the in situ measurements of AOD by NASA’s AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sunphotometer (AODAERONET) at Bondville, IL, to demonstrate the advantages of the fine resolution AODMODIS over the 10-km AODMODIS, especially for air quality prediction. An instrumental regression that corrects AODMODIS for meteorological conditions was used for developing a PM predictive model. The 2-km AODMODIS aggregated within 0.025° and 15-min intervals shows the best association with the in situ measurements of AODAERONET. The 2-km AODMODIS seems more promising to estimate time and space resolved estimates of ambient PM than the 10-km AODMODIS, because of better location precision and a significantly greater number of data points across geographic space and time. Utilizing the collocated AODMODIS and PM data in Cleveland, OH, a regression model was developed for predicting PM for all AODMODIS data points. Our analysis suggests that the slope of the 2-km AODMODIS (instrumented on meteorological conditions) is close to unity with the PM monitored on the ground. These results should be interpreted with caution, because the slope of AODMODIS ranges from 0.52 to 1.72 in the site-specific models. In the cross validation of the overall model, the root mean square error (RMSE) of PM10 was smaller (2.04 µg/m3 in overall model) than that of PM2.5 (2.5 µg/m3). The predicted PM in the AODMODIS data (∼2.34 million data points) was

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing for Developing Time and Space Resolved Estimates of Ambient Particulate in Cleveland, OH.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Chu, Allen D; Foster, Andrew D; Peters, Thomas; Willis, Robert

    2011-09-01

    This article empirically demonstrates the use of fine resolution satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) to develop time and space resolved estimates of ambient particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameters (PM(2.5) and PM(10), respectively). AOD was computed at three different spatial resolutions, i.e., 2 km (means 2 km × 2 km area at nadir), 5 km, and 10 km, by using the data from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Multiresolution AOD from MODIS (AOD(MODIS)) was compared with the in situ measurements of AOD by NASA's AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sunphotometer (AOD(AERONET)) at Bondville, IL, to demonstrate the advantages of the fine resolution AOD(MODIS) over the 10-km AOD(MODIS), especially for air quality prediction. An instrumental regression that corrects AOD(MODIS) for meteorological conditions was used for developing a PM predictive model.The 2-km AOD(MODIS) aggregated within 0.025° and 15-min intervals shows the best association with the in situ measurements of AOD(AERONET). The 2-km AOD(MODIS) seems more promising to estimate time and space resolved estimates of ambient PM than the 10-km AOD(MODIS), because of better location precision and a significantly greater number of data points across geographic space and time. Utilizing the collocated AOD(MODIS) and PM data in Cleveland, OH, a regression model was developed for predicting PM for all AOD(MODIS) data points. Our analysis suggests that the slope of the 2-km AOD(MODIS) (instrumented on meteorological conditions) is close to unity with the PM monitored on the ground. These results should be interpreted with caution, because the slope of AOD(MODIS) ranges from 0.52 to 1.72 in the site-specific models. In the cross validation of the overall model, the root mean square error (RMSE) of PM(10) was smaller (2.04 µg/m(3) in overall model) than that of PM(2.5) (2.5 µg/m(3)). The predicted PM in the AOD

  11. Controlled exposure of humans with metabolic syndrome to concentrated ultrafine ambient particulate matter causes cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Robert B; Smith, Candice B; Schmitt, Michael T; Rappold, Ana G; Hinderliter, Alan; Graff, Don; Carraway, Martha Sue

    2014-07-01

    Many studies have reported associations between air pollution particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (fine particulate matter (PM)) and adverse cardiovascular effects. However, there is an increased concern that so-called ultrafine PM which comprises the smallest fraction of fine PM (aerodynamic diameter <0.1 μm) may be disproportionately toxic relative to the 0.1-2.5 μm fraction. Ultrafine PM is not routinely measured in state monitoring networks and is not homogenously dispersed throughout an airshed but rather located in hot spots such as near combustion sources (e.g., roads), making it difficult for epidemiology studies to associate exposure to ultrafine PM with adverse health effects. Thirty four middle-aged individuals with metabolic syndrome were exposed for 2 h while at rest in a randomized crossover design to clean air and concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UCAPS) for 2 h. To further define potential risk, study individuals carrying the null allele for GSTM1 (a prominent antioxidant gene) were identified by genotyping. Blood was obtained immediately prior to exposure, and at 1 and 20 h afterward. Continuous Holter monitoring began immediately prior to exposure and continued for 24 h. Based on changes we observed in previous CAPS studies, we hypothesized that ultrafine CAPS would cause changes in markers of blood inflammation and fibrinolysis as well as changes in heart rate variability and cardiac repolarization. GSTM1 null individuals had altered cardiac repolarization as seen by a change in QRS complexity following exposure to UCAPS and both the entire study population as well as GSTM1 null individuals had increased QT duration. Blood plasminogen and thrombomodulin were decreased in the whole population following UCAPS exposure, whereas C-reactive protein (CRP) and SAA were increased. This controlled human exposure study is the first to show that ambient ultrafine particles can cause cardiovascular changes in people with metabolic

  12. FINE AMBIENT AIR PARTICULAR MATTER EXPOSURE INDUCES MOLECULAR ALTERATIONS INDICATIVE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PROGRESSION IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC SUSCEPTIBLE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) can alter cardiovascular function and may influence cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been shown that exposure to concentrated ambient air particles (CA...

  13. FINE AMBIENT AIR PARTICULAR MATTER EXPOSURE INDUCES MOLECULAR ALTERATIONS INDICATIVE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PROGRESSION IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC SUSCEPTIBLE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) can alter cardiovascular function and may influence cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been shown that exposure to concentrated ambient air particles (CA...

  14. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SOURCE ATTRIBUTION FOR SOUTHEAST TEXAS USING 14C/13C RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon analyses of fine particulate matter samples collected during the summer of 2000 in southeast Texas indicate that a substantial fraction of the aerosol carbon at an urban/suburban site (27% to 73%) and at a rural, forested site (44% to 77%) was modern carbon. Data fr...

  15. 76 FR 63860 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...; (4) revise the Arkansas ozone-season new unit set-aside to account for erroneously omitted projected... projected emissions for SO 2 , ozone- season NO X , and annual NO X ; (6) revise New Jersey's ozone...

  16. 75 FR 45075 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Matter and Ozone'' (Transport Rule) which is published elsewhere in today's issue of the Federal Register... ozone NAAQS. Public hearing: The proposal for which EPA is holding the public hearings is...

  17. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  18. DAILY SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATES OVER NEW YORK STATE: FINDINGS AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the potential utility of the application of a photochemical modeling system in providing simultaneous forecasts of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over New York State. To this end, daily simulations from the Community M...

  19. DAILY SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATES OVER NEW YORK STATE: FINDINGS AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the potential utility of the application of a photochemical modeling system in providing simultaneous forecasts of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over New York State. To this end, daily simulations from the Community M...

  20. RESPIRATORY TOXICOLOGCAL EFFECTS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT BODY:
    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants which were reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate mat...

  1. Carbonaceous aerosols in fine particulate matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile.

    PubMed

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G E; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002-2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m(3)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m(3)) for fine particulate matter.

  2. WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER CAUSES RESPIRATORY TRACT HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice

    Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1.<...

  3. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment
    John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

  4. RESPIRATORY TOXICOLOGCAL EFFECTS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT BODY:
    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants which were reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate mat...

  5. WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER CAUSES RESPIRATORY TRACT HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice

    Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1.<...

  6. SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Exposure of humans to PM results in increased mortality and morbidity. Recent toxicology studies have shown a number of pathophysiological pulmonary and car...

  7. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment
    John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

  8. Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Lung Function among Healthy College Students in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunquan; He, Mingquan; Wu, Simin; Zhu, Yaohui; Wang, Suqing; Shima, Masayuki; Tamura, Kenji; Ma, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) has been associated with impaired lung function, but the effect of temperature on lung function and the potential interaction effect between PM and temperature remain uncertain. To estimate the short-term effects of PM2.5 combined with temperature on lung function, we measured the daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) in a panel of 37 healthy college students in four different seasons. Meanwhile, we also monitored daily concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm), ambient temperature and relative humidity of the study area, where the study participants lived and attended school. Associations of air pollutants and temperature with lung function were assessed by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). A 10 μg/m3 increase of indoor PM2.5 was associated with a change of −2.09 L/min in evening PEF (95%CI: −3.73 L/min–−0.51 L/min) after adjusting for season, height, gender, temperature and relative humidity. The changes of −2.17 L/min (95%CI: −3.81 L/min– −0.52 L/min) and −2.18 L/min (95%CI: −3.96 L/min–−0.41 L/min) in evening PEF were also observed after adjusting for outdoor SO2 and NO2 measured by Environmental Monitoring Center 3 kilometers away, respectively. An increase in ambient temperature was found to be associated with a decrease in lung function and our results revealed a small but significant antagonistic interactive effect between PM2.5 and temperature. Our findings suggest that ambient PM2.5 has an acute adverse effect on lung function in young healthy adults, and that temperature also plays an important role. PMID:26184254

  9. Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Lung Function among Healthy College Students in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunquan; He, Mingquan; Wu, Simin; Zhu, Yaohui; Wang, Suqing; Shima, Masayuki; Tamura, Kenji; Ma, Lu

    2015-07-10

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) has been associated with impaired lung function, but the effect of temperature on lung function and the potential interaction effect between PM and temperature remain uncertain. To estimate the short-term effects of PM2.5 combined with temperature on lung function, we measured the daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) in a panel of 37 healthy college students in four different seasons. Meanwhile, we also monitored daily concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm), ambient temperature and relative humidity of the study area, where the study participants lived and attended school. Associations of air pollutants and temperature with lung function were assessed by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). A 10 μg/m3 increase of indoor PM2.5 was associated with a change of -2.09 L/min in evening PEF (95%CI: -3.73 L/min--0.51 L/min) after adjusting for season, height, gender, temperature and relative humidity. The changes of -2.17 L/min (95%CI: -3.81 L/min- -0.52 L/min) and -2.18 L/min (95%CI: -3.96 L/min--0.41 L/min) in evening PEF were also observed after adjusting for outdoor SO2 and NO2 measured by Environmental Monitoring Center 3 kilometers away, respectively. An increase in ambient temperature was found to be associated with a decrease in lung function and our results revealed a small but significant antagonistic interactive effect between PM2.5 and temperature. Our findings suggest that ambient PM2.5 has an acute adverse effect on lung function in young healthy adults, and that temperature also plays an important role.

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOTH REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AT AN URBAN SITE IN LOS ANGELES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that all size fractions of...

  11. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  12. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH PLASMINOGEN AND FIBRIOGEN LEVELS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Recent reports indicate that the elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to fine and coarse particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected via airway inflammation. We investigated whether mark...

  13. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  14. Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.H.; Schieber, C.; Socha, R.G.; Kramlich, J.C.

    1990-04-01

    The primary objective of this program was to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern the formation of particulate matter in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range in pulverized coal flames. The mechanism that produces ash particles in this size range is not clear. Particle sizes smaller than the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range are generally accepted to result from a vaporization/condensation mechanism while particles larger than this size result from the coalescence of ash in coal particles which may breakup as they burn. This program combined experimental and theoretical studies to understand the mechanisms which control the production of ash in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range. (VC)

  15. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005-2016: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    He, Mike Z; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-02-14

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m³ for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m³ for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p < 0.0001) and the three economic regions (F = 4.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: This review identifies quantifiable differences in fine particulate matter concentrations across regions of China. The highest levels of fine particulate matter were found in the northern and northwestern regions and especially Beijing. The high percentage of data points exceeding current federal regulation standards suggests that fine particulate matter pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates.

  16. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005–2016: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    He, Mike Z.; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m3 for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m3 for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p < 0.0001) and the three economic regions (F = 4.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: This review identifies quantifiable differences in fine particulate matter concentrations across regions of China. The highest levels of fine particulate matter were found in the northern and northwestern regions and especially Beijing. The high percentage of data points exceeding current federal regulation standards suggests that fine particulate matter pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates. PMID:28216601

  17. Effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on daily mortality in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hoek, G; Schwartz, J D; Groot, B; Eilers, P

    1997-01-01

    The association between daily variations in all-cause mortality from 1983-1991 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and ambient air pollution was investigated. Twenty-four-hour average concentrations of total suspended particulates, Black Smoke, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide were available on a daily basis. Every other day, total iron content in total suspended particulates samples was available. Poisson regression analysis was used to study associations between air pollution and mortality; generalized additive models were used to adjust for confounders (e.g., seasonal trends, weather). Daily mortality was associated most consistently with previous-day concentrations of total suspended particulates (relative risk = 1.05 for a change of 91 microg/m3) and ozone (relative risk = 1.06 for a change of 67 microg/m3). Total iron was associated less consistently with mortality than total suspended particulate mass was. The associations of mortality with ozone and total suspended particulates were independent of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The relative risks of total suspended particulates and particularly ozone were higher for subjects older than 78 y. The relationship between mortality and ozone did not deviate significantly from linear. The relationship between mortality and total suspended particulates was linear below 100 microg/m3 and leveled off at higher concentrations. If a threshold exists for the effects on mortality of these components, it exists at very low levels.

  18. Effects of Ambient Fine Particles PM2.5 on Human HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Kang, Zhihua; Jiang, Shuo; Zhao, Jinzhuo; Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Xu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    The current study was conducted to observe the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) cells. The potential mechanism linking PM2.5 and skin was explored. HaCaT cells were cultured and then accessed in plate with PM2.5. Cell viability was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8. The mRNA and protein expression of Filaggrin, Loricrin, Involucrin, and Repetin were analyzed. The levels of Granulocyte-macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor, Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-1α, and Interleukin-8 were detected in the supernatant of the HaCaT cell with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cell viability decreased with the increase in PM2.5. Compared with the control group, the protein expression of Filaggrin, Repetin, Involucrin, and Loricrin showed different expression patterns in PM2.5 treatment groups. The level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin, Interleukin-1α, and Interleukin-8 significantly increased in the cells treated with PM2.5. Ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of eczema and other skin diseases. The relative mechanism may be associated with the impairment of the skin barrier and the elevation of inflammatory responses. PMID:28085100

  19. Estimating the toxicity of ambient fine aerosols using freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Verma, Vishal; Rico-Martinez, Roberto; Kotra, Neel; Rennolds, Corey; Liu, Jiumeng; Snell, Terry W; Weber, Rodney J

    2013-11-01

    The toxicity of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Atlanta is assessed using freshwater rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus). The PM-laden quartz filters were extracted in both water and methanol. Aerosol extracts were passed through a C-18 column to separate the PM components into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. Toxicity data reported in the units of LC50 (concentration that kills 50% of the test population in 24 h) shows that ambient particles are toxic to the rotifers with LC50 values ranging from 5 to 400 μg of PM. The methanol extract of the aerosols was substantially more toxic (8 ± 6 times) to the rotifers compared to the water extracts. A sizeable fraction (>70%) of toxicity was found to be associated with the hydrophobic fraction of PM. However, none of the bulk aerosol species was strongly correlated with the LC50 values suggesting a complicated mechanism of toxicity probably involving synergistic interactions of various PM components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.

    PubMed

    Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality.

  1. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in Nine California Counties: Results from CALFINE

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, Bart; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Shelley; Feng, Wen-Ying; Lipsett, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between daily counts of mortality and ambient particulate matter < 10 μm in diameter (PM10). Relatively few studies, however, have investigated the relationship of mortality with fine particles [PM < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5)], especially in a multicity setting. We examined associations between PM2.5 and daily mortality in nine heavily populated California counties using data from 1999 through 2002. We considered daily counts of all-cause mortality and several cause-specific subcategories (respiratory, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes). We also examined these associations among several subpopulations, including the elderly (> 65 years of age), males, females, non-high school graduates, whites, and Hispanics. We used Poisson multiple regression models incorporating natural or penalized splines to control for covariates that could affect daily counts of mortality, including time, seasonality, temperature, humidity, and day of the week. We used meta-analyses using random-effects models to pool the observations in all nine counties. The analysis revealed associations of PM2.5 levels with several mortality categories. Specifically, a 10-μg/m3 change in 2-day average PM2.5 concentration corresponded to a 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2–1.0%) increase in all-cause mortality, with similar or greater effect estimates for several other subpopulations and mortality subcategories, including respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, age > 65 years, females, deaths out of the hospital, and non-high school graduates. Results were generally insensitive to model specification and the type of spline model used. This analysis adds to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with daily mortality. PMID:16393654

  2. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: results from CALFINE.

