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Sample records for ambient fine particulate

  1. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

  2. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; ...

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrationsmore » were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.« less

  3. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  4. Origin-Oriented Elemental Profile of Fine Ambient Particulate Matter in Central European Suburban Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Barbara; Klejnowski, Krzysztof; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm) were collected in a suburban (quasi-rural) area in Racibórz (Poland) between 1 January 2011 and 26 December 2012. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 28 elements. Sources of PM2.5 were identified and the contribution of each source to the PM2.5 concentration was assessed using an enrichment factor (EF) analysis, a principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). In the cold season (January–March and October–December 2011–2012), the mean ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Racibórz was 48.7 ± 39.4 µg·m−3, which was much higher than at other suburban or rural sites in Europe. Additionally the ambient concentrations of some toxic PM2.5-bound elements were also high, i.e., the mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound As, Cd, and Pb were 11.3 ± 11.5, 5.2 ± 2.5, and 34.0 ± 34.2 ng·m−3, respectively. In the warm season (April–September 2011–2012), the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound element concentrations in Racibórz were comparable to the concentrations noted at other suburban (or rural) sites in Europe. Our findings suggest that elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 in Racibórz are mainly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, i.e., the energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, traffic, and industry. PMID:27428988

  5. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J.

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  6. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality among Survivors of Myocardial Infarction: Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T.; Copes, Ray; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Kopp, Alexander; Tu, Jack V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk of dying within several hours to days following exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Little is known, however, about the influence of long-term (months to years) air pollution exposure on survival after AMI. Objective: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on post-AMI survival. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 8,873 AMI patients who were admitted to 1 of 86 hospital corporations across Ontario, Canada in 1999–2001. Mortality follow-up for this cohort extended through 2011. Cumulative time-weighted exposures to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations based on participants’ annual residences during follow-up. We used standard and multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Between 1999 and 2011, we identified 4,016 nonaccidental deaths, of which 2,147 were from any cardiovascular disease, 1,650 from ischemic heart disease, and 675 from AMI. For each 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR10) of nonaccidental mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.45]. The association with PM2.5 was robust to sensitivity analyses and appeared stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality: ischemic heart (HR10 = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.83) and AMI (HR10 = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.40). We estimated that 12.4% of nonaccidental deaths (or 497 deaths) could have been averted if the lowest measured concentration in an urban area (4 μg/m3) had been achieved at all locations over the course of the study. Conclusions: Long-term air pollution exposure adversely affects the survival of AMI patients. Citation: Chen H, Burnett RT, Copes R, Kwong JC, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Brook RD, van Donkelaar A, Jerrett M, Martin RV, Brook JR, Kopp A, Tu JV. 2016. Ambient fine

  7. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality: Adjustment of the Meteorological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Ruiming; Li, Runkui; Xu, Qun; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explicitly explored the impacts of the extensive adjustment (with a lag period of more than one week) of temperature and humidity on the association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality. In a time stratified case-crossover study, we used a distributed lag nonlinear model to assess the impacts of extensive adjustments of temperature and humidity for longer lag periods (for 7, 14, 21, 28 and 40 days) on effects of PM2.5 on total cardiovascular mortality and mortality of cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease and corresponding exposure-response relationships in Beijing, China, between 2008 and 2011. Compared with results only controlled for temperature and humidity for 2 days, the estimated effects of PM2.5 were smaller and magnitudes of exposure-response curves were decreased when longer lag periods of temperature and relative humidity were included for adjustments, but these changes varied across subpopulation, with marked decreases occurring in males and the elderly who are more susceptible to PM2.5-related mortalities. Our findings suggest that the adjustment of meteorological factors using lag periods shorter than one week may lead to overestimated effects of PM2.5. The associations of PM2.5 with cardiovascular mortality in susceptible populations were more sensitive to further adjustments for temperature and relative humidity. PMID:27827945

  8. Ambient Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Air Pollution Attributable to Household Cooking Fuel in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, Z.; Mehta, S.; Smith, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), we estimate the proportion of fine particulate ambient air pollution (PM2.5) attributable to household fuel use for cooking in Asia. This analysis considers primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in two years: 1990 and 2005. Only emissions from household cooking fuels-not heating or lighting-are considered. Due to data availability, this analysis focuses solely on Asian countries, notably India and China which are home to about half of the households using solid fuel use worldwide. Forest and grassland fires, dust, and other "natural" particle sources were omitted from this analysis. The impact of emission sources on secondary particles from aerosol precursors was not determined. In China, the proportion of total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 attributable to household cooking decreased from 44% to 31% between 1990 and 2005. In India, the percent of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions attributable to household cooking decreased from 55% to 49% between 1990 and 2005. Total mass change in primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions was much more variable by state in India, between 1990 and 2005, than by province in China (where there was a general downward trend in the total mass emitted). Similarly, growth in industrial emissions was much more variable at the sub-national level, between 1990 and 2005, in India than in China. Energy production played a more prominent role in the growth of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in India than it did in China. Forward-looking GAINS scenarios show that the contribution of household cooking to total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions is much greater than that from on-road transport in India and China between 1990 and 2030. On-road cars, trucks, and other transport vehicles are, however, the cause of important pollutants other than PM2.5 (as are as cooking stoves that do

  9. Size distribution of acidic sulfate ions in fine ambient particulate matter and assessment of source region effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazi, Y.; Heikkinen, M. S. A.; Cohen, B. S.

    Human exposure studies strongly suggested that the fine fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM) and its associated acidic sulfates are closely correlated with observed adverse health effects. Acidic sulfates are the products of atmospheric sulfur dioxide oxidation and neutralization processes. Few data are available on the amount and size distribution of acidic sulfates within the fine fraction of ambient PM. Knowledge of this distribution will help to understand their toxic mechanisms in the human respiratory tract. The goals of this research were: (1) to measure the size distribution of hydrogen ion, sulfate, and ammonium within the fine fraction of the ambient aerosol in air masses originating from different source regions; and (2) to examine the effect of the source region and the seasons on the sampled PM composition. Six size fractions within the fine ambient PM were collected using a micro-orifice impactor. Results from 30 sampling sessions demonstrated that higher total concentrations of these three ions were observed during the warm months than during the cold months of the year. Size distribution results show that the midpoint diameter of the fraction of particles with the largest fraction of hydrogen, sulfate and ammonium ions was 0.38 μm. Although most of the mass containing hydrogen and sulfate ions was measured in the fraction of particles with 0.38 μm midpoint diameter, the ultrafine fraction (<0.1 μm) was found to be more acidic. Ambient ion concentrations varied between sampling sessions and seasons, but the overall size distribution profiles are similar. Air mass back trajectories were used to identify the source region of the sampled aerosols. No apparent source region effect was observed in terms of the distribution profile of the ions. However, samples collected from air masses that originated from, or passed over, high sulfur dioxide emission areas demonstrated higher concentrations of the different ions.

  10. The Association between Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence: Results from the AHSMOG-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Gharibvand, Lida; Shavlik, David; Ghamsary, Mark; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Soret, Samuel; Knutsen, Raymond; Knutsen, Synnove F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a positive association between ambient fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and incidence and mortality of lung cancer (LC), but few studies have assessed the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and LC among never smokers. Objectives: We assessed the association between PM2.5 and risk of LC using the Adventist Health and Smog Study-2 (AHSMOG-2), a cohort of health conscious nonsmokers where 81% have never smoked. Methods: A total of 80,285 AHSMOG-2 participants were followed for an average of 7.5 years with respect to incident LC identified through linkage with U.S. state cancer registries. Estimates of ambient air pollution levels at participants’ residences were obtained for 2000 and 2001, the years immediately prior to the start of the study. Results: A total of 250 incident LC cases occurred during 598,927 person-years of follow-up. For each 10-μg/m3 increment in PM2.5, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for LC incidence was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.84) in the two-pollutant multivariable model with ozone. Among those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors or who had lived 5 or more years at their enrollment address, the HR was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.22) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.04), respectively. Conclusion: Increased risk estimates of LC were observed for each 10-μg/m3 increment in ambient PM2.5 concentration. The estimate was higher among those with longer residence at enrollment address and those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors. Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer incidence: results from the AHSMOG-2 study. Environ Health Perspect 125:378–384; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP124Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer

  11. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  12. Modeling Of In-Vehicle Human Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A method for estimating in-vehicle PM2.5 exposure as part of a scenario-based population simulation model is developed and assessed. In existing models, such as the Stochastic Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM), in-vehicle exposure is estimated using linear regression based on area-wide ambient PM2.5 concentration. An alternative modeling approach is explored based on estimation of near-road PM2.5 concentration and an in-vehicle mass balance. Near-road PM2.5 concentration is estimated using a dispersion model and fixed site monitor (FSM) data. In-vehicle concentration is estimated based on air exchange rate and filter efficiency. In-vehicle concentration varies with road type, traffic flow, windspeed, stability class, and ventilation. Average in-vehicle exposure is estimated to contribute 10 to 20 percent of average daily exposure. The contribution of in-vehicle exposure to total daily exposure can be higher for some individuals. Recommendations are made for updating exposure models and implementation of the alternative approach. PMID:23101000

  13. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Induces Apoptosis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Xie, Xiaoyun; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jason Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. Some environmental insults, like fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair cardiovascular functions. However, the mechanisms for PM-induced adverse effects on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown. The present research was to study the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods PM was intranasal-distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry was used to measure the number of EPCs, apoptosis level of circulating EPCs and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using ELISA. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in EPC apoptosis, PM was co-administrated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in wild type mice or used in a triple transgenic mouse line (TG) with overexpression of antioxidant enzyme network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx-1) with decreased in vivo ROS production. Results PM treatment significantly decreased circulating EPC population, promoted apoptosis of EPCs in association with increased ROS production and serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels, which could be effectively reversed by either NAC treatment or overexpression of AON. Conclusion PM exposure significantly decreased circulating EPCs population due to increased apoptosis via ROS formation in mice. PMID:25591776

  14. Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot

    2006-11-15

    This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Engineering system for simultaneous inhalation exposures of rodents to fine and ultrafine concentrated ambient particulate matter from a common air source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 11m (PM2.5) has been associated with adverse health effects in both humans and animals. Specific properties of either fine (0.1-2.5 11m), or ultrafine « 0.1 11m) PM responsible for exposure related he...

  16. Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in inflammatory immune responses induced by fine and coarse ambient air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Shoenfelt, Joanna; Mitkus, Robert J.; Zeisler, Rolf; Spatz, Rabia O.; Powell, Jan; Fenton, Matthew J.; Squibb, Katherine A.; Medvedev, Andrei E.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of proinflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient air particulate matter has been suggested to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases in the lungs. However, receptors and mechanisms underlying these responses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether TLR2, TLR4, and the key adaptor protein, MyD88, mediate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fine and coarse PM. TLR2 deficiency blunted macrophage TNF-α and IL-6 expression in response to fine (PM2.5), while not affecting cytokine-inducing ability of coarse NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1648) particles. In contrast, TLR4−/− macrophages showed inhibited cytokine expression upon stimulation with NIST SRM 1648 but exhibited normal responses to PM2.5. Preincubation with polymyxin B markedly suppressed the capacity of NIST SRM 1648 to elicit TNF-α and IL-6, indicating endotoxin as a principal inducer of cytokine responses. Overexpression of TLR2 in TLR2/4-deficient human embryonic kidney 293 cells imparted PM2.5 sensitivity, as judged by IL-8 gene expression, whereas NIST SRM 1648, but not PM2.5 elicited IL-8 expression in 293/TLR4/MD-2 transfectants. Engagement of TLR4 by NIST SRM 1648 induced MyD88-independent expression of the chemokine RANTES, while TLR2-reactive NIST IRM PM2.5 failed to up-regulate this response. Consistent with the shared use of MyD88 by TLR2 and TLR4, cytokine responses of MyD88−/− macrophages to both types of air PM were significantly reduced. These data indicate differential utilization of TLR2 and TLR4 but shared use of MyD88 by fine and coarse air pollution particles. PMID:19406832

  17. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth.

  18. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  19. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  20. Source apportionment of ambient fine particulate matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using hourly resolved PM chemical composition data.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Landis, Matthew S; Norris, Gary A; Vedantham, Ram; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July-August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite of semi-continuous sampling and monitoring instruments. Dynamic variations in the sub-hourly concentrations of source 'marker' elements were observed when discrete plumes from local sources impacted the sampling site. Hourly averaged PM2.5 composition data for 639 samples were used to identify and apportion PM2.5 emission sources using the multivariate receptor modeling techniques EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) v4.2 and EPA Unmix v6.0. Source contribution estimates from PMF and Unmix were then evaluated using the Sustained Wind Instance Method (SWIM), which identified plausible source origins. Ten sources were identified by both PMF and Unmix: (1) secondary sulfate, (2) secondary nitrate characterized by a significant diurnal trend, (3) iron and steel production, (4) a potassium-rich factor attributable to iron/steel slag waste processing, (5) a cadmium-rich factor attributable to incineration, (6) an oil refinery characterized by La/Ce>1 specific to south wind, (7) oil combustion, (8) coal combustion, (9) motor vehicles, and (10) road dust enriched with organic carbon. While both models apportioned secondary sulfate, oil refinery, and oil combustion PM2.5 masses closely, the mobile and industrial source apportionments differed. Analyses were also carried out to help infer time-of-day variations in the contributions of local sources.

  1. Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Ma, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, Chinese Environmental Bureau modified its National Ambient Air Quality Standards to include fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent air pollution monitoring data shows that numerous locations have exceeded this standard, which may have resulted in avoidable adverse health effects. For example, among the 74 Chinese cities with PM2.5 monitoring data in 2013, only three cities attained the annual air quality standard (35 μg/m3). This study aimed to quantify the potential short- and long-term health benefits from achieving the Chinese ambient air quality standard and WHO's air quality objectives. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the short-term association of mortality with changes in daily PM2.5 concentrations, based on which we estimated the potential premature mortality reduction that would have been achieved during the period of 2012-2015 if the daily air quality standard had been met in Guangzhou, China; we also estimated the avoidable deaths if attaining the annual air quality standard using the relative risk obtained from a previous cohort study. During the study period, there were 160 days exceeding the national daily PM2.5 standard (75 μg/m3) in Guangzhou, and the annual average concentration (47.7 μg/m3) was higher than the air quality standard of 35 μg/m3. Significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in daily death counts of 0.95% (95% CI: 0.56%, 1.34%) in natural mortality, 1.31% (95% CI: 0.75%, 1.87%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.94%) in respiratory mortality. The health benefits of attaining the national daily air quality standard of PM2.5 (75 μg/m3) would have prevented 143 [95% confidence interval (CI): 84, 203] fewer natural deaths, including 84 (95% CI: 48, 121) fewer cardiovascular deaths and 27 (95% CI: 5, 49) fewer respiratory deaths. Had the annual PM2.5 levels been reduced to 35 μg/m3, an estimated 3875

  2. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  3. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  4. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Suppresses In Vivo Proliferation of Bone Marrow Stem Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Xie, Xiaoyun; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Dylan Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Aims Some environmental insults, such as fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair the function of stem cells. However, it is unknown if PM exposure could affect the population of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The present study was to investigate the effects of PM on BMSCs population and related mechanism(s). Main Metheods PM was intranasally distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry with antibodies for BMSCs, Annexin V and BrdU ware used to determine the number of BMSCs and the levels of their apoptosis and proliferation in vivo. Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) level was determined in the BM cells with western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in BMSCs population, proliferation, and apotosis, experiments were repeated using N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated wild type mice or a triple transgenic mouse line with overexpression of antioxidant network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase-1 with decreased in vivo ROS production. Key Findings PM treatment significantly reduced BMSCs population in association with increased ROS formation, decreased P-Akt level, and inhibition of proliferation of BMSCs without induction of apoptosis. NAC treatment or AON overexpression with reduced ROS formation effectively prevented PM-induced reduction of BMSCs population and proliferation with partial recovery of P-Akt level. Significance PM exposure significantly decreased the population of BMSCs due to diminished proliferation via ROS-mediated mechanism (could be partially via inhibition of Akt signaling). PMID:26058063

  5. Fine particulate matter national ambient air quality standards: public health impact on populations in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2005-09-01

    In this article we identify the magnitude of general and susceptible populations within the northeastern United States that would benefit from compliance with alternative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual and 24-hr mass-based standards for particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Understanding the scale of susceptibility in relation to the stringency or protectiveness of PM standards is important to achieving the public health protection required by the Clean Air Act of 1970. Evaluative tools are therefore necessary to place into regulatory context available health and monitoring data appropriate to the current review of the PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Within the New England, New Jersey, and New York study area, 38% of the total population are < 18 or > or =65 years of age, 4-18% of adults have cardiopulmonary or diabetes health conditions, 12-15% of children have respiratory allergies or lifetime asthma, and 72% of all persons (across child, adult, and elderly age groups) live in densely populated urban areas with elevated PM2.5 concentrations likely creating heightened exposure scenarios. The analysis combined a number of data sets to show that compliance with a range of alternative annual and 24-hr PM2.5 standard groupings would affect a large fraction of the total population in the Northeast. This work finds that current PM2.5 standards in the eight-state study area affect only 16% of the general population, who live in counties that do not meet the existing annual/24-hr standard of 15/65 microg/m3. More protective PM2.5 standards recommended or enacted by California and Canada would protect 84-100% of the Northeast population. Standards falling within current ranges recommended by the U.S. EPA would protect 29-100% of the Northeast population. These considerations suggest that the size of general and susceptible populations affected by the stringency of alternative PM standards has

  6. Global Estimates of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth: Development and Application

    PubMed Central

    van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Kahn, Ralph; Levy, Robert; Verduzco, Carolyn; Villeneuve, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic and health impact studies of fine particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are limited by the lack of monitoring data, especially in developing countries. Satellite observations offer valuable global information about PM2.5 concentrations. Objective In this study, we developed a technique for estimating surface PM2.5 concentrations from satellite observations. Methods We mapped global ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite instruments and coincident aerosol vertical profiles from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Results We determined that global estimates of long-term average (1 January 2001 to 31 December 2006) PM2.5 concentrations at approximately 10 km × 10 km resolution indicate a global population-weighted geometric mean PM2.5 concentration of 20 μg/m3. The World Health Organization Air Quality PM2.5 Interim Target-1 (35 μg/m3 annual average) is exceeded over central and eastern Asia for 38% and for 50% of the population, respectively. Annual mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 80 μg/m3 over eastern China. Our evaluation of the satellite-derived estimate with ground-based in situ measurements indicates significant spatial agreement with North American measurements (r = 0.77; slope = 1.07; n = 1057) and with noncoincident measurements elsewhere (r = 0.83; slope = 0.86; n = 244). The 1 SD of uncertainty in the satellite-derived PM2.5 is 25%, which is inferred from the AOD retrieval and from aerosol vertical profile errors and sampling. The global population-weighted mean uncertainty is 6.7 μg/m3. Conclusions Satellite-derived total-column AOD, when combined with a chemical transport model, provides estimates of global long-term average PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:20519161

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  8. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  9. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambliss, S. E.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Zeinali, M.; Minjares, R.

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM2.5) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m-3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants.

  10. Ambient fine particulate air pollution triggers ST-elevation myocardial infarction, but not non-ST elevation myocardial infarction: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We and others have shown that increases in particulate air pollutant (PM) concentrations in the previous hours and days have been associated with increased risks of myocardial infarction, but little is known about the relationships between air pollution and specific subsets of myocardial infarction, such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods Using data from acute coronary syndrome patients with STEMI (n = 338) and NSTEMI (n = 339) and case-crossover methods, we estimated the risk of STEMI and NSTEMI associated with increased ambient fine particle (<2.5 um) concentrations, ultrafine particle (10-100 nm) number concentrations, and accumulation mode particle (100-500 nm) number concentrations in the previous few hours and days. Results We found a significant 18% increase in the risk of STEMI associated with each 7.1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration in the previous hour prior to acute coronary syndrome onset, with smaller, non-significantly increased risks associated with increased fine particle concentrations in the previous 3, 12, and 24 hours. We found no pattern with NSTEMI. Estimates of the risk of STEMI associated with interquartile range increases in ultrafine particle and accumulation mode particle number concentrations in the previous 1 to 96 hours were all greater than 1.0, but not statistically significant. Patients with pre-existing hypertension had a significantly greater risk of STEMI associated with increased fine particle concentration in the previous hour than patients without hypertension. Conclusions Increased fine particle concentrations in the hour prior to acute coronary syndrome onset were associated with an increased risk of STEMI, but not NSTEMI. Patients with pre-existing hypertension and other cardiovascular disease appeared particularly susceptible. Further investigation into mechanisms by which PM can preferentially trigger STEMI over NSTEMI

  11. Two-Step Single Particle Mass Spectrometry for On-Line Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Bente, M.; Sklorz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed as trace products in combustion processes and are emitted to the atmosphere. Larger PAH have low vapour pressure and are predominantly bound to the ambient fine particulate matter (PM). Upon inhalation, PAH show both, chronic human toxicity (i.e. many PAH are potent carcinogens) as well as acute human toxicity (i.e. inflammatory effects due to oxi-dative stress) and are discussed to be relevant for the observed health effect of ambient PM. Therefore a better understanding of the occurrence, dynamics and particle size dependence of particle bound-PAH is of great interest. On-line aerosol mass spectrometry in principle is the method of choice to investigate the size resolved changes in the chemical speciation of particles as well the status of internal vs. external mixing of chemical constituents. However the present available aerosol mass spectrometers (ATOFMS and AMS) do not allow detection of PAH from ambient air PM. In order to allow a single particle based monitoring of PAH from ambient PM a new single particle laser ionisation mass spectrometer was built and applied. The system is based on ATOFMS principle but uses a two- step photo-ionization. A tracked and sized particle firstly is laser desorbed (LD) by a IR-laser pulse (CO2-laser, λ=10.2 μm) and subsequently the released PAH are selectively ionized by an intense UV-laser pulse (ArF excimer, λ=248 nm) in a resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation process (REMPI). The PAH-ions are detected in a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A virtual impactor enrichment unit is used to increase the detection frequency of the ambient particles. With the current inlet system particles from about 400 nm to 10 μm are accessible. Single particle based temporal profiles of PAH containing particles ion (size distribution and PAH speciation) have been recorded in Oberschleissheim, Germany from ambient air. Furthermore profiles of relevant emission sources (e

  12. Community-Wide Distribution of a Catalytic Device to Reduce Winter Ambient Fine Particulate Matter from Residential Wood Combustion: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Fay; Todd, John; Williamson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Residential wood combustion is the main source of elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during winter in many towns of Tasmania, Australia. A commercially available firebox catalyst in Australia has previously been shown to reduce visible smoke emissions and the manufacturer reports reductions in particle emissions generated from individual wood heaters in laboratory settings. This study aimed to evaluate the potential for community-wide distribution of the catalyst to improve the ambient winter air quality in the field. The study was set in four rural towns in northern Tasmania with similar topography, population size, and proportion of houses using wood heaters for space heating. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological conditions were monitored in all locations by fixed stations from May-September, 2013 and 2014. In June 2014, residents of one town, Perth, were offered a free catalyst for placement in their fireboxes. A general linear model evaluated the impact of the intervention using an indicator variable adjusted for hourly conditions of weather. Almost 80% of wood heater owners in Perth accepted a catalytic device. However, no significant changes in ambient PM2.5 concentrations were associated with the catalyst trial. Future community-level research should address maintenance of the catalyst in the firebox, and the adequacy of conditions that facilitate catalysed combustion in individual heaters. PMID:27902719

  13. Association of cardiopulmonary health effects with source-appointed ambient fine particulate in Beijing, China: a combined analysis from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Wei, Hongying; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Hao, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Qin, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Xinbiao

    2014-03-18

    Previous studies have associated ambient particulate chemical constituents with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects. However, specific pollution sources behind the cardiopulmonary health effects of ambient particles are uncertain. We examined the cardiopulmonary health effects of fine particles (PM2.5) from different pollution sources in Beijing, China, among a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study subjects were repeatedly examined for a series of cardiopulmonary health indicators during three 2-month-long study periods (suburban period, urban period 1, and urban period 2) in 2010-2011 before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution levels and contents. Daily ambient PM2.5 mass samples were collected over the study and measured for 29 chemical constituents in the laboratory. Source appointment for ambient PM2.5 was performed using Positive Matrix Factorization, and mixed-effects models were used to estimate the cardiopulmonary effects associated with source-specific PM2.5 concentrations. Seven PM2.5 sources were identified as traffic emissions (12.0%), coal combustion (22.0%), secondary sulfate/nitrate (30.2%), metallurgical emission (0.4%), dust/soil (12.4%), industry (6.9%), and secondary organic aerosol (9.9%). Ambient PM2.5 in the suburban campus had larger contributions from secondary sulfate/nitrate (41.8% vs. 22.9%-26.0%) and metallurgical emission (0.7% vs. 0.3%) as compared to that in the urban campus), whereas PM2.5 in the urban campus had larger contributions from traffic emissions (13.0%-16.3% vs. 5.1%), coal combustion (21.0%-30.7% vs. 10.7%), and secondary organic aerosol (9.7%-12.0% vs. 8.7%) as compared to that in the suburban campus. Potential key sources were identified for PM2.5 effects on inflammatory biomarkers (secondary sulfate/nitrate and dust/soil), blood pressure (coal combustion and metallurgical emission), and pulmonary function (dust/soil and industry). Analyses using another

  14. Source apportionment of ambient fine and coarse particulate matter at the Fort McKay community site, in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Landis, Matthew S; Patrick Pancras, J; Graney, Joseph R; White, Emily M; Edgerton, Eric S; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin E

    2017-04-15

    An ambient air particulate matter sampling study was conducted at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) AMS-1 Fort McKay monitoring station in the Athabasca Oil Sand Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada from February 2010 to July 2011. Daily 24h integrated fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter was collected using a sequential dichotomous sampler. Over the duration of the study, 392 valid daily dichotomous PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 sample pairs were collected with concentrations of 6.8±12.9μgm(-3) (mean±standard deviation) and 6.9±5.9μgm(-3), respectively. A subset of 100 filter pairs was selected for element analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Application of the U.S. EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to the study data matrix resolved five PM2.5 sources explaining 96% of the mass including oil sands upgrading (32%), fugitive dust (26%), biomass combustion (25%), long-range Asian transport lead source (9%), and winter road salt (4%). An analysis of historical PM2.5 data at this site shows that the impact of smoke from wildland fires was particularly high during the summer of 2011. PMF resolved six PM10-2.5 sources explaining 99% of the mass including fugitive haul road dust (40%), fugitive oil sand (27%), a mixed source fugitive dust (16%), biomass combustion (12%), mobile source (3%), and a local copper factor (1%). Results support the conclusion of a previous epiphytic lichen biomonitor study that near-field atmospheric deposition in the AOSR is dominated by coarse fraction fugitive dust from bitumen mining and upgrading operations, and suggest that fugitive dust abatement strategies targeting the three major sources of PM10-2.5 (e.g., oil sand mining, haul roads, bulk material stockpiles) would significantly reduce near-field atmospheric deposition gradients in the AOSR and reduce ambient PM concentrations in the Fort McKay community.

  15. Fine Ambient Particulate and Ozone Co-Exposures in Durham, North Carolina: Influence of Season on Particle Chemistry and Cardiovascular Responses in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the presence of one air pollutant modifies the cardiovascular health effects of another while controlled exposure studies in humans have documented synergistic effects of co-exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) on bloo...

  16. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  17. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G. Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly. A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates. A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09–1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81). Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research. PMID:27149464

  18. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  19. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5.

  20. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  1. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh site.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Mangelson, Nolan F; Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K

    2007-10-01

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NO(x), NO2, and O3 concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. These findings are consistent with the majority of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport, and thus decoupled from local

  2. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  3. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  4. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  5. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  6. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  7. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock; Jerry L. Penland

    2004-10-15

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), which included the establishment and operation of four ambient air monitoring sites located in the Upper Ohio River Valley (UORV). Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected for the UOVRP were collocated at existing local and/or state air quality monitoring stations. The goal of the UORVP was to characterize the nature and composition of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases. In the process, the objectives of the UORVP were to examine the ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} as compared with the promulgated PM{sub 2.5} standards, the geographical, seasonal and temporal variations of ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}, the primary chemical constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, and the correlations between ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases, other gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters. A variety of meteorological and pollutant measurement devices, including several different PM{sub 2.5} samplers that provided either real-time or integrated concentration data, were deployed at the monitoring sites. The frequency of integrated sampling varied throughout the UORVP study period and was as follows: ''Intensive'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which samples were collected on a relatively frequent basis (ranged from 6-hour integrated samples collected round-the-clock to one 24-hour integrated sample collected every third day). ''Background'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which 24-hour integrated samples were collected every third or sixth day.

  8. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock; Jerry L. Penland

    2004-04-15

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), which included the establishment and operation of four ambient air monitoring sites located in the Upper Ohio River Valley (UORV). Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected for the UOVRP were collocated at existing local and/or state air quality monitoring stations. The goal of the UORVP was to characterize the nature and composition of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases. In the process, the objectives of the UORVP were to examine the ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} as compared with the promulgated PM{sub 2.5} standards, the geographical, seasonal and temporal variations of ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}, the primary chemical constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, and the correlations between ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases, other gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters. A variety of meteorological and pollutant measurement devices, including several different PM{sub 2.5} samplers that provided either real-time or integrated concentration data, were deployed at the monitoring sites. The frequency of integrated sampling varied throughout the UORVP study period and was as follows: (1) ''Intensive'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which samples were collected on a relatively frequent basis (ranged from 6-hour integrated samples collected round-the-clock to one 24-hour integrated sample collected every third day). (2) ''Background'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which 24-hour integrated samples were collected every third or sixth day. Sampling activities for the UORVP were initiated in February 1999 and concluded in February 2003. This semi-annual Technical Progress Report summarizes the data analyses and interpretations

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock; Jerry L. Penland

    2004-12-27

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), which included the establishment and operation of four ambient air monitoring sites located in the Upper Ohio River Valley (UORV). Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected for the UOVRP were collocated at existing local or state air quality monitoring stations. The goal of the UORVP was to characterize the nature and composition of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases. In the process, the objectives of the UORVP were to examine the ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} as compared with the promulgated PM{sub 2.5} standards, the geographical, seasonal and temporal variations of ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}, the primary chemical constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, and the correlations between ambient air concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and its precursor gases, other gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters. A variety of meteorological and pollutant measurement devices, including several different PM{sub 2.5} samplers that provided either real-time or integrated concentration data, were deployed at the monitoring sites. The frequency of integrated sampling varied throughout the UORVP study period and was as follows: (1) ''Intensive'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which samples were collected on a relatively frequent basis (ranged from 6-hour integrated samples collected round-the-clock to one 24-hour integrated sample collected every third day). (2) ''Background'' sampling periods were defined as periods in which 24-hour integrated samples were collected every third or sixth day. Sampling activities for the UORVP were initiated in February 1999 and concluded in February 2003. This Final Technical Progress Report summarizes the data analyses and interpretations conducted

  10. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (p<0.05). For each interquartile range increase in iron (1-day, 0.51 μg/m(3)) and nickel (2-day, 2.5 ng/m(3)), there were a 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2%, 3.7%] increase and a 1.8% (95% CI: 0.2%, 3.4%) increase in Ox-LDL, respectively. We also found that each interquartile range increase in calcium (1-day, 0.7 μg/m(3)) was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 0.7%, 9.1%) increase in sCD36. Among the pollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis.

  11. Association of Short-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter with Skin Symptoms in Schoolchildren: A Panel Study in a Rural Area of Western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Kyoko; Hantan, Degejirihu; Tohda, Yuji; Shimizu, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have unmasked the deleterious effects of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on health. However, epidemiologic evidence focusing on the effects of PM2.5 on skin health remains limited. An important aspect of Asian dust (AD) in relationship to health is the amount of PM2.5 contained therein. Several studies have demonstrated that AD can aggravate skin symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD particles on skin symptoms in schoolchildren. A total of 339 children recorded daily skin symptom scores during February 2015. Light detection and ranging were used to calculate AD particle size. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among skin symptoms and the daily levels of PM2.5 and AD particles. Increases in the levels of PM2.5 and AD particles were not related to an increased risk of skin symptom events, with increases of 10.1 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01 km−1 in AD particles changing odds ratios by 1.03 and 0.99, respectively. These results suggest that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD does not impact skin symptoms in schoolchildren. PMID:28335405

  12. Long-term source apportionment of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Los Angeles Basin: a focus on emissions reduction from vehicular sources.

    PubMed

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Ostro, Bart D; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-10-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was utilized to quantify sources of ambient PM2.5 in central Los Angeles (LA) and Rubidoux, using the Speciation Trends Network data, collected between 2002 and 2013. Vehicular emissions (including gasoline and diesel vehicles) were the second major contributor to PM2.5, following secondary aerosols, with about 20% contribution to total mass in both sites. Starting in 2007, several major federal, state, and local regulations on vehicular emissions were implemented. To assess the effect of these regulations, daily-resolved vehicular source contributions from 2002 to 2006 were pooled together and compared to the combination of 2008 to 2012 datasets. Compared to the 2002-2006 dataset, the median values of vehicular emissions in 2008-2012 statistically significantly decreased by 24 and 21% in LA and Rubidoux, respectively. These reductions were noted despite an overall increase or similarity in the median values of the daily flow of vehicles after 2007, at the sites.

  13. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, L. E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-04-01

    An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5) reactive oxygen species (ROS) was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH). Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle) ROS components (ROSt) alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg) by means of an inline filter. Particle phase ROS (ROSp) was determined by difference between ROSt and ROSg. The instrument was deployed in urban Atlanta, Georgia, and at a rural site during various seasons. Concentrations from the online instrument generally agreed well with those from an intensive filter measurement of ROSp. Concentrations of the ROSp measurements made with this instrument were lower than reported in other studies, often below the instrument's average limit of detection (0.15 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3). Mean ROSp concentrations were 0.26 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the Atlanta urban sites compared to 0.14 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the rural site.

  14. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, L. E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5) reactive oxygen species (ROS) was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH). Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle) ROS components (ROSt) alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg) by means of an inline filter. Particle phase ROS (ROSp) was determined by the difference between ROSt and ROSg. The instrument was deployed in urban Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and at a rural site during various seasons. Concentrations from the online instrument generally agreed well with those from an intensive filter measurement of ROSp. Concentrations of the ROSp measurements made with this instrument were lower than reported in other studies, often below the instrument's average limit of detection (0.15 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3). Mean ROSp concentrations were 0.26 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the Atlanta urban sites compared to 0.14 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the rural site.

  15. Infrared spectral behavior of fine particulate solids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Transmission and emission spectra of clouds and layers of fine particulate samples of quartz, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide in the 6.5-35-??m wavelength range are presented. They demonstrate that the behavior of layers of particles constitutes a good analogue for a cloud of particles; that individual micrometer-sized particles emit most where they absorb most; that as the size of the particle is increased, the emission features reverse polarity and the spectrum approaches that of one obtained from a polished plate; and that as the particle layer-thickness increases, radiative interaction becomes increasingly important so that the emission maximum shifts from the strongest to weaker features, or produces a maximum at the Christiansen wavelength.

  16. Toxicological and epidemiological studies of cardiovascular effects of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components: coherence and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Morton

    2014-04-01

    Recent investigations on PM2.5 constituents' effects in community residents have substantially enhanced our knowledge on the impacts of specific components, especially the HEI-sponsored National Particle Toxicity Component (NPACT) studies at NYU and UW-LRRI that addressed the impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) effects. NYU's mouse inhalation studies at five sites showed substantial variations in aortic plaque progression by geographic region that was coherent with the regional variation in annual IHD mortality in the ACS-II cohort, with both the human and mouse responses being primarily attributable to the coal combustion source category. The UW regressions of associations of CVD events and mortality in the WHI cohort, and of CIMT and CAC progression in the MESA cohort, indicated that [Formula: see text] had stronger associations with CVD-related human responses than OC, EC, or Si. The LRRI's mice had CVD-related biomarker responses to [Formula: see text]. NYU also identified components most closely associated with daily hospital admissions (OC, EC, Cu from traffic and Ni and V from residual oil). For daily mortality, they were from coal combustion ([Formula: see text], Se, and As). While the recent NPACT research on PM2.5 components that affect CVD has clearly filled some major knowledge gaps, and helped to define remaining uncertainties, much more knowledge is needed on the effects in other organ systems if we are to identify and characterize the most effective and efficient means for reducing the still considerable adverse health impacts of ambient air PM. More comprehensive speciation data are needed for better definition of human responses.

  17. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-30

    The report discusses the following conclusions: (1) The TEOM equipment performed as well as the sequential filter samplers in accounting for ambient PM{sub 2.5} levels; however, the FRM-obtained data was consistently lower than the averages from the TEOM/DRI-SFS measurements; (2) The trending in the PM{sub 2.5} levels was similar for Lawrenceville and Holbrook, which represent an urban and a rural site sixty-five miles apart. This implies that the PM{sub 2.5} levels appear to be impacted more by regional than by local effects; (3) The absolute median PM{sub 2.5} levels were slightly higher for Lawrenceville than for Holbrook, implying that local urban environmental contributions had a minor but measurable effect on total PM{sub 2.5} mass concentration; (4) PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass concentration levels were consistently higher in summer than in winter, with intermediate levels observed in the spring and fall; (5) Sulfate levels predominated in the speciation data obtained from both the Holbrook and the Lawrenceville sites during winter and summer intensive sampling. Sulfate level measured at Holbrook were higher than those taken at Lawrenceville regardless of the season; (6) Ammonium levels remained relatively constant between seasons and between sites; (7) Nitrate levels measured at Lawrenceville were higher than those measured at Holbrook during winter intensive sampling. Nitrate levels measured during the summer intensive period were found to be very low at both locations; (8) In general, the predominant inorganic fraction of the samples analyzed could be described as being composed of a mixture of ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate with minor amounts of ammonium nitrate; (9) The PM10 fraction had a larger percentage of geological material and a smaller percentage of condensable material (ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and total carbon species) than the PM{sub 2.5} fraction for samples collected in winter at Lawrenceville; and

  18. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate (PM2.5) dust emissions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  19. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  20. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  1. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  2. Modeling residential fine particulate matter infiltration for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry U; Setton, Eleanor M; Allen, Ryan W; Keller, Peter C; Brauer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Individuals spend the majority of their time indoors; therefore, estimating infiltration of outdoor-generated fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) can help reduce exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies. As indoor measurements in individual homes are not feasible in large epidemiological studies, we evaluated the potential of using readily available data to predict infiltration of ambient PM(2.5) into residences. Indoor and outdoor light scattering measurements were collected for 84 homes in Seattle, Washington, USA, and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate residential infiltration efficiencies. Meteorological variables and spatial property assessment data (SPAD), containing detailed housing characteristics for individual residences, were compiled for both study areas using a geographic information system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct models of infiltration based on these data. Heating (October to February) and non-heating (March to September) season accounted for 36% of the yearly variation in detached residential infiltration. Two SPAD housing characteristic variables, low building value, and heating with forced air, predicted 37% of the variation found between detached residential infiltration during the heating season. The final model, incorporating temperature and the two SPAD housing characteristic variables, with a seasonal interaction term, explained 54% of detached residential infiltration. Residences with low building values had higher infiltration efficiencies than other residences, which could lead to greater exposure gradients between low and high socioeconomic status individuals than previously identified using only ambient PM(2.5) concentrations. This modeling approach holds promise for incorporating infiltration efficiencies into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification.