    PubMed

    Ostro, Bart; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Shelley; Feng, Wen-Ying; Lipsett, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between daily counts of mortality and ambient particulate matter<10 microm in diameter (PM10). Relatively few studies, however, have investigated the relationship of mortality with fine particles [PM<2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5)], especially in a multicity setting. We examined associations between PM2.5 and daily mortality in nine heavily populated California counties using data from 1999 through 2002. We considered daily counts of all-cause mortality and several cause-specific subcategories (respiratory, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes). We also examined these associations among several subpopulations, including the elderly (>65 years of age), males, females, non-high school graduates, whites, and Hispanics. We used Poisson multiple regression models incorporating natural or penalized splines to control for covariates that could affect daily counts of mortality, including time, seasonality, temperature, humidity, and day of the week. We used meta-analyses using random-effects models to pool the observations in all nine counties. The analysis revealed associations of PM2.5 levels with several mortality categories. Specifically, a 10-microg/m3 change in 2-day average PM2.5 concentration corresponded to a 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.0%) increase in all-cause mortality, with similar or greater effect estimates for several other subpopulations and mortality subcategories, including respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, age>65 years, females, deaths out of the hospital, and non-high school graduates. Results were generally insensitive to model specification and the type of spline model used. This analysis adds to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with daily mortality.

  3. Fine particulate matter source apportionment using a hybrid chemical transport and receptor model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Balachandran, S.; Pachon, J. E.; Baek, J.; Ivey, C.; Holmes, H.; Odman, M. T.; Mulholland, J. A.; Russell, A. G.

    2013-10-01

    A hybrid fine particulate matter (PM2.5) source apportionment approach based on a receptor-model (RM) species balance and species specific source impacts from a chemical transport model (CTM) equipped with a sensitivity analysis tool is developed to provide physically- and chemically-consistent relationships between source emissions and receptor impacts. This hybrid approach enhances RM results by providing initial estimates of source impacts from a much larger number of sources than are typically used in RMs, and provides source-receptor relationships for secondary species. Further, the method addresses issues of source collinearities, and accounts for emissions uncertainties. Hybrid method results also provide information on the resulting source impact uncertainties. We apply this hybrid approach to conduct PM2.5 source apportionment at Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sites across the US. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations at these receptor sites were apportioned to 33 separate sources. Hybrid method results led to large changes of impacts from CTM estimates for sources such as dust, woodstove, and other biomass burning sources, but limited changes to others. The refinements reduced the differences between CTM-simulated and observed concentrations of individual PM2.5 species by over 98% when using a weighted least squared error minimization. The rankings of source impacts changed from the initial estimates, revealing that CTM-only results should be evaluated with observations. Assessment with RM results at six US locations showed that the hybrid results differ somewhat from commonly resolved sources. The hybrid method also resolved sources that typical RM methods do not capture without extra measurement information on unique tracers. The method can be readily applied to large domains and long (such as multi-annual) time periods to provide source impact estimates for management- and health-related studies.

  4. Fine particulate matter source apportionment using a hybrid chemical transport and receptor model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Balachandran, S.; Pachon, J. E.; Baek, J.; Ivey, C.; Holmes, H.; Odman, M. T.; Mulholland, J. A.; Russell, A. G.

    2014-06-01

    A hybrid fine particulate matter (PM2.5) source apportionment approach based on a receptor model (RM) species balance and species specific source impacts from a chemical transport model (CTM) equipped with a sensitivity analysis tool is developed to provide physically and chemically consistent relationships between source emissions and receptor impacts. This hybrid approach enhances RM results by providing initial estimates of source impacts from a much larger number of sources than are typically used in RMs, and provides source-receptor relationships for secondary species. Further, the method addresses issues of source collinearities and accounts for emissions uncertainties. We apply this hybrid approach to conduct PM2.5 source apportionment at Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sites across the US. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations at these receptor sites were apportioned to 33 separate sources. Hybrid method results led to large changes of impacts from CTM estimates for sources such as dust, woodstoves, and other biomass-burning sources, but limited changes to others. The refinements reduced the differences between CTM-simulated and observed concentrations of individual PM2.5 species by over 98% when using a weighted least-squares error minimization. The rankings of source impacts changed from the initial estimates, further demonstrating that CTM-only results should be evaluated with observations. Assessment with RM results at six US locations showed that the hybrid results differ somewhat from commonly resolved sources. The hybrid method also resolved sources that typical RM methods do not capture without extra measurement information for unique tracers. The method can be readily applied to large domains and long (such as multi-annual) time periods to provide source impact estimates for management- and health-related studies.

  5. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Mortality From Diabetes in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Robert D.; Cakmak, Sabit; Turner, Michelle C.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Crouse, Dan L.; Peters, Paul A.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Brion, Orly; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Goldberg, Mark S.; Pope, C. Arden; Burnett, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure to air pollution can promote the development of diabetes. However, whether this relationship actually translates into an increased risk of mortality attributable to diabetes is uncertain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and diabetes-related mortality in a prospective cohort analysis of 2.1 million adults from the 1991 Canadian census mortality follow-up study. Mortality information, including ∼5,200 deaths coded as diabetes being the underlying cause, was ascertained by linkage to the Canadian Mortality Database from 1991 to 2001. Subject-level estimates of long-term exposure to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations. The hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes-related mortality were related to PM2.5 and adjusted for individual-level and contextual variables using Cox proportional hazards survival models. RESULTS Mean PM2.5 exposure levels for the entire population were low (8.7 µg/m3; SD, 3.9 µg/m3; interquartile range, 6.2 µg/m3). In fully adjusted models, a 10-µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase in risk for diabetes-related mortality (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37–1.62). The monotonic change in risk to the population persisted to PM2.5 concentration <5 µg/m3. CONCLUSIONS Long-term exposure to PM2.5, even at low levels, is related to an increased risk of mortality attributable to diabetes. These findings have considerable public health importance given the billions of people exposed to air pollution and the worldwide growing epidemic of diabetes. PMID:23780947

  6. Fine particulate air pollution and systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in two Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Smargiassi, Audrey; Barnabe, Cheryl; Svenson, Lawrence W; Brand, Allan; Martin, Randall V; Hudson, Marie; Clarke, Ann E; Fortin, Paul R; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Edworthy, Steven; Bélisle, Patrick; Joseph, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the degree to which fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). We used population-based administrative data from Alberta (1993-2007) and Quebec (1989-2011). SARD algorithms included ≥2 physician billing codes, or ≥1 rheumatology billing code, or ≥1 hospitalization diagnostic code (for systemic lupus, Sjogren's Syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, or undifferentiated connective tissue disease). Bayesian hierarchical latent class regression models estimated the probability that any given resident was a SARD case, based on the algorithms. Mean 2001-2006 residential ambient PM2.5 levels were assigned using satellite-derived data for dissemination area regions in Alberta and CLSC regions in Quebec. The sum of individual level probabilities provided the estimated total cases per region in each province, according to age, sex, urban-versus-rural residence, income, and PM2.5 levels. In Alberta, we ran separate models for First-Nations (FN) and non-First Nations subgroups. Bayesian logistic regression modeling generated odds ratio (OR) estimates for being a SARD case, accounting concurrently for demographics, as well as an interaction term between age and sex. Our data suggested that the probability of being a SARD case was higher among females versus males and for residents aged >45 versus younger, with the highest ORs for older females. Independently, the odds of being a SARDs case increased with PM2.5 levels in both provinces. Our data suggest that PM2.5 exposure may be associated with an increased risk of SARDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of the Proinflammatory Action of Ambient Particulate Matter in Immortalized Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Guastadisegni, Cecilia; Kelly, Frank J.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Pozzi, Roberta; Brunekreef, Bert; Sandström, Thomas; Mudway, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background Proximity to traffic-related pollution has been associated with poor respiratory health in adults and children. Objectives We wished to test the hypothesis that particulate matter (PM) from high-traffic sites would display an enhanced capacity to elicit inflammation. Methods We examined the inflammatory potential of coarse [2.5–10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5–10)] and fine [0.1–2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM0.1–2.5)] PM collected from nine sites throughout Europe with contrasting traffic contributions. We incubated murine monocytic-macrophagic RAW264.7 cells with PM samples from these sites (20 or 60 μg/cm2) and quantified their capacity to stimulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) or the production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) as measures of their inflammatory potential. Responses were then related to PM composition: metals, hydrocarbons, anions/cations, and endotoxin content. Results Inflammatory responses to ambient PM varied markedly on an equal mass basis, with PM2.5–10 displaying the largest signals and contrasts among sites. Notably, we found no evidence of enhanced inflammatory potential at high-traffic sites and observed some of the largest responses at sites distant from traffic. Correlation analyses indicated that much of the sample-to-sample contrast in the proinflammatory response was related to the content of endotoxin and transition metals (especially iron and copper) in PM2.5–10. Use of the metal chelator diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid inhibited AA release, whereas recombinant endotoxin-neutralizing protein partially inhibited TNFα production, demonstrating that different PM components triggered inflammatory responses through separate pathways. Conclusions We found no evidence that PM collected from sites in close proximity to traffic sources displayed enhanced proinflammatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20663738

  8. Size, source and chemical composition as determinants of toxicity attributable to ambient particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Frank J.; Fussell, Julia C.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex, heterogeneous mixture that changes in time and space. It encompasses many different chemical components and physical characteristics, many of which have been cited as potential contributors to toxicity. Each component has multiple sources, and each source generates multiple components. Identifying and quantifying the influences of specific components or source-related mixtures on measures of health-related impacts, especially when particles interact with other co-pollutants, therefore represents one of the most challenging areas of environmental health research. Current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of PM emissions from different sources or of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. Some results do suggest a degree of differential toxicity, namely more consistent associations with traffic-related PM emissions, fine and ultrafine particles, specific metals and elemental carbon and a range of serious health effects, including increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. A carefully targeted programme of contemporary toxicological and epidemiological research, incorporating more refined approaches (e.g. greater speciation data, more refined modelling techniques, accurate exposure assessment and better definition of individual susceptibility) and optimal collaboration amongst multidisciplinary teams, is now needed to advance our understanding of the relative toxicity of particles from various sources, especially the components and reactions products of traffic. This will facilitate targeted abatement policies, more effective pollution control measures and ultimately, a reduction in the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM pollution.

  9. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-01-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)] has detrimental respiratory effects in mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory

  10. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-06-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)] has detrimental respiratory effects in mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory

  11. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    PubMed

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-06-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)], which may adversely affect the health of workers and residents in the area, we collected fallen dust samples on 12 and 13 September 2001 from sites within a half-mile of Ground Zero. Samples of WTC dust were sieved, aerosolized, and size-separated, and the PM2.5 fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (< 53 microm) identified calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium carbonate (calcite) as major components. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that calcium-sulfur and calcium-carbon particles were also present in the WTC PM2.5 fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects.

  12. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-01-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)], which may adversely affect the health of workers and residents in the area, we collected fallen dust samples on 12 and 13 September 2001 from sites within a half-mile of Ground Zero. Samples of WTC dust were sieved, aerosolized, and size-separated, and the PM2.5 fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (< 53 microm) identified calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium carbonate (calcite) as major components. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that calcium-sulfur and calcium-carbon particles were also present in the WTC PM2.5 fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects. PMID:12782501

  13. Clustering Dynamics of Ultra-fine Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Elliott, James

    2008-03-01

    Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultrafine particles (0.1 - 1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical ihalation applications. We develop a numerical model for these systems using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction between the particles and their contact mechanical interactions. We study the dynamics of these systems in the absence and presence of gravity by controlling the particle size, and thereby, the surface properties of the particles. The high surface energies of these particles causes them to agglomerate as they gravitationally settle. We explore their internal structure as a function of their particle size.

  14. [Elemental size distribution of airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matters in the suburb of Shanghai, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan; Bao, Liang-Man; Li, Yu-Lan; Xu, Zhong-Yang; Wu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Dong-Liang; He, Wei

    2009-04-15

    The elemental size distributions of airborne fine/ultrafine particulate matters in the suburb of Shanghai were studied using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. Median mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), elemental correlation coefficient as well as enrichment factor (EF) of each size fraction were calculated to characterize the sources of elements in fine/ultrafine particulate matters. Ca and Ti distributed mainly in coarse particles (> 2 microm) with size independent enrichment factors between 0.1 and 3.2, and the correlation coefficient between Ca and Ti was as high as 0.933, which implied strong contribution from nature sources, such as soil dusts and resuspended dusts. However, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cl, S mainly distributed in 0.1-1.0 microm particulate matters with MMAD between 0.56-0.94 microm. The EF of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb increased with decreasing particle size. The highest EF were found for Pb in ultrafine particulate matters (< 0.1 microm) with EF of 2,023.7-2,244.2. The evidences suggested that these elements were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources and enriched in fine/ultrafine particles smaller than 1 microm. Fe distributed uniformly in the particles larger than 0.2 microm with MMAD of 1.3 microm. The results indicated non-negligible influences of remote transmission of anthropogenic pollutions.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of sources of ambient fine particular matter (PM2.5) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminassab, S.; Daher, N.; Saffari, A.; Wang, D.; Ostro, B. D.; Sioutas, C.

    2014-08-01

    To identify major sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5, dp<2.5 μm) and quantify their contributions in the state of California, positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was applied on speciation trends network (STN) data, collected between 2002 and 2007 at 8 distinct sampling locations, including El Cajon, Rubidoux, Los Angeles, Simi Valley, Bakersfield, Fresno, San Jose, and Sacramento. Between five to nine sources of fine PM were identified at each sampling site, several of which were common among multiple locations. Secondary aerosols, including secondary ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were the most abundant contributor to ambient PM2.5 at all sampling sites, except for San Jose, with an annual average cumulative contribution of 26 to 63%, across the state. On an annual average basis, vehicular emissions (including both diesel and gasoline vehicles) were the largest primary source of fine PM at all sampling sites in southern California (17-18% of total mass), whereas in Fresno and San Jose, biomass burning was the most dominant primary contributor to ambient PM2.5 (27 and 35% of total mass, respectively), in general agreement with the results of previous source apportionment studies in California. In Bakersfield and Sacramento, vehicular emissions and biomass burning displayed relatively equal annual contributions to ambient PM2.5 mass (12 and 25%, respectively). Other commonly identified sources at all sites included aged and fresh sea salt as well as soil, which contributed to 0.5-13%, 2-27%, and 1-19% of the total mass, respectively, across all sites and seasons. In addition, few minor sources were exclusively identified at some of the sites (e.g. chlorine sources, sulfate-bearing road dust, and different types of industrial emissions). These sources overall accounted for a small fraction of the total PM mass across the sampling locations (1 to 15%, on an annual average basis).

  16. PENETRATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICLES INTO THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have indicated significant health risks associated with exposure to fine particles as measured outdoors. However, much of the exposure is believed to have occurred infdoors. consequently, there is considerable interest in the relationship between indoor a...

  17. Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

    2014-10-01

    This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 μg/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 μg/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 μg/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 μg/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 μg/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

  18. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Capone, Domenico; Finelli, Carmine

    2013-07-07

    The present study was designed to alert the public opinion and policy makers on the supposed enhancing effects of exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 mm (PM2.5) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. For far too long literature data have been fixated on pulmonary diseases and/or cardiovascular disease, as consequence of particulate exposure, ignoring the link between the explosion of obesity with related syndromes such as NAFLD and air pollution, the worst characteristics of nowadays civilization. In order to delineate a clear picture of this major health problem, further studies should investigate whether and at what extent cigarette smoking and exposure to ambient air PM2.5 impact the natural history of patients with obesity-related NAFLD, i.e., development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis, disease characterized by a worse prognosis due its progression towards fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma.

  19. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  20. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  1. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C E L; Heck, T G; Saldiva, P H N; Rhoden, C R

    2007-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a) determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b) determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days) induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM) from vehicles (N = 30) for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h) periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 microm; N = 30). Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20) showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 +/- 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 +/- 0.81; P < 0.05) and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 +/- 0.01; P-20: 0.226 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05). Shorter exposure (6 h) and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  2. Dispersion and Deposition of Fine Particulates, Heavy Metals and Nitrogen in Urban Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, T. H.; Tong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Cities are characterized by networks of heavily trafficked roads, abrupt environmental gradients and local sources of airborne pollutants. Because urban dwellers are inevitably in close proximity to near ground pollution, there has been recent interest in using trees and green roofs to reduce human exposure yet there have been few empirical studies documenting the effect of vegetation and spatial heterogeneity on pollution concentration, human exposure and food safety. In this paper we describe the results of 2 studies in the New York metropolitan area. The first describes the effect of roadside trees on the concentration of fine particulates downwind of a major highway. The second examines vertical attenuation of fine particulates between street level and a rooftop vegetable farm and the deposition of nitrogen and heavy metals to vegetables and soil on the roof.

  3. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  4. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  5. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  6. Determination of lead in fine particulates by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, J C; Ho, K F; Lee, S C

    2001-01-02

    A simple method for determining lead in fine particulates (PM2.5) by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. Particulates collected on Nuclepore filter by using a dichotomous sampler were suspended in diluted nitric acid after ultrasonic agitation. The dislodging efficiency is nearly 100% after agitation for 5 min. In order to study the suspension behavior of PM2.5 in solvents, a Brookhaven ZetaPlus Particle Size Analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution and suspension behavior of air particulates in the solvent. The pre-digestion and modification effect of nitric acid would be discussed. Palladium was added as a chemical modifier and the temperature program of ETAAS was changed in order to improve the recovery. The slurry was introduced directly into a graphite tube for atomization. The metal content in the sample was determined by the standard addition method. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling method. It offers a quick and efficient alternative method for heavy metal characterization in fine particulates.

  7. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  8. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  9. CORRELATION OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS IN EL PASO, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the harmful health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) are not well understood, various researchers are investigating ambient PM in order to assess its hazardous components. Current hypotheses acknowledge that PM related morbidity and mortality may be a result ...

  10. CORRELATION OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS IN EL PASO, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the harmful health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) are not well understood, various researchers are investigating ambient PM in order to assess its hazardous components. Current hypotheses acknowledge that PM related morbidity and mortality may be a result ...

  11. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  12. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  13. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  15. Ambient exposure to coarse and fine particle emissions from building demolition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-07-01

    Demolition of buildings produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that could be inhaled by on-site workers and people living in the neighbourhood, but studies assessing ambient exposure at the real-world demolition sites are limited. We measured concentrations of PM10 (≤10 μm), PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) and PM1 (≤1 μm) along with local meteorology for 54 working hours over the demolition period. The measurements were carried out at (i) a fixed-site in the downwind of demolished building, (ii) around the site during demolition operation through mobile monitoring, (iii) different distances away from the demolition site through sequential monitoring, and (iv) inside an excavator vehicle cabin and on-site temporary office for engineers. Position of the PM instrument was continuously recorded using a Global Positioning System on a second basis during mobile measurements. Fraction of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) contributed 89 (with mean particle mass concentration, PMC ≈ 133 ± 17 μg m-3), 83 (100 ± 29 μg m-3), and 70% (59 ± 12 μg m-3) of total PMC during the fixed-site, mobile monitoring and sequential measurements, respectively, compared with only 50% (mean 12 ± 6 μg m-3) during the background measurements. The corresponding values for fine particles (PM2.5) were 11, 17 and 30% compared with 50% during background, showing a much greater release of coarse particles during demolition. The openair package in R and map source software (ArcGIS) were used to assess spatial variation of PMCs in downwind and upwind of the demolition site. A modified box model was developed to determine the emission factors, which were 210, 73 and 24 μg m-2 s-1 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The average respiratory deposited doses to coarse (and fine) particles inside the excavator cabin and on-site temporary office increased by 57- (and 5-) and 13- (and 2-) times compared with the local background level, respectively. The monitoring stations in downwind direction

  16. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who's at risk?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the epidemiology of the health effects of fine particulate air pollution, provides an early, somewhat speculative, discussion of the contribution of epidemiology to evaluating biologic mechanisms, and evaluates who's at risk or is susceptible to adverse health effects. Based on preliminary epidemiologic evidence, it is speculated that a systemic response to fine particle-induced pulmonary inflammation, including cytokine release and altered cardiac autonomic function, may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms or pathways linking particulate pollution with cardiopulmonary disease. The elderly, infants, and persons with chronic cardiopulmonary disease, influenza, or asthma are most susceptible to mortality and serious morbidity effects from short-term acutely elevated exposures. Others are susceptible to less serious health effects such as transient increases in respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, or other physiologic changes. Chronic exposure studies suggest relatively broad susceptibility to cumulative effects of long-term repeated exposure to fine particulate pollution, resulting in substantive estimates of population average loss of life expectancy in highly polluted environments. Additional knowledge is needed about the specific pollutants or mix of pollutants responsible for the adverse health effects and the biologic mechanisms involved. PMID:10931790

  17. Fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration patterns in Roxbury, Massachusetts: a community-based GIS analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J I; Houseman, E A; Spengler, J D; Loh, P; Ryan, L

    2001-01-01

    Given an elevated prevalence of respiratory disease and density of pollution sources, residents of Roxbury, Massachusetts, have been interested in better understanding their exposures to air pollution. To determine whether local transportation sources contribute significantly to exposures, we conducted a community-based pilot investigation to measure concentrations of fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roxbury in the summer of 1999. Community members carried portable monitors on the streets in a 1-mile radius around a large bus terminal to create a geographic information system (GIS) map of concentrations and gathered data on site characteristics that could predict ambient concentrations. Both PM(2.5) and PAH concentrations were greater during morning rush hours and on weekdays. In linear mixed-effects regressions controlling for temporal autocorrelation, PAH concentrations were significantly higher with closer proximity to the bus terminal (p < 0.05), and both pollutants were elevated, but not statistically significantly so, on bus routes. Regressions on a subset of measurements for which detailed site characteristics were gathered showed higher concentrations of both pollutants on roads reported to have heavy bus traffic. Although a more comprehensive monitoring protocol would be needed to develop robust predictive functions for air pollution, our study demonstrates that pollution patterns in an urban area can be characterized with limited monitoring equipment and that university-community partnerships can yield relevant exposure information. PMID:11335181

  18. Fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration patterns in Roxbury, Massachusetts: a community-based GIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Levy, J I; Houseman, E A; Spengler, J D; Loh, P; Ryan, L

    2001-04-01

    Given an elevated prevalence of respiratory disease and density of pollution sources, residents of Roxbury, Massachusetts, have been interested in better understanding their exposures to air pollution. To determine whether local transportation sources contribute significantly to exposures, we conducted a community-based pilot investigation to measure concentrations of fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roxbury in the summer of 1999. Community members carried portable monitors on the streets in a 1-mile radius around a large bus terminal to create a geographic information system (GIS) map of concentrations and gathered data on site characteristics that could predict ambient concentrations. Both PM(2.5) and PAH concentrations were greater during morning rush hours and on weekdays. In linear mixed-effects regressions controlling for temporal autocorrelation, PAH concentrations were significantly higher with closer proximity to the bus terminal (p < 0.05), and both pollutants were elevated, but not statistically significantly so, on bus routes. Regressions on a subset of measurements for which detailed site characteristics were gathered showed higher concentrations of both pollutants on roads reported to have heavy bus traffic. Although a more comprehensive monitoring protocol would be needed to develop robust predictive functions for air pollution, our study demonstrates that pollution patterns in an urban area can be characterized with limited monitoring equipment and that university-community partnerships can yield relevant exposure information.

  19. LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    2003 AAR PM Meeting
    Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences,
    Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health

    LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPs) IN RATS. JA Dye, LC Walsh, C...

  20. Physicochemical properties and ability to generate free radicals of ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles in the atmosphere of Xuanwei, China, an area of high lung cancer incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Senlin; Yi, Fei; Hao, Xiaojie; Yu, Shang; Ren, Jingjing; Wu, Minghong; Jialiang, Feng; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2014-11-01

    The link between the high incidence of lung cancer and harmful pollutants emitted by local coal combustion in Xuanwei, Yunnan province, China, has been a focus of study since the 1980s. However, the mechanisms responsible for the high lung cancer rate remain unclear, necessitating further study. Since a close relationship between ambient air particle pollution and respiratory diseases exists, we sampled size-resolved ambient particles from the atmosphere of Xuanwei. In our indoor experiment, cutting-edge methods, including scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM/EDX), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and the cell-free DCFH-DA assay, were employed to investigate the physicochemical properties, the potential to generate free radicals and the oxidative potential of ambient coarse (diameter, 1.8-10 μm), fine (diameter, 0.1-1.8 μm), and ultrafine (diameter, <0.1 μm) particles. We found the total mass concentrations of the size-resolved particles collected in spring were higher than that in early winter. Mass percentage of fine particles accounted for 68% and 61% of the total particulate mass in spring and in early winter samples, respectively, indicating that fine particles were the major component of the Xuanwei ambient particulate matters. On the other hand, the results of SEM/EDX analysis showed that the coarse particles were dominated by minerals, the fine particles by soot aggregates and fly ashes, and the ultrafine particles by soot particles and unidentified particles. Our PIXE results revealed that crustal elements (Ca, Ti Si, Fe) were mainly distributed in coarse particles, while trace metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) dominated in the fine particle fraction, and S, a typical element emitted by coal combustion, mainly resided in fine particles collected from the winter atmosphere. EPR results indicated that the magnitude of free radical intensity caused by size

  1. Analysis of primary fine particle national ambient air quality standard metrics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2006-02-01

    In accordance with the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing its National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, which are required to provide an adequate margin of safety to populations, including susceptible subgroups. Based on the latest scientific, health, and technical information about particle pollution, EPA staff recommends establishing more protective health-based fine particle standards. Since the last standards review, epidemiologic studies have continued to find associations between short-term and long-term exposure to particulate matter and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality at current pollution levels. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate (PM2.5) monitoring data for the Northeast and the continental United States to assess the protectiveness of various levels, forms, and combinations of 24-hr and annual health-based standards currently recommended by EPA staff and the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Recommended standards have the potential for modest or substantial increases in protection in the Northeast, ranging from an additional 13-83% of the population of the region who are living in areas not likely to meet new standards and thereby benefiting from compliance with more protective air pollution controls. Within recommended standard ranges, an optimal 24-hr (98th percentile)/annual standard suite occurs at 30/12 microg/m3, providing short- and long-term health protection for a substantial percentage of both Northeast (84%) and U.S. (78%) populations. In addition, the Northeast region will not benefit as widely as the nation as a whole if less stringent standards are selected. Should the 24-hr (98th percentile) standard be set at 35 microg/m3, Northeast and U.S. populations will receive 16-48% and 7-17% less protection than a 30 microg/m3 standard, respectively, depending on the level of the annual standard. A 30/12 microg/m3 standard

  2. Endothelial Dysfunction: Associations with Exposure to Ambient Fine Particles in Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Alexandra; Neas, Lucas; Herbst, Margaret C.; Case, Martin; Williams, Ronald W.; Cascio, Wayne; Hinderliter, Alan; Holguin, Fernando; Buse, John B.; Dungan, Kathleen; Styner, Maya; Peters, Annette; Devlin, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter [≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] has been associated with cardiovascular and hematologic effects, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease. Some epidemiologic studies suggest that adults with diabetes also may be a particularly susceptible population. Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of ambient PM2.5 on markers of endothelial function in diabetic volunteers. Methods We conducted a prospective panel study in 22 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (USA), from November 2004 to December 2005. We acquired daily measurements of PM2.5 and meteorologic data at central monitoring sites. On 4 consecutive days, we measured endothelial function by brachial artery ultrasound in all participants and by pulsewave measurements in a subgroup. Data were analyzed using additive mixed models with a random participant effect and adjusted for season, day of the week, and meteorology. Results Flow-mediated dilatation decreased in association with PM2.5 during the first 24 hr, whereas small-artery elasticity index decreased with a delay of 1 and 3 days. These PM2.5-associated decrements in endothelial function were greater among participants with a high body mass index, high glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, low adiponectin, or the null polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1. However, high levels of myeloperoxidase on the examination day led to strongest effects on endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions These data demonstrate that PM2.5 exposure may cause immediate endothelial dysfunction. Clinical characteristics associated with insulin resistance were associated with enhanced effects of PM on endothelial function. In addition, participants with greater oxidative potential seem to be more susceptible. PMID:19079718

  3. Associations between ambient wood smoke and other particulate pollutants and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Croft, Daniel P; Cameron, Scott J; Morrell, Craig N; Lowenstein, Charles J; Ling, Frederick; Zareba, Wojciech; Hopke, Philip K; Utell, Mark J; Thurston, Sally W; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Evans, Kristin A; Chalupa, David; Rich, David Q

    2017-04-01

    Increased particulate air pollution has been associated with both an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse changes in cardiac biomarkers. Up to 30% of ambient wintertime fine particles (PM2.5) in Rochester, NY are from wood burning. Our study examined associations between ambient levels of a marker of wood smoke (Delta-C) and other particulate air pollutants and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. We measured blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, fibrinogen, P-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF-4), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of 135 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization during the winters of 2011-2013. We coupled these data with hourly ambient concentrations of Delta-C, black carbon (BC; marker of traffic pollution), and ultrafine (10-100nm; UFP), accumulation mode (100-500nm; AMP), and fine particles (<2.5µm; PM2.5). Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in each biomarker associated with increased pollutant concentrations at intervals between 1 and 96h preceding blood collection. Each 0.13µg/m(3) increase in Delta-C concentration in the prior 12h was associated with a 0.91% increase in fibrinogen levels (95% CI=0.23%, 1.59%), but unexpectedly in the prior 48h, each 0.17µg/m(3) increase in Delta-C concentration was associated with a 2.75% decrease in MPO levels (95% CI=-5.13%,-0.37%). We did not see associations between Delta-C concentrations and any other biomarkers. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5, BC, UFP, and AMP concentrations were generally associated with increased CRP and fibrinogen, but not PF4, D-dimer, vWF, or P-selectin. In a population of cardiac patients, we noted adverse changes in fibrinogen associated with increased concentrations of a marker of wood smoke. Increases in PM2.5, BC, AMP, and UFP concentrations in the previous 96h were also associated with adverse changes in markers of systemic inflammation and coagulation, but

  4. Associations between ambient wood smoke and other particulate pollutants and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis in cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Scott J.; Morrell, Craig N.; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Ling, Frederick; Zareba, Wojciech; Hopke, Philip K.; Utell, Mark J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Evans, Kristin A.; Chalupa, David; Rich, David Q.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased particulate air pollution has been associated with both an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse changes in cardiac biomarkers. Up to 30% of ambient wintertime fine particles (PM2.5) in Rochester, NY are from wood burning. Our study examined associations between ambient levels of a marker of wood smoke (Delta-C) and other particulate air pollutants and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. Methods We measured blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer, fibrinogen, P-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF-4), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of 135 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization during the winters of 2011–2013. We coupled these data with hourly ambient concentrations of Delta-C, black carbon (BC; marker of traffic pollution), and ultrafine (10–100 nm; UFP), accumulation mode (100–500 nm; AMP), and fine particles (< 2.5 μm; PM2.5). Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in each biomarker associated with increased pollutant concentrations at intervals between 1 and 96 h preceding blood collection. Results Each 0.13 μg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration in the prior 12 h was associated with a 0.91% increase in fibrinogen levels (95% CI=0.23%, 1.59%), but unexpectedly in the prior 48 h, each 0.17 μg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration was associated with a 2.75% decrease in MPO levels (95% CI=−5.13%,−0.37%). We did not see associations between Delta-C concentrations and any other biomarkers. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5, BC, UFP, and AMP concentrations were generally associated with increased CRP and fibrinogen, but not PF4, d-dimer, vWF, or P-selectin. Conclusions In a population of cardiac patients, we noted adverse changes in fibrinogen associated with increased concentrations of a marker of wood smoke. Increases in PM2.5, BC, AMP, and UFP concentrations in the previous 96 h were also associated with adverse changes in

  5. Fine particulate matter source apportionment for the Chemical speciation Trends Network site at Birmingham, Alabama, using Positive Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Karsten; Jayanty, R K M; Flanagan, James B

    2008-01-01

    The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model version 1.1 was used with data from the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Chemical Speciation Trends Network (STN) to estimate source contributions to ambient PM2.5 in a highly industrialized urban setting in the southeastern United States. Model results consistently resolved 10 factors that are interpreted as two secondary, five industrial, one motor vehicle, one road dust, and one biomass burning sources. The STN dataset is generally not corrected for field blank levels, which are significant in the case of organic carbon (OC). Estimation of primary OC using the elemental carbon (EC) tracer method applied on a seasonal basis significantly improved the model's performance. Uniform increase of input data uncertainty and exclusion of a few outlier samples (associated with high potassium) further improved the model results. However, it was found that most PMF factors did not cleanly represent single source types and instead are "contaminated" by other sources, a situation that might be improved by controlling rotational ambiguity within the model. Secondary particulate matter formed by atmospheric processes, such as sulfate and secondary OC, contribute the majority of ambient PM2.5 and exhibit strong seasonality (37 +/- 10% winter vs. 55 +/- 16% summer average). Motor vehicle emissions constitute the biggest primary PM2.5 mass contribution with almost 25 +/- 2% long-term average and winter maximum of 29 +/- 11%. PM2.5 contributions from the five identified industrial sources vary little with season and average 14 +/- 1.3%. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of the EC tracer method to effectively blank-correct the OC concentrations in the STN dataset. In addition, examination of the effect of input uncertainty estimates on model results indicates that the estimated uncertainties currently being provided with the STN data may be somewhat lower than the levels needed for optimum modeling results.