  3. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  4. A comprehensive particulate matter monitoring system and dosimetry-based ambient particulate matter standards.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yousheng

    2006-04-01

    A numerical particulate matter (PM) measurement model is developed to characterize and evaluate PM sampling methods. Simulations are conducted using the model to evaluate currently widely used PM samplers, including Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers. The simulations show that current PM samplers are very vulnerable to both changes in measurement target (i.e., natural variability of particle size distribution) and the sampler's design, manufacturing, and operating conditions, potentially resulting in significant errors in the monitoring data. The numerical model is used in conjunction with two types of commercially available PM monitoring devices to form a Comprehensive Particulate Matter Monitoring System (CPMMS). The first type of device can be any mass-based PM monitor with a well-defined sampling efficiency curve. The second type of device is one capable of measuring particle size distribution with a reasonably good relative accuracy between size categories but not necessarily accurate in measuring absolute mass concentrations. This study shows that CPMMS can produce much higher quality PM monitoring data than the current PM samplers under the same conditions. In addition, unlike past and current PM monitoring data such as total suspended particulates, coarse PM (PM10), fine PM (PM2.5), etc., the CPMMS monitoring data will survive changes in PM regulatory definition. A new concept, dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards, is proposed to define ambient PM level based on the deposition fraction of particles in the human respiratory tract. The dosimetry-based PM metrics is more meaningful because it correlates the ambient PM level with the portion that can be deposited in the respiratory tract without an arbitrary cutoff particle diameter. CPMMS makes dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards feasible.

  5. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  7. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Funk, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health.

  8. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  9. Vascular function and short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pope, C Arden; Hansen, Jaron C; Kuprov, Roman; Sanders, Matthew D; Anderson, Michael N; Eatough, Delbert J

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to fine particulate air pollution has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease and mortality. Proposed biological pathways imply that particle-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation play a role in activating the vascular endothelium and altering vascular function. Potential effects of fine particulate pollution on vascular function are explored using controlled chamber exposure and uncontrolled ambient exposure. Research subjects included four panels with a total of 26 healthy nonsmoking young adults. On two study visits, at least 7 days apart, subjects spent 3 hr in a controlled-exposure chamber exposed to 150-200 microg/m3 of fine particles generated from coal or wood combustion and 3 hr in a clean room, with exposure and nonexposure periods alternated between visits. Baseline, postexposure, and post-clean room reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) was conducted. A microvascular responsiveness index, defined as the log of the RH-PAT ratio, was calculated. There was no contemporaneous vascular response to the few hours of controlled exposure. Declines in vascular response were associated with elevated ambient exposures for the previous 2 days, especially for female subjects. Cumulative exposure to real-life fine particulate pollution may affect vascular function. More research is needed to determine the roles of age and gender, the effect of pollution sources, the importance of cumulative exposure over a few days versus a few hours, and the lag time between exposure and response.

  10. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., Nitrogen oxides, Ozone, Particulate matter, Regional haze, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements,...

  11. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

  12. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  13. PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE LEVELS AT UNMONITORED LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November and December of 1999, air concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulate matter were measured at two intensive sites in El Paso, Texas. The intensive sites included collocated measurements of NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air from both...

  14. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

  15. 76 FR 63251 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone'', which was signed on October 6, 2011 and posted on EPA's...: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals). EPA is...

  16. A review of the impact of fireworks on particulate matter in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chi

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of fireworks (FW) and firecrackers (FC) on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air, we reviewed evidence related to ambient PM during FW/FC periods; specifically, PM concentration, size, morphology, chemical components, including water-soluble ions and trace metals, and associated human health risks caused by exposure to FW/FC PM were reviewed. A large body of research suggests that outdoor ambient PM levels increase significantly during FW/FC displays. Furthermore, FW/FC PM remains suspended in the air, contributing to high PM concentrations for a long period. Increased PM from burning FW and FC mainly comprises fine and ultrafine spherical particles. Elevated levels of various trace metals, ions, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and organics in PM are present during FW/FC periods.

  17. Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

  18. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: STATIONARY SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION TESTING OF A SMELT TANK AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  19. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  20. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  1. 77 FR 28785 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone'' as a direct final rule on February 21... Particulate Matter and Ozone'' as a direct final rule on February 21, 2012. See 77 FR 10342. The direct...

  2. 77 FR 10341 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Final Rule and Proposed... Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental... Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals published August 8, 2011). In the...

  3. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area.

  4. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  5. Hydrocycloning thickening: dewatering and densification of fine particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews integrated ore-dressing machines with particular reference to hydrocyclones and describes a new concept, the cyclo-thick apparatus, which combines features of the hydrocyclone and the thickener in a single machine. Field tests conducted with the cyclo-thick demonstrated that the unit is remarkably simple and clean in design, and can effectively separate, dewater, and densify fine particulates. This unit should be considered as a viable alternative when evaluating potential solutions to a given separation, thickening, or filtration problem. Various practical applications are proposed.

  6. Providing Context for Ambient Particulate Matter and Estimates of Attributable Mortality.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2016-09-01

    Four papers on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) by Anenberg et al., Fann et al., Shin et al., and Smith contribute to a growing body of literature on estimated epidemiological associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and increases in health responses relative to baseline notes. This article provides context for the four articles, including a historical review of provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1970, requiring the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants such as particulate matter (PM). The substantial improvements in both air quality for PM and population health as measured by decreased mortality rates are illustrated. The most recent revision of the NAAQS for PM2.5 in 2013 by the Environmental Protection Agency distinguished between (1) uncertainties in characterizing PM2.5 as having a causal association with various health endpoints, and as all-cause mortality, and (2) uncertainties in concentration--excess health response relationships at low ambient PM2.5 concentrations below the majority of annual concentrations studied in the United States in the past. In future reviews, and potential revisions, of the NAAQS for PM2.5 , it will be even more important to distinguish between uncertainties in (1) characterizing the causal associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes, such as all-source mortality, irrespective of the concentrations, (2) characterizing the potency of major constituents of PM2.5 , and (3) uncertainties in the association between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes at various ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The latter uncertainties are of special concern as ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health morbidity and mortality rates approach background or baseline rates.

  7. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  8. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )...

  9. Urban-scale variability of ambient particulate matter attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M. T.; Hirshel, N.; Broday, D. M.

    Real-time sampling of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the size range 0.23-10 μm and of carbonaceous matter concentrations has been carried out in a carefully designed field campaign in proximate paired neighborhoods in Haifa, Israel. The paired sites are characterized by a similar population density and neighborhood-wise socioeconomic (deprivation) index but show distinct canopy coverage. The data indicate clear sub-urban (neighborhood) scale variations in any measured PM attribute, such as concentrations, size distribution, and carbonaceous matter content. Mean ambient PM levels were comparatively higher than in other urban studies whereas carbonaceous airborne PM concentrations were lower. On top of the diurnal and seasonal variability and in spite of the significant regional effect of the semi-arid climate, local emissions and removal processes affect the PM concentrations to which people residing in urbanized regions are exposed. Analysis of possible mechanisms that could affect the observed spatial sub-urban PM differences, including local meteorology and emissions, reveal that sub-urban variability of removal processes has a major influence on ambient PM levels. Observations suggest that on top of the regional air masses which affect the city air quality and emissions from local sources, a normally unnoticed removal process, showing urban scale variability, is interception by trees and dense vegetation. In particular, the observed sub-urban variability in ambient PM concentrations is attributed, in part, to local variation of removal processes, among them the neighborhood-wise deposition on available surfaces, including canopy.

  10. Fine particulate concentrations on sidewalks in five Southern California cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Houston, Douglas; Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Ferguson, Gavin; Pan, Hansheng; Bartolome, Christian

    2011-08-01

    This research provides an exploratory examination of the factors associated with fine particle concentrations in intersection and sidewalk microenvironments in five study areas in the Los Angeles region. The study areas range from low-density, auto-oriented development patterns to dense urban areas with mid- and high-rise buildings. Average concentrations of FP DT (fine particle concentrations measured with DustTrak Aerosol Monitors) ranged from about 20 to 70 μg m -3 across study areas during stationary and mobile (walking) monitoring in morning, midday, and evening periods. Results suggest that fine particle concentrations are highly variable on urban sidewalks. A regression analysis shows that concentrations are associated with traffic and the proximate built environment characteristics after accounting for meteorological factors, time of day, and location in the region. Regressions show higher concentrations were associated with lower wind speeds and higher temperatures, higher adjacent passenger vehicle traffic, higher ambient concentrations, and street canyons with buildings of over five stories. Locations in street canyons with 2-5 story buildings and with more paving and open space had lower concentrations after accounting for other factors. The associations with traffic and built environment variables explained a small amount of the variation in FP DT concentrations, suggesting that future research should examine the relative role of localized traffic and built environment characteristics compared to regional ambient concentrations and meteorology.

  11. Biomass burning contribution to ambient air particulate levels at Navrongo in the Savannah zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Francis G; Hopke, Philip K; Aboh, Innocent J K; Bamford, Samuel A

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo.

  12. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  13. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  14. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  15. 77 FR 34830 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final... Implementation Plans: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals... 5,917 ] Table III-5--2012-2013 Ozone-Season NOX Budgets, New Unit Set-Asides 2012-2013 Indian...

  16. 77 FR 10323 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Final Rule #0;#0... To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection... assumptions regarding flue gas treatment in existing scrubbers at seven units; (4) revise the Arkansas...

  17. 77 FR 10350 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Implementation Plans: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals... ozone in downwind states. After the final rule was published, it was brought to our attention that...

  18. A Global Perspective of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Its Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-03-31

    Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), its exceedance of national and international standards, sources, mechanism of toxicity, and harmful health effects of PM2.5 and its components. PM2.5 levels and exceedances of national and international standards were several times higher in Asian countries, while levels in Europe and USA were mostly well below the respective standards. Vehicular traffic has a significant influence on PM2.5 levels in urban areas; followed by combustion activities (biomass, industrial, and waste burning) and road dust. In urban atmosphere, fine particles are mostly associated with different health effects with old aged people, pregnant women, and more so children being the most susceptible ones. Fine PM chemical constituents severely effect health due to their carcinogenic or mutagenic nature. Most of the research indicated an exceedance of fine PM level of the standards with a diverse array of health effects based on PM2.5 chemical constituents. Emission reduction policies with epidemiological studies are needed to understand the benefits of sustainable control measures for fine PM mitigation.

  19. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  20. Characterization of ambient particulate matter in the Paso del Norte region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.W.; Currey, R.M.; Valenzuela, V.H.; Meuzelaar, H.L.C.; Sheya, S.A.; Anderson, J.R.; Banerjee, S.; Griffin, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    Air pollution in the Paso del Norte region, where West Texas abuts the southern boundary of New Mexico and the northern boundary of Chihuahua, Mexico is a common concern to the residents on both sides of the border. Parts of the region fail to meet the US and Mexican Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The regional air pollution problem is complicated due to arid climate, complex terrain topography, frequently occurring temperature inversions, extensive unpaved urban areas, an aging and poorly maintained vehicle fleet, and a number of other uncontrolled anthropogenic emission sources. The issue is further complicated by concerns arising from recent scientific evidence of the health effects associated with exposures to fine particulate matter. A study designed to address particulate matter (PM) air pollution problems in the region is currently undertaken by researchers from member universities of the Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy and several governmental agencies. The study attempts to (1) characterize the fine fraction of PM; (2) identify and characterize the major regional emission sources; (3) apportion the fine fraction of PM to the source emissions; and (4) establish a regional technological information clearinghouse. The short-term goal of this research is to initiate a research program to characterize, identify, and quantify the sources and nature of the PM in the region. The long-term goal of this study is to establish regional research capabilities to continue air quality monitoring, evaluation, modeling, and control after the implementation of the study. A scoping study to collect regional PM was conducted in December 1998.

  1. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter from Camp Victory, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    online DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2015.1072611 EVALUATION OF THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER FROM CAMP VICTORY, IRAQ K. L. Porter1, F. H. Y...studied. The relative toxicity of Camp Victory dust was evaluated by comparing it to particulate matter from northern Kuwait, a standard U.S. urban...the ubiquitous ambient particulate matter (PM). Airborne PM concentrations in SWA exceed environmental, occupational, and military exposure guidelines

  2. Analysis of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Christian Mark; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2014-10-01

    The mass fraction of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated at a subtropical urban aerosol observatory (TARO, 25.0 °N, 121.5 °E) in Taipei, Taiwan during August 2013. In particular, an integrated Denuder-FDMS-TEOM system was employed to study the effectiveness of the coupling of FDMS and TEOM instruments. The charcoal and MgO denuders used in this study performed a removal efficiency of 89 and 95% for positive interferences in OC and nitrate measurements, respectively, and did not induce a significant particle loss during the field campaign, suggesting that denuders should be considered as a standard device in PM2.5 instrumentation. Analysis on the mass concentration and speciation data found that, as a result of SVM loss, FRM-based measurement underestimated PM2.5 by 21% in our case. Coupling FDMS to TEOM significantly improved the bias in PM2.5 mass concentration from -25% to -14%. The negative bias in FDMS-TEOM was attributed to the failure of FDMS in recovering the mass of lost SVOMs in PM2.5. The results of this study highlight the significance of SVM in a subtropical urban environment, give a warning of underestimated health risk relevant to PM2.5 exposure, and necessitate further development of instrument and/or technique to provide accurate ambient levels of fine particulate matters.

  3. ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Dale R. Tree

    1999-09-01

    The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of pulverized coal flame heat transfer and soot modeling. A method has been investigated using two-color extinction along a line of sight within the flame which provides a continuous real-time measurement of the soot concentration. The method uses two inexpensive HeNe lasers and simple light detectors. The results of testing the method on a pilot scale 0.2 MW pulverized coal reactor demonstrate the method is working well in a qualitative sense and an error analysis performed on the uncertainty of the assumed values demonstrates the method to be accurate to within {+-} 30%. Additional experiments designed to quantify the measurement more accurately are ongoing. Measurements at the end of the reactor just prior to the exit showed soot could not be detected until the overall equivalence ratio became greater than 1.0. The detection limit for the method was estimated to be 1 x 10{sup -8} soot volume fraction. Peak soot concentration was found to approach a level of 0.88 x 10{sup -6} at the sootiest condition. The method was used to obtain an axial profile of soot concentration aligned with the down-fired pulverized coal flame for three different flame swirls of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 and an overall equivalence ratio of 1.2. The axial measurements showed the soot concentration to increase initially and level off to a constant maximum value. At 0.5 swirl the soot volume fraction increased more rapidly near the burner and both the 0.5 and 1.5 swirl cases showed that soot had reached a maximum by 0.9 m, but the 0 swirl soot concentration was still increasing. Previous measurements of species and velocity in the reactor

  4. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION OF THE VOLATILITY TEST FOR EQUIVALENCY OF OTHER METHODS TO THE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD FOR FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, EPA promulgated a new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This new standard was based on collection of an integrated mass sample on a filter. Field studies have demonstrated that the collection of semivolatile compoun...

  5. EVALUATION OF AN ANNUAL SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES - WHICH TEMPORAL FEATURES ARE CAPTURED?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motivated by growing concerns about the detrimental effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently promulgated a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5. The PM2.5 standard includes a 24-hour li...

  6. Fine particulate air pollution and total mortality among elderly Californians, 1973-2002.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2005-12-15

    Fine particulate air pollution has been associated with increases in long-term mortality in selected cohort studies, and this association has been influential in the establishment of air quality regulations for fine particles (PM(2.5)). However, this epidemiologic evidence has been questioned because of methodological issues, conflicting findings, and lack of an accepted causal mechanism. To further evaluate this association, the long-term relation between fine particulate air pollution and total mortality was examined in a cohort of 49, 975 elderly Californians, with a mean age of 65 yr as of 1973. These subjects, who resided in 25 California counties, were enrolled in 1959, recontacted in 1972, and followed from 1973 through 2002; 39, 846 deaths were identified. Proportional hazards regression models were used to determine their relative risk of death (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) during 1973-2002 by county of residence. The models adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, race, education, marital status, body mass index, occupational exposure, exercise, and a dietary factor. For the 35, 789 subjects residing in 11 of these counties, county-wide exposure to fine particles was estimated from outdoor ambient concentrations measured during 1979-1983 and RRs were calculated as a function of these PM(2.5) levels (mean of 23.4 microg/m(3)). For the initial period, 1973-1982, a small positive risk was found: RR was 1.04 (1.01-1.07) for a 10-microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5). For the subsequent period, 1983-2002, this risk was no longer present: RR was 1.00 (0.98-1.02). For the entire follow-up period, RR was 1.01 (0.99-1.03). The RRs varied somewhat among major subgroups defined by sex, age, education level, smoking status, and health status. None of the subgroups that had significantly elevated RRs during 1973-1982 had significantly elevated RRs during 1983-2002. The RRs showed no substantial variation by county of residence during any of the three follow

  7. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Korn, Leo; Chapman, Robert S.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with deficits in lung function growth among children in Western countries. However, few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where PM levels are often substantially higher. Methods Children (n=3273) aged 6–12 years were recruited from eight schools in four cities. The lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured using computerized spirometers twice a year for up to three years (1993–1996). Dichotomous samplers placed in each schoolyard were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10, respectively). Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between the quarterly average PM levels and lung function growth over the period of follow-up. Results Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the four cities ranged from 57 to 158 μg/m3 and 95 to 268 μg/m3, respectively. In multivariable models, an increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with decreases of 2.7 ml FEV1 (95% confidence interval= −3.5 to −2.0), 3.5 ml FVC (−4.3 to −2.7), 1.4 ml/year FEV1 growth (−1.8 to −0.9), and 1.5 ml/year FVC growth (−2.0 to −1.0). Similar results were seen with PM10 exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ambient particulate matter was associated with decreased growth in lung function among Chinese children. PMID:22407138

  8. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  9. Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yongping; Balluz, Lina; Strosnider, Heather; Wen, Xiao Jun; Li, Chaoyang; Qualters, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure, and among those that have, results are inconsistent. Objectives To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. Methods We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percentage of adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. Measurements and Main Results We derived county-level average daily concentration levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001–2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007–2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with an increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01–1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% credible interval, 0.99–1.14). Conclusions This study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States. Although we adjusted for selected county-level covariates and unobserved influences through Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling, the possibility of ecologic bias remains. PMID:26017067

  10. Evaluation of the TEOM method for measurement of ambient particulate mass in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Allen, G; Sioutas, C; Koutrakis, P; Reiss, R; Lurmann, F W; Roberts, P T

    1997-06-01

    Increased interest in the health effects of ambient particulate mass (PM) has focused attention on the evaluation of existing mass measurement methodologies and the definition of PM in ambient air. The Rupprecht and Patashnick Tapered Element Oscillating MicroBalance (TEOM) method for PM is compared with time-integrated gravimetric (manual) PM methods in large urban areas during different seasons. Comparisons are conducted for both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations. In urban areas, a substantial fraction of ambient PM can be semi-volatile material. A larger fraction of this component of PM10 may be lost from the TEOM-heated filter than the Federal Reference Method (FRM). The observed relationship between TEOM and FRM methods varied widely among sites and seasons. In East Coast urban areas during the summer, the methods were highly correlated with good agreement. In the winter, correlation was somewhat lower, with TEOM PM concentrations generally lower than the FRM. Rubidoux, CA, and two Mexican sites (Tlalnepantla and Merced) had the highest levels of PM10 and the largest difference between TEOM and manual methods. PM2.5 data from collocation of 24-hour manual samples with the TEOM are also presented. As most of the semi-volatile PM is in the fine fraction, differences between these methods are larger for PM2.5 than for PM10.

  11. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  12. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines in ambient air and airborne particulate matters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyüz, Mehmet

    2008-05-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines in ambient air and airborne particulate matters (PMs). The method includes collection of the particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using dichotomous Partisol 2025 sampler followed by extraction of the compounds into acidic solution, and pre-concentration of the compounds by percolating the air samples through the acidic solution, then ion-pair extraction of amines with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate and derivatisation with isobutyl chloroformate prior to their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. In the present study, ambient air and airborne particulate samples collected in Zonguldak province during summer and winter times of 2006-2007 were analysed for aliphatic and aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of these compounds at the levels of pg m-3 in air and airborne particulate samples. The seasonal distributions of bioactive amines in concentrations in ambient air and airborne PMs were evaluated as they are significant for the estimation of their effects on the environment and human health. The concentration levels of water soluble amines fluctuate significantly within a year with higher means and peak concentrations, probably due to the increased emissions from coal-fired domestic and central heating, in the winter times compared to the summer times. The results indicated that the relative amine content in particulates modulates with molecular mass and time of the year and the relative amine content especially in fine fractions of inhalable airborne particulates increases with the molecular mass of species but decreases with temperature.

  13. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  14. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  15. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  16. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  17. RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DATA USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION REVIEW OF EXISTING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for apportioning sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm are reviewed. Numerous procedural decisions must be made and algorithmic parameters selected when analyzing PM data with PMF. However, few publications docu...

  18. Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

  19. 77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base...

  20. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  1. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  2. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 10..., 51, 52, 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Based on its review of the air...

  3. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  4. Assessment of Population and Microenvironmental Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Wan

    A positive relationship exists between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) exposure and adverse health effects. PM2.5 concentration-response functions used in the quantitative risk assessment were based on findings from human epidemiological studies that relied on areawide ambient concentrations as surrogate for actual ambient exposure, which cannot capture the spatial and temporal variability in human exposures. The goal of the study is to assess inter-individual, geographic and seasonal variability in population exposures to inform the interpretation of available epidemiological studies, and to improve the understanding of how exposure-related factors in important exposure microenvironments contribute to the variability in individual PM2.5 exposure. Typically, the largest percentage of time in which an individual is exposed to PM2.5 of ambient origin occurs in indoor residence, and the highest ambient PM2.5 concentrations occur in transportation microenvironments because of the proximity to on-road traffic emissions. Therefore, indoor residence and traffic-related transportation microenvironments were selected for further assessment in the study. Population distributions of individual daily PM2.5 exposures were estimated for the selected regions and seasons using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM). For the indoor residence, the current practice by assuming the entire residence to be one large single zone for calculating the indoor residential PM 2.5 concentration was evaluated by applying an indoor air quality model, RISK, to compare indoor PM2.5 concentrations between single-zone and multi-zone scenarios. For the transportation microenvironments, one field data collection focused on in-vehicle microenvironment and was conducted to quantify the variability in the in-vehicle PM2.5 concentration with respect to the outside vehicle concentration for a wide range of conditions that affect intra-vehicle variability

  5. Fine particulate matter and the risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Arena, Vincent C; Rager, Judith R; Clougherty, Jane E; Michanowicz, Drew R; Sharma, Ravi K; Stacy, Shaina L

    2015-07-01

    The causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not well known. Recent investigations have suggested that air pollution, including PM2.5, may play a role in the onset of this condition. The objective of the present work was to investigate the association between prenatal and early childhood exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risk for childhood ASD. A population-based case-control study was conducted in children born between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 in six counties in Southwestern Pennsylvania. ASD cases were recruited from specialty autism clinics, local pediatric practices, and school-based special needs services. ASD cases were children who scored 15 or above on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and had written documentation of an ASD diagnosis. Controls were children without ASD recruited from a random sample of births from the Pennsylvania state birth registry and frequency matched to cases on birth year, gender, and race. A total of 217 cases and 226 controls were interviewed. A land use regression (LUR) model was used to create person- and time-specific PM2.5 estimates for individual (pre-pregnancy, trimesters one through three, pregnancy, years one and two of life) and cumulative (starting from pre-pregnancy) key developmental time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between estimated exposure to PM2.5 during key developmental time periods and risk of ASD, adjusting for mother's age, education, race, and smoking. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were elevated for specific pregnancy and postnatal intervals (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and year one), and postnatal year two was significant, (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.01-2.08). We also examined the effect of cumulative pregnancy periods; noting that starting with pre-pregnancy through pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratios are in the 1.46-1.51 range and significant for pre-pregnancy through year 2 (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.01-2.26). Our data indicate that both

  6. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D.; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m3 in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%–55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  7. Ambient Background Particulate Compositiion Outdoor Natural Background: Interferents/Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    the biological warfare detection world), you must conduct long term ( seasonally ) particulate monitoring. Anecdotal short term monitoring attempts...particulates (interferents or clutter) in the lower atmosphere at four locations along a transect in the UK for 2 years. In addition, seasonal , diurnal...CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND 9 2. UK AEROSOL BIODIVERSITY STUDY-2 YEARS, FOUR LOCATIONS. FOUR SEASONS 10 3. DoD SPONSORED ANAL YSIS OF UK

  8. Hydroxyl-radical-dependent DNA damage by ambient particulate matter from contrasting sampling locations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Tingming; Duffin, Rodger; Borm, Paul J.A.; Li Hui; Weishaupt, Christel; Schins, Roel P.F. . E-mail: roel.schins@uni-duesseldorf.de

    2006-05-15

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been reported to be associated with increased respiratory, cardiovascular, and malignant lung disease. Previously we have shown that PM can induce oxidative DNA damage in A549 human lung epithelial cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the variability of the DNA-damaging properties of PM sampled at different locations and times and to relate the observed effects to the hydroxyl-radical ({center_dot}OH)-generating activities of these samples. Weekly samples of coarse (10-2.5 {mu}m) and fine (<2.5 {mu}m) PM from four sites (Nordrheim Westfalen, Germany) were analyzed for hydrogen-peroxide-dependent {center_dot}OH formation using electron paramagnetic resonance and formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in calf thymus DNA using an immuno-dot-blot assay. DNA strand breakage by fine PM in A549 human lung epithelial cells was quantified using the alkaline comet assay. Both PM size distribution fractions elicited {center_dot}OH generation and 8-OHdG formations in calf thymus DNA. Significantly higher {center_dot}OH generation was observed for PM sampled at urban/industrial locations and for coarse PM. Samples of fine PM also caused DNA strand breakage in A549 cells and this damage could be prevented using the hydroxyl-radical scavengers 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observed DNA strand breakage appeared to correlate with the hydroxyl-radical-generating capacities of the PM samples but with different profiles for rural versus urban/industrial samples. In conclusion, when considered at equal mass, {center_dot}OH formation of PM shows considerable variability with regard to the sampling location and time and is correlated with its ability to cause DNA damage.

  9. Quantifying the sources of ozone, fine particulate matter, and regional haze in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Odman, M Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G; Hanedar, Asude; Boylan, James W; Brewer, Patricia F

    2009-07-01

    A detailed sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the contributions of various emission sources to ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and regional haze in the Southeastern United States. O3 and particulate matter (PM) levels were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and light extinction values were calculated from modeled PM concentrations. First, the base case was established using the emission projections for the year 2009. Then, in each model run, SO2, primary carbon (PC), NH3, NO(x) or VOC emissions from a particular source category in a certain geographic area were reduced by 30% and the responses were determined by calculating the difference between the results of the reduced emission case and the base case. The sensitivity of summertime O3 to VOC emissions is small in the Southeast and ground-level NO(x) controls are generally more beneficial than elevated NO(x) controls (per unit mass of emissions reduced). SO2 emission reduction is the most beneficial control strategy in reducing summertime PM2.5 levels and improving visibility in the Southeast and electric generating utilities are the single largest source of SO2. Controlling PC emissions can be very effective locally, especially in winter. Reducing NH3 emissions is an effective strategy to reduce wintertime ammonium nitrate (NO3NH4) levels and improve visibility; NO(x) emissions reductions are not as effective. The results presented here will help the development of specific emission control strategies for future attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the region.

  10. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  11. Fifteen-Year Global Time Series of Satellite-Derived Fine Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boys, B. L.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; MacDonell, R. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Cooper, M. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S. W.

    2014-10-07

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmental risk factor for premature mortality. We use aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from two satellite instruments, MISR and SeaWiFS, to produce a unified 15-year global time series (1998-2012) of ground-level PM2.5 concentration at a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) is used to relate each individual AOD retrieval to ground-level PM2.5. Four broad areas showing significant, spatially coherent, annual trends are examined in detail: the Eastern U.S. (-0.39 +/- 0.10 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)), the Arabian Peninsula (0.81 +/- 0.21 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)), South Asia (0.93 +/- 0.22 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)) and East Asia (0.79 +/- 0.27 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)). Over the period of dense in situ observation (1999-2012), the linear tendency for the Eastern U.S. (-0.37 +/- 0.13 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)) agrees well with that from in situ measurements (-0.38 +/- 0.06 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)). A GEOS-Chem simulation reveals that secondary inorganic aerosols largely explain the observed PM2.5 trend over the Eastern U.S., South Asia, and East Asia, while mineral dust largely explains the observed trend over the Arabian Peninsula.

  12. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsih; Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS), the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a) empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b) the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c) site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan) from 2005-2007.

  13. Generation of hydroxyl radicals from ambient fine particles in a surrogate lung fluid solution.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin H; Dillner, Ann M; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-02-01

    While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (*OH), few studies have quantified *OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of *OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol *OH mg(-1)-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles generated *OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at generating *OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in *OH production: on average (+/-sigma), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming *OH) to the SLF removed (90 +/- 5) % of *OH generation. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of *OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of *OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts.

  14. Generation of Hydroxyl Radicals from Ambient Fine Particles in a Surrogate Lung Fluid Solution

    PubMed Central

    Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin; Dillner, Ann M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (·OH), few studies have quantified ·OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of ·OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol ·OH mg−1-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles generated ·OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at generating ·OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in ·OH production: on average (± σ), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming ·OH) to the SLF removed (90 ± 5) % of ·OH generation. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of ·OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of ·OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts. PMID:19245037

  15. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  16. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Hales, Nicholas M; Barton, Caleb C; Ransom, Michael R; Allen, Ryan T; Pope, C Arden

    2016-03-01

    Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors.

  17. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in Lahore, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Schauer, James; Quraishi, Tauseef A.; Mahmood, Abid

    2010-03-01

    Lahore, Pakistan is an emerging megacity that is heavily polluted with high levels of particle air pollution. In this study, respirable particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) were collected every sixth day in Lahore from 12 January 2007 to 19 January 2008. Ambient aerosol was characterized using well-established chemical methods for mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), ionic species (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, calcium, and potassium), and organic species. The annual average concentration (±one standard deviation) of PM 2.5 was 194 ± 94 μg m -3 and PM 10 was 336 ± 135 μg m -3. Coarse aerosol (PM 10-2.5) was dominated by crustal sources like dust (74 ± 16%, annual average ± one standard deviation), whereas fine particles were dominated by carbonaceous aerosol (organic matter and elemental carbon, 61 ± 17%). Organic tracer species were used to identify sources of PM 2.5 OC and chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to estimate relative source contributions. On an annual basis, non-catalyzed motor vehicles accounted for more than half of primary OC (53 ± 19%). Lesser sources included biomass burning (10 ± 5%) and the combined source of diesel engines and residual fuel oil combustion (6 ± 2%). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was an important contributor to ambient OC, particularly during the winter when secondary processing of aerosol species during fog episodes was expected. Coal combustion alone contributed a small percentage of organic aerosol (1.9 ± 0.3%), but showed strong linear correlation with unidentified sources of OC that contributed more significantly (27 ± 16%). Brick kilns, where coal and other low quality fuels are burned together, are suggested as the most probable origins of unapportioned OC. The chemical profiling of emissions from brick kilns and other sources unique to Lahore would contribute to a better understanding of OC sources in this megacity.

  18. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Nicholas M.; Barton, Caleb C.; Ransom, Michael R.; Allen, Ryan T.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors. PMID:26945391

  19. Analysis of the Ambient Particulate Matter-induced Chromosomal Aberrations Using an In Vitro System.

    PubMed

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Koturbash, Igor; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Kavouras, Ilias; Pathak, Rupak

    2016-12-21

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a major world health concern, which may damage various cellular components, including the nuclear genetic material. To assess the impact of PM on nuclear genetic integrity, structural chromosomal aberrations are scored in the metaphase spreads of mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PM is collected from ambient air with a high volume total suspended particles sampler. The collected material is solubilized and filtered to retain the water-soluble, fine portion. The particles are characterized for chemical composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Different concentrations of particle suspension are added onto an in vitro culture of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages for a total exposure time of 72 hr, along with untreated control cells. At the end of exposure, the culture is treated with colcemid to arrest cells in metaphase. Cells are then harvested, treated with hypotonic solution, fixed in acetomethanol, dropped onto glass slides and finally stained with Giemsa solution. Slides are examined to assess the structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in metaphase spreads at 1,000X magnification using a bright-field microscope. 50 to 100 metaphase spread are scored for each treatment group. This technique is adapted for the detection of structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs), such as chromatid-type breaks, chromatid-type exchanges, acentric fragments, dicentric and ring chromosomes, double minutes, endoreduplication, and Robertsonian translocations in vitro after exposure to PM. It is a powerful method to associate a well-established cytogenetic endpoint to epigenetic alterations.

  20. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles. PMID:26402691

  1. The CCRUSH study: Characterization of coarse and fine particulate matter in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas Steven

    Particulate matter in the troposphere adversely impacts human health when inhaled and alters climate through cloud formation processes and by absorbing/scattering light. Particles smaller than 2.5 mum in diameter (fine particulate matter; PM2.5), are typically emitted from combustion-related sources and can form and grow through secondary processing in the atmosphere. Coarse particles (PM10-2.5), ranging 2.5 to 10 mum, are typically generated through abrasive processes, such as erosion of road surfaces, entrained via resuspension, and settle quickly out of the atmosphere due to their large size. After deciding against regulating PM10-2.5 in 2006 citing, among other reasons, mixed results from epidemiological studies of the pollutant and lack of knowledge on health impacts in rural areas, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) funded a series of studies that investigated the ambient composition, toxicology, and epidemiology of PM10-2.5. One such study, The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study, aimed to characterize the composition, sources, and health effects of PM10-2.5 in semi-arid northeastern Colorado and consisted of two field campaigns and an epidemiological study. Summarized here are the results from the two field campaigns, the first of which included over three years of continuous PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentration monitoring at multiple sites in urban-Denver and rural-Greeley, Colorado. This data set was used to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5. During the second year of continuous monitoring, PM 10-2.5 and PM2.5 filter samples were collected for compositional analyses that included: elemental composition, bulk elemental and organic carbon concentrations, water-soluble organic carbon concentrations, UV-vis absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and endotoxin content. Elemental composition was used to understand enrichment of trace elements in atmospheric particles and to

  2. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  3. Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Haberzettl, Petra; O’Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects of PM2.5 remain unclear. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 exposure decreases vascular insulin sensitivity by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress. Methods: Mice fed control (10–13% kcal fat) and high-fat (60% kcal fat, HFD) diets, treated with 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) or mice overexpressing lung-specific extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) were exposed to HEPA-filtered air or to concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) for 9 or 30 days, and changes in systemic and organ-specific insulin sensitivity and inflammation were measured. Results: In control diet–fed mice, exposure to CAP for 30 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in lung, heart, and aorta but not in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and did not affect adiposity or systemic glucose tolerance. In HFD-fed mice, 30-day CAP exposure suppressed insulin-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and increased adipose tissue inflammation and systemic glucose intolerance. In control diet–fed mice, a 9-day CAP exposure was sufficient to suppress insulin-stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and to decrease IκBα (inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB levels in the aorta. Treatment with the antioxidant TEMPOL or lung-specific overexpression of ecSOD prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and inflammation. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 induces vascular insulin resistance and inflammation triggered by a mechanism involving pulmonary oxidative stress. Suppression of vascular insulin signaling by PM2.5 may accelerate the progression to systemic insulin resistance, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity. Citation: Haberzettl P, O

  4. Carcinogenicity of airborne fine particulate benzo(a)pyrene: an appraisal of the evidence and the need for control.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F

    1981-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) originating from fossil fuel and other organic combustion processes is largely adsorbed on fine particulate and hence is a widespread atmospheric pollutant. Available emissions and air quality data are based on the total weight of particulate matter without reference to size and give little information on trends and concentrations of fine particulate BaP. Greater reliance on coal, synfuels and diesel fuel for energy production and transportation will significantly increase ambient levels of BaP. Because of the particulate size, BaP is substantially deposited in the lower lung and readily eluted into surrounding tissue. After elution in the lung, BaP is metabolically activated to its electrophilic, carcinogenic from by a complex enzyme system whose activity is increased by prior exposure to air pollutants, cigarette smoke and certain drugs. The resultant diol epoxide metabolite has been shown to bind covalently with the DNA of the lung. In experimental animals, BaP is a potent initiating carcinogen whose action is enhanced by sulfur dioxide, promoting agents and carrier fine particles. The effect of small, divided doses of BaP has been shown to be greater than that of a single high dose; no threshold has been established. Epidemiological studies show that mixtures containing BaP (such as urban air, industrial emissions and cigarette smoke) are carcinogenic and may interact synergistically. Occupational studies indicate that the action of BaP-containing mixtures is enhanced in the presence of SO2. However, quantitative risk assessment for BaP is precluded by problems in extrapolating to the general population from small-scale animal studies; uncertainties in findings of epidemiology; and imprecise exposure data. Existing stationary and mobile controls preferentially remove coarse particulate matter and are inefficient collectors of the particulate BaP. In the current absence of health and environmental standards for BaP, there is little incentive

  5. [Form of the particulate matter ambient air standards in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jun-Nan; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Bin; Lin, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Based on the principles from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States, an analysis was conducted to study the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter in China by methods of statistical regression, proportional rollback and controlling contrast maps, using the monitoring data of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) from 120 cities in China during year 2005 to 2012. It was found that for cities in China, when the annual arithmetic mean of PM10 was equal to the national standard, the non-exceedance rates of daily average PM10 in most cities were higher than 95.0% , and the average rate for all cities was 97.1%. The average non-exceedance rate was 96.3% for cities in North China and Northwest China, 96.6% for Northeast China, 97.2% for East China and Central South China, and 98.1% for Southwest China. When the 97th percentile was chosen as the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter for China, the 24-hour standard had an equal controlling strength with the annual standard. The 24-hour standard will become the controlling standard when larger percentiles were chosen, otherwise the contrary. By considering together the statistical characteristics of PM10 level in China, the robustness of the percentiles and protection of human health, the 95th percentile was suitable as the preferred form of the 24-hour standard of PM10 and PM2.5 in China.

  6. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  7. Variation in characteristics of ambient particulate matter at eight locations in the Netherlands - The RAPTES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strak, Maciej; Steenhof, Maaike; Godri, Krystal J.; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert; Kelly, Frank J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Hoek, Gerard; Janssen, Nicole A. H.

    2011-08-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown health effects related to short- and long-term exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM). It is not clear however which specific characteristics (e.g., size, components) or sources of PM are responsible for the observed effects. The aim of RAPTES (Risk of Airborne Particles: a Toxicological-Epidemiological hybrid Study) was to investigate which specific physical, chemical or oxidative characteristics of ambient PM are associated with adverse effects of PM on health. This was done by performing experimental exposure of human volunteers to air pollution at several real-world settings that had high contrast and low correlation between several PM characteristics. For this goal, eight sites in the Netherlands that differed in local PM emission sources were chosen for extensive air pollution characterization. Measurement sites included an underground train station, three different road traffic sites, an animal farm, a sea harbor, a site located in the vicinity of steelworks, and an urban background site. Five- to six-hours average concentration measurements at each site were made between June 2007 and October 2009. We measured PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentration (PNC), oxidative potential of PM, absorbance, endotoxin content, as well as elemental and chemical composition of PM, and gaseous pollutants concentrations. This paper presents a detailed characterization of particulate air pollution at the sampling sites. We found significant differences in all PM characteristics between the sites. The underground train station, compared to each outdoor location, had substantially higher concentrations of nearly all PM characteristics. The average PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations at the underground train station were 394 μg m -3 and 137 μg m -3, respectively, which was 14.1 and 7.6 times higher than the urban background. The sum of the concentrations of trace metals in fine and coarse PM was nearly

  8. SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Exposure of humans to PM results in increased mortality and morbidity. Recent toxicology studies have shown a number of pathophysiological pulmonary and car...