  6. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cristan; Siegle, Jessica S.; Shadie, Alexander M.; Nikolaysen, Stina; Garthwaite, Linda; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Foster, Paul S.; Kumar, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC). We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice

  7. Cytokine release from alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter: Heterogeneity in relation to size, city and season

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Ragna B; Cassee, Flemming R; Låg, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Dybing, Erik; Schwarze, Per E

    2005-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation seems to play an important role in the observed health effects. However, the predominant particle component(s) that drives the inflammation is still not fully clarified. In this study representative coarse (2.5–10 μm) and fine (0.1–2.5 μm) particulate samples from a western, an eastern, a northern and a southern European city (Amsterdam, Lodz, Oslo and Rome) were collected during three seasons (spring, summer and winter). All fractions were investigated with respect to cytokine-inducing potential in primary macrophages isolated from rat lung. The results were related to the physical and chemical parameters of the samples in order to disclose possible connections between inflammatory potential and specific characteristics of the particles. Results Compared on a gram-by gram basis, both site-specific and seasonal variations in the PM-induced cytokine responses were demonstrated. The samples collected in the eastern (Lodz) and southern (Rome) cities appeared to be the most potent. Seasonal variation was most obvious with the samples from Lodz, with the highest responses induced by the spring and summer samples. The site-specific or seasonal variation in cytokine release could not be attributed to variations in any of the chemical parameters. Coarse fractions from all cities were more potent to induce the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α than the corresponding fine fractions. Higher levels of specific elements such as iron and copper, some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and endotoxin/lipopolysaccaride seemed to be prevalent in the coarse fractions. However, variations in the content of these components did not reflect the variation in cytokine release induced by the different coarse fractions. Addition of polymyxin B did not affect the particle

  8. 76 FR 14812 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 110(k)(6) Correction and Technical Correction Related to... the Annual Fine Particles National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-2269...

  9. A novel Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector for online measurements of trace metal and elements in ambient particulate matter (PM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongbin; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2015-04-01

    A novel monitor for online, in-situ measurement of several important metal species (i.e. Fe, Mn and Cr) in ambient fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is developed based on a recent published high flow rate Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector. This Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector collects particles directly as highly concentrated slurry samples, and the concentrations of target metals in slurry samples are subsequently determined in a Micro Volume Flow Cell (MVFC) coupled with absorbance spectrophotometry to detect colored complexes coming from the reactions between target metals and specific reagents. Laboratory tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of the MVFC-absorbance system. The calibration curves of the system are determined using standard solutions prepared by serial dilution. As part of the evaluation, the effects of reaction time, reagent amount and interference on the system are also evaluated. Field evaluations of the online monitor will be performed to validate the ability of this new online sampler in near-continuous collection and measurements. Both laboratory and field evaluations of the novel monitor will indicate that it is an effective and valuable technology for PM collection and characterization of important metal species in ambient aerosols.

  10. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with impaired cognitive function and vascular disease in older adults, but little is known about these associations among people with concerns about memory loss. Objective To examine associations between exposures to fine particulate matter and residential proximity to major roads and markers of small vessel disease. Methods From 2004—2010, 236 participants in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center Longitudinal Cohort participated in neuroimaging studies. Residential proximity to major roads and estimated 2003 residential annual average of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) were linked to measures of brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds. Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression and adjusted for clinical and lifestyle factors. Results In this population (median age [interquartile range]=74[12], 57% female) living in a region with median 2003 PM2.5 annual average below the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, there were no associations between living closer to a major roadway or for a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and smaller BPF, greater WMH volume, or a higher odds of microbleeds. However, a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was associated with −0.19 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): −0.37, −0.005) lower natural log-transformed WMH volume. Other associations had wide confidence intervals. Conclusions In this population, where median 2003 estimated PM2.5 levels were below the current EPA standard, we observed no pattern of association between residential proximity to major roads or 2003 average PM2.5 and greater burden of small vessel disease or neurodegeneration. PMID:27372639

  11. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population.

    PubMed

    Wilker, Elissa H; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-06-30

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with impaired cognitive function and vascular disease in older adults, but little is known about these associations among people with concerns about memory loss. To examine associations between exposures to fine particulate matter and residential proximity to major roads and markers of small vessel disease. From 2004-2010, 236 participants in the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Longitudinal Cohort participated in neuroimaging studies. Residential proximity to major roads and estimated 2003 residential annual average of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) were linked to measures of brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds. Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression and adjusted for clinical and lifestyle factors. In this population (median age [interquartile range] = 74 [12], 57% female) living in a region with median 2003 PM2.5 annual average below the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, there were no associations between living closer to a major roadway or for a 2μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and smaller BPF, greater WMH volume, or a higher odds of microbleeds. However, a 2μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was associated with -0.19 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.37, -0.005) lower natural log-transformed WMH volume. Other associations had wide confidence intervals. In this population, where median 2003 estimated PM2.5 levels were below the current EPA standard, we observed no pattern of association between residential proximity to major roads or 2003 average PM2.5 and greater burden of small vessel disease or neurodegeneration.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  13. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  14. METALS MIMIC AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY INDUCED BY IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO UTAH VALLEY AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associationsbetween changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided withclosure of an open-hearth steel...

  15. METALS MIMIC AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY INDUCED BY IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO UTAH VALLEY AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associationsbetween changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided withclosure of an open-hearth steel...

  16. Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter alters the expression of genes in primary human neurons.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Bondy, Stephen C; Campbell, Arezoo

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the onset of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. To gain insight into this neurotoxicity, this study sought to examine global gene expression changes caused by exposure to ambient ultrafine PM. Microarray analysis was performed on primary human neurons derived from fetal brain tissue after a 24h exposure to 20μg/mL of ambient ultrafine particles. We found a majority of the changes in noncoding RNAs, which are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thereby could impact the expression of several other protein coding gene targets. Although neurons from biologically different lot numbers were used, we found a significant increase in the expression of metallothionein 1A and 1F in all samples after exposure to particulate matter as confirmed by quantitative PCR. These metallothionein 1 proteins are responsible for neuroprotection after exposure to environmental insult but prolonged induction can be toxic. Epidemiological studies have reported that in utero exposure to ultrafine PM not only leads to neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities, but may also predispose the progeny to neurodegenerative disease later in life by genetic imprinting. Our results pinpoint some of the PM-induced genetic changes that may underlie these findings.

  17. Linking ambient particulate matter pollution effects with oxidative biology and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Fussell, Julia C

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to combustion-related particulate matter (PM), at concentrations experienced by populations throughout the world, contributes to pulmonary and cardiac disease through multiple mechanistic pathways that are complex and interdependent. Current evidence supports an interactive chain of events linking pollution-induced pulmonary and systemic oxidative stress, inflammatory events, and translocation of particle constituents with an associated risk of vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, altered cardiac autonomic function, and ischemic cardiovascular and obstructive pulmonary diseases. Because oxidative stress is believed to play such an instrumental role in these pathways, the capacity of particulate pollution to cause damaging oxidative reactions (the oxidative potential) has been used as an effective exposure metric, identifying toxic components and sources within diverse ambient PM mixes that vast populations are subjected to-from traffic emissions on busy roads in urban areas to biomass smoke that fills homes in rural areas of the developing world. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Ambient and laboratory evaluation of a low-cost particulate matter sensor.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K E; Whitaker, J; Petty, A; Widmer, C; Dybwad, A; Sleeth, D; Martin, R; Butterfield, A

    2017-02-01

    Low-cost, light-scattering-based particulate matter (PM) sensors are becoming more widely available and are being increasingly deployed in ambient and indoor environments because of their low cost and ability to provide high spatial and temporal resolution PM information. Researchers have begun to evaluate some of these sensors under laboratory and environmental conditions. In this study, a low-cost, particulate matter sensor (Plantower PMS 1003/3003) used by a community air-quality network is evaluated in a controlled wind-tunnel environment and in the ambient environment during several winter-time, cold-pool events that are associated with high ambient levels of PM. In the wind-tunnel, the PMS sensor performance is compared to two research-grade, light-scattering instruments, and in the ambient tests, the sensor performance is compared to two federal equivalent (one tapered element oscillating microbalance and one beta attenuation monitor) and gravimetric federal reference methods (FEMs/FRMs) as well as one research-grade instrument (GRIMM). The PMS sensor response correlates well with research-grade instruments in the wind-tunnel tests, and its response is linear over the concentration range tested (200-850 μg/m(3)). In the ambient tests, this PM sensor correlates better with gravimetric methods than previous studies with correlation coefficients of 0.88. However additional measurements under a variety of ambient conditions are needed. Although the PMS sensor correlated as well as the research-grade instrument to the FRM/FEMs in ambient conditions, its response varies with particle properties to a much greater degree than the research-grade instrument. In addition, the PMS sensors overestimate ambient PM concentrations and begin to exhibit a non-linear response when PM2.5 concentrations exceed 40 μg/m(3). These results have important implications for communicating results from low-cost sensor networks, and they highlight the importance of using an

  19. Uncertainty associated with the gravimetric measurement of particulate matter concentration in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Ronald E; Faulkner, William Brock

    2015-07-01

    This work applied a propagation of uncertainty method to typical total suspended particulate (TSP) sampling apparatus in order to estimate the overall measurement uncertainty. The objectives of this study were to estimate the uncertainty for three TSP samplers, develop an uncertainty budget, and determine the sensitivity of the total uncertainty to environmental parameters. The samplers evaluated were the TAMU High Volume TSP Sampler at a nominal volumetric flow rate of 1.42 m3 min(-1) (50 CFM), the TAMU Low Volume TSP Sampler at a nominal volumetric flow rate of 17 L min(-1) (0.6 CFM) and the EPA TSP Sampler at the nominal volumetric flow rates of 1.1 and 1.7 m3 min(-1) (39 and 60 CFM). Under nominal operating conditions the overall measurement uncertainty was found to vary from 6.1x10(-6) g m(-3) to 18.0x10(-6) g m(-3), which represented an uncertainty of 1.7% to 5.2% of the measurement. Analysis of the uncertainty budget determined that three of the instrument parameters contributed significantly to the overall uncertainty: the uncertainty in the pressure drop measurement across the orifice meter during both calibration and testing and the uncertainty of the airflow standard used during calibration of the orifice meter. Five environmental parameters occurring during field measurements were considered for their effect on overall uncertainty: ambient TSP concentration, volumetric airflow rate, ambient temperature, ambient pressure, and ambient relative humidity. Of these, only ambient TSP concentration and volumetric airflow rate were found to have a strong effect on the overall uncertainty. The technique described in this paper can be applied to other measurement systems and is especially useful where there are no methods available to generate these values empirically. This work addresses measurement uncertainty of TSP samplers used in ambient conditions. Estimation of uncertainty in gravimetric measurements is of particular interest, since as ambient particulate

  20. Peroxides and macrophages in the toxicity of fine particulate matter in rats.

    PubMed

    Laskin, Debra L; Morio, Lisa; Hooper, Kimberly; Li, Tsung-Hung; Buckley, Brian; Turpin, Barbara

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiologists have observed a positive association between human morbidity and mortality and the atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM), but the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of PM have not been elucidated. Various components of ambient PM have been implicated in toxicity (including ultrafine particles, transition metals, organics and oxidants). Our research focused on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We speculated that fine PM transports H2O2 into the lower lung, leading to tissue injury and to accumulation and activation of macrophages in these regions. The macrophages release cytotoxic mediators and proinflammatory cytokines that contribute to the pathogenesis of tissue injury. To test this hypothesis, we conducted studies to determine (1) whether tissue injury induced by aerosols is mediated by cytotoxic H2O2 carried into the lower lung by fine particles and (2) whether exposure of rats to fine PM leads to accumulation of activated macrophages in the lung. For our studies, systems were designed to generate model atmospheric fine PM and atmospheric peroxides consisting of an ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] aerosol (mass median diameter, 0.46 +/- 0.14 microm) and H2O2. We also constructed a 6-port nose-only exposure chamber. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 2 hours to aerosols consisting of (NH4)2SO4 (430 microg/m3), (NH4)2SO4 + 10, 20 or 100 ppb H2O2, vapor-phase H2O2 (10, 20 or 100 ppb), or particle-free air. Studies using oxygen-18 (18O)-labeled H2O2 were conducted to validate the transport of H2O2 into the lower lung with (NH4)2SO4. Rats were killed immediately (0 hours) or 24 hours after exposure. Compared with control animals, inhalation of (NH4)2SO4 and H2O2, alone or in combination, had no major effect on cell number or viability, protein content, or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected either immediately or 24 hours after exposure. However, electron microscopy revealed that a

  1. Preterm birth associated with maternal fine particulate matter exposure: A global, regional and national assessment.

    PubMed

    Malley, Christopher S; Kuylenstierna, Johan C I; Vallack, Harry W; Henze, Daven K; Blencowe, Hannah; Ashmore, Mike R

    2017-04-01

    Reduction of preterm births (<37 completed weeks of gestation) would substantially reduce neonatal and infant mortality, and deleterious health effects in survivors. Maternal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been identified as a possible risk factor contributing to preterm birth. The aim of this study was to produce the first estimates of ambient PM2.5-associated preterm births for 183 individual countries and globally. To do this, national, population-weighted, annual average ambient PM2.5 concentration, preterm birth rate and number of livebirths were combined to calculate the number of PM2.5-associated preterm births in 2010 for 183 countries. Uncertainty was quantified using Monte-Carlo simulations, and analyses were undertaken to investigate the sensitivity of PM2.5-associated preterm birth estimates to assumptions about the shape of the concentration-response function at low and high PM2.5 exposures, inclusion of provider-initiated preterm births, and exposure to indoor air pollution. Globally, in 2010, the number of PM2.5-associated preterm births was estimated as 2.7 million (1.8-3.5 million, 18% (12-24%) of total preterm births globally) with a low concentration cut-off (LCC) set at 10μgm(-3), and 3.4 million (2.4-4.2 million, 23% (16-28%)) with a LCC of 4.3μgm(-3). South and East Asia, North Africa/Middle East and West sub-Saharan Africa had the largest contribution to the global total, and the largest percentage of preterm births associated with PM2.5. Sensitivity analyses showed that PM2.5-associated preterm birth estimates were 24% lower when provider-initiated preterm births were excluded, 38-51% lower when risk was confined to the PM2.5 exposure range in the studies used to derive the effect estimate, and 56% lower when mothers who live in households that cook with solid fuels (and whose personal PM2.5 exposure is likely dominated by indoor air pollution) were excluded. The concentration-response function applied here derives from a

  2. The association between fine particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Jia, Yuping; Pan, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liqun; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2009-08-15

    Because epidemiological studies have yielded different results, the association between exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and acute events of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is unknown. Additionally, no research has been conducted to explore the association between PM(2.5) and hospital emergency room (ER) visits of cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China. To explore the association between PM(2.5) and the hospital ER visits in Beijing, China for CVD {(International Classification of Diseases, 10th vision (ICD-10): I00-I99)}. We collected data for daily hospital ER visits for CVD from the Peking University Third Hospital, daily ambient PM(2.5) data from a fixed monitor site at Peking University, and data on the daily level of gaseous air pollutants {sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))} from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center between June 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to evaluate associations between CVD health outcomes and ambient air pollutants. 8377 hospital ER visits of CVD were collected in our study. After adjusting the temperature and the relative humidity, the associations for 10 microg/m(3) increases in levels of PM(2.5), SO(2), or NO(2) and hospital ER visits for cardiovascular diseases were statistically significant with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.005{95% confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.009}, 1.014(95% CI: 1.004-1.024), and 1.016(95% CI: 1.003-1.029), respectively. These findings suggest that elevated levels of ambient air pollutants are associated with the increase in hospital ER visits for CVD in Beijing, China.

  3. Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendrikar, Arun D.; Steinmetz, William K.

    This work describes the application of integrating nephelometer measurements for the determination of airborne fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations. In response to over 150 complaints (spanning a period of 20 years) from local citizens of irritant fogs and pungent odors, the North Carolina Division of Air Quality conducted a monitoring program, in collaboration with the Washington Regional Air Quality Office and PCS Phosphate, Inc., to characterize air quality in the Pamlico River airshed of eastern North Carolina. The continuous monitoring from 1 May through 31 October 2000 at four sites, involved collection of air samples and subsequent quantification for reactive acidic and basic gases, aerosols and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) using a 7-day Annular Denuder System (ADS). Additionally, the airborne concentration of the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was concurrently (to the ADS) monitored using a tapered element oscillating micro-balance (TEOM). Relevant meteorological data were obtained from conventional sensors installed at each sampling site. An integrating nephelometer was used for the regional visibility measurements. An integrating nephelometer was used to measure light scattering (a surrogate for visibility) continuously for 24-h per day over a 6-month period at the four sites. A linear relationship has been found for the nephelometer (Beta scat) measurements and mass data (PM 2.5) obtained both from the TEOM and ADS. The calculated correlation coefficient results between nephelometer and ADS and nephelometer and TEOM are satisfactory and close to one. This indicates that in this region, the nephelometer measurements have the potential to be a surrogate for the determination of regional airborne fine particle (PM 2.5) mass concentrations. The ratios for each of the four sampling sites using 24-h averages of nephelometer data and PM 2.5 concentrations from the ADS units and the TEOM gave an average ratio of 0.32±0.02. This value

  4. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Karoly, Edward D; Dailey, Lisa A; Schmitt, Michael T; Silbajoris, Robert; Graff, Donald W; Devlin, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate among the three size fractions. Airway epithelial cells obtained from 6 normal individuals were exposed to Chapel Hill coarse, fine or ultrafine PM (250 μg/ml) for 6 and 24 h (n=3 different individuals each). RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix cDNA microarrays. Significant genes were identified and mapped to canonical pathways. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The numbers of genes altered by coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM increased from 0, 6, and 17 at 6 h to 1281, 302, and 455 at 24 h, respectively. The NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, cell cycle:G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation, and mitotic roles of polo-like kinase were the top three pathways altered by all three fractions. Fine and ultrafine PM displayed more similar gene expression patterns. One example was the increased expression of metallothionein isoforms, reflecting the higher zinc content associated with fine and ultrafine fractions. A set of 10 genes was identified that could discriminate fine and ultrafine PM from coarse PM. These results indicate that common properties shared by the three size fractions as well as size-specific factors, e.g., compositions, may determine the effects on gene expression. Genomic markers may be used to discriminate coarse from fine and ultrafine PM.

  5. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Capone, Domenico; Finelli, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to alert the public opinion and policy makers on the supposed enhancing effects of exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 mm (PM2.5) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. For far too long literature data have been fixated on pulmonary diseases and/or cardiovascular disease, as consequence of particulate exposure, ignoring the link between the explosion of obesity with related syndromes such as NAFLD and air pollution, the worst characteristics of nowadays civilization. In order to delineate a clear picture of this major health problem, further studies should investigate whether and at what extent cigarette smoking and exposure to ambient air PM2.5 impact the natural history of patients with obesity-related NAFLD, i.e., development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis, disease characterized by a worse prognosis due its progression towards fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. PMID:23840139

  6. Ambient air particulate concentrations and metallic elements principal component analysis at Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chung; Huang, Shih-Han; Rau, Jui-Yeh

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter of total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)), coarse particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM (2.5-10)) at the Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) sampling site of central Taiwan during March 2004 to February 2005. The result indicated the average total suspended particulate concentration in 1 year was 157.31 and 112.58 microg m(-3) at TH and WT sampling site, respectively. Fine particle (PM(2.5)) size was the dominant species at TH and WT sampling site. In TH sampling site, higher correlation coefficient was observed on total suspended particulates of metallic elements Fe and Zn. And in WT sampling site, higher correlation coefficients displayed on total suspended particulates of metallic elements Fe and Zn, Fe and Mn. Ambient airborne particle principal component analysis of metallic metals was used to identify the possible pollutant sources in this study. At the TH sampling site, 50.81% of the total variance of the data was observed in factor 1. Higher loading of Fe (0.86), Zn (0.79), Pb (0.76), and Mn (0.68) were contributed by traffic emission and the soil source. At the WT sampling site, factor 1 explained 53.74% of the total variance of the data and had high loading for Zn (0.86) and Cu (0.85), which were identified as industrial/traffic emission sources.

  7. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  8. Assessment of Inter-Individual and Geographic Variability in Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Frey, HC

    2010-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major contributor to indoor human exposures to fine particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates distributions of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 exposure for a specified population based on ambient concentrations and indoor emissions sources. A critical assessment was conducted of the methodology and data used in SHEDS-PM for estimation of indoor exposure to ETS. For the residential microenvironment, SHEDS uses a mass-balance approach which is comparable to best practices. The default inputs in SHEDS-PM were reviewed and more recent and extensive data sources were identified. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for updating. Data regarding the proportion of smokers and “other smokers,” and cigarette emission rate were found to be important. SHEDS-PM does not currently account for in-vehicle ETS exposure; however, in-vehicle ETS-related PM2.5 levels can exceed those in residential microenvironments by a factor of 10 or more. Therefore, a mass-balance based methodology for estimating in-vehicle ETS PM2.5 concentration is evaluated. Recommendations are made regarding updating of input data and algorithms related to ETS exposure in the SHEDS-PM model. Inter-individual variability for ETS exposure was quantified. Geographic variability in ETS exposure was quantified based on the varying prevalence of smokers in five selected locations in the U.S. PMID:21039708

  9. Assessment of interindividual and geographic variability in human exposure to fine particulate matter in environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H Christopher

    2011-04-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major contributor to indoor human exposures to fine particulate matter of 2.5 μm or smaller (PM(2.5) ). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Model developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates distributions of outdoor and indoor PM(2.5) exposure for a specified population based on ambient concentrations and indoor emissions sources. A critical assessment was conducted of the methodology and data used in SHEDS-PM for estimation of indoor exposure to ETS. For the residential microenvironment, SHEDS uses a mass-balance approach, which is comparable to best practices. The default inputs in SHEDS-PM were reviewed and more recent and extensive data sources were identified. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for updating. Data regarding the proportion of smokers and "other smokers" and cigarette emission rate were found to be important. SHEDS-PM does not currently account for in-vehicle ETS exposure; however, in-vehicle ETS-related PM(2.5) levels can exceed those in residential microenvironments by a factor of 10 or more. Therefore, a mass-balance-based methodology for estimating in-vehicle ETS PM(2.5) concentration is evaluated. Recommendations are made regarding updating of input data and algorithms related to ETS exposure in the SHEDS-PM model. Interindividual variability for ETS exposure was quantified. Geographic variability in ETS exposure was quantified based on the varying prevalence of smokers in five selected locations in the United States. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Characterization of fungal spores in ambient particulate matter: A study from the Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Attri, Arun K.

    2016-10-01

    Fungal spores as a constituent of ambient particulate matter (PM) is of concern; they not only display the physical traits of a particle, but are also potential allergens and health risk. An investigation over fourteen month was undertaken at a rural site located in the Western Himalayan region, to evaluate the PM associated fungal spores' concentration and diversity. The season-wise change in the fungal spores concentration in the Coarse Particulate Matter (CPM) fraction (aerodynamic diameter > 10 μm) varied from 500 to 3899 spores m-3. Their average concentration over 14 months was 1517 spores m-3. Significant diversity of fungal spores in the CPM samples was observed; 27 individual genera of fungal spores were identified, of which many were known allergens. Presence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal spores was dominant in the samples; ∼20% of the spores were un-characterized. The season-wise variability in fungal spores showed a statistically significant high correlation with CPM load. Maximum number concentration of the spores in CPM was recorded in the summer, while minimum in the winter. The high diversity of spores occurred during monsoon and post monsoon months. The meteorological factors played an important role in the fungal spores' distribution profile. The temporal profile of the spores showed significant correlation with the ambient temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. Strong correlation of WS with fungal spores and CPM, and wind back trajectories suggest that re-suspension and wind assisted transport of PM contributes to ambient CPM associated fungal spores.

  11. Relating summer ambient particulate sulfur, sulfur dioxide, and light scattering to gaseous tracer emissions from the MOHAVE Power Project.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, V A; Farber, R J

    2000-05-01

    Project MOHAVE was initiated in 1992 to examine the role of emissions from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP) on haze at the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), located about 130 km north-north-east of the power plant. Statistical relationships were analyzed between summertime ambient concentrations of a gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer released from MPP and ambient SO2, particulate sulfur, and light scattering to evaluate whether MPP's emissions could be transported to the GCNP and then impact haze levels there. Spatial analyses indicated that particulate sulfur levels were strongly correlated across the monitoring network, regardless of whether the monitoring stations were upwind or downwind of MPP. This indicates that particulate sulfur levels in this region were influenced by distant regional emission sources. A significant particulate sulfur contribution from a point source such as MPP would result in a non-uniform pattern downwind. There was no suggestion of this in the data. Furthermore, correlations between the MPP tracer and ambient particulate sulfur and light scattering at locations in the park were virtually zero for averaging times ranging from 24 hr to 1 hr. Hour-by-hour MPP tracer levels and light scattering were individually examined, and still no positive correlations were detected. Finally, agreement between tracer and particulate sulfur did not improve as a function of meteorological regime, implying that, even during cloudy monsoon days when more rapid conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfur would be expected, there was no evidence for downwind particulate sulfur impacts. Despite the fact that MPP was a large source of SO2 and tracer, neither time series nor correlation analyses were able to detect any meaningful relationship between MPP's SO2 and tracer emission "signals" to particulate sulfur or light scattering.

  12. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics study on repeat dose toxicity of fine particulate matter in rats after intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yannan; Hu, Hejing; Shi, Yanfeng; Yang, Xiaozhe; Cao, Lige; Wu, Jing; Asweto, Collins Otieno; Feng, Lin; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-07-01

    Systemic metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) remain uncertain. In order to investigate the mechanisms in PM2.5 toxicity, we explored the endogenous metabolic changes and possible influenced metabolic pathways in rats after intratracheal instillation of PM2.5 by using a (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations were also performed. Chemical characterization demonstrated that PM2.5 was a complex mixture of elements. Histopathology showed cellular edema in liver and glomerulus atrophy of the PM2.5 treated rats. We systematically analyzed the metabolites changes of serum and urine in rats using (1)H NMR techniques in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. Significantly reduced levels of lactate, alanine, dimethylglycine, creatine, glycine and histidine in serum, together with increased levels of citrate, arginine, hippurate, allantoin and decreased levels of allthreonine, lactate, alanine, acetate, succinate, trimethylamine, formate in urine were observed of PM2.5 treated rats. The mainly affected metabolic pathways by PM2.5 were glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), nitrogen metabolism and methane metabolism. Our study provided important information on assessing the toxicity of PM2.5 and demonstrated that metabolomics approach can be employed as a tool to understand the toxicity mechanism of complicated environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution.

  14. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations Associated with Ambient Fine Particles in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Ramon; Wang, Xinhui; Reyes, Jeanette; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Vizuete, William; Chui, Helena C.; Driscoll, Ira; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm) has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure. Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1365 women (aged 71–89) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space). Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average) exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked smaller WM volumes to PM2.5, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles. PMID:27790103

  15. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations Associated with Ambient Fine Particles in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ramon; Wang, Xinhui; Reyes, Jeanette; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L; Vizuete, William; Chui, Helena C; Driscoll, Ira; Resnick, Susan M; Espeland, Mark A; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm) has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure. Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1365 women (aged 71-89) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space). Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average) exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked smaller WM volumes to PM2.5, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  16. Adjuvant effects of ambient particulate matter monitored by proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R; Bramble, Lori A; Nel, Andre E; Loo, Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) from air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma. The immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of PM is still not well understood. The generation of ROS and the resulting oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major mechanisms. Using a new intranasal sensitization model in which ambient PM is used as an adjuvant to enhance allergic inflammation (Li et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117, 1116-1123), a proteomics approach was applied to study the adjuvant effects of ambient PM. The enhanced in vivo adjuvant effect of ultrafine particles correlates with a higher in vitro oxidant potential and a higher content of redox-cycling organic chemicals. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from normal and sensitized mice were resolved by 2-DE, and identified by MS. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, complement C3, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, chitinase 3-like protein 3, chitinase 3-like protein 4, and acidic mammalian chitinase demonstrated significantly enhanced up-regulation by UFP with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and a higher oxidant potential. These proteins may be the important specific elements targeted by PM in air pollution through the ability to generate ROS in the immune system, and may be involved in allergen sensitization and asthma pathogenesis.

  17. Adjuvant Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Monitored by Proteomics of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xuedong; Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R.; Bramble, Lori A.; Nel, Andre E.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) from air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma. The immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of PM is still not well understood. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major mechanisms. Using a new intranasal sensitization model in which ambient PM is used as an adjuvant to enhance allergic inflammation (Li et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117, 1116-1123), a proteomics approach was applied to study the adjuvant effects of ambient PM. The enhanced in vivo adjuvant effect of ultrafine particles (UFP) correlates with a higher in vitro oxidant potential and a higher content of redox-cycling organic chemicals. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from normal and sensitized mice were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and identified by mass spectrometry. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, complement C3, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, chitinase-3-like protein 3, chitinase-3-like protein 4, and acidic mammalian chitinase demonstrated significantly enhanced up-regulation by UFP with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and a higher oxidant potential. These proteins may be the important specific elements targeted by PM in air pollution through the ability to generate ROS in the immune system, and may be involved in allergen sensitization and asthma pathogenesis. PMID:20029843

  18. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter, residential proximity to major roads and measures of brain structure.

    PubMed

    Wilker, Elissa H; Preis, Sarah R; Beiser, Alexa S; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda; Kloog, Itai; Li, Wenyuan; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros; DeCarli, Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Mittleman, Murray A

    2015-05-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, but whether it is related to structural changes in the brain is not clear. We examined the associations between residential long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and markers of brain aging using magnetic resonance imaging. Framingham Offspring Study participants who attended the seventh examination were at least 60 years old and free of dementia and stroke were included. We evaluated associations between exposures (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and residential proximity to major roadways) and measures of total cerebral brain volume, hippocampal volume, white matter hyperintensity volume (log-transformed and extensive white matter hyperintensity volume for age), and covert brain infarcts. Models were adjusted for age, clinical covariates, indicators of socioeconomic position, and temporal trends. A 2-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with -0.32% (95% confidence interval, -0.59 to -0.05) smaller total cerebral brain volume and 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.94) higher odds of covert brain infarcts. Living further away from a major roadway was associated with 0.10 (95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.19) greater log-transformed white matter hyperintensity volume for an interquartile range difference in distance, but no clear pattern of association was observed for extensive white matter. Exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5 was associated with smaller total cerebral brain volume, a marker of age-associated brain atrophy, and with higher odds of covert brain infarcts. These findings suggest that air pollution is associated with insidious effects on structural brain aging even in dementia- and stroke-free persons. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Impact of Biogenic Emission Uncertainties on the Simulated Response of Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter to Anthropogenic Emission Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E.; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1–0.25 μg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1–2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 μg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions. PMID:21305893

  20. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  1. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, 2013.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2015-04-15

    Santiago is one of the largest cities in South America and has experienced high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in fall and winter months for decades. To better understand the sources of fall and wintertime pollution in Santiago, PM2.5 samples were collected for 24 h every weekday from March to October 2013 for chemical analysis. Samples were analyzed for mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble nitrogen (WSTN), secondary inorganic ions, and particle-phase organic tracers for source apportionment. Selected samples were analyzed as monthly composites for organic tracers. PM2.5 concentrations were considerably higher in the coldest months (June-July), averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 62±15 μg/m(3) in these two months. Average fine particle mass concentration during the study period was 40±20 μg/m(3). Organic matter during the peak winter months was the major component of fine particles comprising around 70% of the particle mass. Source contributions to OC were calculated using organic molecular markers and a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. The four combustion sources identified were wood smoke, diesel engine emission, gasoline vehicles, and natural gas. Wood smoke was the predominant source of OC, accounting for 58±42% of OC in fall and winter. Wood smoke and nitrate were the major contributors to PM2.5. In fall and winter, wood smoke accounted for 9.8±7.1 μg/m(3) (21±15%) and nitrate accounted for 9.1±4.8 μg/m(3) (20±10%) of fine PM. The sum of secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) represented about 30% of PM2.5 mass. Secondary organic aerosols contributed only in warm months, accounting for about 30% of fine PM during this time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Particulate matter air pollution and ambient temperature: opposing effects on blood pressure in high-risk cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Das, Ritabrata; Gracik, Theresa; Wang, Lu; Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Fitzner, Craig A; Ferri, Claudio; Brook, Robert D

    2015-10-01

    Fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and extreme temperatures have both been associated with alterations in blood pressure (BP). However, few studies have evaluated their joint haemodynamic actions among individuals at high risk for cardiovascular events. We assessed the effects of short-term exposures during the prior week to ambient PM2.5 and outdoor temperature levels on resting seated BP among 2078 patients enrolling into a cardiac rehabilitation programme at the University of Michigan (from 2003 to 2011) using multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, BMI, ozone and the same-day alternate environmental factor (i.e. PM2.5 or temperature). Mean PM2.5 and temperature levels were 12.6 ± 8.2 μg/m and 10.3 ± 10.4°C, respectively. Each standard deviation elevation in PM2.5 concentration during lag days 4-6 was associated with significant increases in SBP (2.1-3.5 mmHg) and DBP (1.7-1.8 mmHg). Conversely, higher temperature levels (per 10.4°C) during lag days 4-6 were associated with reductions in both SBP (-3.6 to -2.3 mmHg) and DBP (-2.5 to -1.8 mmHg). There was little evidence for consistent effect modification by other covariates (e.g. demographics, seasons, medication usage). Short-term exposures to PM2.5, even at low concentrations within current air quality standards, are associated with significant increases in BP. Contrarily, higher ambient temperatures prompt the opposite haemodynamic effect. These findings demonstrate that both ubiquitous environmental exposures have clinically meaningful effects on resting BP among high-risk cardiac patients.