  9. DAILY SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATES OVER NEW YORK STATE: FINDINGS AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the potential utility of the application of a photochemical modeling system in providing simultaneous forecasts of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over New York State. To this end, daily simulations from the Community M...

  10. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment
    John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

  11. 76 FR 63860 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...; (4) revise the Arkansas ozone-season new unit set-aside to account for erroneously omitted projected... projected emissions for SO 2 , ozone- season NO X , and annual NO X ; (6) revise New Jersey's ozone...

  12. 75 FR 45075 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Matter and Ozone'' (Transport Rule) which is published elsewhere in today's issue of the Federal Register... ozone NAAQS. Public hearing: The proposal for which EPA is holding the public hearings is...

  13. RESPIRATORY TOXICOLOGCAL EFFECTS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT BODY:
    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants which were reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate mat...

  14. WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER CAUSES RESPIRATORY TRACT HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice

    Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1.<...

  15. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  16. Relationship between chemical composition and pulmonary toxicity of source-specific ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported incidence of cardio-pulmonary disease associated with increase in particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, the pulmonary toxicity potential of combustion and ambient PM were investigated using data from animal studies at the US EPA....

  17. EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, and DL Costa1 1US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC; 2UNC SPH and Curriculum in Toxic...

  18. Cellular oxidative response from exposure to size-resolved ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) derived from different sources may differ in toxicity. The goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro effects of ambient PM and PM components from eight different locations in the U.S. and to investigate the effects of ...

  19. Satellite Remote Sensing for Developing Time and Space Resolved Estimates of Ambient Particulate in Cleveland, OH.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Chu, Allen D; Foster, Andrew D; Peters, Thomas; Willis, Robert

    2011-09-01

    This article empirically demonstrates the use of fine resolution satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) to develop time and space resolved estimates of ambient particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameters (PM(2.5) and PM(10), respectively). AOD was computed at three different spatial resolutions, i.e., 2 km (means 2 km × 2 km area at nadir), 5 km, and 10 km, by using the data from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Multiresolution AOD from MODIS (AOD(MODIS)) was compared with the in situ measurements of AOD by NASA's AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sunphotometer (AOD(AERONET)) at Bondville, IL, to demonstrate the advantages of the fine resolution AOD(MODIS) over the 10-km AOD(MODIS), especially for air quality prediction. An instrumental regression that corrects AOD(MODIS) for meteorological conditions was used for developing a PM predictive model.The 2-km AOD(MODIS) aggregated within 0.025° and 15-min intervals shows the best association with the in situ measurements of AOD(AERONET). The 2-km AOD(MODIS) seems more promising to estimate time and space resolved estimates of ambient PM than the 10-km AOD(MODIS), because of better location precision and a significantly greater number of data points across geographic space and time. Utilizing the collocated AOD(MODIS) and PM data in Cleveland, OH, a regression model was developed for predicting PM for all AOD(MODIS) data points. Our analysis suggests that the slope of the 2-km AOD(MODIS) (instrumented on meteorological conditions) is close to unity with the PM monitored on the ground. These results should be interpreted with caution, because the slope of AOD(MODIS) ranges from 0.52 to 1.72 in the site-specific models. In the cross validation of the overall model, the root mean square error (RMSE) of PM(10) was smaller (2.04 µg/m(3) in overall model) than that of PM(2.5) (2.5 µg/m(3)). The predicted PM in the AOD

  20. Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Lung Function among Healthy College Students in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunquan; He, Mingquan; Wu, Simin; Zhu, Yaohui; Wang, Suqing; Shima, Masayuki; Tamura, Kenji; Ma, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) has been associated with impaired lung function, but the effect of temperature on lung function and the potential interaction effect between PM and temperature remain uncertain. To estimate the short-term effects of PM2.5 combined with temperature on lung function, we measured the daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) in a panel of 37 healthy college students in four different seasons. Meanwhile, we also monitored daily concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm), ambient temperature and relative humidity of the study area, where the study participants lived and attended school. Associations of air pollutants and temperature with lung function were assessed by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). A 10 μg/m3 increase of indoor PM2.5 was associated with a change of −2.09 L/min in evening PEF (95%CI: −3.73 L/min–−0.51 L/min) after adjusting for season, height, gender, temperature and relative humidity. The changes of −2.17 L/min (95%CI: −3.81 L/min– −0.52 L/min) and −2.18 L/min (95%CI: −3.96 L/min–−0.41 L/min) in evening PEF were also observed after adjusting for outdoor SO2 and NO2 measured by Environmental Monitoring Center 3 kilometers away, respectively. An increase in ambient temperature was found to be associated with a decrease in lung function and our results revealed a small but significant antagonistic interactive effect between PM2.5 and temperature. Our findings suggest that ambient PM2.5 has an acute adverse effect on lung function in young healthy adults, and that temperature also plays an important role. PMID:26184254

  1. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005-2016: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    He, Mike Z; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-02-14

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m³ for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m³ for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p < 0.0001) and the three economic regions (F = 4.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: This review identifies quantifiable differences in fine particulate matter concentrations across regions of China. The highest levels of fine particulate matter were found in the northern and northwestern regions and especially Beijing. The high percentage of data points exceeding current federal regulation standards suggests that fine particulate matter pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates.

  2. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005–2016: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    He, Mike Z.; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m3 for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m3 for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p < 0.0001) and the three economic regions (F = 4.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: This review identifies quantifiable differences in fine particulate matter concentrations across regions of China. The highest levels of fine particulate matter were found in the northern and northwestern regions and especially Beijing. The high percentage of data points exceeding current federal regulation standards suggests that fine particulate matter pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates. PMID:28216601

  3. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  4. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH PLASMINOGEN AND FIBRIOGEN LEVELS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Recent reports indicate that the elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to fine and coarse particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected via airway inflammation. We investigated whether mark...

  5. FINE AMBIENT AIR PARTICULAR MATTER EXPOSURE INDUCES MOLECULAR ALTERATIONS INDICATIVE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PROGRESSION IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC SUSCEPTIBLE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) can alter cardiovascular function and may influence cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been shown that exposure to concentrated ambient air particles (CA...

  6. Effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on daily mortality in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hoek, G; Schwartz, J D; Groot, B; Eilers, P

    1997-01-01

    The association between daily variations in all-cause mortality from 1983-1991 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and ambient air pollution was investigated. Twenty-four-hour average concentrations of total suspended particulates, Black Smoke, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide were available on a daily basis. Every other day, total iron content in total suspended particulates samples was available. Poisson regression analysis was used to study associations between air pollution and mortality; generalized additive models were used to adjust for confounders (e.g., seasonal trends, weather). Daily mortality was associated most consistently with previous-day concentrations of total suspended particulates (relative risk = 1.05 for a change of 91 microg/m3) and ozone (relative risk = 1.06 for a change of 67 microg/m3). Total iron was associated less consistently with mortality than total suspended particulate mass was. The associations of mortality with ozone and total suspended particulates were independent of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The relative risks of total suspended particulates and particularly ozone were higher for subjects older than 78 y. The relationship between mortality and ozone did not deviate significantly from linear. The relationship between mortality and total suspended particulates was linear below 100 microg/m3 and leveled off at higher concentrations. If a threshold exists for the effects on mortality of these components, it exists at very low levels.

  7. Clustering Dynamics of Ultra-fine Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Elliott, James

    2008-03-01

    Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultrafine particles (0.1 - 1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical ihalation applications. We develop a numerical model for these systems using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction between the particles and their contact mechanical interactions. We study the dynamics of these systems in the absence and presence of gravity by controlling the particle size, and thereby, the surface properties of the particles. The high surface energies of these particles causes them to agglomerate as they gravitationally settle. We explore their internal structure as a function of their particle size.

  8. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: results from CALFINE.

    PubMed

    Ostro, Bart; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Shelley; Feng, Wen-Ying; Lipsett, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between daily counts of mortality and ambient particulate matter<10 microm in diameter (PM10). Relatively few studies, however, have investigated the relationship of mortality with fine particles [PM<2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5)], especially in a multicity setting. We examined associations between PM2.5 and daily mortality in nine heavily populated California counties using data from 1999 through 2002. We considered daily counts of all-cause mortality and several cause-specific subcategories (respiratory, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes). We also examined these associations among several subpopulations, including the elderly (>65 years of age), males, females, non-high school graduates, whites, and Hispanics. We used Poisson multiple regression models incorporating natural or penalized splines to control for covariates that could affect daily counts of mortality, including time, seasonality, temperature, humidity, and day of the week. We used meta-analyses using random-effects models to pool the observations in all nine counties. The analysis revealed associations of PM2.5 levels with several mortality categories. Specifically, a 10-microg/m3 change in 2-day average PM2.5 concentration corresponded to a 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.0%) increase in all-cause mortality, with similar or greater effect estimates for several other subpopulations and mortality subcategories, including respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, age>65 years, females, deaths out of the hospital, and non-high school graduates. Results were generally insensitive to model specification and the type of spline model used. This analysis adds to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with daily mortality.

  9. Fine particulate matter source apportionment using a hybrid chemical transport and receptor model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Balachandran, S.; Pachon, J. E.; Baek, J.; Ivey, C.; Holmes, H.; Odman, M. T.; Mulholland, J. A.; Russell, A. G.

    2013-10-01

    A hybrid fine particulate matter (PM2.5) source apportionment approach based on a receptor-model (RM) species balance and species specific source impacts from a chemical transport model (CTM) equipped with a sensitivity analysis tool is developed to provide physically- and chemically-consistent relationships between source emissions and receptor impacts. This hybrid approach enhances RM results by providing initial estimates of source impacts from a much larger number of sources than are typically used in RMs, and provides source-receptor relationships for secondary species. Further, the method addresses issues of source collinearities, and accounts for emissions uncertainties. Hybrid method results also provide information on the resulting source impact uncertainties. We apply this hybrid approach to conduct PM2.5 source apportionment at Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sites across the US. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations at these receptor sites were apportioned to 33 separate sources. Hybrid method results led to large changes of impacts from CTM estimates for sources such as dust, woodstove, and other biomass burning sources, but limited changes to others. The refinements reduced the differences between CTM-simulated and observed concentrations of individual PM2.5 species by over 98% when using a weighted least squared error minimization. The rankings of source impacts changed from the initial estimates, revealing that CTM-only results should be evaluated with observations. Assessment with RM results at six US locations showed that the hybrid results differ somewhat from commonly resolved sources. The hybrid method also resolved sources that typical RM methods do not capture without extra measurement information on unique tracers. The method can be readily applied to large domains and long (such as multi-annual) time periods to provide source impact estimates for management- and health-related studies.

  10. Fine particulate matter source apportionment using a hybrid chemical transport and receptor model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Balachandran, S.; Pachon, J. E.; Baek, J.; Ivey, C.; Holmes, H.; Odman, M. T.; Mulholland, J. A.; Russell, A. G.

    2014-06-01

    A hybrid fine particulate matter (PM2.5) source apportionment approach based on a receptor model (RM) species balance and species specific source impacts from a chemical transport model (CTM) equipped with a sensitivity analysis tool is developed to provide physically and chemically consistent relationships between source emissions and receptor impacts. This hybrid approach enhances RM results by providing initial estimates of source impacts from a much larger number of sources than are typically used in RMs, and provides source-receptor relationships for secondary species. Further, the method addresses issues of source collinearities and accounts for emissions uncertainties. We apply this hybrid approach to conduct PM2.5 source apportionment at Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sites across the US. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations at these receptor sites were apportioned to 33 separate sources. Hybrid method results led to large changes of impacts from CTM estimates for sources such as dust, woodstoves, and other biomass-burning sources, but limited changes to others. The refinements reduced the differences between CTM-simulated and observed concentrations of individual PM2.5 species by over 98% when using a weighted least-squares error minimization. The rankings of source impacts changed from the initial estimates, further demonstrating that CTM-only results should be evaluated with observations. Assessment with RM results at six US locations showed that the hybrid results differ somewhat from commonly resolved sources. The hybrid method also resolved sources that typical RM methods do not capture without extra measurement information for unique tracers. The method can be readily applied to large domains and long (such as multi-annual) time periods to provide source impact estimates for management- and health-related studies.

  11. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Mortality From Diabetes in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Robert D.; Cakmak, Sabit; Turner, Michelle C.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Crouse, Dan L.; Peters, Paul A.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Brion, Orly; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Goldberg, Mark S.; Pope, C. Arden; Burnett, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure to air pollution can promote the development of diabetes. However, whether this relationship actually translates into an increased risk of mortality attributable to diabetes is uncertain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and diabetes-related mortality in a prospective cohort analysis of 2.1 million adults from the 1991 Canadian census mortality follow-up study. Mortality information, including ∼5,200 deaths coded as diabetes being the underlying cause, was ascertained by linkage to the Canadian Mortality Database from 1991 to 2001. Subject-level estimates of long-term exposure to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations. The hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes-related mortality were related to PM2.5 and adjusted for individual-level and contextual variables using Cox proportional hazards survival models. RESULTS Mean PM2.5 exposure levels for the entire population were low (8.7 µg/m3; SD, 3.9 µg/m3; interquartile range, 6.2 µg/m3). In fully adjusted models, a 10-µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase in risk for diabetes-related mortality (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37–1.62). The monotonic change in risk to the population persisted to PM2.5 concentration <5 µg/m3. CONCLUSIONS Long-term exposure to PM2.5, even at low levels, is related to an increased risk of mortality attributable to diabetes. These findings have considerable public health importance given the billions of people exposed to air pollution and the worldwide growing epidemic of diabetes. PMID:23780947

  12. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-01-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)] has detrimental respiratory effects in mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory

  13. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    PubMed

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-06-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)], which may adversely affect the health of workers and residents in the area, we collected fallen dust samples on 12 and 13 September 2001 from sites within a half-mile of Ground Zero. Samples of WTC dust were sieved, aerosolized, and size-separated, and the PM2.5 fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (< 53 microm) identified calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium carbonate (calcite) as major components. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that calcium-sulfur and calcium-carbon particles were also present in the WTC PM2.5 fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects.

  14. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-06-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)] has detrimental respiratory effects in mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory

  15. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-01-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)], which may adversely affect the health of workers and residents in the area, we collected fallen dust samples on 12 and 13 September 2001 from sites within a half-mile of Ground Zero. Samples of WTC dust were sieved, aerosolized, and size-separated, and the PM2.5 fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (< 53 microm) identified calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium carbonate (calcite) as major components. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that calcium-sulfur and calcium-carbon particles were also present in the WTC PM2.5 fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects. PMID:12782501

  16. Effects of Ambient Fine Particles PM2.5 on Human HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Kang, Zhihua; Jiang, Shuo; Zhao, Jinzhuo; Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Xu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    The current study was conducted to observe the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) cells. The potential mechanism linking PM2.5 and skin was explored. HaCaT cells were cultured and then accessed in plate with PM2.5. Cell viability was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8. The mRNA and protein expression of Filaggrin, Loricrin, Involucrin, and Repetin were analyzed. The levels of Granulocyte-macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor, Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-1α, and Interleukin-8 were detected in the supernatant of the HaCaT cell with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cell viability decreased with the increase in PM2.5. Compared with the control group, the protein expression of Filaggrin, Repetin, Involucrin, and Loricrin showed different expression patterns in PM2.5 treatment groups. The level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin, Interleukin-1α, and Interleukin-8 significantly increased in the cells treated with PM2.5. Ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of eczema and other skin diseases. The relative mechanism may be associated with the impairment of the skin barrier and the elevation of inflammatory responses. PMID:28085100

  17. [Elemental size distribution of airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matters in the suburb of Shanghai, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan; Bao, Liang-Man; Li, Yu-Lan; Xu, Zhong-Yang; Wu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Dong-Liang; He, Wei

    2009-04-15

    The elemental size distributions of airborne fine/ultrafine particulate matters in the suburb of Shanghai were studied using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. Median mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), elemental correlation coefficient as well as enrichment factor (EF) of each size fraction were calculated to characterize the sources of elements in fine/ultrafine particulate matters. Ca and Ti distributed mainly in coarse particles (> 2 microm) with size independent enrichment factors between 0.1 and 3.2, and the correlation coefficient between Ca and Ti was as high as 0.933, which implied strong contribution from nature sources, such as soil dusts and resuspended dusts. However, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cl, S mainly distributed in 0.1-1.0 microm particulate matters with MMAD between 0.56-0.94 microm. The EF of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb increased with decreasing particle size. The highest EF were found for Pb in ultrafine particulate matters (< 0.1 microm) with EF of 2,023.7-2,244.2. The evidences suggested that these elements were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources and enriched in fine/ultrafine particles smaller than 1 microm. Fe distributed uniformly in the particles larger than 0.2 microm with MMAD of 1.3 microm. The results indicated non-negligible influences of remote transmission of anthropogenic pollutions.

  18. Size, source and chemical composition as determinants of toxicity attributable to ambient particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Frank J.; Fussell, Julia C.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex, heterogeneous mixture that changes in time and space. It encompasses many different chemical components and physical characteristics, many of which have been cited as potential contributors to toxicity. Each component has multiple sources, and each source generates multiple components. Identifying and quantifying the influences of specific components or source-related mixtures on measures of health-related impacts, especially when particles interact with other co-pollutants, therefore represents one of the most challenging areas of environmental health research. Current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of PM emissions from different sources or of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. Some results do suggest a degree of differential toxicity, namely more consistent associations with traffic-related PM emissions, fine and ultrafine particles, specific metals and elemental carbon and a range of serious health effects, including increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. A carefully targeted programme of contemporary toxicological and epidemiological research, incorporating more refined approaches (e.g. greater speciation data, more refined modelling techniques, accurate exposure assessment and better definition of individual susceptibility) and optimal collaboration amongst multidisciplinary teams, is now needed to advance our understanding of the relative toxicity of particles from various sources, especially the components and reactions products of traffic. This will facilitate targeted abatement policies, more effective pollution control measures and ultimately, a reduction in the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM pollution.

  19. Determinants of the Proinflammatory Action of Ambient Particulate Matter in Immortalized Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Guastadisegni, Cecilia; Kelly, Frank J.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Pozzi, Roberta; Brunekreef, Bert; Sandström, Thomas; Mudway, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background Proximity to traffic-related pollution has been associated with poor respiratory health in adults and children. Objectives We wished to test the hypothesis that particulate matter (PM) from high-traffic sites would display an enhanced capacity to elicit inflammation. Methods We examined the inflammatory potential of coarse [2.5–10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5–10)] and fine [0.1–2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM0.1–2.5)] PM collected from nine sites throughout Europe with contrasting traffic contributions. We incubated murine monocytic-macrophagic RAW264.7 cells with PM samples from these sites (20 or 60 μg/cm2) and quantified their capacity to stimulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) or the production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) as measures of their inflammatory potential. Responses were then related to PM composition: metals, hydrocarbons, anions/cations, and endotoxin content. Results Inflammatory responses to ambient PM varied markedly on an equal mass basis, with PM2.5–10 displaying the largest signals and contrasts among sites. Notably, we found no evidence of enhanced inflammatory potential at high-traffic sites and observed some of the largest responses at sites distant from traffic. Correlation analyses indicated that much of the sample-to-sample contrast in the proinflammatory response was related to the content of endotoxin and transition metals (especially iron and copper) in PM2.5–10. Use of the metal chelator diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid inhibited AA release, whereas recombinant endotoxin-neutralizing protein partially inhibited TNFα production, demonstrating that different PM components triggered inflammatory responses through separate pathways. Conclusions We found no evidence that PM collected from sites in close proximity to traffic sources displayed enhanced proinflammatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20663738

  20. Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

    2014-10-01

    This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 μg/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 μg/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 μg/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 μg/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 μg/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

  1. Dispersion and Deposition of Fine Particulates, Heavy Metals and Nitrogen in Urban Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, T. H.; Tong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Cities are characterized by networks of heavily trafficked roads, abrupt environmental gradients and local sources of airborne pollutants. Because urban dwellers are inevitably in close proximity to near ground pollution, there has been recent interest in using trees and green roofs to reduce human exposure yet there have been few empirical studies documenting the effect of vegetation and spatial heterogeneity on pollution concentration, human exposure and food safety. In this paper we describe the results of 2 studies in the New York metropolitan area. The first describes the effect of roadside trees on the concentration of fine particulates downwind of a major highway. The second examines vertical attenuation of fine particulates between street level and a rooftop vegetable farm and the deposition of nitrogen and heavy metals to vegetables and soil on the roof.

  2. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  3. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  4. Determination of lead in fine particulates by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, J C; Ho, K F; Lee, S C

    2001-01-02

    A simple method for determining lead in fine particulates (PM2.5) by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. Particulates collected on Nuclepore filter by using a dichotomous sampler were suspended in diluted nitric acid after ultrasonic agitation. The dislodging efficiency is nearly 100% after agitation for 5 min. In order to study the suspension behavior of PM2.5 in solvents, a Brookhaven ZetaPlus Particle Size Analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution and suspension behavior of air particulates in the solvent. The pre-digestion and modification effect of nitric acid would be discussed. Palladium was added as a chemical modifier and the temperature program of ETAAS was changed in order to improve the recovery. The slurry was introduced directly into a graphite tube for atomization. The metal content in the sample was determined by the standard addition method. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling method. It offers a quick and efficient alternative method for heavy metal characterization in fine particulates.

  5. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  6. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  7. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C E L; Heck, T G; Saldiva, P H N; Rhoden, C R

    2007-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a) determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b) determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days) induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM) from vehicles (N = 30) for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h) periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 microm; N = 30). Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20) showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 +/- 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 +/- 0.81; P < 0.05) and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 +/- 0.01; P-20: 0.226 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05). Shorter exposure (6 h) and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  8. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who's at risk?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the epidemiology of the health effects of fine particulate air pollution, provides an early, somewhat speculative, discussion of the contribution of epidemiology to evaluating biologic mechanisms, and evaluates who's at risk or is susceptible to adverse health effects. Based on preliminary epidemiologic evidence, it is speculated that a systemic response to fine particle-induced pulmonary inflammation, including cytokine release and altered cardiac autonomic function, may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms or pathways linking particulate pollution with cardiopulmonary disease. The elderly, infants, and persons with chronic cardiopulmonary disease, influenza, or asthma are most susceptible to mortality and serious morbidity effects from short-term acutely elevated exposures. Others are susceptible to less serious health effects such as transient increases in respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, or other physiologic changes. Chronic exposure studies suggest relatively broad susceptibility to cumulative effects of long-term repeated exposure to fine particulate pollution, resulting in substantive estimates of population average loss of life expectancy in highly polluted environments. Additional knowledge is needed about the specific pollutants or mix of pollutants responsible for the adverse health effects and the biologic mechanisms involved. PMID:10931790

  9. CORRELATION OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS IN EL PASO, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the harmful health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) are not well understood, various researchers are investigating ambient PM in order to assess its hazardous components. Current hypotheses acknowledge that PM related morbidity and mortality may be a result ...

  10. Fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration patterns in Roxbury, Massachusetts: a community-based GIS analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J I; Houseman, E A; Spengler, J D; Loh, P; Ryan, L

    2001-01-01

    Given an elevated prevalence of respiratory disease and density of pollution sources, residents of Roxbury, Massachusetts, have been interested in better understanding their exposures to air pollution. To determine whether local transportation sources contribute significantly to exposures, we conducted a community-based pilot investigation to measure concentrations of fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roxbury in the summer of 1999. Community members carried portable monitors on the streets in a 1-mile radius around a large bus terminal to create a geographic information system (GIS) map of concentrations and gathered data on site characteristics that could predict ambient concentrations. Both PM(2.5) and PAH concentrations were greater during morning rush hours and on weekdays. In linear mixed-effects regressions controlling for temporal autocorrelation, PAH concentrations were significantly higher with closer proximity to the bus terminal (p < 0.05), and both pollutants were elevated, but not statistically significantly so, on bus routes. Regressions on a subset of measurements for which detailed site characteristics were gathered showed higher concentrations of both pollutants on roads reported to have heavy bus traffic. Although a more comprehensive monitoring protocol would be needed to develop robust predictive functions for air pollution, our study demonstrates that pollution patterns in an urban area can be characterized with limited monitoring equipment and that university-community partnerships can yield relevant exposure information. PMID:11335181

  11. Ambient exposure to coarse and fine particle emissions from building demolition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-07-01

    Demolition of buildings produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that could be inhaled by on-site workers and people living in the neighbourhood, but studies assessing ambient exposure at the real-world demolition sites are limited. We measured concentrations of PM10 (≤10 μm), PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) and PM1 (≤1 μm) along with local meteorology for 54 working hours over the demolition period. The measurements were carried out at (i) a fixed-site in the downwind of demolished building, (ii) around the site during demolition operation through mobile monitoring, (iii) different distances away from the demolition site through sequential monitoring, and (iv) inside an excavator vehicle cabin and on-site temporary office for engineers. Position of the PM instrument was continuously recorded using a Global Positioning System on a second basis during mobile measurements. Fraction of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) contributed 89 (with mean particle mass concentration, PMC ≈ 133 ± 17 μg m-3), 83 (100 ± 29 μg m-3), and 70% (59 ± 12 μg m-3) of total PMC during the fixed-site, mobile monitoring and sequential measurements, respectively, compared with only 50% (mean 12 ± 6 μg m-3) during the background measurements. The corresponding values for fine particles (PM2.5) were 11, 17 and 30% compared with 50% during background, showing a much greater release of coarse particles during demolition. The openair package in R and map source software (ArcGIS) were used to assess spatial variation of PMCs in downwind and upwind of the demolition site. A modified box model was developed to determine the emission factors, which were 210, 73 and 24 μg m-2 s-1 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The average respiratory deposited doses to coarse (and fine) particles inside the excavator cabin and on-site temporary office increased by 57- (and 5-) and 13- (and 2-) times compared with the local background level, respectively. The monitoring stations in downwind direction

  12. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  13. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  15. LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    2003 AAR PM Meeting
    Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences,
    Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health

    LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPs) IN RATS. JA Dye, LC Walsh, C...

  16. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  17. Fine particulate matter source apportionment for the Chemical speciation Trends Network site at Birmingham, Alabama, using Positive Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Karsten; Jayanty, R K M; Flanagan, James B

    2008-01-01

    The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model version 1.1 was used with data from the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Chemical Speciation Trends Network (STN) to estimate source contributions to ambient PM2.5 in a highly industrialized urban setting in the southeastern United States. Model results consistently resolved 10 factors that are interpreted as two secondary, five industrial, one motor vehicle, one road dust, and one biomass burning sources. The STN dataset is generally not corrected for field blank levels, which are significant in the case of organic carbon (OC). Estimation of primary OC using the elemental carbon (EC) tracer method applied on a seasonal basis significantly improved the model's performance. Uniform increase of input data uncertainty and exclusion of a few outlier samples (associated with high potassium) further improved the model results. However, it was found that most PMF factors did not cleanly represent single source types and instead are "contaminated" by other sources, a situation that might be improved by controlling rotational ambiguity within the model. Secondary particulate matter formed by atmospheric processes, such as sulfate and secondary OC, contribute the majority of ambient PM2.5 and exhibit strong seasonality (37 +/- 10% winter vs. 55 +/- 16% summer average). Motor vehicle emissions constitute the biggest primary PM2.5 mass contribution with almost 25 +/- 2% long-term average and winter maximum of 29 +/- 11%. PM2.5 contributions from the five identified industrial sources vary little with season and average 14 +/- 1.3%. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of the EC tracer method to effectively blank-correct the OC concentrations in the STN dataset. In addition, examination of the effect of input uncertainty estimates on model results indicates that the estimated uncertainties currently being provided with the STN data may be somewhat lower than the levels needed for optimum modeling results.

  18. Analysis of primary fine particle national ambient air quality standard metrics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2006-02-01

    In accordance with the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing its National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, which are required to provide an adequate margin of safety to populations, including susceptible subgroups. Based on the latest scientific, health, and technical information about particle pollution, EPA staff recommends establishing more protective health-based fine particle standards. Since the last standards review, epidemiologic studies have continued to find associations between short-term and long-term exposure to particulate matter and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality at current pollution levels. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate (PM2.5) monitoring data for the Northeast and the continental United States to assess the protectiveness of various levels, forms, and combinations of 24-hr and annual health-based standards currently recommended by EPA staff and the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Recommended standards have the potential for modest or substantial increases in protection in the Northeast, ranging from an additional 13-83% of the population of the region who are living in areas not likely to meet new standards and thereby benefiting from compliance with more protective air pollution controls. Within recommended standard ranges, an optimal 24-hr (98th percentile)/annual standard suite occurs at 30/12 microg/m3, providing short- and long-term health protection for a substantial percentage of both Northeast (84%) and U.S. (78%) populations. In addition, the Northeast region will not benefit as widely as the nation as a whole if less stringent standards are selected. Should the 24-hr (98th percentile) standard be set at 35 microg/m3, Northeast and U.S. populations will receive 16-48% and 7-17% less protection than a 30 microg/m3 standard, respectively, depending on the level of the annual standard. A 30/12 microg/m3 standard

  19. Physicochemical properties and ability to generate free radicals of ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles in the atmosphere of Xuanwei, China, an area of high lung cancer incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Senlin; Yi, Fei; Hao, Xiaojie; Yu, Shang; Ren, Jingjing; Wu, Minghong; Jialiang, Feng; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2014-11-01

    The link between the high incidence of lung cancer and harmful pollutants emitted by local coal combustion in Xuanwei, Yunnan province, China, has been a focus of study since the 1980s. However, the mechanisms responsible for the high lung cancer rate remain unclear, necessitating further study. Since a close relationship between ambient air particle pollution and respiratory diseases exists, we sampled size-resolved ambient particles from the atmosphere of Xuanwei. In our indoor experiment, cutting-edge methods, including scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM/EDX), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and the cell-free DCFH-DA assay, were employed to investigate the physicochemical properties, the potential to generate free radicals and the oxidative potential of ambient coarse (diameter, 1.8-10 μm), fine (diameter, 0.1-1.8 μm), and ultrafine (diameter, <0.1 μm) particles. We found the total mass concentrations of the size-resolved particles collected in spring were higher than that in early winter. Mass percentage of fine particles accounted for 68% and 61% of the total particulate mass in spring and in early winter samples, respectively, indicating that fine particles were the major component of the Xuanwei ambient particulate matters. On the other hand, the results of SEM/EDX analysis showed that the coarse particles were dominated by minerals, the fine particles by soot aggregates and fly ashes, and the ultrafine particles by soot particles and unidentified particles. Our PIXE results revealed that crustal elements (Ca, Ti Si, Fe) were mainly distributed in coarse particles, while trace metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) dominated in the fine particle fraction, and S, a typical element emitted by coal combustion, mainly resided in fine particles collected from the winter atmosphere. EPR results indicated that the magnitude of free radical intensity caused by size

  20. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with impaired cognitive function and vascular disease in older adults, but little is known about these associations among people with concerns about memory loss. Objective To examine associations between exposures to fine particulate matter and residential proximity to major roads and markers of small vessel disease. Methods From 2004—2010, 236 participants in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center Longitudinal Cohort participated in neuroimaging studies. Residential proximity to major roads and estimated 2003 residential annual average of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) were linked to measures of brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds. Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression and adjusted for clinical and lifestyle factors. Results In this population (median age [interquartile range]=74[12], 57% female) living in a region with median 2003 PM2.5 annual average below the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, there were no associations between living closer to a major roadway or for a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and smaller BPF, greater WMH volume, or a higher odds of microbleeds. However, a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was associated with −0.19 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): −0.37, −0.005) lower natural log-transformed WMH volume. Other associations had wide confidence intervals. Conclusions In this population, where median 2003 estimated PM2.5 levels were below the current EPA standard, we observed no pattern of association between residential proximity to major roads or 2003 average PM2.5 and greater burden of small vessel disease or neurodegeneration. PMID:27372639

  1. Endothelial Dysfunction: Associations with Exposure to Ambient Fine Particles in Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Alexandra; Neas, Lucas; Herbst, Margaret C.; Case, Martin; Williams, Ronald W.; Cascio, Wayne; Hinderliter, Alan; Holguin, Fernando; Buse, John B.; Dungan, Kathleen; Styner, Maya; Peters, Annette; Devlin, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter [≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] has been associated with cardiovascular and hematologic effects, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease. Some epidemiologic studies suggest that adults with diabetes also may be a particularly susceptible population. Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of ambient PM2.5 on markers of endothelial function in diabetic volunteers. Methods We conducted a prospective panel study in 22 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (USA), from November 2004 to December 2005. We acquired daily measurements of PM2.5 and meteorologic data at central monitoring sites. On 4 consecutive days, we measured endothelial function by brachial artery ultrasound in all participants and by pulsewave measurements in a subgroup. Data were analyzed using additive mixed models with a random participant effect and adjusted for season, day of the week, and meteorology. Results Flow-mediated dilatation decreased in association with PM2.5 during the first 24 hr, whereas small-artery elasticity index decreased with a delay of 1 and 3 days. These PM2.5-associated decrements in endothelial function were greater among participants with a high body mass index, high glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, low adiponectin, or the null polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1. However, high levels of myeloperoxidase on the examination day led to strongest effects on endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions These data demonstrate that PM2.5 exposure may cause immediate endothelial dysfunction. Clinical characteristics associated with insulin resistance were associated with enhanced effects of PM on endothelial function. In addition, participants with greater oxidative potential seem to be more susceptible. PMID:19079718

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  3. Associations between ambient wood smoke and other particulate pollutants and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis in cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Scott J.; Morrell, Craig N.; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Ling, Frederick; Zareba, Wojciech; Hopke, Philip K.; Utell, Mark J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Evans, Kristin A.; Chalupa, David; Rich, David Q.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased particulate air pollution has been associated with both an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse changes in cardiac biomarkers. Up to 30% of ambient wintertime fine particles (PM2.5) in Rochester, NY are from wood burning. Our study examined associations between ambient levels of a marker of wood smoke (Delta-C) and other particulate air pollutants and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. Methods We measured blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer, fibrinogen, P-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF-4), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of 135 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization during the winters of 2011–2013. We coupled these data with hourly ambient concentrations of Delta-C, black carbon (BC; marker of traffic pollution), and ultrafine (10–100 nm; UFP), accumulation mode (100–500 nm; AMP), and fine particles (< 2.5 μm; PM2.5). Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in each biomarker associated with increased pollutant concentrations at intervals between 1 and 96 h preceding blood collection. Results Each 0.13 μg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration in the prior 12 h was associated with a 0.91% increase in fibrinogen levels (95% CI=0.23%, 1.59%), but unexpectedly in the prior 48 h, each 0.17 μg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration was associated with a 2.75% decrease in MPO levels (95% CI=−5.13%,−0.37%). We did not see associations between Delta-C concentrations and any other biomarkers. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5, BC, UFP, and AMP concentrations were generally associated with increased CRP and fibrinogen, but not PF4, d-dimer, vWF, or P-selectin. Conclusions In a population of cardiac patients, we noted adverse changes in fibrinogen associated with increased concentrations of a marker of wood smoke. Increases in PM2.5, BC, AMP, and UFP concentrations in the previous 96 h were also associated with adverse changes in

  4. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cristan; Siegle, Jessica S.; Shadie, Alexander M.; Nikolaysen, Stina; Garthwaite, Linda; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Foster, Paul S.; Kumar, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC). We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice

  5. A novel Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector for online measurements of trace metal and elements in ambient particulate matter (PM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongbin; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2015-04-01

    A novel monitor for online, in-situ measurement of several important metal species (i.e. Fe, Mn and Cr) in ambient fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is developed based on a recent published high flow rate Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector. This Aerosol-Into-Liquid Collector collects particles directly as highly concentrated slurry samples, and the concentrations of target metals in slurry samples are subsequently determined in a Micro Volume Flow Cell (MVFC) coupled with absorbance spectrophotometry to detect colored complexes coming from the reactions between target metals and specific reagents. Laboratory tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of the MVFC-absorbance system. The calibration curves of the system are determined using standard solutions prepared by serial dilution. As part of the evaluation, the effects of reaction time, reagent amount and interference on the system are also evaluated. Field evaluations of the online monitor will be performed to validate the ability of this new online sampler in near-continuous collection and measurements. Both laboratory and field evaluations of the novel monitor will indicate that it is an effective and valuable technology for PM collection and characterization of important metal species in ambient aerosols.

  6. Peroxides and macrophages in the toxicity of fine particulate matter in rats.

    PubMed

    Laskin, Debra L; Morio, Lisa; Hooper, Kimberly; Li, Tsung-Hung; Buckley, Brian; Turpin, Barbara

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiologists have observed a positive association between human morbidity and mortality and the atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM), but the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of PM have not been elucidated. Various components of ambient PM have been implicated in toxicity (including ultrafine particles, transition metals, organics and oxidants). Our research focused on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We speculated that fine PM transports H2O2 into the lower lung, leading to tissue injury and to accumulation and activation of macrophages in these regions. The macrophages release cytotoxic mediators and proinflammatory cytokines that contribute to the pathogenesis of tissue injury. To test this hypothesis, we conducted studies to determine (1) whether tissue injury induced by aerosols is mediated by cytotoxic H2O2 carried into the lower lung by fine particles and (2) whether exposure of rats to fine PM leads to accumulation of activated macrophages in the lung. For our studies, systems were designed to generate model atmospheric fine PM and atmospheric peroxides consisting of an ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] aerosol (mass median diameter, 0.46 +/- 0.14 microm) and H2O2. We also constructed a 6-port nose-only exposure chamber. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 2 hours to aerosols consisting of (NH4)2SO4 (430 microg/m3), (NH4)2SO4 + 10, 20 or 100 ppb H2O2, vapor-phase H2O2 (10, 20 or 100 ppb), or particle-free air. Studies using oxygen-18 (18O)-labeled H2O2 were conducted to validate the transport of H2O2 into the lower lung with (NH4)2SO4. Rats were killed immediately (0 hours) or 24 hours after exposure. Compared with control animals, inhalation of (NH4)2SO4 and H2O2, alone or in combination, had no major effect on cell number or viability, protein content, or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected either immediately or 24 hours after exposure. However, electron microscopy revealed that a

  7. METALS MIMIC AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY INDUCED BY IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO UTAH VALLEY AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associationsbetween changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided withclosure of an open-hearth steel...

  8. Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter alters the expression of genes in primary human neurons.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Bondy, Stephen C; Campbell, Arezoo

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the onset of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. To gain insight into this neurotoxicity, this study sought to examine global gene expression changes caused by exposure to ambient ultrafine PM. Microarray analysis was performed on primary human neurons derived from fetal brain tissue after a 24h exposure to 20μg/mL of ambient ultrafine particles. We found a majority of the changes in noncoding RNAs, which are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thereby could impact the expression of several other protein coding gene targets. Although neurons from biologically different lot numbers were used, we found a significant increase in the expression of metallothionein 1A and 1F in all samples after exposure to particulate matter as confirmed by quantitative PCR. These metallothionein 1 proteins are responsible for neuroprotection after exposure to environmental insult but prolonged induction can be toxic. Epidemiological studies have reported that in utero exposure to ultrafine PM not only leads to neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities, but may also predispose the progeny to neurodegenerative disease later in life by genetic imprinting. Our results pinpoint some of the PM-induced genetic changes that may underlie these findings.

  9. Ambient and laboratory evaluation of a low-cost particulate matter sensor.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K E; Whitaker, J; Petty, A; Widmer, C; Dybwad, A; Sleeth, D; Martin, R; Butterfield, A

    2017-02-01

    Low-cost, light-scattering-based particulate matter (PM) sensors are becoming more widely available and are being increasingly deployed in ambient and indoor environments because of their low cost and ability to provide high spatial and temporal resolution PM information. Researchers have begun to evaluate some of these sensors under laboratory and environmental conditions. In this study, a low-cost, particulate matter sensor (Plantower PMS 1003/3003) used by a community air-quality network is evaluated in a controlled wind-tunnel environment and in the ambient environment during several winter-time, cold-pool events that are associated with high ambient levels of PM. In the wind-tunnel, the PMS sensor performance is compared to two research-grade, light-scattering instruments, and in the ambient tests, the sensor performance is compared to two federal equivalent (one tapered element oscillating microbalance and one beta attenuation monitor) and gravimetric federal reference methods (FEMs/FRMs) as well as one research-grade instrument (GRIMM). The PMS sensor response correlates well with research-grade instruments in the wind-tunnel tests, and its response is linear over the concentration range tested (200-850 μg/m(3)). In the ambient tests, this PM sensor correlates better with gravimetric methods than previous studies with correlation coefficients of 0.88. However additional measurements under a variety of ambient conditions are needed. Although the PMS sensor correlated as well as the research-grade instrument to the FRM/FEMs in ambient conditions, its response varies with particle properties to a much greater degree than the research-grade instrument. In addition, the PMS sensors overestimate ambient PM concentrations and begin to exhibit a non-linear response when PM2.5 concentrations exceed 40 μg/m(3). These results have important implications for communicating results from low-cost sensor networks, and they highlight the importance of using an

  10. Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendrikar, Arun D.; Steinmetz, William K.

    This work describes the application of integrating nephelometer measurements for the determination of airborne fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations. In response to over 150 complaints (spanning a period of 20 years) from local citizens of irritant fogs and pungent odors, the North Carolina Division of Air Quality conducted a monitoring program, in collaboration with the Washington Regional Air Quality Office and PCS Phosphate, Inc., to characterize air quality in the Pamlico River airshed of eastern North Carolina. The continuous monitoring from 1 May through 31 October 2000 at four sites, involved collection of air samples and subsequent quantification for reactive acidic and basic gases, aerosols and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) using a 7-day Annular Denuder System (ADS). Additionally, the airborne concentration of the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was concurrently (to the ADS) monitored using a tapered element oscillating micro-balance (TEOM). Relevant meteorological data were obtained from conventional sensors installed at each sampling site. An integrating nephelometer was used for the regional visibility measurements. An integrating nephelometer was used to measure light scattering (a surrogate for visibility) continuously for 24-h per day over a 6-month period at the four sites. A linear relationship has been found for the nephelometer (Beta scat) measurements and mass data (PM 2.5) obtained both from the TEOM and ADS. The calculated correlation coefficient results between nephelometer and ADS and nephelometer and TEOM are satisfactory and close to one. This indicates that in this region, the nephelometer measurements have the potential to be a surrogate for the determination of regional airborne fine particle (PM 2.5) mass concentrations. The ratios for each of the four sampling sites using 24-h averages of nephelometer data and PM 2.5 concentrations from the ADS units and the TEOM gave an average ratio of 0.32±0.02. This value

  11. Assessment of Inter-Individual and Geographic Variability in Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Frey, HC

    2010-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major contributor to indoor human exposures to fine particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates distributions of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 exposure for a specified population based on ambient concentrations and indoor emissions sources. A critical assessment was conducted of the methodology and data used in SHEDS-PM for estimation of indoor exposure to ETS. For the residential microenvironment, SHEDS uses a mass-balance approach which is comparable to best practices. The default inputs in SHEDS-PM were reviewed and more recent and extensive data sources were identified. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for updating. Data regarding the proportion of smokers and “other smokers,” and cigarette emission rate were found to be important. SHEDS-PM does not currently account for in-vehicle ETS exposure; however, in-vehicle ETS-related PM2.5 levels can exceed those in residential microenvironments by a factor of 10 or more. Therefore, a mass-balance based methodology for estimating in-vehicle ETS PM2.5 concentration is evaluated. Recommendations are made regarding updating of input data and algorithms related to ETS exposure in the SHEDS-PM model. Inter-individual variability for ETS exposure was quantified. Geographic variability in ETS exposure was quantified based on the varying prevalence of smokers in five selected locations in the U.S. PMID:21039708

  12. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  13. Characterization of fungal spores in ambient particulate matter: A study from the Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Attri, Arun K.

    2016-10-01

    Fungal spores as a constituent of ambient particulate matter (PM) is of concern; they not only display the physical traits of a particle, but are also potential allergens and health risk. An investigation over fourteen month was undertaken at a rural site located in the Western Himalayan region, to evaluate the PM associated fungal spores' concentration and diversity. The season-wise change in the fungal spores concentration in the Coarse Particulate Matter (CPM) fraction (aerodynamic diameter > 10 μm) varied from 500 to 3899 spores m-3. Their average concentration over 14 months was 1517 spores m-3. Significant diversity of fungal spores in the CPM samples was observed; 27 individual genera of fungal spores were identified, of which many were known allergens. Presence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal spores was dominant in the samples; ∼20% of the spores were un-characterized. The season-wise variability in fungal spores showed a statistically significant high correlation with CPM load. Maximum number concentration of the spores in CPM was recorded in the summer, while minimum in the winter. The high diversity of spores occurred during monsoon and post monsoon months. The meteorological factors played an important role in the fungal spores' distribution profile. The temporal profile of the spores showed significant correlation with the ambient temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. Strong correlation of WS with fungal spores and CPM, and wind back trajectories suggest that re-suspension and wind assisted transport of PM contributes to ambient CPM associated fungal spores.

  14. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, 2013.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2015-04-15

    Santiago is one of the largest cities in South America and has experienced high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in fall and winter months for decades. To better understand the sources of fall and wintertime pollution in Santiago, PM2.5 samples were collected for 24 h every weekday from March to October 2013 for chemical analysis. Samples were analyzed for mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble nitrogen (WSTN), secondary inorganic ions, and particle-phase organic tracers for source apportionment. Selected samples were analyzed as monthly composites for organic tracers. PM2.5 concentrations were considerably higher in the coldest months (June-July), averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 62±15 μg/m(3) in these two months. Average fine particle mass concentration during the study period was 40±20 μg/m(3). Organic matter during the peak winter months was the major component of fine particles comprising around 70% of the particle mass. Source contributions to OC were calculated using organic molecular markers and a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. The four combustion sources identified were wood smoke, diesel engine emission, gasoline vehicles, and natural gas. Wood smoke was the predominant source of OC, accounting for 58±42% of OC in fall and winter. Wood smoke and nitrate were the major contributors to PM2.5. In fall and winter, wood smoke accounted for 9.8±7.1 μg/m(3) (21±15%) and nitrate accounted for 9.1±4.8 μg/m(3) (20±10%) of fine PM. The sum of secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) represented about 30% of PM2.5 mass. Secondary organic aerosols contributed only in warm months, accounting for about 30% of fine PM during this time.

  15. Relating summer ambient particulate sulfur, sulfur dioxide, and light scattering to gaseous tracer emissions from the MOHAVE Power Project.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, V A; Farber, R J

    2000-05-01

    Project MOHAVE was initiated in 1992 to examine the role of emissions from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP) on haze at the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), located about 130 km north-north-east of the power plant. Statistical relationships were analyzed between summertime ambient concentrations of a gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer released from MPP and ambient SO2, particulate sulfur, and light scattering to evaluate whether MPP's emissions could be transported to the GCNP and then impact haze levels there. Spatial analyses indicated that particulate sulfur levels were strongly correlated across the monitoring network, regardless of whether the monitoring stations were upwind or downwind of MPP. This indicates that particulate sulfur levels in this region were influenced by distant regional emission sources. A significant particulate sulfur contribution from a point source such as MPP would result in a non-uniform pattern downwind. There was no suggestion of this in the data. Furthermore, correlations between the MPP tracer and ambient particulate sulfur and light scattering at locations in the park were virtually zero for averaging times ranging from 24 hr to 1 hr. Hour-by-hour MPP tracer levels and light scattering were individually examined, and still no positive correlations were detected. Finally, agreement between tracer and particulate sulfur did not improve as a function of meteorological regime, implying that, even during cloudy monsoon days when more rapid conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfur would be expected, there was no evidence for downwind particulate sulfur impacts. Despite the fact that MPP was a large source of SO2 and tracer, neither time series nor correlation analyses were able to detect any meaningful relationship between MPP's SO2 and tracer emission "signals" to particulate sulfur or light scattering.

  16. Temporal and spatial distributions of summer-time ground-level fine particulate matters in Baltimore-DC region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Greenwald, R.; Sarnat, J.; Hu, X.; Kewada, P.; Morales, Y.; Goldman, G.; Redman, J.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies have established a robust association between chronic exposure to ambient level fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and adverse health effects such as COPD, cardiorespiratory diseases, and premature death. Population exposure to PM2.5 has historically been estimated using ground measurements which are often sparse and unevenly distributed. There has been much interest as well as suspicion in both the air quality management and research communities regarding the value of satellite retrieved AOD as particle air pollution indicators. A critical step towards the future use of satellite aerosol products in air quality monitoring and management is to better understand the AOD-PM2.5 association. The existing EPA and IMPROVE networks are insufficient to validate AOD-estimated PM2.5 surface especially when higher resolution satellite products become available in the near future. As part of DISCOVER-AQ mission, we deployed 15 portable filter-based samplers alongside of ground-based sun photometers of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) in July 2011. Gravimetric analyses were conducted to estimate 24h PM2.5 mass concentrations, using Teflon filters and Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) operated at a flow rate of 4 LPM. Pre- and post-sampling filters were weighed at our weigh room laboratory facilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Our objectives are (1) to examine if AOD measured by ground-based sun-photometers with the support from ground-based lidars can provide the fine scale spatial heterogeneity observed by ground PM monitors, and (2) whether PM2.5 levels estimated by satellite AOD agree with this true PM2.5 surface. Study design, instrumentation, and preliminary results of measured PM2.5 spatial patterns in July 2011 will be presented as well as discussion of further data analysis and model development.

  17. Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54 ± 18.60 in winter > 145.22 ± 18.61 in spring > 140.16 ± 20.76 in autumn > 122.37 ± 13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions.

  18. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution.

  19. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations Associated with Ambient Fine Particles in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Ramon; Wang, Xinhui; Reyes, Jeanette; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Vizuete, William; Chui, Helena C.; Driscoll, Ira; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm) has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure. Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1365 women (aged 71–89) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space). Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average) exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked smaller WM volumes to PM2.5, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles. PMID:27790103

  20. Adjuvant effects of ambient particulate matter monitored by proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R; Bramble, Lori A; Nel, Andre E; Loo, Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) from air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma. The immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of PM is still not well understood. The generation of ROS and the resulting oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major mechanisms. Using a new intranasal sensitization model in which ambient PM is used as an adjuvant to enhance allergic inflammation (Li et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117, 1116-1123), a proteomics approach was applied to study the adjuvant effects of ambient PM. The enhanced in vivo adjuvant effect of ultrafine particles correlates with a higher in vitro oxidant potential and a higher content of redox-cycling organic chemicals. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from normal and sensitized mice were resolved by 2-DE, and identified by MS. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, complement C3, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, chitinase 3-like protein 3, chitinase 3-like protein 4, and acidic mammalian chitinase demonstrated significantly enhanced up-regulation by UFP with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and a higher oxidant potential. These proteins may be the important specific elements targeted by PM in air pollution through the ability to generate ROS in the immune system, and may be involved in allergen sensitization and asthma pathogenesis.

  1. Atmospheric mercury and fine particulate matter in coastal New England: implications for mercury and trace element sources in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Krabbenhotft, David P. Krabbenhoft; Bothner, Michael H. Bothner; Tate, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive sampling of ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter was conducted at Woods Hole, Massachusetts over a four-month period from 3 April to 29 July, 2008, in conjunction with year-long deployment of the USGS Mobile Mercury Lab. Results were obtained for trace elements in fine particulate matter concurrently with determination of ambient atmospheric mercury speciation and concentrations of ancillary gasses (SO2, NOx, and O3). For particulate matter, trace element enrichment factors greater than 10 relative to crustal background values were found for As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn, indicating contribution of these elements by anthropogenic sources. For other elements, enrichments are consistent with natural marine (Na, Ca, Mg, Sr) or crustal (Ba, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, La, Rb, Sc, Th, Ti, U, Y) sources, respectively. Positive matrix factorization was used together with concentration weighted air-mass back trajectories to better define element sources and their locations. Our analysis, based on events exhibiting the 10% highest PM2.5 contributions for each source category, identifies coal-fired power stations concentrated in the U.S. Ohio Valley, metal smelting in eastern Canada, and marine and crustal sources showing surprisingly similar back trajectories, at times each sampling Atlantic coastal airsheds. This pattern is consistent with contribution of Saharan dust by a summer maximum at the latitude of Florida and northward transport up the Atlantic Coast by clockwise circulation of the summer Bermuda High. Results for mercury speciation show diurnal production of RGM by photochemical oxidation of Hg° in a marine environment, and periodic traverse of the study area by correlated RGM-SO2(NOx) plumes, indicative of coal combustion sources.

  2. Development and evaluation of a novel monitor for online measurement of iron, manganese, and chromium in ambient particulate matter (PM).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbin; Sowlat, Mohammad H; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-09-15

    A prototype atmospheric aerosol monitor was developed for online measurement of three toxicologically relevant redox-active metals (Fe, Mn, and Cr) in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The monitor has the unique ability to quantify these metals in specific chemical oxidation states in addition to both their total and water-soluble fractions in the ambient PM2.5. This information is critical for advancing our understanding of mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity as well as chemical processing of aerosol in the atmosphere. The metal monitor utilizes a high flow rate aerosol-into-liquid collector to collect ambient PM2.5 directly as concentrated aqueous slurry samples. The concentrations of target metals in the collected slurries are subsequently measured in a aerosol-into-liquid collector, micro volume flow cell (MVFC) using spectrophotometry to quantify the light absorption of colored complexes resulting from the reaction between the target metals and added analytical reagents. Our experimental evaluation indicated that, overall, this novel monitor can achieve accurate and reliable measurements over long sampling periods (i.e. at least several weeks). The online measurements for all three target elements were in good agreement (i.e., with slopes of the linear regression lines ranging between 0.90 and 1.07, and R(2) values between 0.76 and 0.95) with time-integrated filter samples collected in parallel and analyzed by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS). Moreover, this metal monitor can provide semi-continuous measurements (i.e., every 2h) for at least 5 consecutive days without obvious shortcomings in its field operation. The online monitor measured total concentrations of Fe that ranged between 4.8 and 65.6ng/m(3), for Mn from below detection limit to 10.0ng/m(3), and for Cr from below detection limit to 6.6ng/m(3), respectively. Our results indicate that the developed metal monitor is a promising technology for online

  3. A unique Critical State two-surface hyperplasticity model for fine-grained particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, W. M.; Crouch, R. S.; Augarde, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    Even mild compression can cause re-arrangement of the internal structure of clay-like geomaterials, whereby clusters of particles rotate and collapse as face-to-face contacts between the constituent mineral platelets increase at the expense of edge-to-face (or edge-to-edge) contacts. The collective action of local particle re-orientation ultimately leads to path-independent isochoric macroscopic deformation under continuous shearing. This asymptotic condition is the governing feature of Critical State elasto-plasticity models. Unlike earlier formulations, the two-surface anisotropic model proposed herein is able to reproduce a unique isotropic Critical State stress envelope which agrees well with test data. Material point predictions are compared against triaxial experimental results and five other existing constitutive models. The hyperplastic formulation is seen to offer a significantly improved descriptor of the anisotropic behaviour of fine-grained particulate materials.

  4. Effects of wind direction on coarse and fine particulate matter concentrations in southeast Kansas.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Sergio A; Lane, Dennis D; Marotz, Glen A; Carter, Ray E; Hohl, Carrie M; Baldauf, Richard W

    2006-11-01

    Field data for coarse particulate matter ([PM] PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected at selected sites in Southeast Kansas from March 1999 to October 2000, using portable MiniVol particulate samplers. The purpose was to assess the influence on air quality of four industrial facilities that burn hazardous waste in the area located in the communities of Chanute, Independence, Fredonia, and Coffeyville. Both spatial and temporal variation were observed in the data. Variation because of sampling site was found to be statistically significant for PM10 but not for PM2.5. PM10 concentrations were typically slightly higher at sites located within the four study communities than at background sites. Sampling sites were located north and south of the four targeted sources to provide upwind and downwind monitoring pairs. No statistically significant differences were found between upwind and downwind samples for either PM10 or PM2.5, indicating that the targeted sources did not contribute significantly to PM concentrations. Wind direction can frequently contribute to temporal variation in air pollutant concentrations and was investigated in this study. Sampling days were divided into four classifications: predominantly south winds, predominantly north winds, calm/variable winds, and winds from other directions. The effect of wind direction was found to be statistically significant for both PM10 and PM2.5. For both size ranges, PM concentrations were typically highest on days with predominantly south winds; days with calm/variable winds generally produced higher concentrations than did those with predominantly north winds or those with winds from "other" directions. The significant effect of wind direction suggests that regional sources may exert a large influence on PM concentrations in the area.

  5. Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter Inside and Outside of Mechanically Ventilated Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shelly L.; Facciola, Nick A.; Toohey, Darin; Zhai, John

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure levels of particulate matter (PM) in mechanically ventilated buildings and to improve understanding of filtration requirements to reduce exposure. With the use of an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer, ultrafine (0.055–0.1 μm) and fine (0.1–0.7 μm) indoor and outdoor PM was measured as a function of time in an office, a university building, and two elementary schools. Indoor particle levels were highly correlated with outdoor levels. Indoor and outdoor number concentrations in Denver were higher than those in Boulder, with the highest number concentrations occurring during summer and fall. The ratio of indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) PM was weakly but positively correlated with the amount of ventilation provided to the indoor environment, did not vary much with particle size (ranged between 0.48 and 0.63 for the entire size range), and was similar for each period of the week (weekend vs. weekday, night vs. day). Regression analyses showed that ultrafine indoor PM baseline concentrations were higher at night from nighttime infiltration. A lag time was observed between outdoor and indoor measurements. Weekday days had the shortest lag time of 11 min, and weekend nighttime lags when the HVAC was not in use were 50 to 148 min. Indoor-outdoor PM concentration plots showed ultrafine PM was more correlated compared to fine, and especially when the HVAC system was on. Finally, AMS data showed that most of the PM was organic, with occasional nitrate events occurring outdoors. During nitrate events, there were less indoor particles detected, indicating a loss of particulate phase nitrate. The results from this study show that improved filtration is warranted in mechanically ventilated buildings, particularly for ultrafine particles, and that nighttime infiltration is significant depending on the building design. PMID:28134841

  6. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    PubMed Central

    César, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Mantovani, Katia Cristina Cota; Vieira, Luciana Cristina Pompeo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP) and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088); lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113); lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092); lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088) and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106). The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes. PMID:26522821

  7. Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter Inside and Outside of Mechanically Ventilated Buildings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelly L; Facciola, Nick A; Toohey, Darin; Zhai, John

    2017-01-28

    The objectives of this study were to measure levels of particulate matter (PM) in mechanically ventilated buildings and to improve understanding of filtration requirements to reduce exposure. With the use of an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer, ultrafine (0.055-0.1 μm) and fine (0.1-0.7 μm) indoor and outdoor PM was measured as a function of time in an office, a university building, and two elementary schools. Indoor particle levels were highly correlated with outdoor levels. Indoor and outdoor number concentrations in Denver were higher than those in Boulder, with the highest number concentrations occurring during summer and fall. The ratio of indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) PM was weakly but positively correlated with the amount of ventilation provided to the indoor environment, did not vary much with particle size (ranged between 0.48 and 0.63 for the entire size range), and was similar for each period of the week (weekend vs. weekday, night vs. day). Regression analyses showed that ultrafine indoor PM baseline concentrations were higher at night from nighttime infiltration. A lag time was observed between outdoor and indoor measurements. Weekday days had the shortest lag time of 11 min, and weekend nighttime lags when the HVAC was not in use were 50 to 148 min. Indoor-outdoor PM concentration plots showed ultrafine PM was more correlated compared to fine, and especially when the HVAC system was on. Finally, AMS data showed that most of the PM was organic, with occasional nitrate events occurring outdoors. During nitrate events, there were less indoor particles detected, indicating a loss of particulate phase nitrate. The results from this study show that improved filtration is warranted in mechanically ventilated buildings, particularly for ultrafine particles, and that nighttime infiltration is significant depending on the building design.

  8. 2006 critical review - health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    C. Arden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery

    2006-06-15

    Efforts to understand and mitigate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have a rich and interesting history. This review focuses on six substantial lines of research that have been pursued since 1997 that have helped elucidate our understanding about the effects of PM on human health. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of PM health effects at different time-scales of exposure and in the exploration of the shape of the concentration-response function. There has also been emerging evidence of PM-related cardiovascular health effects and growing knowledge regarding interconnected general pathophysiological pathways that link PM exposure with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite important gaps in scientific knowledge and continued reasons for some skepticism, a comprehensive evaluation of the research findings provides persuasive evidence that exposure to fine particulate air pollution has adverse effects on cardiopulmonary health. Although much of this research has been motivated by environmental public health policy, these results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are broader than debates over legally mandated air quality standards. 502 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. In vitro estrogenicity of ambient particulate matter: contribution of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Schmid, Peter; Hueglin, Christoph; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM1) was collected at an urban and a rural site in Switzerland during a hibernal high air pollution episode and was investigated for estrogenicity using an estrogen-sensitive reporter gene assay (ER-CALUX). All samples that were tested induced estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression in T47D human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Observed estrogenic activities corresponded to 17beta-estradiol (E2) CALUX equivalent concentrations ranging from 2 to 23 ng E2-CEQ per gram of PM1 (particulate matter of < or = 1 microm aerodynamic diameter) and from 0.07 to 1.25 pg E2-CEQ per m(3) of sampled air. There was a strong correlation between the PM1 estrogenicity of the urban and rural sites (r = 0.92). Five hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hydroxy-PAHs), which show structural similarities to E2, were assessed for their estrogenic activity. The following order of estrogenic potency was found: 2-hydroxychrysene > 2-hydroxyphenanthrene > 1-hydroxypyrene > 2-hydroxynaphthalene > 1-hydroxynaphthalene. Three of these hydroxy-PAHs, namely 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxynaphthalene, were detected in all PM1 extracts. However, they contributed only 0.01-0.2% to the overall estrogenic activity. Hence, mainly other estrogenic compounds not yet identified by chemical analysis must be responsible for the observed activity. The temporal trend of PM1 estrogenicity at the urban and rural site, respectively, was compared with the time course of several air pollutants (NO2, NO, SO2, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, air pressure, solar irradiation, wind velocity). However, specific emission sources and formation processes of atmospheric xenoestrogens could not be elucidated. This study showed that ambient particulate matter contains compounds that are able to interact with estrogen receptors in vitro and potentially also interfere with estrogen-regulated pathways in vivo.

  10. European studies on long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Negri, Eva; Boffetta, Paolo; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Bosetti, Cristina; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2008-06-01

    European epidemiological studies on ambient air pollution and cancer published before December 2006 are reviewed, with focus on five analytic studies providing data on the association between various measures of particulate matter (PM) and lung cancer. A case-control study of 755 men who died from lung cancer in Trieste, Italy, reported that, compared with less than 0.18 g/m/day of deposition of particulate, the relative risk (RR) was 1.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-1.5] for 0.18-0.30 and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) for more than 0.30 g/m/day. In the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer with 60 deaths from lung cancer, the RR was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.43-2.63) for an increase of 10 mug/m in black smoke. In the French Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques study cohort based on 178 deaths from lung cancer, the RR associated with an increase in exposure to 10 mug/m of total suspended particulate was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.01). A nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition included 113 nonsmokers or exsmokers diagnosed with lung cancer and 312 controls. The RRs were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.70-1.18) for an increase in PM with diameter

  11. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33.

    PubMed

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-08-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. < 10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged repeatedly with a low (≈3 mg/m(3)) mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks. Responses were compared to animals administered carbon black as a negative control, or a moderate (≈30 mg/m(3)) concentration of ovalbumin to simulate an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Delivery of PM10 to mice, in which experimental mild chronic asthma had previously been established, elicited characteristic features of enhanced allergic inflammation of the airways, including eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment, similar to that in the allergen-induced exacerbation. In parallel, there was increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10.

  12. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33

    PubMed Central

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-01-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. < 10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged repeatedly with a low (≈3 mg/m3) mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks. Responses were compared to animals administered carbon black as a negative control, or a moderate (≈30 mg/m3) concentration of ovalbumin to simulate an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Delivery of PM10 to mice, in which experimental mild chronic asthma had previously been established, elicited characteristic features of enhanced allergic inflammation of the airways, including eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment, similar to that in the allergen-induced exacerbation. In parallel, there was increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10. PMID:24730559

  13. Exploration of the composition and sources of urban fine particulate matter associated with same-day cardiovascular health effects in Dearborn, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Fitzner, Craig A.; Dvonch, Timothy; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore associations of chemical components and source factors of ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM2.5) with cardiovascular (CV) changes following same-day exposure to ambient PM2.5. Twenty-five healthy adults living in rural Michigan were exposed to ambient air in an urban/industrial community for 4 to 5 h daily for five consecutive days. CV health outcomes were measured 1–2 h post exposure. Contributing emission sources were identified via positive matrix factorization. We examined associations between PM2.5 mass, composition and source factors, and same-day changes in CV outcomes using mixed-model analyses. PM2.5 mass (10.8±6.8 μg/m3), even at low ambient levels, was significantly associated with increased heart rate (HR). Trace elements as well as secondary aerosol, diesel/urban dust and iron/steel manufacturing factors potentially explained the HR changes. However, trace element analysis demonstrated additional associations with other CV responses including changes in blood pressure (BP), arterial compliance, autonomic balance and trends toward reductions in endothelial function. Two factors were related to BP changes (diesel/urban dust, motor vehicle) and trends toward impaired endothelial function (diesel/urban dust). This study indicates composition of PM2.5 and its sources may contribute to CV health effects independently of PM2.5 mass. PMID:24866265

  14. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Subash Kumar, Divya; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution. PMID:26258167

  15. THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY: MODELING AMBIENT SOURCE CONTRIBUTION TO PERSONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study represented a one-year investigation of personal, residential and ambient PM mass concentrations across distances as large as 70 km in central North Carolina. One of the primary goals of this effort was to est...

  16. Co-exposure to inhaled ambient particulate matter and acrolein alters myocardial synchrony in mice: evidence for TRPA1 involvement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because air pollution is a complex mixture of constituents, often including particulates and aldehydes, attributing health effects to air pollutants in a given ambient air shed can be difficult when pollutants are studied in isolation. The purpose of this study was to examine the...

  17. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1. 1US E...

  18. Ambient particulate matter induces IL-8 expression through an alternative NF-kB mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been shown to increase rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine signaling events involved in the expression of the inflamma...

  19. EPA Approves Redesignation of Atlanta Area to Attainment for the 1997 Annual Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Standard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that it is taking final action to approve the state of Georgia's request to redesignate the Atlanta Area to attainment for the 1997 Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) standard. This fi

  20. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  1. Exploration of the Rapid Effects of Personal Fine Particulate Matter Exposure on Hemodynamics and Vascular Function during the Same Day

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Levels of fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] are associated with alterations in arterial hemodynamics and vascular function. However, the characteristics of the same-day exposure–response relationships remain unclear. Object...

  2. DAILY VARIATION IN ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated as a part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). A high volume (113 liters/minute) sampler was used at the Allen Park community air monitoring station to collect PM2.5 for analysis by ga...

  3. NONLINEARITIES IN THE SULFATE SECONDARY FINE PARTICULATE RESPONSE TO NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS AS MODELED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention is increasingly being devoted to the health effects of fine particulates. In regions that have a large production of sulfate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid compete for the available ammonia to form aerosols. In addition, the available nitric acid is the result of ur...

  4. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  5. Calibration of a Three Wavelength Lidar for Size Discriminated Ambient Particulate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Zavyalov, V.; Bingham, G. E.; Marchant, C.; Herron, J.; Jones, D.; Bowman, J.; Moore, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    A three wavelength Lidar has been developed at Utah State University's Space Dynamics Laboratory for the measurement of size segregated ambient particulate matter concentrations as part of the AgLite program. The AgLite program, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service, was developed to quantify particulate emissions from diffuse area sources, such as those typically found around confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and tillage operations. The Lidar system is capable of scanning horizontally and vertically across a suspected source area and can identify both spatial and temporal concentration fields which, when combined with locally measured wind field data, can be used to derive source emission estimates. The Lidar measures the relative magnitude of optical scattering by the atmosphere, which is a function of aerosol concentration. A Lidar scan around a source area gives a map of relative aerosol concentration. During an operational experiment, a scan is calibrated by point-sensors collocated with one or more points of the Lidar scan. In order to minimize potential systematic errors, a detailed calibration experiment was designed to compare Lidar return signals with Met One Instruments 8-channel Optical Particle Counters (Model 9722) and Airmetrics MiniVol filter-based samplers configured for collection of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. The Lidar calibration experiment was performed in July 2007 at a farm owned and operated by Utah State University near Cache Junction, Utah. Multiple datasets were collected during which the Lidar moved between three stares, each a minute in duration, that were collocated with a cluster of MiniVols sampling the four size fractionations and an OPC. Sampler duration was between three and eight hours, depending upon background particulate concentrations. Prior to comparison of these instruments with the Lidar, the MiniVols and OPCs were compared against collocated PM2.5 and PM10 Federal

  6. In Vitro Toxicity and Epigenotoxicity of Different Types of Ambient Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Pathak, Rupak; Lu, Xiaoyan; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Krager, Kimberly; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Demokritou, Philip; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects, including pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Studies indicate that ambient PM originated from different sources may cause distinct biological effects. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential of various types of PM to cause epigenetic alterations in the in vitro system. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed for 24 and 72 h to 5- and 50-μg/ml doses of the water soluble extract of 6 types of PM: soil dust, road dust, agricultural dust, traffic exhausts, biomass burning, and pollen, collected in January–April of 2014 in the area of Little Rock, Arkansas. Cytotoxicity, oxidative potential, epigenetic endpoints, and chromosomal aberrations were addressed. Exposure to 6 types of PM resulted in induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a type-, time-, and dose-dependent manner. Epigenetic alterations were characterized by type-, time-, and dose-dependent decreases of DNA methylation/demethylation machinery, increased DNA methyltransferases enzymatic activity and protein levels, and transcriptional activation and subsequent silencing of transposable elements LINE-1, SINE B1/B2. The most pronounced changes were observed after exposure to soil dust that were also characterized by hypomethylation and reactivation of satellite DNA and structural chromosomal aberrations in the exposed cells. The results of our study indicate that the water-soluble fractions of the various types of PM have differential potential to target the cellular epigenome. PMID:26342214

  7. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  8. The sensitivity of ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations to global change at different spatiotemporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racherla, Pavan Nandan

    Ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM) are harmful to human health. Changes in climate and anthropogenic emissions due to global change will affect concentrations of O3 and fine PM. These effects are not well understood, however. We perform a suite of simulations using an integrated model of global climate, tropospheric gas-phase chemistry, and aerosols to investigate the effects of global change on O3 and fine PM at different spatiotemporal scales ranging from the global annual-average concentrations to regional (eg. United States) air pollution episodes. One major consequence of climate change is a lengthening of the O3 season over the eastern U.S. to include late spring and early fall months. Climate change is also predicted to increase the severity and frequency of O3 episodes over much of the eastern U.S. We found that U.S. O 3 and fine PM are sensitive first and foremost to U.S. anthropogenic emissions changes. However, the effect of climate change is very sensitive to the prevalent domestic anthropogenic emissions, and it increases strongly with emissions, thereby making it important to factor climate change in to air quality planning. The reductions in domestic emissions will, therefore, have the added benefit of minimized climate effects. Climate change affects fine PM sulfate and nitrate concentrations the most. Substantial increases of up to 2 mug m-3 in the July-average sulfate concentrations were predicted in many polluted regions in the eastern U.S. Higher NO x and ammonia emissions could negate the benefits of significant SO2 emissions reductions vis-a-vis the annual-average PM2.5 standard for several areas in the Northeast and Midwest U.S. Simultaneous reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions, however, will help bring most of the eastern U.S. into compliance with the current annual-average PM2.5 standard. If the U.S. O3 standard were to change from the current 80 ppbv to 55 ppbv (which is the case in many European countries), the increased O3

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE (2.5-10MM), INTERMEDIATE (1-2.5MM), AND FINE (<2.5MM) PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological and epidemiological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that a...

  10. 78 FR 53269 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Interstate Transport of Fine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... for the 1997 and 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate matter, Reporting...

  11. Factors affecting the stability of the performance of ambient fine-particle concentrators.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Sioutas, C; Chang, M C; Gong, H

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a systematic evaluation of factors affecting the stability of the performance of Harvard ambient fine-particle concentrators, an essential requirement for controlled animal and human exposure studies that utilize these technologies. Phenomenological problems during the operation of the concentrator, including pressure drop increase and decrease in concentration enrichment, were statistically correlated with ambient air parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, PM2.5 mass concentration, and mass median diameter. The normalized hourly pressure drop across the concentrator was strongly associated (R2 = .81) with the product of ambient PM2.5 mass concentration and the difference between the vapor pressure downstream of the impactor nozzle and the saturation vapor pressure at the adiabatic expansion temperature (i.e., the temperature of the aerosol immediately downstream of the virtual impactors). From multiple regression analysis, the average enrichment factor was predicted reasonably well (R2 = .67) by aerosol mass median diameter and the normalized hourly pressure drop. Based on these results, we can anticipate in any given day whether an exposure study can be conducted without a considerable increase in the concentrator pressure drop, which might lead to an abrupt or premature termination of the exposure. As particle mass concentration and ambient dewpoint are the two main parameters responsible for raising the pressure drop across the concentrator, efforts should be made to either desiccate the ambient aerosol at days of high dewpoints, or to dilute the ambient PM at days of high concentrations, prior to drawing the aerosol through the virtual impactors. The latter approach is recommended on days of severe ambient pollution conditions because it is simpler and also makes it possible to maintain the appropriate concentration level delivered to the exposure chamber.

  12. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb Dr. Douglas R. Worsnop Dr. Manjula R. Canagaratna Dr. Scott C. Herndon Dr. John T. Jayne Dr. W. Berk Knighton Dr. Timothy B. Onasch Dr. Ezra C. Wood Dr. Miguel Zavala

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  13. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-07-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 {micro}m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO{sub 2} emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue

  14. Local and regional contributions to fine particulate matter in Beijing during heavy haze episodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangjun; Bao, Shengwei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hu, Yongtao; Shi, Xiang; Wang, Jiandong; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jingkun; Zheng, Mei; Wu, Minghong; Russell, Armistead G; Wang, Yuhang; Hao, Jiming

    2017-02-15

    In order to alleviate extreme haze pollution, understanding the origin of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is crucial. In this study, we applied Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) to quantify the impacts of emissions from different regions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing for haze episodes during January 6-23, 2013. Emission inventory was developed by Tsinghua University. Evolution of local and Regional contributions during local and non-local dominated haze episodes were discussed, separately. In the meanwhile, average contribution of other every city in Jing-Jin-Ji region to PM2.5 concentrations larger than 75μgm(-3) in Beijing urban for each range of local contribution percent was analyzed. The results indicate that local emissions contributed 83.6% of PM2.5 at the urban center of Beijing, while regional transport from surrounding cities and parts of Shandong, Henan and Anhui provinces contributed 9.4%; long-range transport contributed the remaining 7.0% mainly from areas >750km away to the south of Beijing during this study period. Compared to non-local-dominated haze episodes, local-dominated heavy haze episodes in Beijing were easily resulted from unfavorable meteorological conditions with much lower PBL and wind velocity. Furthermore, local contribution is more easily to cause a sharp increase or sharp reduction of PM2.5 concentration in central Beijing, reflecting that Beijing local has much stronger potential to form extremely heavy haze episodes. The results indicated that controlling local emissions is a much more important measure to alleviate the extreme haze episodes in Beijing, like that on the night of Jan 12, 2013. Furthermore, emission control in Jing-Jin-Ji region, especially in Tangshan, Tianjin, Baoding, Langfang, Shijiazhuang and Cangzhou, as well as Henan and Shandong province, are important to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations and the occurrence of haze episodes

  15. Seasonal variations of fine particulate organosulfates derived from biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the mid-Atlantic United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, L. Edward; Riva, Matthieu; Blomberg, Max Z.; Brock, Amanda K.; Qualters, Elisa Marie; Siejack, Richard A.; Ramakrishnan, Kumar; Surratt, Jason D.; Kautzman, Kathryn E.

    2016-11-01

    Organosulfates (OSs) are an important and ubiquitous class of organic compounds found in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that serves as markers for multiphase chemical processes leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In this study, high-volume filter sampling was implemented to collect PM2.5 samples during the August 2012-June 2013 time period in suburban Towson, MD. By utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry employing an electrospray ionization source (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS), 58 OSs were characterized and quantified in PM2.5 collected across all seasons. The selection of the extraction solvent was also found to be important for OS characterization. Seasonal trends demonstrate that the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dominates OS formation in early fall and spring, with substantial contributions from isoprene OS (∼15 ng/m3), and limonene and α-pinene OS (∼5 ng/m3). From November to March anthropogenic OSs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)- and alkane-derived OSs recently characterized in laboratory-generated SOA, reached their highest levels averaging 4 ng/m3. Nitrogen-containing OSs derived from terpene chemistry remain consistent over the sampling period averaging 2 ng/m3 and do not demonstrate strong seasonal fluctuations. Correlations between the identified OSs and known organic acids that arise from either the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic or anthropogenic VOCs assist in source apportionment. Meteorological data coupled with air mass back-trajectory analyses using HYSPLIT provide insight into meteorological and transport conditions that promote the formation/occurrence of OSs within the mid-Atlantic U.S. region.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fine Particulate Matter Mass and Chemical Composition: The Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdeen, Ziad; Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Schauer, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m3, with an average of 28.7 μg/m3. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m3) in the summer (April–June) months compared to winter (October–December) months (26.0 μg/m3) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East. PMID:25045751

  17. Spatiotemporal modeling with temporal-invariant variogram subgroups to estimate fine particulate matter PM2.5 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Chang-Fu; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Short-term exposure estimation of daily air pollution levels incorporating geographic information system (GIS) into spatiotemporal modeling remains a great challenge for assessing corresponding acute adverse health effects. Due to daily meteorological effects on the dispersion of pollutants, explanatory spatial covariables and their coefficients may not be the same as in classical land-use regression (LUR) modeling for long-term exposure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage spatiotemporal model for daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration prediction: first, daily nonlinear temporal trends are estimated through a generalized additive model, and second, GIS covariates are used to predict spatial variation in the temporal trend-removed residuals. To account for spatial dependence on meteorological conditions, the dates of the study period are divided by the sill of the daily empirical variogram into approximately temporal-invariant subgroups. Within each subgroup, daily PM2.5 estimations are obtained by combining the temporal and spatial parts of the estimations from the two stages. The proposed method is applied to the modeling of spatiotemporal PM2.5 concentrations observed at 18 ambient air monitoring stations in Taipei metropolitan area during 2006-2008. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentrations decreased whereas the relative humidity and wind speed increased with the sill subgroups, which may be due to the effects of daily meteorological conditions on the dispersions of the particles. Also, the covariates and their coefficients of the LUR models varied with subgroups and had in general higher adjusted R-squares and smaller root mean square errors in prediction than those of a single overall LUR model.