  3. Temporal and spatial distributions of summer-time ground-level fine particulate matters in Baltimore-DC region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Greenwald, R.; Sarnat, J.; Hu, X.; Kewada, P.; Morales, Y.; Goldman, G.; Redman, J.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies have established a robust association between chronic exposure to ambient level fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and adverse health effects such as COPD, cardiorespiratory diseases, and premature death. Population exposure to PM2.5 has historically been estimated using ground measurements which are often sparse and unevenly distributed. There has been much interest as well as suspicion in both the air quality management and research communities regarding the value of satellite retrieved AOD as particle air pollution indicators. A critical step towards the future use of satellite aerosol products in air quality monitoring and management is to better understand the AOD-PM2.5 association. The existing EPA and IMPROVE networks are insufficient to validate AOD-estimated PM2.5 surface especially when higher resolution satellite products become available in the near future. As part of DISCOVER-AQ mission, we deployed 15 portable filter-based samplers alongside of ground-based sun photometers of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) in July 2011. Gravimetric analyses were conducted to estimate 24h PM2.5 mass concentrations, using Teflon filters and Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) operated at a flow rate of 4 LPM. Pre- and post-sampling filters were weighed at our weigh room laboratory facilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Our objectives are (1) to examine if AOD measured by ground-based sun-photometers with the support from ground-based lidars can provide the fine scale spatial heterogeneity observed by ground PM monitors, and (2) whether PM2.5 levels estimated by satellite AOD agree with this true PM2.5 surface. Study design, instrumentation, and preliminary results of measured PM2.5 spatial patterns in July 2011 will be presented as well as discussion of further data analysis and model development.

  4. Development and evaluation of a novel monitor for online measurement of iron, manganese, and chromium in ambient particulate matter (PM).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbin; Sowlat, Mohammad H; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-09-15

    A prototype atmospheric aerosol monitor was developed for online measurement of three toxicologically relevant redox-active metals (Fe, Mn, and Cr) in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The monitor has the unique ability to quantify these metals in specific chemical oxidation states in addition to both their total and water-soluble fractions in the ambient PM2.5. This information is critical for advancing our understanding of mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity as well as chemical processing of aerosol in the atmosphere. The metal monitor utilizes a high flow rate aerosol-into-liquid collector to collect ambient PM2.5 directly as concentrated aqueous slurry samples. The concentrations of target metals in the collected slurries are subsequently measured in a aerosol-into-liquid collector, micro volume flow cell (MVFC) using spectrophotometry to quantify the light absorption of colored complexes resulting from the reaction between the target metals and added analytical reagents. Our experimental evaluation indicated that, overall, this novel monitor can achieve accurate and reliable measurements over long sampling periods (i.e. at least several weeks). The online measurements for all three target elements were in good agreement (i.e., with slopes of the linear regression lines ranging between 0.90 and 1.07, and R(2) values between 0.76 and 0.95) with time-integrated filter samples collected in parallel and analyzed by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS). Moreover, this metal monitor can provide semi-continuous measurements (i.e., every 2h) for at least 5 consecutive days without obvious shortcomings in its field operation. The online monitor measured total concentrations of Fe that ranged between 4.8 and 65.6ng/m(3), for Mn from below detection limit to 10.0ng/m(3), and for Cr from below detection limit to 6.6ng/m(3), respectively. Our results indicate that the developed metal monitor is a promising technology for online

  5. Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54 ± 18.60 in winter > 145.22 ± 18.61 in spring > 140.16 ± 20.76 in autumn > 122.37 ± 13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions.

  6. Atmospheric mercury and fine particulate matter in coastal New England: implications for mercury and trace element sources in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Krabbenhotft, David P. Krabbenhoft; Bothner, Michael H. Bothner; Tate, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive sampling of ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter was conducted at Woods Hole, Massachusetts over a four-month period from 3 April to 29 July, 2008, in conjunction with year-long deployment of the USGS Mobile Mercury Lab. Results were obtained for trace elements in fine particulate matter concurrently with determination of ambient atmospheric mercury speciation and concentrations of ancillary gasses (SO2, NOx, and O3). For particulate matter, trace element enrichment factors greater than 10 relative to crustal background values were found for As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn, indicating contribution of these elements by anthropogenic sources. For other elements, enrichments are consistent with natural marine (Na, Ca, Mg, Sr) or crustal (Ba, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, La, Rb, Sc, Th, Ti, U, Y) sources, respectively. Positive matrix factorization was used together with concentration weighted air-mass back trajectories to better define element sources and their locations. Our analysis, based on events exhibiting the 10% highest PM2.5 contributions for each source category, identifies coal-fired power stations concentrated in the U.S. Ohio Valley, metal smelting in eastern Canada, and marine and crustal sources showing surprisingly similar back trajectories, at times each sampling Atlantic coastal airsheds. This pattern is consistent with contribution of Saharan dust by a summer maximum at the latitude of Florida and northward transport up the Atlantic Coast by clockwise circulation of the summer Bermuda High. Results for mercury speciation show diurnal production of RGM by photochemical oxidation of Hg° in a marine environment, and periodic traverse of the study area by correlated RGM-SO2(NOx) plumes, indicative of coal combustion sources.

  7. Comparing the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Estimated Using Ground-Based versus Remote Sensing Exposure Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Jerrett, Michael; Turner, Michelle C.; Beckerman, Bernardo S.; Pope, C. Arden; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Serre, Marc; Crouse, Dan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Krewski, Daniel; Diver, W. Ryan; Coogan, Patricia F.; Thurston, George D.; Burnett, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Remote sensing (RS) is increasingly used for exposure assessment in epidemiological and burden of disease studies, including those investigating whether chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with mortality. Objectives: We compared relative risk estimates of mortality from diseases of the circulatory system for PM2.5 modeled from RS with that for PM2.5 modeled using ground-level information. Methods: We geocoded the baseline residence of 668,629 American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort participants followed from 1982 to 2004 and assigned PM2.5 levels to all participants using seven different exposure models. Most of the exposure models were averaged for the years 2002–2004, and one RS estimate was for a longer, contemporaneous period. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs) for the association of PM2.5 with circulatory mortality and ischemic heart disease. Results: Estimates of mortality risk differed among exposure models. The smallest relative risk was observed for the RS estimates that excluded ground-based monitors for circulatory deaths [RR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.04 per 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5]. The largest relative risk was observed for the land-use regression model that included traffic information (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.17 per 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5). Conclusions: We found significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality in every model; however, relative risks estimated from exposure models using ground-based information were generally larger than those estimated using RS alone. Citation: Jerrett M, Turner MC, Beckerman BS, Pope CA III, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Serre M, Crouse D, Gapstur SM, Krewski D, Diver WR, Coogan PF, Thurston GD, Burnett RT. 2017. Comparing the health effects of ambient particulate matter estimated using ground-based versus remote sensing exposure estimates. Environ Health

  8. Ambient particulate matter induces alveolar epithelial cell cycle arrest: role of G1 cyclins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingmei; Ghio, Andrew J; Gao, Mingxing; Wei, Ke; Rosen, Glenn D; Upadhyay, Daya

    2007-11-13

    We hypothesized that the ambient air pollution particles (particulate matter; PM) induce cell cycle arrest in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Exposure of PM (25microg/cm(2)) to AEC induced cells cycle arrest in G1 phase, inhibited DNA synthesis, blocked cell proliferation and caused decrease in cyclin E, A, D1 and Cyclin E- cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-2 kinase activity after 4h. PM induced upregulation of CDK inhibitor, p21 protein and p21 activity in AEC. SiRNAp21 blocked PM-induced downregulation of cyclins and AEC G1 arrest. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that PM induces AEC G1 arrest by altered regulation of G1 cyclins and CDKs.

  9. Daily variations of size-segregated ambient particulate matter in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bangtian; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Zhang, Yanyan; Su, Shu; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Zhong, Qirui; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2015-02-01

    Daily, size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected at Peking University from March 2012 to April 2013. Seventeen indoor air samples were also collected over this period. Winter PM concentrations decreased compared with those reported a decade ago, but summer PM concentrations increased over the same time period. Increasing summer PM concentrations likely resulted from a shift in the major source of PM from primary coal burning to vehicle-associated secondary particle formation. A multiple regression model explained 62% of daily PM concentration variations, and wind direction was the most important factor controlling PM concentrations. Severe pollution was often associated with southeasterly winds, while westerly and northwesterly winds brought relatively clean air. Temperature, precipitation and relative humidity also affected PM concentrations. PM concentrations indoors were generally lower than, but significantly correlated with ambient concentrations. Indoor PM concentrations were also affected by wind speed and temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Concentrations of fine particulate matters and ultrafine particles and influenced factors during winter in an area of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Ni, Yang; Tu, Xing-ying; Zhu, Yi-dan; Guo, Xin-biao; Deng, Fu-rong

    2014-06-18

    To study the concentrations of fine particulate matters and ultrafine particles and influenced factors during winter in an area of Beijing. Real-time monitoring of particles' mass and number concentrations were conducted in an area of Beijing from February 7(th) to 27(th), 2013. At the same time, the meteorological data were also collected from the Beijing meteorological website. Differences of the particles' mass and number concentrations during different periods were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Meanwhile, the influenced factors were also analyzed. The mean concentrations of fine particulate matters and ultrafine particles were (157.2 ± 142.8) μg/m³ and (25 018 ± 9 309) particles/cm³, respectively. The particles' number and mass concentrations in haze days were 1.27 times and 2.91 times higher than those in non-haze days, respectively. The mass concentrations of fine particulate matters in the self-monitoring site were higher than those in the nearest central monitoring sites, and the hourly-average concentrations of particles were significantly consistent with those at the commuter times. Meanwhile, the setting off of fireworks/firecrackers during the Spring Festival could lead to short-term increases of the particles' number and mass concentrations. When the wind speed was low and the related humidity was high, the concentrations of particulate matters were relatively high, and the mass concentrations of fine particulate matters were lagged about 1-2 d. The level of the particulate matters in this area was high. Heavy traffic, setting off of fireworks/firecrackers and meteorological factors may be some of the main factors affecting the concentrations of the particulate matters in this area. Among those factors, the effect of setting off of fireworks/firecrackers didn't last long and the effect of the meteorological factors had a hysteresis effect.

  11. European studies on long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Negri, Eva; Boffetta, Paolo; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Bosetti, Cristina; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2008-06-01

    European epidemiological studies on ambient air pollution and cancer published before December 2006 are reviewed, with focus on five analytic studies providing data on the association between various measures of particulate matter (PM) and lung cancer. A case-control study of 755 men who died from lung cancer in Trieste, Italy, reported that, compared with less than 0.18 g/m/day of deposition of particulate, the relative risk (RR) was 1.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-1.5] for 0.18-0.30 and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) for more than 0.30 g/m/day. In the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer with 60 deaths from lung cancer, the RR was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.43-2.63) for an increase of 10 mug/m in black smoke. In the French Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques study cohort based on 178 deaths from lung cancer, the RR associated with an increase in exposure to 10 mug/m of total suspended particulate was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.01). A nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition included 113 nonsmokers or exsmokers diagnosed with lung cancer and 312 controls. The RRs were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.70-1.18) for an increase in PM with diameter

  12. In vitro estrogenicity of ambient particulate matter: contribution of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Schmid, Peter; Hueglin, Christoph; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM1) was collected at an urban and a rural site in Switzerland during a hibernal high air pollution episode and was investigated for estrogenicity using an estrogen-sensitive reporter gene assay (ER-CALUX). All samples that were tested induced estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression in T47D human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Observed estrogenic activities corresponded to 17beta-estradiol (E2) CALUX equivalent concentrations ranging from 2 to 23 ng E2-CEQ per gram of PM1 (particulate matter of < or = 1 microm aerodynamic diameter) and from 0.07 to 1.25 pg E2-CEQ per m(3) of sampled air. There was a strong correlation between the PM1 estrogenicity of the urban and rural sites (r = 0.92). Five hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hydroxy-PAHs), which show structural similarities to E2, were assessed for their estrogenic activity. The following order of estrogenic potency was found: 2-hydroxychrysene > 2-hydroxyphenanthrene > 1-hydroxypyrene > 2-hydroxynaphthalene > 1-hydroxynaphthalene. Three of these hydroxy-PAHs, namely 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxynaphthalene, were detected in all PM1 extracts. However, they contributed only 0.01-0.2% to the overall estrogenic activity. Hence, mainly other estrogenic compounds not yet identified by chemical analysis must be responsible for the observed activity. The temporal trend of PM1 estrogenicity at the urban and rural site, respectively, was compared with the time course of several air pollutants (NO2, NO, SO2, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, air pressure, solar irradiation, wind velocity). However, specific emission sources and formation processes of atmospheric xenoestrogens could not be elucidated. This study showed that ambient particulate matter contains compounds that are able to interact with estrogen receptors in vitro and potentially also interfere with estrogen-regulated pathways in vivo.

  13. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33.

    PubMed

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-08-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. < 10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged repeatedly with a low (≈3 mg/m(3)) mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks. Responses were compared to animals administered carbon black as a negative control, or a moderate (≈30 mg/m(3)) concentration of ovalbumin to simulate an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Delivery of PM10 to mice, in which experimental mild chronic asthma had previously been established, elicited characteristic features of enhanced allergic inflammation of the airways, including eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment, similar to that in the allergen-induced exacerbation. In parallel, there was increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10.

  14. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33

    PubMed Central

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-01-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. < 10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged repeatedly with a low (≈3 mg/m3) mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks. Responses were compared to animals administered carbon black as a negative control, or a moderate (≈30 mg/m3) concentration of ovalbumin to simulate an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Delivery of PM10 to mice, in which experimental mild chronic asthma had previously been established, elicited characteristic features of enhanced allergic inflammation of the airways, including eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment, similar to that in the allergen-induced exacerbation. In parallel, there was increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10. PMID:24730559

  15. Effects of wind direction on coarse and fine particulate matter concentrations in southeast Kansas.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Sergio A; Lane, Dennis D; Marotz, Glen A; Carter, Ray E; Hohl, Carrie M; Baldauf, Richard W

    2006-11-01

    Field data for coarse particulate matter ([PM] PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected at selected sites in Southeast Kansas from March 1999 to October 2000, using portable MiniVol particulate samplers. The purpose was to assess the influence on air quality of four industrial facilities that burn hazardous waste in the area located in the communities of Chanute, Independence, Fredonia, and Coffeyville. Both spatial and temporal variation were observed in the data. Variation because of sampling site was found to be statistically significant for PM10 but not for PM2.5. PM10 concentrations were typically slightly higher at sites located within the four study communities than at background sites. Sampling sites were located north and south of the four targeted sources to provide upwind and downwind monitoring pairs. No statistically significant differences were found between upwind and downwind samples for either PM10 or PM2.5, indicating that the targeted sources did not contribute significantly to PM concentrations. Wind direction can frequently contribute to temporal variation in air pollutant concentrations and was investigated in this study. Sampling days were divided into four classifications: predominantly south winds, predominantly north winds, calm/variable winds, and winds from other directions. The effect of wind direction was found to be statistically significant for both PM10 and PM2.5. For both size ranges, PM concentrations were typically highest on days with predominantly south winds; days with calm/variable winds generally produced higher concentrations than did those with predominantly north winds or those with winds from "other" directions. The significant effect of wind direction suggests that regional sources may exert a large influence on PM concentrations in the area.