  18. Toxicologic and epidemiologic clues from the characterization of the 1952 London smog fine particulate matter in archival autopsy lung tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L; Judson, Bret; Berry, Colin L

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), even at low ambient concentrations, has clearly been linked to increases in mortality and morbidity. A 10- micro g m(-3) increase in PM10 (PM < 10 micro m) has been found to produce a 0.5% increase in daily mortality. The mechanism of action is a source of debate, although recent attention has focused on the cardiac effects of PM exposures. Likewise, several possible etiologic agents have been implicated, including ultrafine PM (PM

  19. Toxicologic and epidemiologic clues from the characterization of the 1952 London smog fine particulate matter in archival autopsy lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L; Judson, Bret; Berry, Colin L

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), even at low ambient concentrations, has clearly been linked to increases in mortality and morbidity. A 10- micro g m(-3) increase in PM10 (PM < 10 micro m) has been found to produce a 0.5% increase in daily mortality. The mechanism of action is a source of debate, although recent attention has focused on the cardiac effects of PM exposures. Likewise, several possible etiologic agents have been implicated, including ultrafine PM (PM

  20. The impact of improved wood-burning stoves on fine particulate matter concentrations in rural Mexican homes.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Miriam; Rojas, Leonora; Blanco, Salvador; Serrano, Paulina; Cruz, Jephte; Angeles, Felipe; Tzintzun, Guadalupe; Armendariz, Cynthia; Edwards, Rufus D; Johnson, Michael; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Masera, Omar

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of improved wood burning stoves on indoor air pollution, 53 homes in a rural town in Michoacán, Mexico, were selected from a health intervention study and monitored before and after receiving improved wood-burning stoves. Fine particulate matter--particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5))--concentrations were measured in the central plaza of the community and in three microenvironments in the home (next to the stove, in the kitchen away from the stove, and outdoor patio). Forty-eight hour mean PM(2.5) concentrations in homes that burned wood in open fires were 693 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 246-1338) near the stove, 658 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 67-1448) in the kitchen away from the stove, and 94 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 36-236) on the patio. Mean ambient 24-h concentrations in the main plaza of the community were 59 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 29-92). Paired measurements before and after the installation of the Patsari improved wood-burning stove indicate a median 71% reduction in PM(2.5) concentrations near the stove and 58% reductions in kitchen concentrations, whereas patio and main plaza concentrations remain unaffected. Only 44% of participants reported to use their Patsari stoves exclusively during the transition period. Even with the predominant mixed use of the Patsari stove with open fires, estimated daily average personal exposures to PM(2.5) were reduced by 50%.

  1. Residential proximity to major roads, exposure to fine particulate matter and aortic calcium: the Framingham Heart Study, a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Elissa H; Li, Wenyuan; Rice, Mary B; Ljungman, Petter L; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Traffic and ambient air pollution exposure are positively associated with cardiovascular disease, potentially through atherosclerosis promotion. Few studies have assessed associations of these exposures with thoracic aortic calcium Agatston score (TAC) or abdominal aortic calcium Agatston score (AAC), systemic atherosclerosis correlates. We assessed whether living close to a major road and residential fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure were associated with TAC and AAC in a Northeastern US cohort. Design Cohort study. Setting Framingham Offspring and Third Generation participants residing in the Northeastern USA. Participants and outcome measures Among 3506 participants, mean age was 55.8 years; 50% female. TAC was measured from 2002 to 2005 and AAC up to two times (2002–2005; 2008–2011) among participants from the Framingham Offspring or Third Generation cohorts. We first assessed associations with detectable TAC (logistic regression) and AAC (generalised estimating equation regression, logit link). As aortic calcium scores were right skewed, we used linear regression models and mixed-effects models to assess associations with natural log-transformed TAC and AAC, respectively, among participants with detectable aortic calcium. We also assessed associations with AAC progression. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, socioeconomic position indicators and time. Results There were no consistent associations of major roadway proximity or PM2.5 with the presence or extent of TAC or AAC, or with AAC progression. Some estimates were in the opposite direction than expected. Conclusions In this cohort from a region with relatively low levels of and variation in PM2.5, there were no strong associations of proximity to a major road or PM2.5 with the presence or extent of aortic calcification, or with AAC progression. PMID:28302634

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in fine particulate matter mass and chemical composition: the Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Qasrawi, Radwan; Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m(3), with an average of 28.7 μg/m(3). Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m(3)) in the summer (April-June) months compared to winter (October-December) months (26.0 μg/m(3)) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East.

  3. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. Intercomparison of two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21) indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the filter-adjusted continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Correlations of the ACSM NR-PM1 (non-refractory particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 1 μm) plus elemental carbon (EC) with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM2.5 and Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM1 mass are strong with r2 > 0.7 and r2 > 0.8, respectively. Discrepancies might be attributed to evaporative losses of semi-volatile species from the filter measurements used to adjust the collocated continuous measurements. This suggests that adjusting the ambient aerosol continuous measurements with results from filter analysis introduced additional bias to the measurements. We also recommend to calibrate the ambient aerosol monitoring instruments using aerosol standards rather than gas-phase standards. The fitting approach for ACSM relative ionization for sulfate was shown to improve the comparisons between ACSM and collocated measurements in the absence of calibrated values, suggesting the importance of adding sulfate calibration into the ACSM calibration routine.

  4. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  6. Ambient air particles: effects on cellular oxidant radical generation in relation to particulate elemental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, A K; Soukup, J M; Inmon, J; Willis, R; Ghio, A J; Becker, S; Gallagher, J E

    1999-07-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported causal relationships between exposures to high concentrations of ambient air particles (AAP) and increased morbidity in individuals with underlying respiratory problems. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are frequently present in the airways of individuals exposed to particles. Upon particulate stimulation the PMN may release reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in tissue damage and injury. In this study a wide range of AAP samples from divergent sources (1, natural dust; 2, oil fly ash; 2, coal fly ash; 5, ambient air; and 1, carbon black) were analyzed for elemental content and solubility in relation to their ability to generate ROS. Elemental analyses were carried out in AAP and dH(2)O-washed AAP using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Percent of sample mass accounted for by XRF-detectable elements was 1.2% (carbon black); 22-29% (natural dust and ambient air particles); 13-22% (oil fly ash particles); 28-49% (coal fly ash particles). The major proportion of elements in most of these particles were aluminosilicates and insoluble iron, except oil-derived fly ash particles in which soluble vanadium and nickel were in highest concentrations, consistent with particle acidity as measured in the supernatants. Human blood-derived monocytes and PMN were exposed to AAP and dH(2)O-washed particles, and generation of ROS was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) assay. All the particles induced chemiluminescence response in the cells, except carbon black. The oxidant response of monocytes induced by AAP (with the exception of oil fly ash particles) was less than the response elicited by PMN. The LCL response of PMN in general increased with all washed particles, with oil fly ash (OFA) and one urban air particle showing statistically significant (p < 0. 05) differences between dH(2)O-washed and unwashed particles. The LCL activity in PMN induced by both particles and dH(2)O-washed particles was

  7. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental... particle (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) air quality designations for the...

  8. Triggering of ST-elevation myocardial infarction by ambient wood smoke and other particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kristin A; Hopke, Philip K; Utell, Mark J; Kane, Cathleen; Thurston, Sally W; Ling, Frederick S; Chalupa, David; Rich, David Q

    2017-03-01

    We previously observed increased odds of ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) associated with increased ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the previous hour. However, data are lacking on the effects of specific PM sources. Using data from 362 patients, a case-crossover design, and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of STEMI associated with increased Delta-C (wood smoke), black carbon (BC; traffic), PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants in the previous 1-72 h. We did not observe increased odds of STEMIs associated with increased Delta-C or BC. We did observe increased odds associated with each 7.1 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 (OR (95% CI): 1.17 (0.99, 1.39)) and each 19.9 p.p.b. increase in ozone (O3; 1.27 (1.00, 1.63)) in the previous hour, and each 0.22 p.p.m. increase in 48-h carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations (1.32 (1.00, 1.73]). Larger relative odds were associated with PM2.5 in May-October, and O3 and CO in November-April. Increased PM2.5, O3, and CO, but not wood smoke or BC, were associated with increased odds of STEMI, and effects may differ by season. Studies using spatially adjusted pollution estimates are needed, as well as studies further examining O3 and CO effects on the risk of STEMI.

  9. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, George D.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Cromar, Kevin R.; Shao, Yongzhao; Reynolds, Harmony R.; Jerrett, Michael; Lim, Chris C.; Shanley, Ryan; Park, Yikyung; Hayes, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Outdoor fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been identified as a global health threat, but the number of large U.S. prospective cohort studies with individual participant data remains limited, especially at lower recent exposures. Objectives: We aimed to test the relationship between long-term exposure PM2.5 and death risk from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular (CVD), and respiratory diseases in 517,041 men and women enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort. Methods: Individual participant data were linked with residence PM2.5 exposure estimates across the continental United States for a 2000–2009 follow-up period when matching census tract–level PM2.5 exposure data were available. Participants enrolled ranged from 50 to 71 years of age, residing in six U.S. states and two cities. Cox proportional hazard models yielded hazard ratio (HR) estimates per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 exposure. Results: PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with total mortality (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05) and CVD mortality (HR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.15), but the association with respiratory mortality was not statistically significant (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.13). A significant association was found with respiratory mortality only among never smokers (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.56). Associations with 10-μg/m3 PM2.5 exposures in yearly participant residential annual mean, or in metropolitan area-wide mean, were consistent with baseline exposure model results. Associations with PM2.5 were similar when adjusted for ozone exposures. Analyses of California residents alone also yielded statistically significant PM2.5 mortality HRs for total and CVD mortality. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution was associated with an increased risk of total and CVD mortality, providing an independent test of the PM2.5–mortality relationship in a new large U.S. prospective cohort experiencing lower post-2000 PM2.5 exposure levels

  10. A literature review of concentrations and size distributions of ambient airborne Pb-containing particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Thornburg, Jonathan; Portzer, Jeff; Vanderpool, Robert; Cavender, Kevin; Rice, Joann

    2011-09-01

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM 10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) Federal Reference Method (FRM) monitors in lieu of total suspended particulate (TSP) monitors for some non-source-oriented monitoring. PM 10 FRM monitors are known to provide more reliable concentration measurements than TSP samplers because they are omni-directional samplers and so are not biased by wind conditions. However, by design they exclude the upper tail of the particle size distribution. Hence, each monitor produces uncertainties about measured concentrations of Pb-bearing PM. Uncertainties in reported Pb data are also related to spatiotemporal variation of the concentration and size distribution of Pb-bearing PM. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to summarize the current knowledge regarding the concentration and size distribution of Pb particles in the atmosphere. The objectives of this review were to compile data that could shed light on these uncertainties, to provide insights useful during future Pb NAAQS reviews, and to identify areas where more research is needed. Results of this review indicated that Pb size distribution data are relatively limited and often outdated. Thirty-nine articles were found to have sufficiently detailed information regarding airborne Pb concentrations, study location, sample collection methods, and analytical techniques; only 16 of those papers reported Pb concentration data for multiple size fractions. For the most part, U.S. and European studies from the last forty years illustrate that the largest mode of the size distribution of airborne particle-bound Pb has shifted to larger sizes while airborne Pb concentrations have decreased in urban areas. This shift occurred as tetraethyl Pb additives in gasoline were phased out and

  11. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  12. Aerodynamic size distribution of suspended particulate matter in the ambient air in the city of Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The City of Cleveland Division of Air Pollution Control and NASA jointly investigated the chemical and physical characteristics of the suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, and as part of the program, measurements of the particle size distribution of ambient air samples at five urban locations during August and September 1972 were made using high-volume cascade impactions. The distributions were evaluated for lognormality, and the mass median diameters were compared between locations and as a function of resultant wind direction. Junge-type distributions were consistent with dirty continental aerosols. About two-thirds of the suspended particulate matter observed in Cleveland is less than 7 microns in diameter.

  13. Long-Term Exposure to Constituents of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality: Results from the California Teachers Study

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, Bart; Lipsett, Michael; Reynolds, Peggy; Goldberg, Debbie; Hertz, Andrew; Garcia, Cynthia; Henderson, Katherine D.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported associations between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the health impacts of long-term exposure to specific constituents of PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have not been explored. Methods We used data from the California Teachers Study, a prospective cohort of active and former female public school professionals. We developed estimates of long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several of its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon (OC), sulfates, nitrates, iron, potassium, silicon, and zinc. Monthly averages of exposure were created using pollution data from June 2002 through July 2007. We included participants whose residential addresses were within 8 and 30 km of a monitor collecting PM2.5 constituent data. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for long-term exposure for mortality from all nontraumatic causes, cardiopulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and pulmonary disease. Results Approximately 45,000 women with 2,600 deaths lived within 30 km of a monitor. We observed associations of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and IHD mortality with PM2.5 mass and each of its measured constituents, and between pulmonary mortality and several constituents. For example, for cardiopulmonary mortality, HRs for interquartile ranges of PM2.5, OC, and sulfates were 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43–1.69], 1.80 (95% CI, 1.68–1.93), and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.58–2.03), respectively. Subsequent analyses indicated that, of the constituents analyzed, OC and sulfates had the strongest associations with all four outcomes. Conclusions Long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several of its constituents were associated with increased risks of all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality in this cohort. Constituents derived from combustion of fossil fuel (including diesel), as well as those of crustal origin, were associated with some of the greatest risks

  14. Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter During the 2006 MIRAGE (MILAGRO) Field Campaign. Part I. Data Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, M.; Matias, E.; Nenes, A.; Ponce de Leon, C.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the MIRAGE (MILAGRO, http://mirage-mex.acd.ucar.edu) field campaign, particulate matter in size ranges of 1, 2.5 μm was collected at the T1 site (located ~ 35 km NE downwind Mexico city) from March 5th-31st, 2006. Scientific objectives related to this database are focused on application of different aerosol modeling tools (Part II of this work). In this part a discussion of data validation and findings related is presented. Overall, highest concentrations of fine PM are present during the morning sampling periods (PM1, ~90% and PM2.5, ~70% of the time) suggesting a combination of transport of emissions from the Valley of Mexico and combustion processes nearby T1 are occurring. Although electroneutrality balances are achieved for both PM size ranges on the different sampling periods, it is noted that levels of concentration (neq/m3) found at the MIRAGE site (100-500 neq/m3) are significantly lower than those observed in Mexico City, reported previously around 200-1000 neq/m3. A considerable amount of crustal species is observed in the 2.5-1 μm size range. Additional analysis of K/Na ratio supports this finding and also suggests the dominating emissions in PM1 are of anthropogenic origin while in the PM2.5-1 size range are of crustal origin.

  15. Associations Between Fine Particulate Matter Components and Daily Mortality in Nagoya, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kayo; Yamagami, Makiko; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Hisatsune, Kunihiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation and regional heterogeneity have been observed in the estimated effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass on mortality. Differences in the chemical compositions of PM2.5 may cause this variation. We investigated the association of the daily concentration of PM2.5 components with mortality in Nagoya, Japan. Methods We combined daily mortality counts for all residents aged 65 years and older with concentration data for PM2.5 mass and components in Nagoya from April 2003 to December 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the association of daily mortality with PM2.5 mass and each component (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, elemental carbon [EC], and organic carbon [OC]). Results We found a stronger association between mortality and PM2.5 mass in transitional seasons. In analysis for each PM2.5 component, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, potassium, EC, and OC were significantly associated with mortality in a single-pollutant model. In a multi-pollutant model, an interquartile range increase in the concentration of sulfate was marginally associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 2.1% (95% confidence interval, −0.1 to 4.4). Conclusions These findings suggest that some specific PM components have a more hazardous effect than others and contribute to seasonal variation in the health effects of PM2.5. PMID:26686882

  16. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  17. Spatial Variable Selection Methods for Investigating Acute Health Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components

    PubMed Central

    Vock, Laura F. Boehm; Reich, Brian J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multi-site time series studies have reported evidence of an association between short term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but the effect size varies across the United States. Variability in the effect may partially be due to differing community level exposure and health characteristics, but also due to the chemical composition of PM which is known to vary greatly by location and time. The objective of this article is to identify particularly harmful components of this chemical mixture. Because of the large number of highly-correlated components, we must incorporate some regularization into a statistical model. We assume that, at each spatial location, the regression coefficients come from a mixture model with the flavor of stochastic search variable selection, but utilize a copula to share information about variable inclusion and effect magnitude across locations. The model differs from current spatial variable selection techniques by accommodating both local and global variable selection. The model is used to study the association between fine PM (PM <2.5 μm) components, measured at 115 counties nationally over the period 2000–2008, and cardiovascular emergency room admissions among Medicare patients. PMID:25303336

  18. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-08-26

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  19. World Trade Center fine particulate matter--chemistry and toxic respiratory effects: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-06-01

    The 11 September 2001 terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) caused an unprecedented environmental emergency. The collapse of the towers sent a tremendous cloud of crushed building materials and other pollutants into the air of lower Manhattan. In response to the calamity, federal, state, and city environmental authorities and research institutes devoted enormous resources to evaluate the impact of WTC-derived air pollution on public health. Unfortunately, on the day of the disaster, no air-sampling monitors were operating close to the WTC site to characterize and quantify pollutants in the dust cloud. However, analysis of fallen dust samples collected 5 and 6 days after the attack showed that 1-4% by weight consisted of particles small enough to be respirable (Lioy et al. 2002). These particles included fine particulate matter, or PM(subscript)2.5(/subscript) [PM < 2.5 micro m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)], which can be inhaled deep into the lung and is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health effects. Because of the extremely high concentrations of dust immediately after the collapse of the towers, even a relatively small proportion of PM(subscript)2.5(/subscript) in the dust clouds could have contributed to breathing problems in rescue workers and others who were not wearing protective masks.

  20. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation. PMID:27561629

  1. Role of microRNA-4516 involved autophagy associated with exposure to fine particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobo; Lv, Yang; Hao, Jihong; Sun, Hao; Gao, Na; Zhang, Chengcheng; Lu, Runze; Wang, Shizhi; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Metals are vital toxic components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Cellular responses to exposure to PM2.5 or PM metal components remain unknown. Post-transcriptional profiling and subsequent cell- and individual-based assays implied that the metal ion-binding miR-4516/RPL37/autophagy pathway could play a critical role in cellular responses to PM2.5 and PM metal stresses. miR-4516 was up-regulated in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 and in the serum of individuals living in a city with moderate air pollution. The expression levels of the miR-4516 target genes, namely, RPL37 and UBA52, were involved in ribosome function and inhibited by exposure to PM2.5 and PM metal components. Autophagy in A549 cells was induced by PM2.5 exposure as a response to decreased RPL37 expression. Moreover, enhanced miR-4516 expression was positively correlated with the augmentation of the internal burden of aluminum and lead in individuals living in a city with moderate air pollution. Hereby, the miR-4516/RPL37/autophagy pathway may represent a novel mechanism that mediates responses to PM metal components. PMID:27329587

  2. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-08-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  3. Nickel speciation of residual oil fly ash and ambient particulate matter using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Galbreath, K C; Toman, D L; Zygarlicke, C J; Huggins, F E; Huffman, G P; Wong, J L

    2000-11-01

    The chemical speciation of Ni in fly ash produced from approximately 0.85 wt % S residual (no. 6 fuel) oils in laboratory (7 kW)- and utility (400 MW)-scale combustion systems was investigated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and acetate extraction [1 M NaOAc-0.5 M HOAc (pH 5) at 25 degrees C]-anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). XAFS was also used to determine the Ni speciation of ambient particulate matter (PM) sampled near the 400-MW system. Based on XAFS analyses of bulk fly ash and their corresponding acetate extraction residue, it is estimated that > 99% of the total Ni (0.38 wt %) in the experimentally produced fly ash occurs as NiSO4.xH2O, whereas > 95% of the total Ni (1.70 and 2.25 wt %) in two fly ash samples from the 400-MW system occurs as NiSO4.xH2O and Ni-bearing spinel, possibly NiFe2O4. Spinel was also detected using XRD. Acetate extracts most of the NiSO4.xH2O and concentrates insoluble NiFe2O4 in extraction residue. Similar to fly ash, ambient PM contains NiSO4.xH2O and NiFe2O4; however, the proportion of NiSO4.xH2O relative to NiFe2O4 is much greater in the PM. Results from this and previous investigations indicate that residual oil ash produced in the 7-kW combustion system lack insoluble Ni (e.g., NiFe2O4) but are enriched in soluble NiSO4.xH2O relative to fly ash from utility-scale systems. This difference in Ni speciation is most likely related to the lack of additive [e.g., Mg(OH)2] injection and residence time in the 7-kW combustion system.

  4. Mortality and ambient fine particles in southwest Mexico City, 1993-1995.

    PubMed Central

    Borja-Aburto, V H; Castillejos, M; Gold, D R; Bierzwinski, S; Loomis, D

    1998-01-01

    ++Epidemiologic studies have focused attention on the health effects of fine particulate air pollutants <2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5). To further characterize the potential effects of fine particles, we investigated the relationship of air pollution to mortality in Mexico City during 1993-1995. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured on a 24-hr integrated basis; concentrations of NO2 and ozone were measured hourly and reduced to 24-hr means. Daily mortality was determined from death registration records, and Poisson regression was used to model daily death counts as a function of air pollutant levels on the same and previous days, while controlling for temperature and periodic cycles. Without taking other air pollutants into account, a 10 microg/m3 increase in the level of PM2.5 was associated with a 1.4% increase in total mortality, both on the current day and 4 days after exposure [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-2.5]. An equivalent increase in PM2.5 was also associated with somewhat larger excesses of deaths among people over 65 years of age and from cardiovascular and respiratory causes, which occurred after a lag of 4 days. The mean concentration of ozone over a 2-day period was associated with a 1.8% increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases. NO2 was not consistently related to mortality. Fine particles had an independent effect on mortality when modeled simultaneously with other pollutants, and the association of ozone with cardiovascular mortality was strengthened after adjusting for NO2 and PM2.5. These results support previous findings that urban air pollution at current levels leads to excess mortality and suggest that fine particles may play a causal role in producing that excess. Images Figure 1 PMID:9831546

  5. Global Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations and Trends Inferred from Satellite Observations, Modeling, and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Randall; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Boys, Brian; Philip, Sajeev; Lee, Colin; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal

    2014-05-01

    Outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmentally-related cause of premature mortality worldwide. However, ground-level PM2.5 monitors remain sparse in many regions of the world. Satellite remote sensing from MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS yields a powerful global data source to address this issue. Global modeling (GEOS-Chem) plays a critical role in relating these observations to ground-level concentrations. The resultant satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 indicate dramatic variation around the world, with implications for global public health. A new ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances in combining satellite remote sensing, global modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of global population exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter.

  6. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the dominant phase present

  7. Interactions between cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter in the Risk of Lung Cancer Mortality in Cancer Prevention Study II.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C; Cohen, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Pope, C Arden; Krewski, Daniel; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-12-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans. However, there are gaps in the epidemiologic literature, including assessment of possible joint effects of cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We present estimates of interaction on the additive scale between these risk factors from Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective US cohort study of nearly 1.2 million participants recruited in 1982. Estimates of the relative excess risk of lung cancer mortality due to interaction, the attributable proportion due to interaction, and the synergy index were 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.10, 4.83), 0.14 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.25), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37), respectively, using the 25th and 75th percentiles as cutpoints for fine particulate matter. This suggests small increases in lung cancer risk among persons with both exposures beyond what would be expected from the sum of the effects of the individual exposures alone. Although reductions in cigarette smoking will achieve the greatest impact on lung cancer rates, these results suggest that attempted reductions in lung cancer risk through both tobacco control and air quality management may exceed expectations based on reducing exposure to either risk factor alone.

  8. Characterization of ambient fine particles in the northwestern area and Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-10-01

    Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) in the northwestern United States and Alaska is dominated by carbonaceous compounds associated with wood burning and transportation sources. PM2.5 source characterization studies analyzing recent PM2.5 speciation data have not been previously reported for these areas. In this study, ambient PM2.5 speciation samples collected at two monitoring sites located in the northwestern area, Olympic Peninsula, WA, and Portland, OR, and one monitoring site located in Anchorage, AK, were characterized through source apportionments. Gasoline vehicle, secondary sulfate, and wood smoke were the largest sources of PM2.5 collected at the Anchorage, Olympic, and Portland monitoring sites, respectively. Secondary sulfates showed an April peak at Anchorage and a November peak at Portland that are likely related to the increased photochemical reaction and long-range transport in Anchorage and meteorological stagnation in Portland. Secondary nitrate at the Olympic site showed a weak summer high peak that could be caused by seasonal tourism in the national park. Backward trajectories suggested that the elevated aged sea salt concentrations at the Portland monitoring site could be regional transport of sea salt that passed through other contaminated air sheds along the coast. Oil combustion emissions that might originate from ships and ferries were observed at the Olympic monitoring site.

  9. Simulating the fine and coarse inorganic particulate matter concentrations in a polluted megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, Vlassis A.; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Fountoukis, Christos; Nenes, Athanasios; Zavala, Miguel; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa T.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2010-02-01

    A three dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) is applied to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to simulate the chemical composition and mass of the major PM 1 (fine) and PM 1-10 (coarse) inorganic components and determine the effect of mineral dust on their formation. The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II is used to explicitly simulate the effect of Ca, Mg, and K from dust on semi-volatile partitioning and water uptake. The hybrid approach is applied to simulate the inorganic components, assuming that the smallest particles are in thermodynamic equilibrium, while describing the mass transfer to and from the larger ones. The official MCMA 2004 emissions inventory with improved dust and NaCl emissions is used. The comparison between the model predictions and measurements during a week of April of 2003 at Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental (CENICA) "Supersite" shows that the model reproduces reasonably well the fine mode composition and its diurnal variation. Sulfate predicted levels are relatively uniform in the area (approximately 3 μg m -3), while ammonium nitrate peaks in Mexico City (approximately 7 μg m -3) and its concentration rapidly decreases due to dilution and evaporation away from the urban area. In areas of high dust concentrations, the associated alkalinity is predicted to increase the concentration of nitrate, chloride and ammonium in the coarse mode by up to 2 μg m -3 (a factor of 10), 0.4 μg m -3, and 0.6 μg m -3 (75%), respectively. The predicted ammonium nitrate levels inside Mexico City for this period are sensitive to the physical state (solid versus liquid) of the particles during periods with RH less than 50%.

  10. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  11. Ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations: dry deposition study over a Traffic, Airport, Park (T.A.P.) areas during years of 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lin, Yen-Heng; Zheng, Yu-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) in total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations and dry deposition at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling sites during the daytime and nighttime, from 2011 to 2012. In addition, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) were also studied with Baklanov & Sorensen and the Williams models. For a particle size of 10 μm, the Baklanov & Sorensen model yielded better predictions of dry deposition of ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling site during the daytime and nighttime sampling periods. However, for particulates with sizes 20-23 μm, the results obtained in the study reveal that the Williams model provided better prediction results for ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at all sampling sites in this study.

  12. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  13. A source apportionment of U.S. fine particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, George D.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona

    2011-08-01

    Using daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) composition data from the 2000-2005 U.S. EPA Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) for over 200 sites, we applied multivariate methods to identify and quantify the major fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) source components in the U.S. Novel aspects of this work were: (1) the application of factor analysis (FA) to multi-city daily data, drawing upon both spatial and temporal variations of chemical species; and, (2) the exclusion of secondary components (sulfates, nitrates and organic carbon) from the source identification FA to more clearly discern and apportion the PM 2.5 mass to primary emission source categories. For the quantification of source-related mass, we considered two approaches based upon the FA results: 1) using single key tracers for sources identified by FA in a mass regression; and, 2) applying Absolute Principal Component Analysis (APCA). In each case, we followed a two-stage mass regression approach, in which secondary components were first apportioned among the identified sources, and then mass was apportioned to the sources and to other secondary mass not explained by the individual sources. The major U.S. PM 2.5 source categories identified via FA (and their key tracers) were: Metals Industry (Pb, Zn); Crustal/Soil Particles (Ca, Si); Motor Vehicle Traffic (EC, NO 2); Steel Industry (Fe, Mn); Coal Combustion (As, Se); Oil Combustion (V, Ni); Salt Particles (Na, Cl) and Biomass Burning (K). Nationwide spatial plots of the source-related PM 2.5 impacts were confirmatory of the factor interpretations: ubiquitous sources, such as Traffic and Soil, were found to be spread across the nation, more unique sources (such as Steel and Metals Processing) being highest in select industrialized cities, Biomass Burning was highest in the U.S. Northwest, while Residual Oil combustion was highest in cities in the Northeastern U.S. and in cities with major seaports. The sum of these source contributions and the secondary PM

  14. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  15. Characterizing and predicting coarse and fine particulates in classrooms located close to an urban roadway.

    PubMed

    Chithra, V S; Nagendra, S M Shiva

    2014-08-01

    The PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 10, < 2.5, and < 1 microm, respectively) concentrations were monitored over a 90-day period in a naturally ventilated school building located at roadside in Chennai City. The 24-hr average PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations at indoor and outdoor environments were found to be 136 +/- 60, 36 +/- 15, and 20 +/- 12 and 76 +/- 42, 33 +/- 16, and 23 +/- 14 microg/m3, respectively. The size distribution of PM in the classroom indicated that coarse mode was dominant during working hours (08:00 a.m. to 04:00 p.m.), whereas fine mode was dominant during nonworking hours (04:00 p.m. to 08:00 a.m.). The increase in coarser particles coincided with occupant activities in the classrooms and finer particles were correlated with outdoor traffic. Analysis of indoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations monitored at another school, which is located at urban reserved forest area (background site) indicated 3-4 times lower PM10 concentration than the school located at roadside. Also, the indoor PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations were 1.3-1.5 times lower at background site. Further, a mass balance indoor air quality (IAQ) model was modified to predict the indoor PM concentration in the classroom. Results indicated good agreement between the predicted and measured indoor PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.81) and PM1 (R2 = 0.81-0.87) concentrations. But, the measured and predicted PM10 concentrations showed poor correlation (R2 = 0.17-0.23), which may be because the IAQ model could not take into account the sudden increase in PM10 concentration (resuspension of large size particles) due to human activities. Implications: The present study discusses characteristics of the indoor coarse and fine PM concentrations of a naturally ventilated school building located close to an urban roadway and at a background site in Chennai City, India. The study results will be useful to engineers and policymakers to prepare strategies for improving the

  16. Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    . Adhesive image-charge forces acting on charged particles touching conducting surfaces can be up to 50 times stronger if the charge is located in discrete spots on the particle surface instead of being distributed uniformly over the surface of the particle, as is assumed by most other models. Besides being useful in modeling particulates in space and distant objects, this modeling technique is useful for electrophotography (used in copiers) and in simulating the effects of static charge in the pulmonary delivery of fine dry powders.

  17. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Cascio, Wayne E; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise, and gaseous co-pollutants. The aim was to provide a better understanding of the workers' exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health endpoints. To quantify the workers' exposure, we monitored 18 subjects during 50 non-consecutive work shifts. Exposure assessment was based on personal and work site measurements and included fine particulate matter (PM2.5), particle number concentration (PNC), noise (Leq), and the gaseous co-pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mean work shift PM2.5 concentrations (gravimetric measurements) ranged from 20.3 to 321 μg m(-3) (mean 62 μg m(-3)) and PNC were between 1.6×10(4) and 4.1×10(5) particles cm(-3) (8.9×10(4) particles cm(-3)). Noise levels were generally high with Leq over work shifts from 73.3 to 96.0 dB(A); the averaged Leq over all work shifts was 87.2 dB(A). The highest exposure to fine and ultrafine particles was measured during grass mowing and lumbering when motorized brush cutters and chain saws were used. Highest noise levels, caused by pneumatic hammers, were measured during paving and guardrail repair. We found moderate Spearman correlations between PNC and PM2.5 (r = 0.56); PNC, PM2.5, and CO (r = 0.60 and r = 0.50) as well as PNC and noise (r = 0.50). Variability and correlation of parameters were influenced by work activities that included equipment causing combined air pollutant and noise emissions (e.g. brush cutters and chain saws). We conclude that highway maintenance workers are frequently exposed to elevated airborne particle and noise levels compared with the average population. This elevated exposure is a consequence of the permanent proximity to highway traffic with additional peak exposures caused by emissions of the work-related equipment.

  18. Effects of Independence Day fireworks on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Dian J.; Birnbaum, Abigail N.

    2015-08-01

    Previous case studies have documented increases in air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), during and following fireworks displays associated with various holidays and celebrations around the world. But no study to date has explored fireworks effects on air quality over large regions using systematic observations over multiple years to estimate typical regional PM increases. This study uses observations of fine PM (with particle diameters < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) from 315 air quality monitoring sites across the United States to estimate the effects of Independence Day fireworks on hourly and 24-hr average concentrations. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations during the evening of July 4 and morning of July 5 are higher than on the two preceding and following days in July, considered as control days. On national average, the increases are largest (21 μg/m3) at 9-10 pm on July 4 and drop to zero by noon on July 5. Average concentrations for the 24-hr period beginning 8 pm on July 4 are 5 μg/m3 (42%) greater than on control days, on national average. The magnitude and timing of the Independence Day increases vary from site to site and from year to year, as would be expected given variations in factors such as PM2.5 emissions from fireworks, local meteorological conditions, and distances between fireworks displays and monitoring sites. At one site adjacent to fireworks, hourly PM2.5 levels climb to ∼500 μg/m3, and 24-hr average concentrations increase by 48 μg/m3 (370%). These results have implications for potential improvements in air quality models and their predictions, which currently do not account for this emissions source.

  19. Fine particulate matter and visibility in the Lake Tahoe Basin: chemical characterization, trends, and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark C; Chen, L W Antony; DuBois, David W; Molenar, John V

    2012-08-01

    Speciated PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameterFine mass at SOLA is 2.5 times that at BLIS, mainly due to enhanced organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC). SOLA experiences a winter peak in PM25 mainly due to OC and EC from residential wood combustion, whereas BLIS experiences a summer peak in PM2.5 mainly due to OC and ECfrom wildfires. Carbonaceous aerosol dominates visibility impairment, causing about 1/2 the reconstructed aerosol light extinction at BLIS and 70% at SOLA. Trend analysis (1990-2009) showed statistically significant decreases in aerosol extinction at BLIS on 20% best and 60% middle visibility days and statistically insignificant upward trends on 20% worst days. SOLA (1990-2003) showed statistically significant decreases in aerosol extinction for all day categories, driven by decreasing OC and EC. From the regional haze rule baseline period of 2000-2004 until 2005-2009, BLIS saw 20% best days improving and 20% worst days getting worse due to increased wildfire effects. Receptor modeling was performed using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and chemical mass balance (CMB). It confirmed that (1) biomass burning dominanted PM25 sources at both sites with increasing importance over time; (2) low combustion efficiency burning accounts for most of the biomass burning contribution; (3) road dust and traffic contributions were much higher at SOLA than at BLIS; and (4) industrial combustion and salting were minor sources.

  20. Diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Fan, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Kai-Ling; Li, Hong-Yu; Sun, Li-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Increasing ammonia emissions could exacerbate air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate ammonia oxidation in PM2.5. This study investigated the diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and complete ammonia oxidizers (Comammox) in PM2.5 collected in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megalopolis, China. Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2 was the most dominant AOA. Nitrosospira multiformis and Nitrosomonas aestuarii were the most dominant AOB. Comammox were present in the atmosphere, as revealed by the occurrence of Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata in PM2.5. The average cell numbers of AOA, AOB and Ca. N. inopinata were 2.82 × 104, 4.65 × 103 and 1.15 × 103 cell m‑3 air, respectively. The average maximum nitrification rate of PM2.5 was 0.14 μg (NH4+-N) [m3 air·h]‑1. AOA might account for most of the ammonia oxidation, followed by Comammox, while AOB were responsible for a small part of ammonia oxidation. Statistical analyses showed that Nitrososphaera subcluster 4.1 was positively correlated with organic carbon concentration, and Nitrosomonas eutropha showed positive correlation with ammonia concentration. Overall, this study expanded our knowledge concerning AOA, AOB and Comammox in PM2.5 and pointed towards an important role of AOA and Comammox in ammonia oxidation in PM2.5.