  16. Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter Inside and Outside of Mechanically Ventilated Buildings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelly L; Facciola, Nick A; Toohey, Darin; Zhai, John

    2017-01-28

    The objectives of this study were to measure levels of particulate matter (PM) in mechanically ventilated buildings and to improve understanding of filtration requirements to reduce exposure. With the use of an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer, ultrafine (0.055-0.1 μm) and fine (0.1-0.7 μm) indoor and outdoor PM was measured as a function of time in an office, a university building, and two elementary schools. Indoor particle levels were highly correlated with outdoor levels. Indoor and outdoor number concentrations in Denver were higher than those in Boulder, with the highest number concentrations occurring during summer and fall. The ratio of indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) PM was weakly but positively correlated with the amount of ventilation provided to the indoor environment, did not vary much with particle size (ranged between 0.48 and 0.63 for the entire size range), and was similar for each period of the week (weekend vs. weekday, night vs. day). Regression analyses showed that ultrafine indoor PM baseline concentrations were higher at night from nighttime infiltration. A lag time was observed between outdoor and indoor measurements. Weekday days had the shortest lag time of 11 min, and weekend nighttime lags when the HVAC was not in use were 50 to 148 min. Indoor-outdoor PM concentration plots showed ultrafine PM was more correlated compared to fine, and especially when the HVAC system was on. Finally, AMS data showed that most of the PM was organic, with occasional nitrate events occurring outdoors. During nitrate events, there were less indoor particles detected, indicating a loss of particulate phase nitrate. The results from this study show that improved filtration is warranted in mechanically ventilated buildings, particularly for ultrafine particles, and that nighttime infiltration is significant depending on the building design.

  17. Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter Inside and Outside of Mechanically Ventilated Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shelly L.; Facciola, Nick A.; Toohey, Darin; Zhai, John

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure levels of particulate matter (PM) in mechanically ventilated buildings and to improve understanding of filtration requirements to reduce exposure. With the use of an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer, ultrafine (0.055–0.1 μm) and fine (0.1–0.7 μm) indoor and outdoor PM was measured as a function of time in an office, a university building, and two elementary schools. Indoor particle levels were highly correlated with outdoor levels. Indoor and outdoor number concentrations in Denver were higher than those in Boulder, with the highest number concentrations occurring during summer and fall. The ratio of indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) PM was weakly but positively correlated with the amount of ventilation provided to the indoor environment, did not vary much with particle size (ranged between 0.48 and 0.63 for the entire size range), and was similar for each period of the week (weekend vs. weekday, night vs. day). Regression analyses showed that ultrafine indoor PM baseline concentrations were higher at night from nighttime infiltration. A lag time was observed between outdoor and indoor measurements. Weekday days had the shortest lag time of 11 min, and weekend nighttime lags when the HVAC was not in use were 50 to 148 min. Indoor-outdoor PM concentration plots showed ultrafine PM was more correlated compared to fine, and especially when the HVAC system was on. Finally, AMS data showed that most of the PM was organic, with occasional nitrate events occurring outdoors. During nitrate events, there were less indoor particles detected, indicating a loss of particulate phase nitrate. The results from this study show that improved filtration is warranted in mechanically ventilated buildings, particularly for ultrafine particles, and that nighttime infiltration is significant depending on the building design. PMID:28134841

  18. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    PubMed Central

    César, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Mantovani, Katia Cristina Cota; Vieira, Luciana Cristina Pompeo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP) and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088); lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113); lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092); lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088) and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106). The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes. PMID:26522821

  19. Characterization of visibility impacts related to fine particulate matter in Canada.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Karen; Shepherd, Marjorie

    2004-09-01

    Canada has recently established standards for the management of particulate matter (PM) air quality. National networks currently measure PM mass concentrations and chemical speciation. Methods used in the U.S. IMPROVE network are applied to the 1994--2000 Canadian fine PM data to obtain a regional reconstruction of the visibility based on particle composition. Nationally, the greatest light extinction occurs in the Windsor-Quebec City corridor. Variations in the dominant chemical species responsible for the reduction in visibility are presented for regions across the country. In most regions, sulfate and nitrate contribute most greatly to reduced visibility. The visibility implications of achieving the Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) across the country are evaluated, with the greatest improvement in visibility associated with achieving the CWS in southern Ontario. Elsewhere in the country, achieving the CWS will actually result in deteriorating air quality. Improving current estimates of visibility requires higher spatially and temporally resolved measurements of organic and elemental carbon fractions and particulate nitrate.

  20. 2006 critical review - health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    C. Arden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery

    2006-06-15

    Efforts to understand and mitigate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have a rich and interesting history. This review focuses on six substantial lines of research that have been pursued since 1997 that have helped elucidate our understanding about the effects of PM on human health. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of PM health effects at different time-scales of exposure and in the exploration of the shape of the concentration-response function. There has also been emerging evidence of PM-related cardiovascular health effects and growing knowledge regarding interconnected general pathophysiological pathways that link PM exposure with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite important gaps in scientific knowledge and continued reasons for some skepticism, a comprehensive evaluation of the research findings provides persuasive evidence that exposure to fine particulate air pollution has adverse effects on cardiopulmonary health. Although much of this research has been motivated by environmental public health policy, these results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are broader than debates over legally mandated air quality standards. 502 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. PIXE and PESA aspects of the Guelph Visibility and Fine Particulate Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejedlý, Z.; Campbell, J. L.; Teesdale, W. J.; Gielen, C.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the analytical equipment, data processing, and quality assurance protocol of the Visibility and Particulate Monitoring Program run by the Guelph Scanning Proton Microprobe (GSPM) laboratory at the University of Guelph. The focus of the discussion is the ion beam analyses used in the program. A new experimental chamber for Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) of particulate samples is presented. The chamber provides a fast and reliable analysis of thin samples by PIXE and PESA. The PIXE spectra are collected simultaneously by two Si(Li) detectors to increase sensitivity and reliability of the measurement. Several aspects of thin target PIXE calibration are discussed. An extension to the GUPIX software package for automatic analysis of aerosol samples is presented. Three levels of quality assurance are described, including analysis of fly ash particles on artificial filter, linear regression between the two PIXE detectors, intra- and interlaboratory comparisons, and calculation of the reconstructed mass (RCMA) from composite variables and its comparison to fine mass.

  2. Application of satellite remote-sensing data for source analysis of fine particulate matter transport events.

    PubMed

    Engel-Cox, Jill A; Young, Gregory S; Hoff, Raymond M

    2005-09-01

    Satellite sensors have provided new datasets for monitoring regional and urban air quality. Satellite sensors provide comprehensive geospatial information on air quality with both qualitative imagery and quantitative data, such as aerosol optical depth. Yet there has been limited application of these new datasets in the study of air pollutant sources relevant to public policy. One promising approach to more directly link satellite sensor data to air quality policy is to integrate satellite sensor data with air quality parameters and models. This paper presents a visualization technique to integrate satellite sensor data, ground-based data, and back trajectory analysis relevant to a new rule concerning the transport of particulate matter across state boundaries. Overlaying satellite aerosol optical depth data and back trajectories in the days leading up to a known fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 microm (PM2.5) event may indicate whether transport or local sources appear to be most responsible for high PM2.5 levels in a certain location at a certain time. Events in five cities in the United States are presented as case studies. This type of analysis can be used to help understand the source locations of pollutants during specific events and to support regulatory compliance decisions in cases of long distance transport.

  3. Exploration of the composition and sources of urban fine particulate matter associated with same-day cardiovascular health effects in Dearborn, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L; Kaciroti, Niko; Fitzner, Craig A; Dvonch, Timothy; Harkema, Jack R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore associations of chemical components and source factors of ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) with cardiovascular (CV) changes following same-day exposure to ambient PM2.5. Twenty-five healthy adults living in rural Michigan were exposed to ambient air in an urban/industrial community for 4 to 5 h daily for five consecutive days. CV health outcomes were measured 1-2 h post exposure. Contributing emission sources were identified via positive matrix factorization. We examined associations between PM2.5 mass, composition and source factors, and same-day changes in CV outcomes using mixed-model analyses. PM2.5 mass (10.8 ± 6.8 μg/m(3)), even at low ambient levels, was significantly associated with increased heart rate (HR). Trace elements as well as secondary aerosol, diesel/urban dust and iron/steel manufacturing factors potentially explained the HR changes. However, trace element analysis demonstrated additional associations with other CV responses including changes in blood pressure (BP), arterial compliance, autonomic balance and trends toward reductions in endothelial function. Two factors were related to BP changes (diesel/urban dust, motor vehicle) and trends toward impaired endothelial function (diesel/urban dust). This study indicates composition of PM2.5 and its sources may contribute to CV health effects independently of PM2.5 mass.

  4. Exploration of the composition and sources of urban fine particulate matter associated with same-day cardiovascular health effects in Dearborn, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Fitzner, Craig A.; Dvonch, Timothy; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore associations of chemical components and source factors of ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM2.5) with cardiovascular (CV) changes following same-day exposure to ambient PM2.5. Twenty-five healthy adults living in rural Michigan were exposed to ambient air in an urban/industrial community for 4 to 5 h daily for five consecutive days. CV health outcomes were measured 1–2 h post exposure. Contributing emission sources were identified via positive matrix factorization. We examined associations between PM2.5 mass, composition and source factors, and same-day changes in CV outcomes using mixed-model analyses. PM2.5 mass (10.8±6.8 μg/m3), even at low ambient levels, was significantly associated with increased heart rate (HR). Trace elements as well as secondary aerosol, diesel/urban dust and iron/steel manufacturing factors potentially explained the HR changes. However, trace element analysis demonstrated additional associations with other CV responses including changes in blood pressure (BP), arterial compliance, autonomic balance and trends toward reductions in endothelial function. Two factors were related to BP changes (diesel/urban dust, motor vehicle) and trends toward impaired endothelial function (diesel/urban dust). This study indicates composition of PM2.5 and its sources may contribute to CV health effects independently of PM2.5 mass. PMID:24866265

  5. Ambient particulate matter induces IL-8 expression through an alternative NF-kB mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been shown to increase rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine signaling events involved in the expression of the inflamma...

  6. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1. 1US E...

  7. THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY: MODELING AMBIENT SOURCE CONTRIBUTION TO PERSONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study represented a one-year investigation of personal, residential and ambient PM mass concentrations across distances as large as 70 km in central North Carolina. One of the primary goals of this effort was to est...

  8. THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY: MODELING AMBIENT SOURCE CONTRIBUTION TO PERSONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study represented a one-year investigation of personal, residential and ambient PM mass concentrations across distances as large as 70 km in central North Carolina. One of the primary goals of this effort was to est...

  9. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1. 1US E...

  10. Co-exposure to inhaled ambient particulate matter and acrolein alters myocardial synchrony in mice: evidence for TRPA1 involvement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because air pollution is a complex mixture of constituents, often including particulates and aldehydes, attributing health effects to air pollutants in a given ambient air shed can be difficult when pollutants are studied in isolation. The purpose of this study was to examine the...

  11. Co-exposure to inhaled ambient particulate matter and acrolein alters myocardial synchrony in mice: evidence for TRPA1 involvement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because air pollution is a complex mixture of constituents, often including particulates and aldehydes, attributing health effects to air pollutants in a given ambient air shed can be difficult when pollutants are studied in isolation. The purpose of this study was to examine the...

  12. Ambient particulate matter induces IL-8 expression through an alternative NF-kB mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been shown to increase rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine signaling events involved in the expression of the inflamma...

  13. Chemical composition and source of fine and nanoparticles from recent direct injection gasoline passenger cars: Effects of fuel and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Kondo, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Particle number, mass, and chemical compositions (i.e., elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elements, ions, and organic species) of fine particles emitted from four of the recent direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline passenger cars and a port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline passenger car were measured under Japanese official transient mode (JC08 mode). Total carbon (TC = EC + OC) dominated the particulate mass (90% on average). EC dominated the TC for both hot and cold start conditions. The EC/TC ratios were 0.72 for PFI and 0.88-1.0 (average = 0.92) for DISI vehicles. A size-resolved chemical analysis of a DISI car revealed that the major organic components were the C20-C28 hydrocarbons for both the accumulation-mode particles and nanoparticles. Contribution of engine oil was estimated to be 10-30% for organics and the sum of the measured elements. The remaining major fraction likely originated from gasoline fuel. Therefore, it is suggested that soot (EC) also mainly originated from the gasoline. In experiments using four fuels at three ambient temperatures, the emission factors of particulate mass were consistently higher with regular gasoline than with premium gasoline. This result suggest that the high content of less-volatile compounds in fuel increase particulate emissions. These results suggest that focusing on reducing fuel-derived EC in the production process of new cars would effectively reduce particulate emission from DISI cars.

  14. Calibration of a Three Wavelength Lidar for Size Discriminated Ambient Particulate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Zavyalov, V.; Bingham, G. E.; Marchant, C.; Herron, J.; Jones, D.; Bowman, J.; Moore, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    A three wavelength Lidar has been developed at Utah State University's Space Dynamics Laboratory for the measurement of size segregated ambient particulate matter concentrations as part of the AgLite program. The AgLite program, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service, was developed to quantify particulate emissions from diffuse area sources, such as those typically found around confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and tillage operations. The Lidar system is capable of scanning horizontally and vertically across a suspected source area and can identify both spatial and temporal concentration fields which, when combined with locally measured wind field data, can be used to derive source emission estimates. The Lidar measures the relative magnitude of optical scattering by the atmosphere, which is a function of aerosol concentration. A Lidar scan around a source area gives a map of relative aerosol concentration. During an operational experiment, a scan is calibrated by point-sensors collocated with one or more points of the Lidar scan. In order to minimize potential systematic errors, a detailed calibration experiment was designed to compare Lidar return signals with Met One Instruments 8-channel Optical Particle Counters (Model 9722) and Airmetrics MiniVol filter-based samplers configured for collection of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. The Lidar calibration experiment was performed in July 2007 at a farm owned and operated by Utah State University near Cache Junction, Utah. Multiple datasets were collected during which the Lidar moved between three stares, each a minute in duration, that were collocated with a cluster of MiniVols sampling the four size fractionations and an OPC. Sampler duration was between three and eight hours, depending upon background particulate concentrations. Prior to comparison of these instruments with the Lidar, the MiniVols and OPCs were compared against collocated PM2.5 and PM10 Federal

  15. Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Jesus A; Barajas, Berenice; Kleinman, Michael; Wang, Xuping; Bennett, Brian J; Gong, Ke Wei; Navab, Mohamad; Harkema, Jack; Sioutas, Constantinos; Lusis, Aldons J; Nel, Andre E

    2008-03-14

    Air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects, including increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) increases ischemic cardiovascular events and promotes atherosclerosis. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that the smallest pollutant particles pose the greatest danger because of their high content of organic chemicals and prooxidative potential. To test this hypothesis, we compared the proatherogenic effects of ambient particles of <0.18 microm (ultrafine particles) with particles of <2.5 microm in genetically susceptible (apolipoprotein E-deficient) mice. These animals were exposed to concentrated ultrafine particles, concentrated particles of <2.5 microm, or filtered air in a mobile animal facility close to a Los Angeles freeway. Ultrafine particle-exposed mice exhibited significantly larger early atherosclerotic lesions than mice exposed to PM(2.5) or filtered air. Exposure to ultrafine particles also resulted in an inhibition of the antiinflammatory capacity of plasma high-density lipoprotein and greater systemic oxidative stress as evidenced by a significant increase in hepatic malondialdehyde levels and upregulation of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. We conclude that ultrafine particles concentrate the proatherogenic effects of ambient PM and may constitute a significant cardiovascular risk factor.