  1. Diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in fine particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Fan, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Kai-Ling; Li, Hong-Yu; Sun, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing ammonia emissions could exacerbate air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate ammonia oxidation in PM2.5. This study investigated the diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and complete ammonia oxidizers (Comammox) in PM2.5 collected in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megalopolis, China. Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2 was the most dominant AOA. Nitrosospira multiformis and Nitrosomonas aestuarii were the most dominant AOB. Comammox were present in the atmosphere, as revealed by the occurrence of Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata in PM2.5. The average cell numbers of AOA, AOB and Ca. N. inopinata were 2.82 × 104, 4.65 × 103 and 1.15 × 103 cell m−3 air, respectively. The average maximum nitrification rate of PM2.5 was 0.14 μg (NH4+-N) [m3 air·h]−1. AOA might account for most of the ammonia oxidation, followed by Comammox, while AOB were responsible for a small part of ammonia oxidation. Statistical analyses showed that Nitrososphaera subcluster 4.1 was positively correlated with organic carbon concentration, and Nitrosomonas eutropha showed positive correlation with ammonia concentration. Overall, this study expanded our knowledge concerning AOA, AOB and Comammox in PM2.5 and pointed towards an important role of AOA and Comammox in ammonia oxidation in PM2.5. PMID:27941955

  2. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; Hess, Peter; Marmer, Elina; Montanaro, Veronica; Park, Rokjin; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  3. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. Material/Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. Results Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  4. Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Belanger, Kathleen; Ebisu, Keita; Gent, Janneane F.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particles are linked to numerous health impacts, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies of particles examined total mass, although the chemical structure of particles varies widely. We investigated whether mother’s exposure to potassium (K) and titanium (Ti) components of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy was associated with birth weight or risk of low birth weight (<2500 gm) for term infants. The study population was 76,788 infants born in four counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts, US, for August 2000-February 2004. Both K and Ti were associated with birth weight. An interquartile range (IQR) increase K was associated with an 8.75% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–16.8%) increase in risk of low birth weight. An IQR increase in Ti was associated with a 12.1% (95% CI: 3.55–21.4%) increase in risk of low birth weight, with an estimate of 6.41% (95% CI: −5.80–20.2%) for males and 16.4% (95% CI: 5.13–28.9%) for females. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis of first births only, but not adjustment by co-pollutants. Disentangling the effects of various chemical components is challenging because of the covariance among some components due to similar sources. Central effect estimates for infants of African-American mothers were higher than those of white mothers, although the confidence intervals overlapped. Our results indicate that exposure to airborne potassium and titanium during pregnancy is associated with lower birth weight. Associations may relate to chemical components of sources producing K and Ti. PMID:22705336

  5. Time-Series Analysis of Mortality Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components in Detroit and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiang; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona; Lippmann, Morton; Thurston, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent toxicological and epidemiological studies have shown associations between particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but which PM components are most influential is less well known. Objectives In this study, we used time-series analyses to determine the associations between daily fine PM [PM ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] concentrations and daily mortality in two U.S. cities—Seattle, Washington, and Detroit, Michigan. Methods We obtained daily PM2.5 filters for the years of 2002–2004 and analyzed trace elements using X-ray fluorescence and black carbon using light reflectance as a surrogate measure of elemental carbon. We used Poisson regression and distributed lag models to estimate excess deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases adjusting for time-varying covariates. We computed the excess risks for interquartile range increases of each pollutant at lags of 0 through 3 days for both warm and cold seasons. Results The cardiovascular and respiratory mortality series exhibited different source and seasonal patterns in each city. The PM2.5 components and gaseous pollutants associated with mortality in Detroit were most associated with warm season secondary aerosols and traffic markers. In Seattle, the component species most closely associated with mortality included those for cold season traffic and other combustion sources, such as residual oil and wood burning. Conclusions The effects of PM2.5 on daily mortality vary with source, season, and locale, consistent with the hypothesis that PM composition has an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM. PMID:21193387

  6. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER FROM CAMP VICTORY, IRAQ

    PubMed Central

    Porter, K. L.; Green, F. H. Y.; Harley, R. A.; Vallyathan, V.; Castranova, V.; Waldron, N. R.; Leonard, S. S.; Nelson, D. E.; Lewis, J. A.; Jackson, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal reports in the press and epidemiological studies suggest that deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan may be associated with respiratory diseases and symptoms in U.S. military personnel and veterans. Exposures during military operations were complex, but virtually all service members were exposed to high levels of respirable, geogenic dust. Inhalation of other dusts has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects, but the pulmonary toxicity of ambient dust from Iraq has not been previously studied. The relative toxicity of Camp Victory dust was evaluated by comparing it to particulate matter from northern Kuwait, a standard U.S. urban dust, and crystalline silica using a single intratracheal instillation in rats. Lung histology, protein levels, and cell counts were evaluated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 1–150 d later. The Iraq dust provoked an early significant, acute inflammatory response. However, the level of inflammation in response to the Iraq dust, U.S. urban dust, and Kuwait dust rapidly declined and was nearly at control levels by the end of the study At later times, animals exposed to the Iraq, U.S. urban, or Kuwait dusts showed increased small airway remodeling and emphysema compared to silica-exposed and control animals without evidence of fibrosis or premalignant changes. The severity and persistence of pulmonary toxicity of these three dusts from the Middle East resemble those of a U.S. urban dust and are less than those of silica. Therefore, Iraq dust exposure is not highly toxic, but similar to other poorly soluble low-toxicity dusts. PMID:26594896

  8. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  9. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Methods Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. Results A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. Conclusion PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age. PMID

  10. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  11. Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, C; Pangtey, B S; Bihari, V; Fareed, M; Pathak, M K; Srivastava, A K; Mathur, N

    2013-02-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM(1,) PM(2.5)) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV(1), PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM(1) with reduced FEV(1) and increased concentrations of PM(2.5) with reduced PEFR and FEV(1). The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV(1)) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM(1,) PM(2.5), which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

  12. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  13. Control of fine particulate emissions from coal-fired utility boilers: Spin filter collection device (rotary cyclone)

    SciTech Connect

    He, Bo X.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the concept of placing a porous cylindrical surface (such as a metal screen) at the core of a container and spinning the surface with an external motor for fine particulate/gas separation. The rotating surface enhances the centrifugal effects in the annular region and provides a smooth transition between the flow in the annular and core regions and acts like an enhanced cyclone. It is therefore called a rotary cyclone.'' The porous surface is self-cleaning and offers good steady-state pressure drop characteristics. Objectives of this project are: (1) to carry out theoretical and experimental investigations using the rotary cyclone concept to capture particulates in the 0.5 to 10 micron size range; and (2) to evaluate its economic feasibility based on an engineering scale-up and comparison with conventional fabric filter and electrostatic precipitator systems. It was demonstrated that the efficiency in separating fine particulates is governed by two major characteristics, i.e., the magnitude of the centrifugal force and the approach velocity or the gas-to-surface area ratio. Results from the bench-scale tests have shown a collection efficiency of well over 99% for a typical fly ash. A preliminary conceptual design for a 40 MW installation was developed based on the experimental work. 4 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Composition and secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the Salt Lake Valley: winter 2009.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Roman; Eatough, Delbert J; Cruickshank, Tyler; Olson, Neal; Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C

    2014-08-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), put in place as a result of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, three regions in the state of Utah are in violation of the NAAQS for PM10 and PM2.5 (Salt Lake County, Ogden City, and Utah County). These regions are susceptible to strong inversions that can persist for days to weeks. This meteorology, coupled with the metropolitan nature of these regions, contributes to its violation of the NAAQS for PM during the winter. During January-February 2009, 1-hr averaged concentrations of PM10-2.5, PM2.5, NO(x), NO2, NO, O3, CO, and NH3 were measured. Particulate-phase nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate and gas-phase HONO, HNO3, and SO2 were also measured on a 1-hr average basis. The results indicate that ammonium nitrate averages 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the absence of inversions and up to 69% during strong inversions. Also, the formation of ammonium nitrate is nitric acid limited. Overall, the lower boundary layer in the Salt Lake Valley appears to be oxidant and volatile organic carbon (VOC) limited with respect to ozone formation. The most effective way to reduce ammonium nitrate secondary particle formation during the inversions period is to reduce NO(x) emissions. However, a decrease in NO(x) will increase ozone concentrations. A better definition of the complete ozone isopleths would better inform this decision. Implications: Monitoring of air pollution constituents in Salt Lake City, UT, during periods in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, reveals that secondary aerosol formation for this region is NO(x) limited. Therefore, NO(x) emissions should be targeted in order to reduce secondary particle formation and PM2.5. Data also indicate that the highest concentrations of sulfur dioxide are associated with winds from the north-northwest, the location of several small refineries.

  15. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

  16. Atmospheric fine particulate matter and breast cancer mortality: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabue, Giovanna; Borgini, Alessandro; Tittarelli, Andrea; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Bertoldi, Martina; Fabiano, Sabrina; Maghini, Anna; Codazzi, Tiziana; Scaburri, Alessandra; Favia, Imma; Cau, Alessandro; Barigelletti, Giulio; Tessandori, Roberto; Contiero, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has multiple adverse effects on human health. Global atmospheric levels of PM2.5 increased by 0.55 μg/m3/year (2.1%/year) from 1998 through 2012. There is evidence of a causal relationship between atmospheric PM2.5 and breast cancer (BC) incidence, but few studies have investigated BC mortality and atmospheric PM2.5. We investigated BC mortality in relation to atmospheric PM2.5 levels among patients living in Varese Province, northern Italy. Methods We selected female BC cases, archived in the local population-based cancer registry, diagnosed at age 50–69 years, between 2003 and 2009. The geographic coordinates of each woman's place of residence were identified, and individual PM2.5 exposures were assessed from satellite data. Grade, stage, age at diagnosis, period of diagnosis and participation in BC screening were potential confounders. Kaplan-Meir and Nelson-Aalen methods were used to test for mortality differences in relation to PM2.5 quartiles. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modelling estimated HRs and 95% CIs of BC death in relation to PM2.5 exposure. Results Of 2021 BC cases, 325 died during follow-up to 31 December 2013, 246 for BC. Risk of BC death was significantly higher for all three upper quartiles of PM2.5 exposure compared to the lowest, with HRs of death: 1.82 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.89), 1.73 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.67) and 1.72 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.75). Conclusions Our study indicates that the risk of BC mortality increases with PM2.5 exposure. Although additional research is required to confirm these findings, they are further evidence that PM2.5 exposure is harmful and indicate an urgent need to improve global air quality. PMID:28076275

  17. Impact of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure During Wildfires on Cardiovascular Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Haikerwal, Anjali; Akram, Muhammad; Del Monaco, Anthony; Smith, Karen; Sim, Malcolm R; Meyer, Mick; Tonkin, Andrew M; Abramson, Michael J; Dennekamp, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies investigating the role of fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) in triggering acute coronary events, including out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and ischemic heart disease (IHD), during wildfires have been inconclusive. Methods and Results We examined the associations of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, IHD, acute myocardial infarction, and angina (hospital admissions and emergency department attendance) with PM2.5 concentrations during the 2006–2007 wildfires in Victoria, Australia, using a time-stratified case-crossover study design. Health data were obtained from comprehensive health-based administrative registries for the study period (December 2006 to January 2007). Modeled and validated air exposure data from wildfire smoke emissions (daily average PM2.5, temperature, relative humidity) were also estimated for this period. There were 457 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, 2106 emergency department visits, and 3274 hospital admissions for IHD. After adjusting for temperature and relative humidity, an increase in interquartile range of 9.04 μg/m3 in PM2.5 over 2 days moving average (lag 0-1) was associated with a 6.98% (95% CI 1.03% to 13.29%) increase in risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, with strong association shown by men (9.05%,95%CI 1.63% to 17.02%) and by older adults (aged ≥65 years) (7.25%, 95% CI 0.24% to 14.75%). Increase in risk was (2.07%, 95% CI 0.09% to 4.09%) for IHD-related emergency department attendance and (1.86%, 95% CI: 0.35% to 3.4%) for IHD-related hospital admissions at lag 2 days, with strong associations shown by women (3.21%, 95% CI 0.81% to 5.67%) and by older adults (2.41%, 95% CI 0.82% to 5.67%). Conclusion PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and IHD during the 2006–2007 wildfires in Victoria. This evidence indicates that PM2.5 may act as a triggering factor for acute coronary events during wildfire episodes

  18. The effects of ambient particulate matter on human alveolar machrophage oxidative and inflammatory responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic and occupational studies demonstrate that ambient PM and DEP have deleterious effects on human cardiopulmonary health including exacerbation of pre-existing lung disease and development of respiratory infections. The effects of ambient PM on lung cell responsivenes...

  19. Endotoxin in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle mass of ambient aerosols. A temporo-spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Joachim; Pitz, Mike; Bischof, Wolfgang; Krug, Norbert; Borm, Paul J. A.

    Objectives: We collected fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulate matter fractions in two areas ˜80 km apart and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Here we report on temporo-spatial variation of endotoxin content in the collected particles. Methods: Dichotomous Anderson samplers were used to collect 21 weekly samples of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in both towns from January to June 2002. Each Teflon filter was water extracted and endotoxin was measured by a chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate method. Endotoxin concentrations were expressed per mg of fine or mg of coarse mass and per sampled air volume (m 3). Results: For both cities, the mean endotoxin content in PM 2.5 was 1.2 EU mg -1; however the endotoxin content in the coarse fraction was ˜10 times higher compared to the fine mass fractions. Although endotoxin content is highly variable over time, a good correlation was observed between the two town sites for both fine ( r=0.85) and coarse PM ( r=0.88). The fluctuations of weekly endotoxin means were high in both areas suggesting a strong temporal dependence on particle source and composition. The endotoxin content in particles collected during May and June were two to four times higher than concentrations measured during the winter and early spring weeks. Conclusions: Ambient airborne endotoxin concentrations were detected in coarse and fine particle fraction, but 10-fold higher in the coarse PM. The strong seasonality and the week to week fluctuation of endotoxin content in PM indicate different biologic PM properties which might affect results of time series studies on short-term effects as well as in vitro studies and human exposure studies.

  20. Source apportionment of ambient fine particle size distribution using positive matrix factorization in Erfurt, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wei; Stölzel, Matthias; Cyrys, Josef; Pitz, Mike; Heinrich, Joachim; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette; Wang, Sheng; Hopke, Philip K.

    2008-01-01

    Particle size distribution data collected between September 1997 and August 2001 in Erfurt, Germany were used to investigate the sources of ambient particulate matter by positive matrix factorization (PMF). A total of 29,313 hourly averaged particle size distribution measurements covering the size range of 0.01 to 3.0 μm were included in the analysis. The particle number concentrations (cm−3) for the 9 channels in the ultrafine range, and mass concentrations (ng m−3) for the 41 size bins in the accumulation mode and particle up to 3 μm in aerodynamic diameter were used in the PMF. The analysis was performed separately for each season. Additional analyses were performed including calculations of the correlations of factor contributions with gaseous pollutants (O3, NO, NO2, CO and SO2) and particle composition data (sulfate, organic carbon and elemental carbon), estimating the contributions of each factor to the total number and mass concentration, identifying the directional locations of the sources using the conditional probability function, and examining the diurnal patterns of factor scores. These results were used to assist in the interpretation of the factors. Five factors representing particles from airborne soil, ultrafine particles from local traffic, secondary aerosols from local fuel combustion, particles from remote traffic sources, and secondary aerosols from multiple sources were identified in all seasons. PMID:18433834

  1. Lack of spatial variation of endotoxin in ambient particulate matter across a German metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Verena; Carty, Cara L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Cyrys, Josef; Bischof, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    In this study, we describe the spatial variation of endotoxin across an urban setting using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods. We also identify potential sources of endotoxin that account for between-site variability and compare endotoxin levels in particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cut-off diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) and of 10 μm (PM 10). In 1999-2000, we collected PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Munich urban air and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Using Teflon filters and Harvard impactors, PM 2.5 was collected at 40 outdoor monitoring sites across Munich and PM 10 at a subset of these sites ( n=12). Approximately four samples were collected at each site for a total of 158 PM 2.5 samples and 48 PM 10 samples. We visited and characterized the surrounding 100 m of each site for potential endotoxin sources. The geometric mean endotoxin concentration for all sites was 1.46 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.21-1.77) and at the subset of the sites was 1.30 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% CI: 1.01-1.67 EU mg -1 PM 2.5). Endotoxin levels in PM 10 were higher, 3.91 EU mg -1 PM 10 (95% CI: 3.03-5.03 EU mg -1 PM 10), than in PM 2.5 and were moderately correlated, r=0.51. All endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were <5.5 EU m -3 and thus lower than the accepted thresholds for acute adverse health effects for occupational exposures. Sites with more potential sources ( n⩾3) had slightly higher mean endotoxin levels (MR: 1.30 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and 1.13 for EU m -3 PM 2.5) than sites with no identified sources. Based on the ranges of endotoxin levels at the different sites, we found very little spatial variation in ambient endotoxin concentrations across the metropolitan area of Munich using inverse distance weighting method (IDW) methods ( R2=0.013 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and R2=0.020 for EU m -3 PM 2.5). Potential sources of endotoxin surrounding the sites only partly explained the variation seen.

  2. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  3. INVERTING CASCADE IMPACTOR DATA FOR SIZE-RESOLVED CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cascade impactors are particularly useful in determining the mass size distributions of particulate and individual chemical species. The impactor raw data must be inverted to reconstruct a continuous particle size distribution. An inversion method using a lognormal function for p...

  4. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  5. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

  6. Associations between Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter and Emergency Department Visits for Respiratory Disease in Four U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Krall, Jenna R.; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.; Balachandran, Sivaraman; Winquist, Andrea; Tolbert, Paige E.; Waller, Lance A.; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Determining which sources of PM2.5 are most toxic can help guide targeted reduction of PM2.5. However, conducting multicity epidemiologic studies of sources is difficult because source-specific PM2.5 is not directly measured, and source chemical compositions can vary between cities. Objectives: We determined how the chemical composition of primary ambient PM2.5 sources varies across cities. We estimated associations between source-specific PM2.5 and respiratory disease emergency department (ED) visits and examined between-city heterogeneity in estimated associations. Methods: We used source apportionment to estimate daily concentrations of primary source-specific PM2.5 for four U.S. cities. For sources with similar chemical compositions between cities, we applied Poisson time-series regression models to estimate associations between source-specific PM2.5 and respiratory disease ED visits. Results: We found that PM2.5 from biomass burning, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, and dust sources was similar in chemical composition between cities, but PM2.5 from coal combustion and metal sources varied across cities. We found some evidence of positive associations of respiratory disease ED visits with biomass burning PM2.5; associations with diesel and gasoline PM2.5 were frequently imprecise or consistent with the null. We found little evidence of associations with dust PM2.5. Conclusions: We introduced an approach for comparing the chemical compositions of PM2.5 sources across cities and conducted one of the first multicity studies of source-specific PM2.5 and ED visits. Across four U.S. cities, among the primary PM2.5 sources assessed, biomass burning PM2.5 was most strongly associated with respiratory health. Citation: Krall JR, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Balachandran S, Winquist A, Tolbert PE, Waller LA, Sarnat SE. 2017

  7. Ambient particulate matter and the response to orthostatic challenge in the elderly: the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) of Boston study.

    PubMed

    Wellenius, Gregory A; Wilhelm-Benartzi, Charlotte S; Wilker, Elissa H; Coull, Brent A; Suh, Helen H; Koutrakis, Petros; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2012-03-01

    Short-term elevations in ambient fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) may increase resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, but whether PM(2.5) alters hemodynamic responses to orthostatic challenge has not been studied in detail. We repeatedly measured SBP and DBP during supine rest and 1 and 3 minutes after standing among 747 elderly (aged 78.3±5.3 years, mean±SD) participants from a prospective cohort study. We used linear mixed models to assess the association between change in SBP (ΔSBP=standing SBP-supine SBP) and DBP (ΔDBP) on standing and mean PM(2.5) levels over the preceding 1 to 28 days, adjusting for meteorologic covariates, temporal trends, and medical history. We observed a 1.4-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.0-2.8 mm Hg; P=0.046) higher ΔSBP and a 0.7-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.0-1.4 mm Hg; P=0.053) higher ΔDBP at 1 minute of standing per interquartile range increase (3.8 μg/m(3)) in mean PM(2.5) levels in the past 7 days. ΔSBP and ΔDBP measured 3 minutes after standing were not associated with PM(2.5). Resting DBP (but not SBP or pulse pressure) was positively associated with PM(2.5) at longer averaging periods. Responses were more strongly associated with black carbon than sulfate levels. These associations did not differ significantly according to hypertension status, obesity, diabetes mellitus, or sex. These results suggest that ambient particles can increase resting DBP and exaggerate blood pressure responses to postural changes in elderly people. Increased vasoreactivity during posture change may be responsible, in part, for the adverse effect of ambient particles on cardiovascular health.

  8. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  9. Particulate Photocatalyst Sheets Based on Carbon Conductor Layer for Efficient Z-Scheme Pure-Water Splitting at Ambient Pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Hisatomi, Takashi; Suzuki, Yohichi; Pan, Zhenhua; Seo, Jeongsuk; Katayama, Masao; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Seki, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Akihiko; Yamada, Taro; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    Development of sunlight-driven water splitting systems with high efficiency, scalability, and cost-competitiveness is a central issue for mass production of solar hydrogen as a renewable and storable energy carrier. Photocatalyst sheets comprising a particulate hydrogen evolution photocatalyst (HEP) and an oxygen evolution photocatalyst (OEP) embedded in a conductive thin film can realize efficient and scalable solar hydrogen production using Z-scheme water splitting. However, the use of expensive precious metal thin films that also promote reverse reactions is a major obstacle to developing a cost-effective process at ambient pressure. In this study, we present a standalone particulate photocatalyst sheet based on an earth-abundant, relatively inert, and conductive carbon film for efficient Z-scheme water splitting at ambient pressure. A SrTiO3:La,Rh/C/BiVO4:Mo sheet is shown to achieve unassisted pure-water (pH 6.8) splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (STH) of 1.2% at 331 K and 10 kPa, while retaining 80% of this efficiency at 91 kPa. The STH value of 1.0% is the highest among Z-scheme pure water splitting operating at ambient pressure. The working mechanism of the photocatalyst sheet is discussed on the basis of band diagram simulation. In addition, the photocatalyst sheet split pure water more efficiently than conventional powder suspension systems and photoelectrochemical parallel cells because H(+) and OH(-) concentration overpotentials and an IR drop between the HEP and OEP were effectively suppressed. The proposed carbon-based photocatalyst sheet, which can be used at ambient pressure, is an important alternative to (photo)electrochemical systems for practical solar hydrogen production.

  10. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  11. Cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion in Xuanwei, China.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Cao, Jun-Ji; Ning, Zhi; Lee, S C; Ho, K F

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. A sample from the community with the highest mortality contained the highest total concentration of PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs and posed the highest excess cancer risk from a lifetime of inhaling fine particulates. Positive correlations between total carbonyl-OPAHs, total AZAs and total PAHs implied that the emissions were dependent on similar factors, regardless of sample location and type. The calculated cancer risk ranged from 5.23-10.7 × 10(-3), which is higher than the national average. The risk in each sample was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that deemed high risk, suggesting that the safety of these households is in jeopardy. The lack of potency equivalency factors for the PAH derivatives could possibly have underestimated the overall cancer risk.

  12. Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of fine particulate organic carbon in Hong Kong during high particulate matter episodes in winter 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Yu, Jian Zhen; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Schauer, James J.; Yuan, Zibing; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at six general stations and one roadside station in Hong Kong in two periods of high particulate matter (PM) in 2003 (27 October-4 November and 30 November-13 December). The highest PM2.5 reached 216 μg m- 3 during the first high PM period and 113 μg m- 3 during the second high PM period. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions identified individual sampling days under dominant influence of one of three types of air masses, that is, local, regional and long-range transported (LRT) air masses. Roadside samples were discussed separately due to heavy influences from vehicular emissions. This research examines source apportionment of fine organic carbon (OC) and contribution of secondary organic aerosol on high PM days under different synoptic conditions. Six primary OC (POC) sources (vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, cooking, cigarette smoke, vegetative detritus, and coal combustion) were identified on the basis of characteristic organic tracers. Individual POC source contributions were estimated using chemical mass balance model. In the roadside and the local samples, OC was dominated by the primary sources, accounting for more than 74% of OC. In the samples influenced by regional and LRT air masses, secondary OC (SOC), which was approximated to be the difference between the total measured OC and the apportioned POC, contributed more than 54% of fine OC. SOC was highly correlated with water-soluble organic carbon and sulfate, consistent with its secondary nature.

  13. Mechanistic Insights into the Relationship between Lung and Vascular Response to Ambient Particulate Matter (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which pulmonary-encountered ambient PM induces vascular response are not well understood. We examined lung and aortic response of rats following intratracheal instillation of three ambient PM. Chemically characterized PM10 and PM2.5 from th...

  14. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... emissions inventory, portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Georgia on July 6, 2010. The emissions inventory is part of the Atlanta, Georgia PM 2.5...

  15. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... emissions inventory, portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the Commonwealth of Kentucky on December 3, 2008. The emissions inventory is part of the Kentucky's December 3,...

  16. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  17. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  18. Characteristics of air quality and sources affecting fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the City of Red Deer, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2017-02-01

    With concern about levels and exceedances of Canadian and provincial standards and objectives for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in recent years, an investigation of air quality characteristics and potential local and long-range sources influencing PM2.5 concentrations was undertaken in the City of Red Deer, Alberta. The study covered the period May 2009 to December 2015. Comparatively higher concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in winter (mean: 11.6 μg/m(3), median: 10 μg/m(3)) than in summer (mean: 9.0 μg/m(3), median: 7.0 μg/m(3)). Exceedances of the 1 h Alberta Ambient Air Quality objective (3-31 times per year > 80 μg/m(3)) and the 24 h Canada-Wide Standard (2-11 times per year > 30 μg/m(3)) were found at the Red Deer Riverside air monitoring station, particularly in 2010, 2011 and 2015. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) followed by multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis identified a mixed industry/agriculture factor as the dominant contributor to PM2.5 (39.3%), followed by an O3-rich (biogenic) factor (26.4%), traffic (19.3%), biomass burning (10.5%) and a mixed urban factor (4.4%). In addition to local traffic, the mixed industry/agriculture factor - inferred as mostly upstream oil and gas emission sources surrounding Red Deer - was identified as another potentially important source contributing to wintertime high PM2.5 pollution days. These findings offer useful preliminary information about current PM2.5 sources and their potential contributions in Red Deer; and this information can support policy makers in the development of particulate matter control strategies if required.

  19. Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    The specific components of airborne particulates responsible for adverse health effects have not been conclusively identified. We conducted a longitudinal study on 88 adult patients with chronic cough to evaluate whether exposure to daily ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has relationship with cough occurrence. Study participants were recruited at Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan and were physician-diagnosed to at least have asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough during 4th January to 30th June 2011. Daily cough symptoms were collected by use of cough diaries and simultaneously, particulate PAH content in daily total suspended particles collected on glass fiber filters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Population averaged estimates of association between PAH exposure and cough occurrence for entire patients and subgroups according to doctor's diagnosis were performed using generalized estimating equations. Selected adjusted odds ratios for cough occurrence were 1.088 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.031, 1.147); 1.209 (95% CI: 1.060, 1.379) per 1 ng/m3 increase for 2-day lag and 6-day moving average PAH exposure respectively. Likewise, 5 ring PAH had higher odds in comparison to 4 ring PAH. On the basis of doctor's diagnosis, non-asthma group had slightly higher odds ratio 1.127 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.228) per 1 ng/m3 increase in 2-day lag PAH exposure. Our findings suggest that ambient PAH exposure is associated with cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients. The association may be stronger in non-asthma patients and even at low levels although there is need for further study with a larger sample size of respective diagnosis and inclusion of co-pollutants.

  20. Fine particulates over South Asia: Review and meta-analysis of PM2.5 source apportionment through receptor model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Barman, S C; Banerjee, Tirthankar

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulates (PM2.5) constitute dominant proportion of airborne particulates and have been often associated with human health disorders, changes in regional climate, hydrological cycle and more recently to food security. Intrinsic properties of particulates are direct function of sources. This initiates the necessity of conducting a comprehensive review on PM2.5 sources over South Asia which in turn may be valuable to develop strategies for emission control. Particulate source apportionment (SA) through receptor models is one of the existing tool to quantify contribution of particulate sources. Review of 51 SA studies were performed of which 48 (94%) were appeared within a span of 2007-2016. Almost half of SA studies (55%) were found concentrated over few typical urban stations (Delhi, Dhaka, Mumbai, Agra and Lahore). Due to lack of local particulate source profile and emission inventory, positive matrix factorization and principal component analysis (62% of studies) were the primary choices, followed by chemical mass balance (CMB, 18%). Metallic species were most regularly used as source tracers while use of organic molecular markers and gas-to-particle conversion were minimum. Among all the SA sites, vehicular emissions (mean ± sd: 37 ± 20%) emerged as most dominating PM2.5 source followed by industrial emissions (23 ± 16%), secondary aerosols (22 ± 12%) and natural sources (20 ± 15%). Vehicular emissions (39 ± 24%) also identified as dominating source for highly polluted sites (PM2.5>100 μgm(-3), n = 15) while site specific influence of either or in combination of industrial, secondary aerosols and natural sources were recognized. Source specific trends were considerably varied in terms of region and seasonality. Both natural and industrial sources were most influential over Pakistan and Afghanistan while over Indo-Gangetic plain, vehicular, natural and industrial emissions appeared dominant. Influence of vehicular emission was found

  1. Hourly measurements of fine particulate sulfate and carbon aerosols at the Harvard-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Supersite in Boston.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Koutrakis, Petros; Suh, Helen H

    2010-11-01

    Hourly concentrations of ambient fine particle sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols (elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], and black carbon [BC]) were measured at the Harvard-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Supersite in Boston, MA, between January 2007 and October 2008. These hourly concentrations were compared with those made using integrated filter-based measurements over 6-day or 24-hr periods. For sulfate, the two measurement methods showed good agreement. Semicontinuous measurements of EC and OC also agreed (but not as well as for sulfate) with those obtained using 24-hr integrated filter-based and optical BC reference methods. During the study period, 24-hr PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 37.6 microg/m3, with an average of 9.3 microg/m3. Sulfate as the equivalent of ammonium sulfate accounted for 39.1% of the PM2.5 mass, whereas EC and OC accounted for 4.2 and 35.2%, respectively. Hourly sulfate concentrations showed no distinct diurnal pattern, whereas hourly EC and BC concentrations peaked during the morning rush hour between 7:00 and 9:00 a.m. OC concentrations also exhibited nonpronounced, small peaks during the day, most likely related to traffic, secondary organic aerosol, and local sources, respectively.

  2. Continuous determination of fine particulate matter mass in the Salt Lake City Environmental Monitoring project: a comparison of real-time and conventional TEOM monitor results.

    PubMed

    Long, Russell W; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Meyer, Michael B; Wilson, William E

    2005-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass was determined on a continuous basis at the Salt Lake City Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Awareness and Community Tracking monitoring site in Salt Lake City, UT, using three different monitoring techniques. Hourly averaged PM2.5 mass data were collected during two sampling periods (summer 2000 and winter 2002) using a real-time total ambient mass sampler (RAMS), sample equilibration system (SES)-tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), and conventional TEOM monitor. This paper compares the results obtained from the various monitoring systems, which differ in their treatment of semivolatile material (SVM; particle-bound water, semivolatile ammonium nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds). PM2.5 mass results obtained by the RAMS were consistently higher than those obtained by the SES-TEOM and conventional TEOM monitors because of the RAMS ability to measure semivolatile ammonium nitrate and semivolatile organic material but not particle-bound water. The SES-TEOM monitoring system was able to account for an average of 28% of the SVM, whereas the conventional TEOM monitor loses essentially all of the SVM from the single filter during sampling. Occasional mass readings by the various TEOM monitors that are higher than RAMS results may reflect particle-bound water, which, under some conditions, is measured by the TEOM but not the RAMS.

  3. A device for sampling and determination of total particulate mercury in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Y; Schroeder, W H; Berg, T; Munthe, J; Schneeberger, D; Schaedlich, F

    1998-06-01

    A miniaturized device, which serves as both particulate trap and pyrolyzer for airborne particulate mercury species, is described. It has been used in combination with amalgamation/thermal desorption/cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection for the determination of total particulate mercury (TPM) associated with atmospheric aerosols. A standard reference material (SRM 1633b, NIST) has been used for validating of the pyrolysis technique, and a relative error smaller than 3% has been obtained. Contrary to most methods currently employed, this new technique does not require any sample preparation (e.g., extraction/digestion), no manual sample transfer or sample handling, and no addition of chemicals or reagents. Hence the risk of contamination is low. The time for complete analysis is less than 10 min per sample. The concentrations of TPM determined in metropolitan Toronto ranged from 3 to 91 pg m(-)(3) with standard deviations of <±2 pg m(-)(3) for simultaneous sets of four samples. These atmospheric TPM concentration values fall within the range reported in the literature. Good agreement was obtained by the three methods compared in a field study at Ny-Ålesund (78°54'N, 11°53'E), Svalbard. The elevated values of TPM concentrations obtained using the method developed in this work may arise from the Arctic springtime conversion of atmospheric mercury from gas-phase to particulate-phase Hg species.

  4. RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE SAMPLES: 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sources of particulate matter exposure for an elderly population in a city north of Baltimore, MD were evaluated using advanced factor analysis models. Data collected with Versatile Air Pollutant Samplers (VAPS) positioned at a community site, outside and inside of an elderly ...

  5. Ambient Air Pollution and Increases in Blood Pressure: Role for biological constituents of particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets made up of a number of components including elemental carbon, organic chemicals, metals, acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), and soil and dust particles. Epidemiological studies con...

  6. Black carbon and elemental concentration of ambient particulate matter in Makassar Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, Y.; Rashid, M.; Ramli, M.; Sabariah, B.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less or equal to 10 um or PM10, has been collected on a weekly basis for one year from February 2012 to January 2013 at one site of Makassar, Province of South Sulawesi Indonesia. The samples were collected using a size selective high volume air sampler sited at Daya, a mixed urban, commercial and industrial area in the city of Makassar. The concentration of black carbon (BC) along with a total of 14 elements (i.e Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Ba, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) were determined from the sample. Results showed that the average particulate mass concentration was 32.9 ± 11.6 μg/m3 with BC and elemental concentration constituted 6.1% and 10.6% of the particulate concentration, respectively. Both BC and elemental constituents contributed 16.7% while 83.3% of the particulate matter remained to be counted for. The black carbon concentration was higher during the dry months which may be attributed to rampant biomass burning during hot and dry weather conditions, apart from other possible sources. Most of the elements were enriched relative to soil origin illustrating of their possible associations with other sources such as marine and anthropogenic derived aerosols, particularly Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which are known to originate from man-made activities.

  7. The Research Triangle Park particulate matter panel study: modeling ambient source contribution to personal and residential PM mass concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ron; Suggs, Jack; Rea, Anne; Sheldon, Linda; Rodes, Charles; Thornburg, Jonathan

    The Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study represented a 1-year investigation of personal, residential and ambient PM mass concentrations across distances as large as 70 km in central North Carolina. One of the primary goals of this effort was to estimate ambient PM 2.5 contributions to personal and indoor residential PM mass concentrations. Analyses indicated that data from the two distinct non-smoking subject populations totaling 38 individuals and 37 residences could be pooled. This resulted in nearly 800 data points for each variable. A total of 55 measurements believed to have been potentially influenced by personal or residential exposure to passive environmental tobacco smoke were not included in the analysis database. Variables to be examined included Cig (concentration of indoor generated PM), Eig (personal exposure to indoor generated PM), Finf (ambient PM infiltration factor), and Fpex (personal exposure to PM of ambient origin factor). Daily air exchange rates (AER) were measured and statistical modeling to derive estimates of particle penetration ( P) and particle deposition ( k) factors was performed. Seasonality, cohort grouping, participant or combinations of these variables were determined not to be significant influences in estimating group infiltration factors. The mean (±std) mixed model slope estimates were AER=0.72±0.63, P=0.72±0.21, k=0.42±0.19, and Finf=0.45±0.21. These variables were then used in a number of mixed effects models having varying features of single, random or fixed intercepts and/or slopes to determine the most appropriate means of estimating ambient source contributions to personal and residential settings. A mixed model slope for Fpex (±SE) was 0.47±0.07 using the model with the highest degree of fit.

  8. Benefits of Decreased Mortality Risk from Reductions in Primary Mobile Source Fine Particulate Matter: A Limited Data Approach for Urban Areas Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Greco, Susan L; Belova, Anna; Huang, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We developed an approach to estimate the public health benefits resulting from transportation projects or environmental actions that reduce mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in select urban areas worldwide when input data are limited or when a rapid order-of-magnitude assessment is needed. For a given reduction in direct PM2.5 emissions, we can use this approach to quantify (1) the subsequent reduction in ambient primary PM2.5 concentration in the urban area; (2) the public health benefits associated with mortality risk reductions, measured in terms of avoided premature deaths; and (3) the economic value of the reduced mortality risk. To illustrate our approach, we estimated the impact of a 100-metric-ton reduction in primary PM2.5 mobile source emissions in the year 2010 for 42 large, global cities. Our estimates of public health benefits and their economic value varied by city, as did the sensitivity to key assumptions and inputs. The estimated number of premature deaths avoided per 100-metric-ton reduction in PM2.5 emissions ranged from 12 to 202. City-level variability in these estimates was driven by the magnitude of the reduction in ambient PM2.5 concentration, the size of the urban population, and the baseline PM2.5 concentration. The economic value of mortality risk reductions per 100-metric-ton reduction in PM2.5 emissions ranged from $2 million to $328 million in 2010 U.S. dollars. Income per capita was the most important driver of the variability in the economic values across countries.

  9. Contribution of water-soluble and insoluble components and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the reactive oxygen species-generating potential of fine ambient aerosols.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vishal; Rico-Martinez, Roberto; Kotra, Neel; King, Laura; Liu, Jiumeng; Snell, Terry W; Weber, Rodney J

    2012-10-16

    Relative contributions of water- and methanol-soluble compounds and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating potential of ambient fine aerosols (D(p) < 2.5 μm) are assessed. ROS-generating (or oxidative) potential of the particulate matter (PM) was measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Particles were collected on quartz filters (N = 8) at an urban site near central Atlanta during January-February 2012 using a PM(2.5) high-volume sampler. Filter punches were extracted separately in both water and methanol. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were then subsequently segregated via a C-18 solid phase extraction column. The DTT assay response was significantly higher for the methanol extract, and for both extracts a substantial fraction of PM oxidative potential was associated with the hydrophobic compounds as evident from a substantial attenuation in DTT response after passing PM extracts through the C-18 column (64% for water and 83% for methanol extract; both median values). The DTT activities of water and methanol extracts were correlated with the water-soluble (R = 0.86) and water-insoluble organic carbon (R = 0.94) contents of the PM, respectively. Brown carbon (BrC), which predominantly represents the hydrophobic organic fraction (referred to as humic-like substances, HULIS), was also correlated with DTT activity in both the water (R = 0.78) and methanol extracts (R = 0.83). Oxidative potential was not correlated with any metals measured in the extracts. These findings suggest that the hydrophobic components of both water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols substantially contribute to the oxidative properties of ambient PM. Further investigation of these hydrophobic organic compounds could help identify sources of a significant fraction of ambient aerosol toxicity.

  10. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  11. Advanced Analytical Microscopy Techniques for the Characterization of Ambient Particulate Matter Collected From Military Bases in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casuccio, G. S.; Lersch, T. L.; Bunker, K. L.; Strohmeier, B. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program was initiated to help environmental health professionals evaluate sources of particulate matter and to assess potential health effects of troop exposure to air pollutants within the US Central Command Area of Responsibility (AOR). The study examined the concentrations and physical properties of ambient particulate matter collected at 15 deployment locations within the AOR. Ambient aerosols, including PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulate were collected for microscopy analysis on polycarbonate filters by Army personnel. As part of the overall effort, the PM2.5 and PM10 particle fractions were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and computer-controlled SEM (CCSEM). The FESEM was used to examine particle size, morphology, and chemical composition. High-resolution images, elemental spectra and x-ray maps were collected for various particles. The automated CCSEM analyses provided statistical information on particle size and mass distributions for particles greater than 0.5 microns. Data was collected for approximately 1000-2000 particles per sample. The ultrafine particle analysis was performed using a combination of CCSEM, FESEM, low-kV scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). CCSEM was used to characterize particles ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 microns. FESEM was used to manually measure the diameter of particles less than 0.2 microns and collect elemental spectra. Particles less than 0.2 microns were also examined with a Hitachi S-5500 high-resolution FESEM and a K-Alpha XPS system. The Hitachi S-5500 provides simultaneous high resolution SEM and STEM imaging capabilities as well as a state-of-the-art silicon drift detector for elemental analysis. The K-Alpha XPS provides information on the elemental and chemical state surface composition of the topmost 2-10 nm of solid materials as well as chemical state surface mapping and

  12. A summary of the 2006 critical review - health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    C. Arden Pope; Douglas Dockery

    2006-06-15

    In spite of continued gaps in knowledge, several important lines of research explored in the 2006 Critical Review in the Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, June 2006, pp 709-742 have substantially helped elucidate our understanding about human health effects of particulate air pollution. A comprehensive evaluation of the literature provides a compelling evidence that continued reductions in exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution as indicated by PM 2.5 will result in improvements in cardiopulmonary health. Although research on the health effects of PM has been motivated largely by environmental health policy, in this review the progress of the science has been of more interest than debates over legally mandated standards. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of the health effects of PM at different time-scales of exposure and in the exploration of the shape of the concentration-response function. The emerging evidence of PM-related cardiovascular health effects and the growing knowledge regarding inter connected general pahtophysiological pathways that link PM exposure with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are fascinating results. These results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are much broader than debates over air quality Standard. Unsolved scientific issues dealing with the health effects of PM air pollution need not serve as sources of division, but as opportunities for cooperation and increased collaboration between epidemiology, toxicology, exposure assessment, and related disciplines. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p < 0.05) between selected PAHs and OPAHs against oxidative-inflammatory responses. Strong positive correlation was observed between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and summation of total Group B2 PAHs/OPAHs (∑7PAHs/ΣOPAHs). The experimental data indicate that emissions from the environmentally friendly incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products.