  16. In Vitro Toxicity and Epigenotoxicity of Different Types of Ambient Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Pathak, Rupak; Lu, Xiaoyan; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Krager, Kimberly; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Demokritou, Philip; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects, including pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Studies indicate that ambient PM originated from different sources may cause distinct biological effects. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential of various types of PM to cause epigenetic alterations in the in vitro system. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed for 24 and 72 h to 5- and 50-μg/ml doses of the water soluble extract of 6 types of PM: soil dust, road dust, agricultural dust, traffic exhausts, biomass burning, and pollen, collected in January–April of 2014 in the area of Little Rock, Arkansas. Cytotoxicity, oxidative potential, epigenetic endpoints, and chromosomal aberrations were addressed. Exposure to 6 types of PM resulted in induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a type-, time-, and dose-dependent manner. Epigenetic alterations were characterized by type-, time-, and dose-dependent decreases of DNA methylation/demethylation machinery, increased DNA methyltransferases enzymatic activity and protein levels, and transcriptional activation and subsequent silencing of transposable elements LINE-1, SINE B1/B2. The most pronounced changes were observed after exposure to soil dust that were also characterized by hypomethylation and reactivation of satellite DNA and structural chromosomal aberrations in the exposed cells. The results of our study indicate that the water-soluble fractions of the various types of PM have differential potential to target the cellular epigenome. PMID:26342214

  17. Assessment of dioxin-like activity in ambient air particulate matter using recombinant yeast assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Alba; van Drooge, Barend L.; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual; Grimalt, Joan O.; Piña, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), also known as dioxin-like activity, is a major component of the toxicity associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Filtration of ambient air particulate matter through PM 10 filters followed by chemical determination of PAH concentrations and a yeast-based bioassay (RYA) were combined to evaluate and characterize dioxin-like activity in ambient air. Samples were collected in a semirural area of Northern Italy between September 2008 and February 2009. Total PAH contents ranged between 0.3 ng m -3 and 34 ng m -3 and were in correlation with seasonal variations of meteorological conditions and combustion processes. Dioxin-like activity values in air samples showed an excellent correlation (0.71 < R2 < 0.86) with the observed PAH concentrations and the predicted toxicity equivalents for PAH. This RYA-bioassay reported in the present study provides a simple and low-cost routine control for toxic PAH emissions, even at background air concentration levels.

  18. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Subash Kumar, Divya; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution. PMID:26258167

  19. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Kumar, Divya Subash; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013-January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  20. 78 FR 53269 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Interstate Transport of Fine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... for the 1997 and 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate matter, Reporting...

  1. EPA Approves Redesignation of Atlanta Area to Attainment for the 1997 Annual Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Standard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that it is taking final action to approve the state of Georgia's request to redesignate the Atlanta Area to attainment for the 1997 Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) standard. This fi

  2. 76 FR 60492 - Adequacy Status of the Ohio Portion of the Huntington/Ashland Submitted Annual Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Ohio Portion of the Huntington/Ashland Submitted Annual Fine Particulate... Ohio portion of the Huntington/Ashland WV-KY-OH area. Ohio submitted the insignificance findings with... portion of the Huntington/Ashland area is no longer required to perform a regional emissions analysis for...

  3. DAILY VARIATION IN ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated as a part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). A high volume (113 liters/minute) sampler was used at the Allen Park community air monitoring station to collect PM2.5 for analysis by ga...

  4. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  5. DAILY VARIATION IN ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated as a part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). A high volume (113 liters/minute) sampler was used at the Allen Park community air monitoring station to collect PM2.5 for analysis by ga...

  6. NONLINEARITIES IN THE SULFATE SECONDARY FINE PARTICULATE RESPONSE TO NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS AS MODELED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention is increasingly being devoted to the health effects of fine particulates. In regions that have a large production of sulfate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid compete for the available ammonia to form aerosols. In addition, the available nitric acid is the result of ur...

  7. Exploration of the Rapid Effects of Personal Fine Particulate Matter Exposure on Hemodynamics and Vascular Function during the Same Day

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Levels of fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] are associated with alterations in arterial hemodynamics and vascular function. However, the characteristics of the same-day exposure–response relationships remain unclear. Object...

  8. NONLINEARITIES IN THE SULFATE SECONDARY FINE PARTICULATE RESPONSE TO NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS AS MODELED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention is increasingly being devoted to the health effects of fine particulates. In regions that have a large production of sulfate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid compete for the available ammonia to form aerosols. In addition, the available nitric acid is the result of ur...

  9. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  10. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  11. Exploration of the Rapid Effects of Personal Fine Particulate Matter Exposure on Hemodynamics and Vascular Function during the Same Day

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Levels of fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] are associated with alterations in arterial hemodynamics and vascular function. However, the characteristics of the same-day exposure–response relationships remain unclear. Object...

  12. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  13. The fate of donor osteocytes in fine particulate bone powders during repair of bone defects in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Tao; Zhou, Chang-Long; Yan, Jing-Long; Yan, Xi; Xie, Huan-Xin; Sun, Cheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the fate of donor osteocytes in fine particulate bone powders during repair of bone defects in experimental rats. The iliac bone of male inbred DA rats was harvested and used as the larger bone grafts and also prepared as fine particulate (granulated) bone powders (300-500μm size particles) for transplantation into radial defects in female rats. The presence and relative amounts of genes specific to the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome (Sry) originating from the bone grafts were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridization, respectively. Additional samples were evaluated histologically. In the larger bone grafts, the expression of Sry decreased relatively early, disappeared by 1 week, reappeared at 4 weeks and continued to increase with time. In the fine particulate bone powders, Sry was detected all the time and its expression was statistically greater than in the larger bone grafts at each time point. Both bone grafts provided donor cells to repair the defects. The donor cells seemed to function differently between the two groups. The fine particulate bone powders contained more living osteocytes in comparison with the larger bone grafts and may accelerate the healing of bone defects compared with conventional autografts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE (2.5-10MM), INTERMEDIATE (1-2.5MM), AND FINE (<2.5MM) PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological and epidemiological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that a...

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE (2.5-10MM), INTERMEDIATE (1-2.5MM), AND FINE (<2.5MM) PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological and epidemiological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that a...

  16. Factors affecting the stability of the performance of ambient fine-particle concentrators.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Sioutas, C; Chang, M C; Gong, H

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a systematic evaluation of factors affecting the stability of the performance of Harvard ambient fine-particle concentrators, an essential requirement for controlled animal and human exposure studies that utilize these technologies. Phenomenological problems during the operation of the concentrator, including pressure drop increase and decrease in concentration enrichment, were statistically correlated with ambient air parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, PM2.5 mass concentration, and mass median diameter. The normalized hourly pressure drop across the concentrator was strongly associated (R2 = .81) with the product of ambient PM2.5 mass concentration and the difference between the vapor pressure downstream of the impactor nozzle and the saturation vapor pressure at the adiabatic expansion temperature (i.e., the temperature of the aerosol immediately downstream of the virtual impactors). From multiple regression analysis, the average enrichment factor was predicted reasonably well (R2 = .67) by aerosol mass median diameter and the normalized hourly pressure drop. Based on these results, we can anticipate in any given day whether an exposure study can be conducted without a considerable increase in the concentrator pressure drop, which might lead to an abrupt or premature termination of the exposure. As particle mass concentration and ambient dewpoint are the two main parameters responsible for raising the pressure drop across the concentrator, efforts should be made to either desiccate the ambient aerosol at days of high dewpoints, or to dilute the ambient PM at days of high concentrations, prior to drawing the aerosol through the virtual impactors. The latter approach is recommended on days of severe ambient pollution conditions because it is simpler and also makes it possible to maintain the appropriate concentration level delivered to the exposure chamber.

  17. Residential Proximity to Major Roads, Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, and Coronary Artery Calcium: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Dorans, Kirsten S; Wilker, Elissa H; Li, Wenyuan; Rice, Mary B; Ljungman, Petter L; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2016-08-01

    Long-term exposure to traffic and particulate matter air pollution is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially via atherosclerosis promotion. Prior research on associations of traffic and particulate matter with coronary artery calcium Agatston score (CAC), an atherosclerosis correlate, has yielded inconsistent findings. Given this background, we assessed whether residential proximity to major roadway or fine particulate matter were associated with CAC in a Northeastern US study. We measured CAC ≤2 times from 2002 to 2005 and 2008 to 2011 among Framingham Offspring or Third-Generation Cohort participants. We assessed associations of residential distance to major roadway and residential fine particulate matter (2003 average; spatiotemporal model) with detectable CAC, using generalized estimating equation regression. We used linear mixed effects models to assess associations with loge(CAC). We also assessed associations with CAC progression. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, socioeconomic position markers, and time. Among 3399 participants, 51% had CAC measured twice. CAC was detectable in 47% of observations. At first scan, mean age was 52.2 years (standard deviation 11.7); 51% male. There were no consistent associations with detectable CAC, continuous CAC, or CAC progression. We observed heterogeneous associations of distance to major roadway with odds of detectable CAC by hypertensive status; interpretation of these findings is questionable. Our findings add to prior work and support evidence against strong associations of traffic or fine particulate matter with the presence, extent, or progression of CAC in a region with relatively low levels of and little variation in fine particulate matter. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  19. Diurnal and seasonal trends in the apparent density of ambient fine and coarse particles in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Pakbin, Payam; Delfino, Ralph J.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal variations in the apparent density of ambient fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5 and CPM [PM2.5-10], respectively) were investigated in a location near downtown Los Angeles. The apparent densities, determined by particle mass-to-volume ratios, showed strong diurnal and seasonal variations, with higher values during the warm phase (June to August 2013) compared to cold phase (November 2012 to February 2013). PM2.5 apparent density showed minima during the morning and afternoon rush hours of the cold phase (1.20 g cm−3), mainly due to the increased contribution of traffic-emitted soot particles, and highest values were found during the midday in the warm phase (2.38 g cm−3). The lowest CPM apparent density was observed during the morning rush hours of the cold phase (1.41 g cm−3), while highest in early afternoon during the warm phase (2.91 g cm−3), most likely due to the increased wind-induced resuspension of road dust. PMID:24413160

  20. The sensitivity of ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations to global change at different spatiotemporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racherla, Pavan Nandan

    Ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM) are harmful to human health. Changes in climate and anthropogenic emissions due to global change will affect concentrations of O3 and fine PM. These effects are not well understood, however. We perform a suite of simulations using an integrated model of global climate, tropospheric gas-phase chemistry, and aerosols to investigate the effects of global change on O3 and fine PM at different spatiotemporal scales ranging from the global annual-average concentrations to regional (eg. United States) air pollution episodes. One major consequence of climate change is a lengthening of the O3 season over the eastern U.S. to include late spring and early fall months. Climate change is also predicted to increase the severity and frequency of O3 episodes over much of the eastern U.S. We found that U.S. O 3 and fine PM are sensitive first and foremost to U.S. anthropogenic emissions changes. However, the effect of climate change is very sensitive to the prevalent domestic anthropogenic emissions, and it increases strongly with emissions, thereby making it important to factor climate change in to air quality planning. The reductions in domestic emissions will, therefore, have the added benefit of minimized climate effects. Climate change affects fine PM sulfate and nitrate concentrations the most. Substantial increases of up to 2 mug m-3 in the July-average sulfate concentrations were predicted in many polluted regions in the eastern U.S. Higher NO x and ammonia emissions could negate the benefits of significant SO2 emissions reductions vis-a-vis the annual-average PM2.5 standard for several areas in the Northeast and Midwest U.S. Simultaneous reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions, however, will help bring most of the eastern U.S. into compliance with the current annual-average PM2.5 standard. If the U.S. O3 standard were to change from the current 80 ppbv to 55 ppbv (which is the case in many European countries), the increased O3

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of anchovy fine powder at high and ambient pressure, and characterization of the hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Son, So-Hee; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Chong-Tai

    2016-02-01

    At specific conditions of high pressure, the stability and activity of some enzymes are reportedly known to increase. The aim of this study was to apply pressure-tolerant proteases to hydrolyzing anchovy fine powder (AFP) and to determine product characteristics of the resultant hydrolyzates. Anchovy fine powder enzyme hydrolyzates (AFPEHs) were produced at 300 MPa and ambient pressure using combinations of Flavourzyme 500MG, Alcalase 2.4L, Marugoto E and Protamex. When the same protease combination was used for hydrolysis, the contents of total soluble solids, total water-soluble nitrogen and trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen in the AFPEHs produced at 300 MPa were conspicuously higher than those in the AFPEHs produced at ambient pressure. This result and electrophoretic characteristics indicated that the high-pressure process of this study accelerates protein hydrolysis compared with the ambient-pressure counterpart. Most peptides in the hydrolyzates obtained at 300 MPa had molecular masses less than 5 kDa. Functionality, sensory characteristics and the content of total free amino acids of selected hydrolyzates were also determined. The high-pressure hydrolytic process utilizing pressure-tolerant proteases was found to be an efficient method for producing protein hydrolyzates with good product characteristics. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Saarnio, Karri; Teinilä, Kimmo; Aurela, Minna; Timonen, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto

    2010-11-01

    Biomass burning has a strong influence on the atmospheric aerosol composition through particulate organic, inorganic, and soot emissions. When biomass burns, cellulose and hemicelluloses degrade, producing monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) such as levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan. Therefore, these compounds have been commonly used as tracers for biomass burning. In this study, a fast water-based method was developed for the routine analysis of MAs, based on high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection. This method combines simple sample preparation, fast separation, and the advantages of the selective detection with MS. Analysis run was optimized to the maximum separation of levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan with 15-min analysis. The validation results indicated that the method showed good applicability for determination of MA isomer concentrations in ambient samples. The limit of detection was 100 pg for levoglucosan and 50 pg for mannosan and galactosan. Wide determination ranges enabled the analysis of samples of different concentration levels. The method showed good precision, both for standard solutions (3.9-5.9% RSD) and for fine particle samples (4.3-8.5% RSD). Co-elution of internal standard (carbon-13-labeled levoglucosan) and sugar alcohols with levoglucosan decreased the sensitivity of levoglucosan determination. The method was used to determine the MA concentrations in ambient fine particle samples from urban background (Helsinki) and rural background (Hyytiälä) in Finland. The average levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan concentrations were 77, 8.8, and 4.2 ng m(-3) in Helsinki (winter 2008-2009) and 17, 2.3, and 1.4 ng m(-3) in Hyytiälä (spring 2007), respectively. The interrelation of the three MA isomers was fairly constant in the ambient fine particle samples.

  3. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. Intercomparison of two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21) indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the filter-adjusted continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Correlations of the ACSM NR-PM1 (non-refractory particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 1 μm) plus elemental carbon (EC) with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM2.5 and Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM1 mass are strong with r2 > 0.7 and r2 > 0.8, respectively. Discrepancies might be attributed to evaporative losses of semi-volatile species from the filter measurements used to adjust the collocated continuous measurements. This suggests that adjusting the ambient aerosol continuous measurements with results from filter analysis introduced additional bias to the measurements. We also recommend to calibrate the ambient aerosol monitoring instruments using aerosol standards rather than gas-phase standards. The fitting approach for ACSM relative ionization for sulfate was shown to improve the comparisons between ACSM and collocated measurements in the absence of calibrated values, suggesting the importance of adding sulfate calibration into the ACSM calibration routine.

  4. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb Dr. Douglas R. Worsnop Dr. Manjula R. Canagaratna Dr. Scott C. Herndon Dr. John T. Jayne Dr. W. Berk Knighton Dr. Timothy B. Onasch Dr. Ezra C. Wood Dr. Miguel Zavala

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  5. Ambient air particles: effects on cellular oxidant radical generation in relation to particulate elemental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, A K; Soukup, J M; Inmon, J; Willis, R; Ghio, A J; Becker, S; Gallagher, J E

    1999-07-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported causal relationships between exposures to high concentrations of ambient air particles (AAP) and increased morbidity in individuals with underlying respiratory problems. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are frequently present in the airways of individuals exposed to particles. Upon particulate stimulation the PMN may release reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in tissue damage and injury. In this study a wide range of AAP samples from divergent sources (1, natural dust; 2, oil fly ash; 2, coal fly ash; 5, ambient air; and 1, carbon black) were analyzed for elemental content and solubility in relation to their ability to generate ROS. Elemental analyses were carried out in AAP and dH(2)O-washed AAP using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Percent of sample mass accounted for by XRF-detectable elements was 1.2% (carbon black); 22-29% (natural dust and ambient air particles); 13-22% (oil fly ash particles); 28-49% (coal fly ash particles). The major proportion of elements in most of these particles were aluminosilicates and insoluble iron, except oil-derived fly ash particles in which soluble vanadium and nickel were in highest concentrations, consistent with particle acidity as measured in the supernatants. Human blood-derived monocytes and PMN were exposed to AAP and dH(2)O-washed particles, and generation of ROS was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) assay. All the particles induced chemiluminescence response in the cells, except carbon black. The oxidant response of monocytes induced by AAP (with the exception of oil fly ash particles) was less than the response elicited by PMN. The LCL response of PMN in general increased with all washed particles, with oil fly ash (OFA) and one urban air particle showing statistically significant (p < 0. 05) differences between dH(2)O-washed and unwashed particles. The LCL activity in PMN induced by both particles and dH(2)O-washed particles was

  6. Ultra High