  14. A Case-Crossover Study between Fine Particulate Matter Elemental Composition and Emergency Admission with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Yao; Duan, Yizhu; Tang, Xiaohong; Deng, Qihong; Yuan, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background It is generally understood that Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) can cause high blood pressure. However, it remains unclear whether there is a relationship between the elemental composition of PM2.5 and cardiovascular disease in emergency department patients. Methods Crossover design for time stratified cases and conditional logistic regression were used to analyze the correlation between emergency admissions for cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, TIA (Transient ischemic attack), coronary heart disease and PM2.5, concentrations of chemical element compositions, and Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) in Changsha city. Results When the temperature, atmosphere pressure, maximum wind speed, NO2 and SO2 were adjusted, the OR (Odd Ratio) of cerebral hemorrhage was 1.177 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.006-1.376, p = 0.04] with every10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5. PM10 was unrelated to cardiovascular emergencies (p > 0.05). In addition, with each additional IQR (Interquartile Range) increase of Ni, Zn and Pb concentrations in PM2.5, the values of OR were 1.826 (95% CI: 1.031-3.233), 1.568 (95% CI: 1.015-2.423) and 1.682 (95% CI: 1.010-2.800), respectively. Conclusions Concentration rises of nickel, zinc and lead elements for PM2.5 in Changsha city were related to the increase of emergency admissions with cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:28115809

  15. Nuclear reactors using fine-particulate fuel for primary power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.; Horn, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    Large future power requirements in space, include power beaming to earth, airplanes, and solar-powered satellites in eclipse; industrial processing; and space colonies. The Rotating Bed Nuclear Reactor (RBR) and Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR) are multi-megawatt power systems which are light, compact and suited to operation in space. Both are cavity reactors, with an annular fuel region (e.g., a bed of 500 ..mu.. HTGR fuel particulates made of UC with ceramic coating) surrounded by a reflector that moderates fast neutrons from the /sup 235/U fuel. A porous metal drum holds the fuel. In the RBR, rotation of the drum allows the particulate fuel bed to fluidize as cooling gas passes through. In the FBR, an inner porous carbon drum holds the packed fuel bed, which is not fluidized. The RBR and FBR have many important features for space nuclear power: very high power density (up to thousands of MW(th)/m/sup 3/ of fuel); very small size and weight, excellent thermal shock and fatigue resistance; short start/stop times (sec); high gas outlet temperatures (to 3000/sup 0/K), good neutron economy, low critical mass; and simple/reliable construction.

  16. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  17. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    PubMed

    Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  18. Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2007-01-01

    Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.

  19. Kupffer Cell Activation by Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure May Exacerbate Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Hui; Fiel, M. Isabel; Sun, Qinghua; Guo, Jinsheng; Gordon, Ronald E.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Friedman, Scott L.; Odin, Joseph A.; Allina, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the United States. NAFLD is considered a component of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of disorders that also includes diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis as well as lung disease, but its effect on NAFLD is unknown. PM2.5 induces pulmonary dysfunction via toll-like receptor activation on alveolar macrophages. Toll-like receptor activation of Kupffer cells, resident hepatic macrophages, and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production have been shown to play a key role in NAFLD progression. We hypothesized that PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for progression of NAFLD. Thus, following exposure of male C57BL/6 mice fed high fat chow to concentrated air particulate matter (CAPs) or filtered air for 6 wk, progression of NAFLD was evaluated by standardized histological assessment of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In mice fed high fat chow, the hepatic inflammatory grade (3.00 ± 0.00 vs. 1.50 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and fibrosis stage (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 0.60 ± 0.52, p = 0.023) were both significantly higher in mice exposed to CAPs versus filtered air, respectively. Increased numbers of Kupffer cells contained PM in CAPs-exposed mice (2.00 ± 0.94 vs. 0.20 ± 0.42, respectively, p < 0.001). PM exposure increased IL-6 secretion up to seven fold in a dose-dependent manner by isolated wild-type but not TLR4−/− Kupffer cells (p < 0.050). Conclusion: Ambient PM2.5 exposure may be a significant risk factor for NAFLD progression. PMID:19908945

  20. Fine Crustal Structure in the Northwestern Iranian Plateau Revealed by Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mingming; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza; Ghods, Abdolreza; Ai, Yinshuang; Sobouti, Farhad; He, Yumei; Motaghi, Khalil; Chen, Qi-Fu; Lyv, Yan; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-04-01

    Detailed information about the crustal and lithospheric structures is crucial for understanding the geodynamics processes of continental collision and subsequent mountain building. Being at the initial stage of continental collision, the Iranian Plateau has not been well studied due to the lack of high-resolution, robust images of the crustal and lithospheric structures. Along the Zagros Orogen in the NW part of the Iranian Plateau the Arabian Plate has collided with the Eurasian Plate since about 30 Ma ago, whereas in the Makran region to the southeast oceanic subduction underneath the Eurasian Plate is still an ongoing process. For better understanding the geodynamic processes from subduction to collision, we planned to deploy multiple dense seismic arrays sampling regions at different tectonic stages in the Iranian Plateau. Up to now, we have finished the first seismic array observation in NW Iran. Based on the high quality data recorded, we conduct ambient noise tomography to investigate the fine crustal structure of the area from the south of the Zagros to the coast of the Southern Caspian Sea. Our results revel a salient decoupling between the upper crust and lower crust in the Zagros. The upper crust is slow, likely due to the effects of thick sediments, and displays a consistent anisotropy pattern with a NW-SE fast shear-wave direction, which is proximately parallel to the strike of the Zagros Orogen. The middle to lower crust, on the other hand, shows low-to-high velocity variations with depth and anisotropic fabrics trending to NE-SW, which is perpendicular to the strike of the orogen. Combined with the imaging results from receiver functions, we suggest that the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates has caused strong crustal deformation and localized thickening of the lower crust beneath the Zagros. We also find a high velocity anomaly in the lower crust beneath the Alborz Mountain, isolated from the low velocities beneath the central Iran

  1. Annual Average Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure Estimates, Measured Home Particulate Matter, and Hair Nicotine are Associated with Respiratory Outcomes in Adults with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Cisternas, Miriam; Quinlan, Patricia J.; Trupin, Laura; Lurmann, Fred W.; Katz, Patricia P.; Blanc, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background While exposure to outdoor particulate matter (PM) has been associated with poor asthma outcomes, few studies have investigated the combined effects of outdoor and indoor PM (including secondhand tobacco smoke). Objective To examine the associations between PM and asthma outcomes. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort of adults with asthma and rhinitis (n=302; 82% both conditions; 13% asthma only; 5% rhinitis alone) including measures of home PM, tobacco smoke exposure (hair nicotine and self-report), ambient PM from regional monitoring, distance to roadway, and season (wet or dry). The outcomes of interest were frequent respiratory symptoms and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) below the lower limit of normal (NHANES reference values). Multivariable regression analyses examined the associations (Odds Ratio [OR] and 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]) between exposures and these outcomes, adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics. Results In adjusted analyses of each exposure, the highest tertile of home PM and season of interview were associated with increased odds for more frequent respiratory symptoms (OR=1.64 95%CI: [1.00, 2.69] and OR = 1.66 95%CI: [1.09, 2.51]). The highest tertile of hair nicotine was significantly associated with FEV1 below the lower limit of normal (OR=1.80 95%CI: [1.00, 3.25]). In a model including home PM, ambient PM, and hair nicotine, and season, only two associations remained strong: hair nicotine with FEV1 below the lower limit of normal and season of measurement (dry, April-October) with increased respiratory symptoms (OR=1.85 95%CI: [1.00, 3.41] and OR = 1.54 95%CI: [1.0, 2.37]). When that model was stratified by sex, the highest tertiles of ambient PM and hair nicotine were associated with FEV1 below the lower limit of normal among women (OR=2.23 95%CI: [1.08, 4.61] and OR=2.90 95% CI: [1.32, 6.38]), but not men. The highest tertile of hair nicotine was also associated with increased respiratory symptoms in

  2. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, DW Winsett2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, DL Costa2, and WP ...

  3. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON INDICES OF CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON INDICES OF CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2....

  4. Immunotoxicological Analysis of the Immune Adjuvant Effects of Source Specific Diesel and Environmental Ambient Particulate Matter in a Murine Sensitization And Challenge Model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Acute exposure to ambient particulate matter (APM) provokes oxidative and inflammatory lung activation in vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that environmental diesel exhaust particles (eDEP), emission source-specific DEP (cDEP) and APM differentially provoke an allerg...

  5. The Effect of Composition, Size, and Solubility on Acute Pulmonary Injury in Rats Following Exposure to Mexico City Ambient Particulate Matter Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) associated metals contribute to the adverse cardiopulmonary effects following exposure to air pollution. Here, we investigated how variation in the composition and size of ambient PM collected from two distinct regions in Mexico City relates to toxicity d...

  6. Contributions of regional air pollutant emissions to ozone and fine particulate matter-related mortalities in eastern U.S. urban areas.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiangting; Strickland, Matthew J; Liao, Kuo-Jen

    2015-02-01

    Ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with adverse human health effects such as lung structure dysfunction, inflammation and infection, asthma, and premature deaths. This study estimated contributions of emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and sulfur dioxides (SO2) from four regions to summertime (i.e., June, July, and August) ozone and PM2.5-related mortalities in seven major Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs with more than 4 million people) in the eastern United States (U.S.). A photochemical transport model, Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) with sensitivity analyses, was applied to quantify the contribution of the regional anthropogenic emissions to ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations in the seven MSAs. The results of the sensitivity analysis, along with estimates of concentration-response from published epidemiologic studies, were used to estimate excess deaths associated with changes in ambient daily 8-h average ozone and daily PM2.5 concentrations during the summer of 2007. The results show that secondary PM2.5 (i.e., PM2.5 formed in the atmosphere) had larger effects on mortality (95% confidence interval (C.I.) ranged from 700 to 3854) than ambient ozone did (95% C.I. was 470-1353) in the seven MSAs. Emissions of anthropogenic NOx, VOCs and SO2 from the northeastern U.S. could cause up to about 2500 ozone and PM2.5-related deaths in the urban areas examined in this study. The results also show that the contributions of emissions from electrical generating units (EGUs) and anthropogenic non-EGU sources to ozone-related mortality in the MSAs were similar. However, emissions from EGUs had a more significant impact on PM2.5-related deaths than anthropogenic emissions from non-EGUs sources did. Anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions from the regions where the MSAs are located had the most significant contributions to ozone-related mortalities in the eastern U.S. urban

  7. The short-term association of selected components of fine particulate matter and mortality in the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associations of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with daily mortality may be due to specific PM2.5 chemical components. Objectives: Daily concentrations of PM2.5 chemical species were measured over five consecutive years in Denver, CO to investigate whethe...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE CMB AND PMF MODELS USING ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN FINE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED DURING THE PITTSBURGH AIR QUALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research investigated different strategies for source apportionment of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected as part of the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Two source receptor models were used, the EPA Chemical Mass Balance 8.2 (CMB) and EPA Positive Matrix Facto...

  9. Soluble Ions with ICP-MS are Superior to Total Elements with XRF in Assessing Component-specific Cardiovascular Effects of Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: We previously reported that total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with flow-mediated dilation (FMD), interleukin-6 (lL-6) and tumor-necrosisfactor-alpha (TNFa) in 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We now compare two laboratory methods of ...

  10. Predicting exposure-response associations of ambient particulate matter with mortality in 73 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the burden of mortality associated with particulates requires knowledge of exposure-response associations. However, the evidence on exposure-response associations is limited in many cities, especially in developing countries. In this study, we predicted associations of particulates smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) with mortality in 73 Chinese cities. The meta-regression model was used to test and quantify which city-specific characteristics contributed significantly to the heterogeneity of PM10-mortality associations for 16 Chinese cities. Then, those city-specific characteristics with statistically significant regression coefficients were treated as independent variables to build multivariate meta-regression models. The model with the best fitness was used to predict PM10-mortality associations in 73 Chinese cities in 2010. Mean temperature, PM10 concentration and green space per capita could best explain the heterogeneity in PM10-mortality associations. Based on city-specific characteristics, we were able to develop multivariate meta-regression models to predict associations between air pollutants and health outcomes reasonably well.

  11. Physical characterization of fine particulate matter inside the public transit buses fueled by biodiesel in Toledo, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Kaushik K; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-06-15

    This study presents the physical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM) collected inside the urban-public transit buses in Toledo, OH. These buses run on 20% biodiesel blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) (B20). For risk analysis, it is crucial to know the modality of the size distribution and the shape factor of PM collected inside the bus. The number-size distribution, microstructure, and aspect ratio of fine PM filter samples collected in the urban-public transit buses were measured for three years (2007-2009), using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Only the reproducible results from repeated experiments on ESEM and size distribution obtained by the GRIMM dust monitor were used in this study. The size distribution was found bi-modal in the winter and fall months and was primarily uni-modal during spring and summer. The aspect ratio for different filter samples collected inside the bus range from 2.4 to 3.6 in average value, with standard deviation ranging from 0.9 to 7.4. The square-shaped and oblong-shaped particles represent the single inhalable particle's morphology characteristics in the air of the Toledo transit buses.

  12. Contribution of long range transport to local fine particulate matter concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstrom, K. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-05-01

    We have utilized the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in PMCAMx (a regional chemical transport model) to quantify the contributions from local emissions and short range (under 100 km), mid range (100-550 km) and long range (over 550 km) pollutant transport to both primary and secondary particulate matter concentrations using the Eastern United States as a test case. We have studied these contributions for two urban (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Atlanta, Georgia) and one rural area (Great Smoky Mountains National Park) during all seasons. The local emissions impacts to elemental carbon (EC) in major urban areas were found to be substantial with approximately 50% of the EC coming from local sources and 80% emitted within 200 km of the receptor. The local sources are even more important during the night contributing around 60% of the EC and then dropping to around 40% during the early afternoon. The EC in the rural Great Smoky Mountains was mainly the result of sources 100-550 km away. The seasonal variation of the EC source area contributions is small. There was also little difference between high and low EC concentration days. The contributions to secondary aerosol species were found to be more regional with more than 50% of the sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from SO 2 and VOC sources that were more than 200 km away from the receptor. The importance of sources further away increased during the winter because of the lower photochemical activity. While mid range transport dominated in the summer the sulfate and SOA levels in all areas, long range transport became the most important sulfate and SOA source during the winter in the colder Northeastern US and of sulfate in the warmer South.

  13. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of metals in ambient particulate matter: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Deborah L; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Buehler, Stephanie S; La Londe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we critically evaluated the epidemiological and toxicological evidence for the role of specific transition metals (As. Cr. Cu. Fe. Mn. Ni. Sc. Ti. V and Zn) in causing or contributing to the respiratory and cardiovascular health effects associated with ambient PM. Although the epidemiologic studies arc suggestive. and both the in vivo and in vitro laboratory studies document the toxicity of specific metals (Fe. Ni. V and Zn). the overall weight of evidence does not convincingly implicate metals as major contributors to health effects. None of the epidemiology studies that we reviewed conclusively implicated specific transition metals as having caused the respiratory and cardiovascular effects associated with ambient levels of PM. However, the studies reviewed tended to be internal ly consistent in identifying some metals (Fe, Ni, V and Zn) more frequently than others (As, Cu, Mn and Sc) as having positive associations wi th health effects. The major problem wi th which the epidemiological studies were faced was classifying and quantifying exposure. Community and population exposures to metals or other components of ambient PM were inferred from centrally- located samplers that may not accurately represent individual level exposures. Only a few authors reported findings that did not support the stated premise of the study; indeed, statistic ally significant associations are not necessarily biologically significant. It is likely that ·'negative studies" are under-represented in the published literature, making it a challenge to achieve a balanced evaluation of the role of metals in causing health effects associated with ambient PM. Both the in vivo and in vitro study results demonstrated that individual metals (Cu. Fe. Ni. V and Zn) and extracts of metals from ambient PM sources can produce acute inflammatory responses. However. the doses administered to laboratory animals were many orders of magnitude greater than what humans experience from

  14. Phenols and hydroxy-PAHs (arylphenols) as tracers for coal smoke particulate matter: source tests and ambient aerosol assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernd R.T. Simoneit; Xinhui Bi; Daniel R. Oros; Patricia M. Medeiros; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

    2007-11-01

    Source tests were conducted to analyze and characterize diagnostic key tracers for emissions from burning of coals with various ranks. Coal samples included lignite from Germany, semibituminous coal from Arizona, USA, bituminous coal from Wales, UK and sample from briquettes of semibituminous coal, bituminous coal and anthracite from China. Ambient aerosol particulate matter was also collected in three areas of China and a background area in Corvallis, OR (U.S.) to confirm the presence of tracers specific for coal smoke. The results showed a series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, including PAHs and hydroxy-PAHs as the major tracers, as well as a significant unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of compounds. The tracers that were found characteristic of coal combustion processes included hydroxy-PAHs and PAHs. Atmospheric ambient samples from Beijing and Taiyuan, cities where coal is burned in northern China, revealed that the hydroxy-PAH tracers were present during the wintertime, but not in cities where coal is not commonly used (e.g., Guangzhou, South China). Thus, the mass of hydroxy-PAHs can be apportioned to coal smoke and the source strength modeled by summing the proportional contents of EC (elemental carbon), PAHs, UCM and alkanes with the hydroxy-PAHs. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The effect of coarse ambient particulate matter on first, second, and overall hospital admissions for respiratory disease among the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Chen; Qiuying Yang; Daniel Krewski; Richard T. Burnett; Yuanli Shi; Kimberlyn M. McGrail

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this article is to examine differences in the effect of ambient particulate matter on first, second, and overall hospital admissions for respiratory disease among the elderly. 8989 adults 65 yr of age or older living in the greater Vancouver area who were admitted to hospital for any acute respiratory disease (ICD-9 codes 460-519) between June 1, 1995, and March 31, 1999 were studied. Time-series analysis was used to evaluate the association between respiratory admissions and daily measures of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, and PM{sub 10-2.5} in urban air, after adjustment for gaseous copollutants (CO, O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2}) and meteorological variables. Repeated admissions for respiratory disease were common among the elderly. Approximately 30% of the subjects were readmitted to hospital after the first admission; 9% had more than 2 admissions for respiratory disease during the 4-yr study period. PM{sub 10-2.5} was significantly associated with the second and overall admissions for respiratory disease, but not with the first admission. The adjusted relative risks for an increment of 4.2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} in-day average PM{sub 10-2.5} concentrations were 1.03 for the first admission, 1.22 for the second admission, and 1.06 for overall admissions. There was no significant association between PM{sub 2.5} and hospital admissions for respiratory disease among the elderly. The data suggest that (1) people with a history of respiratory admissions are at a higher risk of respiratory disease in relation to particulate air pollution in urban areas, (2) analyses based on overall rather than repeated hospital admissions lead to lower estimates of the risk of respiratory disease associated with particulate air pollution, and (3) PM{sub 10-2.5} has a larger effect on respiratory admissions than PM{sub 2.5}.

  16. The effect of coarse ambient particulate matter on first, second, and overall hospital admissions for respiratory disease among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Yang, Qiuying; Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard T; Shi, Yuanli; McGrail, Kimberlyn M

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this article is to examine differences in the effect of ambient particulate matter on first, second, and overall hospital admissions for respiratory disease among the elderly. We studied 8989 adults 65 yr of age or older living in the greater Vancouver area who were admitted to hospital for any acute respiratory disease (ICD-9 codes 460-519) between June 1, 1995, and March 31, 1999. Time-series analysis was used to evaluate the association between respiratory admissions and daily measures of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM10 - 2.5) in urban air, after adjustment for gaseous copollutants (CO, O3, NO2, and SO2) and meteorological variables. Repeated admissions for respiratory disease were common among the elderly. Approximately 30% of the subjects were readmitted to hospital after the first admission; 9% had more than 2 admissions for respiratory disease during the 4-yr study period. PM10 - 2.5 was significantly associated with the second and overall admissions for respiratory disease, but not with the first admission. The adjusted relative risks for an increment of 4.2 microg/m(3) in -day average PM10 - 2.5 concentrations were 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.09) for the first admission, 1.22 (1.10-1.36) for the second admission, and 1.06 (1.02, 1.11) for overall admissions. There was no significant association between PM2.5 and hospital admissions for respiratory disease among the elderly. Our data suggest that (1) people with a history of respiratory admissions are at a higher risk of respiratory disease in relation to particulate air pollution in urban areas, (2) analyses based on overall rather than repeated hospital admissions lead to lower estimates of the risk of respiratory disease associated with particulate air pollution, and (3) PM10 - 2.5 has a larger effect on respiratory admissions than PM2.5.

  17. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction of rare earth elements from petroleum refining catalysts and ambient fine aerosols prior to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Mittlefehldt, David W

    2007-01-09

    A robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). High temperature (200 degrees C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO(3), HF and H(3)BO(3)) with 20 min dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst and PM(2.5). This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using (115)In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu and Dy in ambient PM(2.5) in an industrial area of Houston, TX.

  19. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Petroleum Refining Catalysts and Ambient Fine Aerosols Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of a certified reference material, a robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). High temperature (200 C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO3, HF, and H3BO3) with 20 minute dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst, and PM2.5. This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using 115In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu, and Dy in ambient PM2.5 in an industrial area of Houston, TX.

  20. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in <3weeks hospitalization or no hospitalization) when compared to severe medical conditions (e.g. critical cases, and cases that led to >3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  1. Optical Properties of Submicron and Coarse Mode Ambient Particulate Matter in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Kolesar, K. R.; Zhang, X.; Atkinson, D. B.; Pekour, M. S.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of particulate light absorption, light scattering and light extinction were made at visible wavelengths during the CARES 2010 field study in northern California. Measurements were made for PM1 and PM10 separately, and the difference between these were used to characterize the properties of the supermicron (coarse mode) particles. Additionally, measurements of PM2.5 were used to characterize the hygroscopicity and volatility of the particles and how this depended upon the distribution between submicron and coarse mode particles. Correlations between intensive particle properties, such as the mass scattering and absorption coefficient, and mean particle size are examined to establish the relationships between particle composition within the coarse mode and the resulting particle optical properties.

  2. Saccharide Composition in Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Soils in Central Arizona and Use of Saccharides as Molecular Markers for Source Apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Clements, A.; Fraser, M.

    2009-04-01

    The desert southwestern United States routinely exceeds health-based standards for coarse particulate matter [1]. PM10 concentrations are high in both urban and rural areas and are believed to originate from fugitive dust emissions from agricultural fields and roads and soil erosion from the surrounding desert locations. Soil together with its associated biota contains a complex mixture of biogenic detritus, including plant detritus, airborne microbes comprised of bacteria, viruses, spores of lichens and fungi, small algae, and protozoan cysts [4][5], which can mostly become airborne when winds are strong enough and soil dry enough to be re-entrained into the atmosphere [3]. Other potential sources to PM10 may include primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), given a multitude of flower, grass, and fungal species that thrive in the Sonoran desert and actively release pollens and spores throughout the year [2]. However, because soil and fugitive dust is also believed to contain a large number of these biological particles and is considered as a secondary host of PBAPs [3] [4], the role and contribution of PBAPs as a direct ambient PM source in the desert southwest have not been clearly stated or investigated. In an effort to identify and assess the relative contribution of these and other major PM sources in the southwestern US region, and particularly to assess the contribution from soil and fugitive dust, a series of ambient PM samples and soil samples were collected in Higley, AZ, USA, a suburb of the Phoenix metropolitan area which has seen rapid urban sprawl onto agricultural lands. Because of their suggested ability to track biologically important organic materials from natural environment [4][6][7][8][9][10], saccharides were chosen as the key compounds to trace the release of soil dusts into the atmosphere, and to elucidate other major sources that contribute to the PM levels in this location in the arid southwestern US. To this end, saccharide compounds

  3. Size and composition distribution of fine particulate matter emitted from wood burning, meat charbroiling, and cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, M.J.; Schauer, J.J.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-10-15

    A dilution source sampling system is augmented to measure the size-distributed chemical composition of fine particle emissions from air pollution sources. Measurements are made using a laser optical particle counter (OPC), a differential mobility analyzer/condensation nucleus counter (DMA/CNC) combination, and a pair of microorifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs). The sources tested with this system include wood smoke (pine, oak, eucalyptus), meat charbroiling, and cigarettes. The particle mass distributions from all wood smoke sources have a single mode that peaks at approximately 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter. The smoke from meat charbroiling shows a major peak in the particle mass distribution at 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter, with some material present at larger particle sizes. Particle mass distributions from cigarettes peak between 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m particle diameter. Chemical composition analysis reveals that particles emitted from the sources tested here are largely composed of organic compounds. Noticeable concentrations of elemental carbon are found in the particles emitted from wood burning. The size distributions of the trace species emissions from these sources also are presented, including data for Na, K, Ti, Fe, Br, Ru, Cl, Al, Zn, Ba, Sr, V, Mn, Sb, La, Ce, as well as sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ion when present in statistically significant amounts. These data are intended for use with air quality models that seek to predict the size distribution of the chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles.

  4. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in Downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was recently developed to provide long-term real-time continuous measurements of ambient non-refractory (i.e., organic, sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, and chloride) submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1). Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the ACSM against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. The collocated measurements included a second ACSM, continuous and integrated sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium measurements, as well as a semi-continuous Sunset organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC) analyzer, continuous tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), 24 h integrated Federal Reference Method (FRM) filters, and continuous scanning electrical mobility system-mixing condensation particle counter (SEMS-MCPC). Intercomparison of the two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21); mass concentration for all chemical species agreed within ±27%, indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. Chemical constituents measured by the ACSM are also compared with those obtained from the continuous measurements from JST. Since the continuous measurement concentrations are adjusted to match the integrated filter measurements, these comparisons reflect the combined uncertainties of the ACSM, continuous, and filter measurements. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Differences between ACSM mass concentrations and the filter-adjusted JST continuous data are 5-27%, 4

  5. A novel methodology for determining low-cost fine particulate matter street sweeping routes.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Carola A; Beghelli, Alejandra; Meneses, Veronica P

    2012-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of low-cost PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) street sweeping route. In order to do so, only a subset of the streets of the urban area to be swept is selected for sweeping, based on their PM10 emission factor values. Subsequently, a low-cost route that visits each street in the set is computed. Unlike related problems of waste collection where streets must be visited once (Chinese or Rural Postman Problem, respectively), in this case, the sweeping vehicle route must visit each selected street exactly as many times as its number of street sides, since the vehicle can sweep only one street side at a time. Additionally, the route must comply with traffic flow and turn constraints. A novel transformation of the original arc routing problem into a node routing problem is proposed in this paper. This is accomplished by building a graph that represents the area to sweep in such a way that the problem can be solved by applying any known solution to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). As a way of illustration, the proposed method was applied to the northeast area of the Municipality of Santiago (Chile). Results show that the proposed methodology achieved up to 37% savings in kilometers traveled by the sweeping vehicle when compared to the solution obtained by solving the TSP problem with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)--aware tools.

  6. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 northern California wildfires using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Reid, Colleen E; Jerrett, Michael; Petersen, Maya L; Pfister, Gabriele G; Morefield, Philip E; Tager, Ira B; Raffuse, Sean M; Balmes, John R

    2015-03-17

    Estimating population exposure to particulate matter during wildfires can be difficult because of insufficient monitoring data to capture the spatiotemporal variability of smoke plumes. Chemical transport models (CTMs) and satellite retrievals provide spatiotemporal data that may be useful in predicting PM2.5 during wildfires. We estimated PM2.5 concentrations during the 2008 northern California wildfires using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) to select an optimal prediction model from a set of 11 statistical algorithms and 29 predictor variables. The variables included CTM output, three measures of satellite aerosol optical depth, distance to the nearest fires, meteorological data, and land use, traffic, spatial location, and temporal characteristics. The generalized boosting model (GBM) with 29 predictor variables had the lowest CV root mean squared error and a CV-R2 of 0.803. The most important predictor variable was the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), followed by the CTM output and distance to the nearest fire cluster. Parsimonious models with various combinations of fewer variables also predicted PM2.5 well. Using machine learning algorithms to combine spatiotemporal data from satellites and CTMs can reliably predict PM2.5 concentrations during a major wildfire event.

  7. The elemental composition and origin of fine ambient particles in the largest Polish conurbation: first results from the short-term winter campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal (24-h) samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with an aerodynamic diameter not greater than 2.5 μm) and soil samples were collected in an urban area in Warsaw, in winter. The samples were analysed for 24 elements with an Epsilon 5 spectrometer (PANalytical). The results were then arranged and compared with the results of research conducted earlier in Poland and other parts of the world. Afterwards, sources of ambient PM2.5 were identified and the share of each in the concentration of PM2.5 was evaluated by means of enrichment factor (EF) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). The results were interpreted using a detailed analysis of correlations between diurnal concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-elements, and of changes in meteorological conditions. The winter average ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Warsaw, was 10.7 ± 7.5 μg/m3 and was much lower than in the other sites in Poland. In Warsaw, regardless of the concentration of PM2.5, the concentrations of certain PM2.5-bound elements, mainly toxic, were high, e.g. the average ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound Se, As, Co, V, Cd and Ni were 12.7 ± 30.5, 10.6 ± 34.4, 9.4 ± 13.7, 15.1 ± 32.7, 9.6 ± 22.2 and 3.5 ± 5.0 ng/m3, respectively. The elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 appeared to be influenced mainly by the anthropogenic emissions (energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, whose mean contribution to the concentration of PM2.5 was 18.4 %, and energy production based on oil combustion with a contribution of 9.9 % in PM2.5). A mixture of soil matter and road dust was also identified in PM2.5 (8 %). The mean contribution of traffic (exhaust) emissions to the concentration of PM2.5 in an urban area, selected as representative of the Warsaw conurbation, was assessed at 15.4 %.

  8. Characterisation of particulate matter in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysels, Kristin; Deutsch, Felix; Grieken, René Van

    Aerosol samples were collected during two campaigns in February and July 1999 both inside and outside the Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten (KMSK, Royal Museum of Fine Arts) in Antwerp. Bulk aerosol concentrations, as well as the composition of the individual particles, were determined. The influence of the outdoor aerosol was clearly visible. In winter, restoration and construction works constituted an additional indoor source of Ca-rich and Ca-Si particles. Along with sea salt, these were the main particle types identified in this season. In summer, S-rich particles were most frequent. The summer abundances of Ca-rich particles remained low, even though the museum is situated in a limestone building. Moreover, dry deposition samples were collected in order to determine what amount of particles could actually be deposited onto the works of art.

  9. Assessing the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate matter components in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Moise, Tamar; Shpund, Jacob; Liu, Yang; Pachon, Jorge E.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Schauer, James J.

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript presents results from an extensive, multi-country comparative monitoring study of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and its primary chemical components in Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian cities. This study represented the first time that researchers from these countries have worked together to examine spatial and temporal relationships for PM 2.5 and its major components among the study sites. The findings indicated that total PM 2.5 mass was relatively homogenous among many of the 11 sites as shown from strong between-site correlations. Mean annual concentrations ranged from 19.9 to 34.9 μg m -3 in Haifa and Amman, respectively, and exceeded accepted international air quality standards for annual PM 2.5 mass. Similarity of total mass was largely driven by SO 42- and crustal PM 2.5 components. Despite the close proximity of the seven, well correlated sites with respect to PM 2.5, there were pronounced differences among the cities for EC and, to a lesser degree, OC. EC, in particular, exhibited spatiotemporal trends that were indicative of strong local source contributions. Interestingly, there were moderate to strong EC correlations ( r > 0.65) among the large metropolitan cities, West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman. For these relatively large cities, (i.e., West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman), EC sources from the fleet of buses and cars typical for many urban areas predominate and likely drive spatiotemporal EC distributions. As new airshed management strategies and public health interventions are implemented throughout the Middle East, our findings support regulatory strategies that target integrated regional and local control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 mass and specific components suspected to drive adverse health effects of particulate matter exposure.

  10. The Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study, Part 3: Continuous measurements of fine particulate matter mass and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, E.S.; Hartsell, B.E.; Saylor, R.D.; Jansen, J.J.; Hansen, D.A.; Hidy, G.M.

    2006-09-15

    Deployment of continuous analyzers in the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study (SEARCH) network began in 1998 and continues today as new technologies are developed. Measurement of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass is performed using a dried, 30 {sup o}C tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). TEOM measurements are complemented by observations of light scattering by nephelometry. Measurements of major constituents include: (1) SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} via reduction to SO{sub 2}; (2) NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} via respective catalytic oxidation and reduction to NO, (3) black carbon (BC) by optical absorption,(4) total carbon by combustion to CO{sup 2}, and (5) organic carbon by difference between the latter two measurements. Several illustrative examples of continuous data from the SEARCH network are presented. A distinctive composite annual average diurnal pattern is observed for PM2.5 mass, nitrate, and BC, likely indicating the influence of traffic-related emissions, growth, and break up of the boundary layer and formation of ammonium nitrate. Examination of PM2.5 components indicates the need to better understand the continuous composition of the unmeasured 'other' category, because it contributes a significant fraction to total mass during periods of high PM2.5 loading. Selected episodes are presented to illustrate applications of SEARCH data. An SO{sub 2} conversion rate of 0.2%/hr is derived from an observation of a plume from a coal-fired power plant during early spring, and the importance of local, rural sources of NH{sub 3} to the formation of ammonium nitrate in particulate matter (PM) is demonstrated. 41 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AS A RISK FACTOR FOR INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ACUTE BRONCHO-PULMONARY INFECTIONS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Spengler, John D.; Mroz, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Flak, Elżbieta; Majewska, Renata; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades many epidemiologic studies considered the morbidity patterns for respiratory diseases and lung function of children in the context of ambient air pollution usually measured in the postnatal period. The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood. The study included 214 children who had measurements of personal prenatal PM2.5 exposure and regularly collected data on the occurrence of acute bronchitis and pneumonia diagnosed by a physician from birth over the seven-year follow-up. The effect of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was adjusted in the multivariable logistic models for potential confounders, such as prenatal and postnatal ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), city residence area as a proxy of postnatal urban exposure, children’s sensitization to domestic aeroallergens, and asthma. In the subgroup of children with available PM2.5 indoor levels, the effect of prenatal exposure was additionally adjusted for indoor exposure as well. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for incidence of recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections (five or more spells of bronchitis and/or pneumonia) recorded in the follow-up significantly correlated in a dose-response manner with the prenatal PM2.5 level (OR = 2.44, 95%CI: 1.12 – 5.36). In conclusion, the study suggests that prenatal exposure to PM2.5 increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and may program respiratory morbidity in early childhood. The study also provides evidence that the target value of 20 μg/m3 for the 24-hour mean level of PM2.5 protects unborn babies better than earlier established EPA guidelines. PMID:23333083

  12. Effects of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Systemic Oxidative Stress and Cardiac Function in ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yiling; Jiang, Rongfang; Zou, Yunzeng; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Suhui; Wang, Guanghe; Zhao, Jinzhuo; Song, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the toxic mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries induced by ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in atherosclerotic-susceptible ApoE−/− mice. An acute toxicological animal experiment was designed with PM2.5 exposure once a day, every other day, for three days. Methods: ApoE−/− and C57BL/6 mice were randomly categorized into four groups, respectively (n = 6): one control group, three groups exposed to PM2.5 alone at low-, mid-, and high-dose (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg b.w.). Heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored before instillation of PM2.5 and 24 h after the last instillation, respectively. Cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography (Echo) after the last instillation. Biomarkers of systemic oxidative injuries (MDA, SOD), heart oxidative stress (MDA, SOD), and NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p22phox, p47phox) mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in mice. The results showed that PM2.5 exposure could trigger the significant increase of MDA, and induce the decrease of heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) function with a dose–response manner. Meanwhile, abnormal ECG types were monitored in mice after exposure to PM2.5. The expression of cytokines related with oxidative injuries, and mRNA and protein expression of NADPH, increased significantly in ApoE−/− mice in the high-dose group when compared with the dose-matched C57BL6 mice, but no significant difference was observed at Echo. In conclusion, PM2.5 exposure could cause oxidative and ANS injuries, and ApoE−/− mice displayed more severe oxidative effects induced by PM2.5. PMID:27187431

  13. A pilot investigation of the relative toxicity of indoor and outdoor fine particles: in vitro effects of endotoxin and other particulate properties.

    PubMed Central

    Long, C M; Suh, H H; Kobzik, L; Catalano, P J; Ning, Y Y; Koutrakis, P

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the in vitro toxicity of 14 paired indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) samples (particulate matter < or =2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) collected in 9 Boston-area homes. Samples were collected as part of a large indoor particle characterization study that included the simultaneous measurement of indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), particle size distributions, and compositional data (e.g., elemental/organic carbon, endotoxin, etc.). Bioassays were conducted using rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was measured to assess particle-induced proinflammatory responses. Additional experiments were also conducted in which AMs were primed with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to simulate preexisting pulmonary inflammation such as that which might exist in sick and elderly individuals. Significant TNF production above that of negative controls was observed for AMs exposed to either indoor or outdoor PM(2.5). TNF releases were further amplified for primed AMs, suggesting that preexisting inflammation can potentially exacerbate the toxicity of not only outdoor PM(2.5) (as shown by previous studies) but also indoor PM(2.5). In addition, indoor particle TNF production was found to be significantly higher than outdoor particle TNF production in unprimed AMs, both before and after normalization for endotoxin concentrations. Our results suggest that indoor-generated particles may be more bioactive than ambient particles. Endotoxin was demonstrated to mediate proinflammatory responses for both indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), but study findings suggest the presence of other proinflammatory components of fine particles, particularly for indoor-generated particles. Given these study findings and the fact that people spend 85-90% of their time indoors, future studies are needed to address the toxicity of indoor particles. PMID:11689347

  14. Short-term associations of fine particulate matter components and emergency hospital admissions among a privately insured population in Greater Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suyang; Ganduglia, Cecilia M.; Li, Xiao; Delclos, George L.; Franzini, Luisa; Zhang, Kai

    2016-12-01

    A number of time-series studies have associated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass and components with various health outcomes. No studies have yet examined the associations between PM2.5 components and hospital admissions among a privately insured population. We estimated the short-term associations between exposure to PM2.5 mass and components and emergency hospital admissions for all-cause and cause-specific diseases in Greater Houston, Texas, during 2008-2013 using Blue Cross Blue Shield Texas claims data. A total of 90,085 emergency hospital admissions were included in this study, with an average of 34 ± 10 admissions per day. We selected 20 PM2.5 components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network site located in Houston, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the short-term effects of PM2.5 mass and species on emergency hospital admissions. Effects were estimated without adjustment for other airborne pollutants. PM2.5 mass was not statistically significantly associated with increased all-cause emergency hospital admissions and selected cause-specific admissions. For selected PM2.5 species, we found interquartile range increases in arsenic (0.001 μg/m3) and copper (0.017 μg/m3) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with increased admissions for stroke, (5.98% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 11.50%]) and pneumonia (4.07% [95% CI: 0.37, 7.90%]), respectively. Seasonal analysis showed weak variation among PM2.5 mass and components, except that nickel significantly increased all-cause emergency hospital admissions (2.16% [95% CI: 0.21, 4.14%]) during the warm season. Our findings suggest that hospital admissions in the privately insured population are slightly affected by ambient fine particulate matter air pollution.

  15. Fine Particulate Matter Predictions Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Nordio, Francesco; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Jujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    To date, spatial-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) within urban areas have primarily been examined using models. On the other hand, satellites extend spatial coverage but their spatial resolution is too coarse. In order to address this issue, here we report on spatial variability in PM levels derived from high 1 km resolution AOD product of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm developed for MODIS satellite. We apply day-specific calibrations of AOD data to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the New England area of the United States. To improve the accuracy of our model, land use and meteorological variables were incorporated. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for nonrandom missingness of AOD and nested regions within days to capture spatial variation. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance among others. Out-of-sample "ten-fold" cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of model predictions. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations, with out-of- sample R(sub 2) of 0.89. Furthermore, our study shows that the model captures the pollution levels along highways and many urban locations thereby extending our ability to investigate the spatial patterns of urban air quality, such as examining exposures in areas with high traffic. Our results also show high accuracy within the cities of Boston and New Haven thereby indicating that MAIAC data can be used to examine intra-urban exposure contrasts in PM(sub 2.5) levels.

  16. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  17. Concentrations and source insights for trace elements in fine and coarse particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas; Eav, Jenny; Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P.; Miller, Shelly L.; Navidi, William; Peel, Jennifer L.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Milford, Jana B.

    2014-06-01

    The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study is a multi-year study focused on characterizing the mass, composition and sources of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in Denver and Greeley, CO. Between the two cities, Denver is expected to have greater influence of industry and motor vehicles as sources of PM10-2.5. Greeley is a smaller city with greater expected influence of agricultural activity. As part of the CCRUSH study, we collected integrated 24-h samples of PM from four sites in Denver and Greeley at six day intervals from February 2010 to March 2011. Dichotomous samplers with Teflon filters were used to obtain samples for gravimetric and elemental analysis. Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (SF-ICP-MS) was used to analyze digests of monthly composited filter samples for 49 elements. Thirty-nine elements were retained for statistical analysis after excluding those with low signal-to-noise ratios. The elements Sb, Cd, Zn, Mo, As, B, Cu, Pb, and W had crustal enrichment factors greater than 10 in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size ranges in both Denver and Greeley. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) with bootstrap uncertainty estimation, we identified five factors influencing the element concentrations: a crustal factor contributing to both PM2.5 and PM10-2.5; a sodium-dominated PM10-2.5 factor likely associated with road salt; a vehicle abrasion factor contributing in both size ranges; a regional sulfur factor contributing mainly to PM2.5 and likely associated with coal combustion; and a local catalyst factor identified with high Ce and La enrichment in PM2.5 at one of the sites in Denver.

  18. Fine Particulate Matter in Urban Environments: A Trigger of Respiratory Symptoms in Sensitive Children

    PubMed Central

    Dunea, Daniel; Iordache, Stefania; Pohoata, Alin

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to study children’s respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania) in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5). We monitored and analysed the PM2.5 concentrations according to a complex experimental protocol. The health trial was conducted over three months (October–December 2015) and required the active cooperation of the children’s parents to monitor carefully the respiratory symptoms of the child, i.e., coughing, rhinorrhoea, wheezing, and fever, as well as their outdoor program. We selected the most sensitive children (n = 25; age: 2–10 years) with perturbed respiratory health, i.e., wheezing, asthma, and associated symptoms. The estimated average PM2.5 doses were 0.8–14.5 µg·day−1 for weekdays, and 0.4–6.6 µg·day−1 for the weekend. The frequency and duration of the symptoms decreased with increasing age. The 4- to 5-year old children recorded the longest duration of symptoms, except for rhinorrhoea, which suggested that this age interval is the most vulnerable to exogenous trigger agents (p < 0.01) compared to the other age groups. PM2.5 air pollution was found to have a direct positive correlation with the number of wheezing episodes (r = 0.87; p < 0.01) in November 2015. Monitoring of wheezing occurrences in the absence of fever can provide a reliable assessment of the air pollution effect on the exacerbation of asthma and respiratory disorders in sensitive children. PMID:27983715

  19. Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Phoenix, AZ, using positive matrix factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Steven G. Brown; Anna Frankel; Sean M. Raffuse; Paul T. Roberts; Hilary R. Hafner; Darcy J. Anderson

    2007-06-15

    Speciated particulate matter PM2.5 data collected as Part. of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program in Phoenix, AZ, from April 2001 through October 2003 were analyzed using the multivariate receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Over 250 samples and 24 species were used, including the organic carbon and elemental carbon analytical temperature fractions from the thermal optical reflectance method. A two-step approach was used. First, the species excluding the carbon fractions were used, and initially eight factors were identified; non-soil potassium was calculated and included to better refine the burning factor. Next, the mass associated with the burning factor was removed, and the data set rerun with the carbon fractions. Results were very similar (i.e., within a few percent), but this step enabled a separation of the mobile factor into gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions. The identified factors were burning (on average 2% of the mass), secondary transport (7%), regional power generation (13%), dust (25%), nitrate (9%), industrial As/Pb/Se (2%), Cu/Ni/V (7%), diesel (9%), and general mobile (26%). Most of the long-range transport of emissions emanates from south of Phoenix in Southeastern Arizona, West Texas, and Mexico, which are significant source regions of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. The overall contribution from mobile sources also increased, as some mass (OC and nitrate) from the nitrate and regional power generation factors were apportioned with the mobile factors. This approach allowed better apportionment of carbon as well as total mass. Additionally, the use of multiple supporting analyses, including air mass trajectories, activity trends, and emission inventory information, helped increase confidence in factor identification. 86 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Temporal variation of hydroxyl radical generation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation by coarse and fine particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Shi, T; Knaapen, A; Begerow, J; Birmili, W; Borm, P; Schins, R

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by fine (<2.5 µm) and coarse (10–2.5 µm) particulate matter (PM) sampled over time at one sampling location, and to relate the observed effects to the hydroxyl radical (•OH) generating activities and transition metal content of these samples, and to meteorological parameters. Methods: Weekly samples of coarse and fine PM were analysed for H2O2 dependent •OH formation using electron spin resonance (ESR) and formation of 8-OHdG in calf thymus DNA using an immuno-dotblot assay. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine 8-OHdG formation in A549 human epithelial lung cells. To determine temporal effects, samples from six weeks in summer and six weeks in autumn/winter were compared using ESR and the dotblot assay. Concentrations of leachable V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Both PM fractions elicited •OH generation as well as 8-OHdG formation in calf thymus DNA and in A549 cells. 8-OHdG formation in the naked DNA was significantly related to •OH generation, but not to metal concentrations except for copper. A significantly higher •OH generation was observed for coarse PM, but not fine PM collected during the autumn/winter season; this was not due to differences in sampled mass or metal content. Specific weather conditions under which increased •OH formation in the coarse mode was observed suggest that other, as yet unknown, anthropogenic components might affect the radical generating capacity of PM. Conclusions: Both coarse and fine PM are able to generate •OH, and induce formation of 8-OHdG. When considered at equal mass, •OH formation shows considerable variability with regard to the fraction of PM, as well as the sampling season. The toxicological implications of this heterogeneity in •OH formation by PM, as can be easily determined by ESR, need further investigation. PMID:12709515

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with fine particulate matters in Nanjing, China: Distributions, sources and meteorological influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiabao; Fan, Shuxian; Meng, Qingzi; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Zu, Fan

    2014-06-01

    A study of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with fine particulate matters at suburban and urban sites in Nanjing was carried out each season from November 2009 to July 2010. At the suburban and urban sites, the concentrations of total PAHs (T-PAHs) were in the ranges of 30.76-102.26 ng/m3 and 25.92-90.80 ng/m3, respectively. This paper elucidates the distributions, sources of PAHs and meteorological influences: 1) PAHs concentrations at the two sites were close to each other and similarity between PAHs profiles of the two sites indicated they had common sources, which were attributed to the combined effect of regional transport and local emission. 2) At both sites, the profiles displayed obvious seasonal variations, as a result of the seasonality of sources and meteorological influences. The T-PAHs concentrations were in the order of winter > spring > autumn > summer. 3) Source apportionment showed vehicle exhaust (72.93-87.24%) was the greatest contributor in all seasons. The coal combustion and coke production (coal/coke) (10.02-18.63%) were identified in all but summer seasons, because of the low collection efficiency of PAHs markers of coal/coke under high temperature. For autumn, biomass burning (10.58%) was an extra contributor. 4) Regarding meteorological parameters, a negative effect of temperature over PAHs was confirmed, with a correlation coefficient of -0.51 (p < 0.05). Precipitation could remove PAHs to some extent. Both positive and negative correlations between PAHs concentration and wind speed in each season were analyzed in combination with air mass back-trajectories so as to evaluate the effects of regional air transport. The results showed that polluted air from ENE-S and NNW-NE brought in outside sources to the study area and played a major role in the accumulation of fine-particulate PAHs in spring and winter respectively, while clean air from southwest contributed to the dilution in summer.

  2. Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. )

    1991-05-01

    The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

  3. In vitro toxicology of ambient particulate matter: correlation of cellular effects with particle size and components.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Alexandra; Gietl, Johanna K; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Günsel, Andreas; Wohlleben, Wendel; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Klemm, Otto

    2013-02-01

    High concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) have been associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality among exposed populations. Although certain components of PM were suggested to influence these effects, no clear-cut correlation was determined thus far. One of the possible modes of action is the induction of oxidative stress by inhaled PM triggering inflammatory responses. Therefore, the in vitro formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in three cell lines in the presence of five subfractions of PM(10), collected in Münster, Germany was investigated. The PM components chloride, nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, 68 chemical elements, and endotoxin were quantified. The highest concentration of endotoxin was found in particles of 0.42-1.2 μm aerodynamic diameters, and therefore probably subject to long-range transport. Intracellular ROS formation in three well established mammalian cell lines (CaCo2, human; MDCK, canine; RAW264.7, mouse) only correlated positively with particle size. The two smallest PM size fractions provoked the highest rise in ROS. However, the latter did not correlate with the concentration of any PM components investigated. The smallest PM size fractions significantly dominated the number of particles. Therefore, the particle number may be most effective in inducing oxidative stress in vitro.

  4. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Ambient Particulate Matter-induced Lung Diseases and Its Implications in the Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is an environmental factor that has been associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The major effect of ambient PM on the pulmonary system is the exacerbation of inflammation, especially in susceptible people. One of the mechanisms by which ambient PM exerts its proinflammatory effects is the generation of oxidative stress by its chemical compounds and metals. Cellular responses to PM-induced oxidative stress include activation of antioxidant defense, inflammation, and toxicity. The pro-inflammatory effect of PM in the lung is characterized by increased cytokine/chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression. Moreover, there is evidence that ambient PM can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization, which raises the possibility that long-term PM exposure may lead to increased prevalence of asthma. In addition to ambient PM, rapid expansion of nanotechnology has introduced the potential that engineered NP may also become airborne and may contribute to pulmonary diseases by novel mechanisms that could include oxidant injury. Currently, little is known about the potential adverse health effect of these particles. In this communication, the mechanisms by which particulate pollutants, including ambient PM and engineered NP, exert their adverse effects through the generation of oxidative stress and the impacts of oxidant injury in the respiratory tract will be reviewed. The importance of cellular antioxidant and detoxification pathways in protecting against particle-induced lung damage will also be discussed. PMID:18313407

  5. The role of oxidative stress in ambient particulate matter-induced lung diseases and its implications in the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E

    2008-05-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is an environmental factor that has been associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The major effect of ambient PM on the pulmonary system is the exacerbation of inflammation, especially in susceptible people. One of the mechanisms by which ambient PM exerts its proinflammatory effects is the generation of oxidative stress by its chemical compounds and metals. Cellular responses to PM-induced oxidative stress include activation of antioxidant defense, inflammation, and toxicity. The proinflammatory effect of PM in the lung is characterized by increased cytokine/chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression. Moreover, there is evidence that ambient PM can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization, which raises the possibility that long-term PM exposure may lead to increased prevalence of asthma. In addition to ambient PM, rapid expansion of nanotechnology has introduced the potential that engineered nanoparticles (NP) may also become airborne and may contribute to pulmonary diseases by novel mechanisms that could include oxidant injury. Currently, little is known about the potential adverse health effects of these particles. In this communication, the mechanisms by which particulate pollutants, including ambient PM and engineered NP, exert their adverse effects through the generation of oxidative stress and the impacts of oxidant injury in the respiratory tract will be reviewed. The importance of cellular antioxidant and detoxification pathways in protecting against particle-induced lung damage will also be discussed.

  6. Development of Quality Control Parameters and Electronic Data Recording for an Ambient Air Particle Inhalation Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air particle concentrating systems were installed by the US EPA in RTP, NC. These systems, designed by Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (Boston, MA), concentrated ambient fine and ultra-fine mode particulate matter (P...

  7. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in China at a city level

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Cao, Fang

    2015-01-01

    This study presents one of the first long term datasets including a statistical summary of PM2.5 concentrations obtained from one-year monitoring in 190 cities in China. We found only 25 out of 190 cities could meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, and the population-weighted mean of PM2.5 in Chinese cities are 61 μg/m3, ~3 times as high as global population-weighted mean, highlighting a high health risk. PM2.5 concentrations are generally higher in north than in south regions due to relative large PM emissions and unfavorable meteorological conditions for pollution dispersion. A remarkable seasonal variability of PM2.5 is observed with the highest during the winter and the lowest during the summer. Due to the enhanced contributions from dust particles and open biomass burning, high PM2.5 abundances are also found in the spring (in Northwest and West Central China) and autumn (in East China), respectively. In addition, we found the lowest and highest PM2.5 often occurs in the afternoon and evening hours, respectively, associated with daily variation of the boundary layer depth and anthropogenic emissions. The diurnal distribution of the PM2.5-to-CO ratio consistently displays a pronounced peak during the afternoon periods, reflecting a significant contribution of secondary PM formation. PMID:26469995

  8. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyelim; Park, Sanghoon; Jeon, Hyunju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Pak, Hui-Nam; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Chung, Ji Hyung; Joung, Boyoung

    2013-01-15

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  9. Metals mimic airway epithelial injury induced by in vitro exposure to Utah Valley ambient particulate matter extracts.

    PubMed

    Pagan, Ines; Costa, Daniel L; McGee, John K; Richards, Judy H; Dye, Janice A

    2003-06-27

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associations between changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided with closure of an open-hearth steel mill, the major industrial source of particulate emissions in the valley. In this report, water extracts of PM filters from steel mill operational (UE-86, UE-88) and closure (UE-87) periods were analyzed for their elemental composition. Their relative toxicity was determined by exposing primary rodent airway epithelial cultures to equal masses of extracted material. To elucidate extract subcomponents mediating the effects observed, cells were also exposed to surrogate metal mixtures. Potential interactions between the two predominant metals in the UE-86/88 samples, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), were further investigated. Data indicated that, relative to the UE-87 (plant closed) sample, UE-86/88 samples contained more sulfate, calcium, potassium,magnesium and, although present in much lower amounts, a variety of metals including Zn,Cu, iron, lead, strontium, nickel, manganese, and vanadium (V). Cell exposure to UE-86 and UE-88, but not UE-87, resulted in time- and concentration-dependent epithelial injury based on biochemical and light/electron microscopic changes. Cell injury induced by metal mixtures containing equivalent amounts of Zn + Cu + V was commensurate with that induced by the corresponding extract, although divergent antioxidant responses were observed. Exposure to Zn + Cu resulted in significantly greater epithelial toxicity and stress (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation) responses than did exposure to Zn or Cu individually. The parallel epithelial injury induced by the extracts and their surrogate Zn + Cu + V mixtures suggests that these metals are mediating the acute airway epithelial effects observed; however, metal interactions appear to play a critical role in the overall cellular

  10. Fine-scale estimation of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter concentrations in proximity to a road intersection by using wavelet neural network with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Feng; He, Hong-di; Lu, Qing-Chang; Wang, Dongsheng; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2015-03-01

    At road intersections, vehicles frequently stop with idling engines during the red-light period and speed up rapidly in the green-light period, which generates higher velocity fluctuation and thus higher emission rates. Additionally, the frequent changes of wind direction further add the highly variable dispersion of pollutants at the street scale. It is, therefore, very difficult to estimate the distribution of pollutant concentrations using conventional deterministic causal models. For this reason, a hybrid model combining wavelet neural network and genetic algorithm (GA-WNN) is proposed for predicting 5-min series of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in proximity to an intersection. The proposed model is examined based on the measured data under two situations. As the measured pollutant concentrations are found to be dependent on the distance to the intersection, the model is evaluated in three locations respectively, i.e. 110 m, 330 m and 500 m. Due to the different variation of pollutant concentrations on varied time, the model is also evaluated in peak and off-peak traffic time periods separately. Additionally, the proposed model, together with the back-propagation neural network (BPNN), is examined with the measured data in these situations. The proposed model is found to perform better in predictability and precision for both CO and PM2.5 than BPNN does, implying that the hybrid model can be an effective tool to improve the accuracy of estimating pollutants' distribution pattern at intersections. The outputs of these findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed model to be applicable to forecast the distribution pattern of air pollution in real-time in proximity to road intersection.

  11. A scripted activity study of the impact of protective advice on personal exposure to ultra-fine and fine particulate matter and volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Evans, Gregory J; Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Chen, L I; Campbell, Monica E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Brook, Jeffrey R; Guay, Mireille

    2008-09-01

    We evaluated the impact on personal exposure to air pollutants of following advice which typically accompanies air quality advisories and indices. Scripts prescribed the time, location, duration and nature of activities intended to simulate daily activity patterns for adults and children. Scripts were paired such that one individual would proceed with usual activities (base scenario), whereas the other (intervention scenario) would alter activities as if following advice. Other than commuting, where the intervention group walked or used public transportation rather than riding in personal vehicles, this group generally spent less time outdoors. Ultra-fine particles (UFPs), particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum (PM(2.5)) and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using samplers carried by individuals during the course of daily activities. During daytime activities (e.g., work, daycare) constituting the largest share of sampling time (approximately 6 h per day), the intervention group experienced a 14% reduction in exposure to UFPs (P=0.01), a 21% reduction in exposure to PM(2.5) (P=0.08), and an 86% increase in exposure to VOCs (P=0.02). Other findings included an 89% increase in exposure to UFPs (P=0.02) and a threefold increase in exposure to VOCs (P=0.08) in the intervention group during evening cooking. Following smog advisory advice results in reduced exposures to some pollutants, while at the same time increasing exposure to others. Advice needs to be refined giving consideration to overall personal exposure.

  12. Fuel-based fine particulate and black carbon emission factors from a railyard area in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Mike; Russell, Armistead

    2013-06-01

    Railyards have the potential to influence localfine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm; PM2.5) concentrations through emissions from diesel locomotives and supporting activities. This is of concern in urban regions where railyards are in proximity to residential areas. Northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, Inman and Tilford railyards are located beside residential neighborhoods, industries, and schools. The PM2.5 concentrations near the railyards is the highest measured amongst the state-run monitoring sites (Georgia Environmental Protection Division, 2012; http://www.georgiaair.org/amp/report.php). The authors estimated fuel-based black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 emission factors for these railyards in order to help determine the impact of railyard activities on PM2.5 concentrations, and for assessing the potential benefits of replacing current locomotive engines with cleaner technologies. High-time-resolution measurements of BC, PM2.5, CO2, and wind speed and direction were made at two locations, north and south of the railyards. Emissions factors (i.e., the mass of BC or PM2.5 per gallon of fuel burned) were estimated by using the downwind/upwind difference in concentrations, wavelet analysis, and an event-based approach. By the authors' estimates, diesel-electric engines used in the railyards have average emission factors of 2.8 +/- 0.2 g of BC and 6.0 +/- 0.5 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. A broader mix of railyard supporting activities appear to lead to average emission factors of 0.7 +/- 0.03 g of BC and 1.5 +/- 0.1 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. Railyard emissions appear to lead to average enhancements of approximately 1.7 +/- 0.1 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and approximately 0.8 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 of BC in neighboring areas on an annual average basis. Uncertainty not quantified in these results could arise mainly from variability in downwind/upwind differences, differences in emissions of the diverse zones within the

  13. Ultrafine and fine particulate matter inhalation decreases exercise performance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Caviston, Renee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 0.02-2 microm) inhalation on exercise performance in healthy subjects. Inhalation of internal combustion-derived PM is associated with adverse effects to the pulmonary and muscle microcirculation. No data are available concerning air pollution and exercise performance. Fifteen healthy college-aged males performed 4 maximal effort 6-min cycle ergometer trials while breathing low or high PM1 to achieve maximal work accumulation (kJ). Low PM1 inhalation trials 1 and 2 were separated by 3 days; then after a 7 day washout, trials 3 and 4 (separated by 3 days) were done while breathing high PM1 generated from a gasoline engine; CO was kept below 10 ppm. Lung function was done after trial 1 to verify nonasthmatic status. Lung function was normal before and after low PM1 exercise. PM1 number counts were not different between high PM1 trials (336,730 +/- 149,206 and 396,200 +/- 82,564 for trial 3 and 4, respectively) and were different from low PM1 trial number counts (2,260 +/- 500) (P < 0.0001). Mean heart rate was not different between trials (189 +/- 6.0, 188 +/- 7.6, 188 +/- 7.6, 187 +/- 7.4, for low and high PM1 trials; respectively). Work accumulated was not different between low PM1 trials (96.1 +/- 9.38 versus 96.6 +/- 10.83 kJ) and the first high PM1 trial (trial 3, 96.8 +/- 10.65 kJ). Work accumulated in the second high PM1 trial 4, 91.3 +/- 10.04 kJ) was less than in low PM1 trials 1 and 2, and high PM1 trial 3 (P = 0.004, P = 0.003, P = 0.0008; respectively). Acute inhalation of high (PM1) typical of many urban environments could impair exercise performance.

  14. Transfer of fine sediments and particulate heavy metals in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Ulrike; Reid, Lucas; Fuchs, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    For heavy metals and other particulate contaminants erosion is an important emission pathway into surface waters. Emissions via erosion can strongly vary depending on land use, morphology, erodibility of the soils and the heavy metal content in the topsoil layer of the source areas. A high spatial resolution of input data is thus necessary to identify hotspots of heavy metal emissions via erosion in large river basins. In addition a part of the suspended solid load which is emitted to surface waters from the catchment areas can be deposited in the river system during transportation. The retention of sediments mainly takes place in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages. Former modelling studies in large river basins of Germany revealed, that the observed suspended sediment loads at monitoring stations were strongly overestimated, if retention processes in the river system were neglected. The objective of this study was therefore to test whether the consideration of sedimentation rates in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages can improve the prediction of observed suspended sediment loads in large river basins. We choose the German/Austrian part of the Danube basin until Passau (77 156 km²) for this analysis, as the alpine tributaries in the South of the Danube basin deliver high annual sediment rates (i.e. Inn and Isar) which are not fully recovered at the monitoring stations located further upstream of the Danube due to retention processes. The sediment input was quantified for all tributaries and added up along the flow path of the river system. Due to the large scale, sediment production within the catchments was calculated using the USLE for cultivated land and naturally covered areas and specific erosion rates for alpine areas without vegetation cover. Sediment delivery was estimated using an approach based on the location of the sediment source areas in the catchments and the morphology on the way to the surface waters. The location of the lakes, reservoirs and

  15. Removal of ultrafine and fine particulate matter from air by a granular bed filter.

    PubMed

    Ozis, Fethiye; Singh, Manisha; Devinny, Joseph; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2004-08-01

    The removal efficiency of granular filters packed with lava rock and sand was studied for collection of airborne particles 0.05-2.5 microm in diameter. The effects of filter depth, packing wetness, grain size, and flow rate on collection efficiency were investigated. Two packing grain sizes (0.3 and 0.15 cm) were tested for flow rates of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 L/min, corresponding to empty bed residence times (equal to the bulk volume of the packing divided by the airflow rate) in the granular media of 60, 30, and 20 sec, respectively. The results showed that at 1.2 L/min, dry packing with grains 0.15 cm in diameter removed more than 80% (by number) of the particles. Particle collection efficiency decreased with increasing flow rate. Diffusion was identified as the predominant collection mechanism for ultrafine particles, while the larger particles in the accumulation mode of 0.7-2.5 microm were removed primarily by gravitational settling. For all packing depths and airflow rates, particle removal efficiency was generally higher on dry packing than on wet packing for particles smaller than 0.25 microm. The results suggest that development of biological filters for fine particles is possible.

  16. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  17. Indoor/outdoor relationships for ambient PM2.5 and associated pollutants: epidemiological implications in Lindon, Utah.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E; Eatough, D J

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor fine particulate species were measured at the Lindon Elementary School in Lindon, Utah, to determine which components of ambient fine particles have strong indoor and outdoor concentration correlations. PM2.5 mass concentrations were measured using tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitors and by gravimetric analysis of Teflon filter samples. Gas-phase HNO3, sulfur dioxide, particulate nitrate, strong acid, and particulate sulfate were measured using annular denuder samplers. Soot was measured using quartz filters in filter packs. Total particulate number was measured with a condensation nucleus counter (CNC). Total particulate number and fine particulate sulfate and soot were correlated for ambient and indoor measurements. Indoor PM2.5 mass showed a low correlation with outdoor PM2.5 mass because of the influence of coarse material from student activities on indoor PM2.5. Fine particle acidity and the potentiation of biological oxidative mechanisms by iron were not correlated indoors and outdoors.

  18. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-05-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2=0.79, n=52, Ea=126±10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2=0.60, n=56, Ea=84±9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  19. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-08-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated aerosol samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2 = 0.79, n = 52, Ea = 126 ± 10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2 = 0.60, n = 56, Ea = 84 ± 9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  20. The effects on bronchial epithelial mucociliary cultures of coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter from an underground railway station.

    PubMed

    Loxham, Matthew; Morgan-Walsh, Rebecca J; Cooper, Matthew J; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick W; Howarth, Peter H; Cassee, Flemming R; Teagle, Damon A H; Palmer, Martin R; Davies, Donna E

    2015-05-01

    We have previously shown that underground railway particulate matter (PM) is rich in iron and other transition metals across coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) fractions and is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little knowledge of whether the metal-rich nature of such particles exerts toxic effects in mucus-covered airway epithelial cell cultures or whether there is an increased risk posed by the ultrafine fraction. Monolayer and mucociliary air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were exposed to size-fractionated underground railway PM (1.1-11.1 µg/cm(2)) and release of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-8 was assayed. ROS generation was measured, and the mechanism of generation studied using desferrioxamine (DFX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was determined by RT-qPCR. Particle uptake was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Underground PM increased IL-8 release from PBECs, but this was diminished in mucus-secreting ALI cultures. Fine and ultrafine PM generated a greater level of ROS than coarse PM. ROS generation by ultrafine PM was ameliorated by DFX and NAC, suggesting an iron-dependent mechanism. Despite the presence of mucus, ALI cultures displayed increased HO-1 expression. Intracellular PM was observed within vesicles, mitochondria, and free in the cytosol. The results indicate that, although the mucous layer appears to confer some protection against underground PM, ALI PBECs nonetheless detect PM and mount an antioxidant response. The combination of increased ROS-generating ability of the metal-rich ultrafine fraction and ability of PM to penetrate the mucous layer merits further research.

  1. Development and characterization of metal-diboride-based composites toughened with ultra-fine SiC particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, Frédéric; Bellosi, Alida

    2005-05-01

    Two metal-diboride-based ceramics containing up to 15 vol%. ultra-fine α-SiC particulates were developed from commercially available powders. The primary matrix of the composites was ZrB 2 or a mixture of ZrB 2 and HfB 2. With the assistance of 4.5 vol%. ZrN as a sintering aid, both the compositions achieved nearly full density after hot-pressing at 1,900 °C. The microstructure was characterized by fine diboride grains ( ≈3 μm average size) and SiC particles dispersed uniformly. Limited amounts of secondary phases like MO 2 and M(C,N), M=Zr or Zr/Hf, were found. The thermo-mechanical data of both the materials offered a promising combination of properties: about 16 GPa of micro-hardness, 5 MPa√ m of fracture toughness and Young's moduli exceeding 470 GPa. The ZrB 2sbnd SiC composite showed values of strength in air of 635 ± 60 and 175 ± 15 MPa at 25 and 1,500 °C, respectively. Likewise, the (ZrB 2 + HfB 2) sbnd SiC composite exhibited values of strength in air of 590 ± 25 and 190 ± 20 MPa at 25 and 1,500 °C, respectively. The composites also displayed good tolerance of conditions of repeated short exposures, 10 minutes each, at 1,700 °C in stagnant air. In such oxidizing conditions, the resistance to oxidation was provided by the formation of a protective silica-based glass coating, the primary oxidation product of SiC. Such a coating encapsulated the specimen coherently, and provided protection to the faces exposed to the hot atmosphere.

  2. Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lingchuan; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; He, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Though significant associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular diseases have been widely reported, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, may be responsible for the effects. A time-series model was applied to examine the cardiovascular effects of particle size (for the period of 2009-2011) and chemical constituents (2007-2010) in Guangzhou, we controlled for potential confounders in the model, such as time trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant associations of cardiovascular mortality with PM10, PM2.5 and PM1; the excess risk (ER) was 6.10% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%), 6.11% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%) and 6.48% (95% CI: 2.10%, 11.06%) for per IQR increase in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at moving averages for the current day and the previous 3 days (lag03), respectively. We did not find significant effects of PM2.5-10 and PM1-2.5. For PM2.5 constituents, we found that organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding ER for an IQR concentration increase at lag03 was 1.13% (95% CI: 0.10%, 2.17%), 2.77% (95% CI: 0.72%, 4.86%), 2.21% (95% CI: 1.05%, 3.38%), 1.98% (95% CI: 0.54%, 3.44%), and 3.38% (95% CI: 1.56%, 5.23%), respectively. These results were robust to adjustment of other air pollutants and they remained consistent in various sensitivity analyses by changing model parameters. Our study suggests that PM1 and constituents from combustion and secondary aerosols might be important characteristics of PM pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou.

  3. Concentrations of particulates in ambient air, gaseous elementary mercury (GEM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) at a traffic sampling site: a study of dry deposition in daytime and nighttime.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lin, Yen-Heng; Chang, Chia-Ying; Zheng, Yu-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    In this investigation, the concentrations of particles in ambient air, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) in total suspended particulates (TSP) as well as dry deposition at a (Traffic) sampling site at Hung-kuang were studied during the day and night in 2012. The results reveal that the mean concentrations of TSP in ambient air, GEM, and Hg(p) were 69.72 μg/m(3), 3.17, and 0.024 ng/m(3), respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during daytime sampling periods. The results also reveal that the mean rates of dry deposition of particles from ambient air and Hg(p) were 145.20 μg/m(2) min and 0.022 ng/m(2) min, respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the daytime sampling period. The mean concentrations of TSP in ambient air, GEM, and Hg(p) were 60.56 μg/m(3), 2.74, and 0.018 ng/m(3), respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the nighttime sampling period. The mean rates of dry deposition of particles and Hg(p) from ambient air were 132.58 μg/m(2) min and 0.016 ng/m(2) min, respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the nighttime sampling period.

  4. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been associated with human health issues; however, findings regarding the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (<6 years old) and schoolchildren (6-14 years old). In preschool children, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air

  5. Nighttime aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles and its implication for fine particulate matter composition and oxidative potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffari, Arian; Hasheminassab, Sina; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Chatila, Talal A.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-05-01

    Recent investigations suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of hydrophilic organic compounds can be a significant source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we investigate the possibility of nighttime aqueous phase formation of SOA in Los Angeles during winter, through examination of trends in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) carbonaceous content during two contrasting seasons. Distinctive winter and summer trends were observed for the diurnal variation of organic carbon (OC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC), with elevated levels during the nighttime in winter, suggesting an enhanced formation of SOA during that period. The nighttime ratio of SOC to OC was positively associated with the relative humidity (RH) at high RH levels (above 70%), which is when the liquid water content of the ambient aerosol would be high and could facilitate dissolution of hydrophilic primary organic compounds into the aqueous phase. Time-integrated collection and analysis of wintertime particles at three time periods of the day (morning, 6:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m.; afternoon, 11:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m.; night, 8:00 p.m.-4:00 a.m.) revealed higher levels of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and organic acids during the night and afternoon periods compared to the morning period, indicating that the SOA formation in winter continues throughout the nighttime. Furthermore, diurnal trends in concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from primary emissions showed that partitioning of SVOCs from the gas to the particle phase due to the decreased nighttime temperatures cannot explain the substantial OC and SOC increase at night. The oxidative potential of the collected particles (quantified using a biological macrophage-based reactive oxygen species assay, in addition to the dithiothreitol assay) was comparable during afternoon and nighttime periods, but higher (by at least ∼30%) compared to the morning period, suggesting that SOA formation processes possibly

  6. Short‐term Changes in Ambient Particulate Matter and Risk of Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a leading cause of death and long‐term disability in the United States. There is a well‐documented association between ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM) and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Given the pathophysiologic mechanisms of these effects, short‐term elevations in PM may also increase the risk of ischemic and/or hemorrhagic stroke morbidity and mortality, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Methods and Results We provide a comprehensive review of all observational human studies (January 1966 to January 2014) on the association between short‐term changes in ambient PM levels and cerebrovascular events. We also performed meta‐analyses to evaluate the evidence for an association between each PM size fraction (PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5‐10) and each outcome (total cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack, hemorrhagic stroke) separately for mortality and hospital admission. We used a random‐effects model to estimate the summary percent change in relative risk of the outcome per 10‐μg/m3 increase in PM. Conclusions We found that PM2.5 and PM10 are associated with a 1.4% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.9%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.3% to 0.7%) higher total cerebrovascular disease mortality, respectively, with evidence of inconsistent, nonsignificant associations for hospital admission for total cerebrovascular disease or ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Current limited evidence does not suggest an association between PM2.5‐10 and cerebrovascular mortality or morbidity. We discuss the potential sources of variability in results across studies, highlight some observations, and identify gaps in literature and make recommendations for future studies. PMID:25103204

  7. Application of Remotely-sensed Aerosol Optical Depth in Characterization and Forecasting of Urban Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Shanique L.

    Emissions from local industries, particularly coal-fired power plants, have been shown to enhance the ambient pollutant budget in the Ohio River Valley (ORV) region. One pollutant that is of interest is PM2.5 due to its established link to respiratory illnesses, cardiopulmonary diseases and mortality. State and local agencies monitor the impact of the local point sources on the ambient concentrations at specific sites; however, the monitors do not provide satisfactory spatial coverage. An important metric for describing ambient particulate pollution is aerosol optical depth (AOD). It is a dimensionless geo-physical product measured remotely using satellites or ground-based light detection ranging instruments. This study focused on assessing the effectiveness of using satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) as an indicator for PM2.5 in the ORV and two cities in Ohio. Three models, multi-linear regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA) -- MLR and neural network, were trained using 40% of the total dataset. The outcome was later tested to minimize error and further validated with another 40% of the dataset not included in the model development phase. Furthermore, to limit the effect of seasonality, four models representing each season were created for each city using meteorological variables known to influence PM2.5 and AOD concentration. GIS spatial analysis tool was employed to visualize and make spatial and temporal comparisons for the ORV region. Comparable spatial distributions were observed. Regression analysis showed that the highest and lowest correlations were in the summer and winter, respectively. Seasonal decomposition methods were used to evaluate trends at local Ohio monitoring stations to identify areas most suitable for improved air quality management. Over the six years of study, Cuyahoga County maintained PM2.5 concentrations above the national standard and in Hamilton County (Cincinnati) PM2.5 levels ranked above the national level for more

  8. Water-soluble ions measured in fine particulate matter next to cement works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, N.; Yubero, E.; Nicolás, J. F.; Crespo, J.; Pastor, C.; Carratalá, A.; Santacatalina, M.

    2011-04-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected for one year in a suburban area close to an industrial complex formed by two cement factories and some quarries in southeastern Spain. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography to determine the concentrations of major inorganic ions: Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+. The average PM2.5 concentration (17.6 μg m -3) was within the interval reported for other Mediterranean suburban environments. Concentration peaks were registered during both winter and summer, concurrently with maxima levels of nitrate and sulfate, due to stagnation conditions and African dust episodes, respectively. Sulfate was found to be a main contributor to PM2.5 aerosol mass (4.2 μg m -3, 24%), followed by nitrate and ammonium (1.5 μg m -3, 9% each one). Correlation analyses demonstrated that fine sulfate was present as (NH 4) 2SO 4, CaSO 4 and Na 2SO 4 since ammonium concentrations were not high enough to neutralize both anions. The mean concentration of calcium (1.0 μg m -3), an element commonly found in the coarse fraction, was higher than those found in other locations of the Mediterranean basin. Additionally, the lowest levels were registered during summer, in contrast with previous findings. This was attributed to resuspension and transport of mineral dust from the neighboring quarries and cement plants during fall and winter, which was supported by the results of the CPF analysis. Atmospheric levels of potassium and chloride (0.28 and 0.51 μg m -3 annual average, respectively) also seemed to be affected by cement works, as suggested by correlation and CPF analyses. In the case of Cl -, a marked seasonality was observed, with mean winter concentrations considerably higher than summer ones, indicating a clear prevalence of anthropogenic sources over sea spray emissions.

  9. Global Estimates of Fine Particulate Matter Using a Combined Geophysical-Statistical Method with Information from Satellites, Models, and Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Hsu, N. Christina; Kahn, Ralph A.; Levy, Robert C.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sayer, Andrew M.; Winker, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated global fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5)) concentrations using information from satellite-, simulation- and monitor-based sources by applying a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to global geophysically-based satellite-derived PM(sub 2.5) estimates. Aerosol optical depth from multiple satellite products (MISR, MODIS Dark Target, MODIS and SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and MODIS MAIAC) was combined with simulation (GEOS-Chem) based upon their relative uncertainties as determined using ground-based sun photometer (AERONET) observations for 1998-2014. The GWR predictors included simulated aerosol composition and land use information. The resultant PM(sub 2.5) estimates were highly consistent (R(sup 2) equals 0.81) with out-of-sample cross-validated PM(sub 2.5) concentrations from monitors. The global population-weighted annual average PM(sub 2.5) concentrations were 3-fold higher than the 10 micrograms per cubic meter WHO guideline, driven by exposures in Asian and African regions. Estimates in regions with high contributions from mineral dust were associated with higher uncertainty, resulting from both sparse ground-based monitoring, and challenging conditions for retrieval and simulation. This approach demonstrates that the addition of even sparse ground-based measurements to more globally continuous PM(sub 2.5) data sources can yield valuable improvements to PM(sub 2.5) characterization on a global scale.

  10. Impact of natural gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shales on regional ozone and fine particulate matter levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohani, Yusuf H.; Roy, Anirban A.; Heo, Jinhyok; Robinson, Allen L.; Adams, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    The Marcellus and Utica shale formations have recently been the focus of intense natural gas development and production, increasing regional air pollutant emissions. Here we examine the effects of these emissions on regional ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels using the chemical transport model, CAMx, and estimate the public health costs with BenMAP. Simulations were performed for three emissions scenarios for the year 2020 that span a range potential development storylines. In areas with the most gas development, the 'Medium Emissions' scenario, which corresponds to an intermediate level of development and widespread adoption of new equipment with lower emissions, is predicted to increase 8-hourly ozone design values by up to 2.5 ppbv and average annual PM2.5 concentrations by as much as 0.27 μg/m3. These impacts could range from as much as a factor of two higher to a factor of three lower depending on the level of development and the adoption of emission controls. Smaller impacts (e.g. 0.1-0.5 ppbv of ozone, depending on the emissions scenario) are predicted for non-attainment areas located downwind of the Marcellus region such as New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Premature deaths for the 'Medium Emissions' scenario are predicted to increase by 200-460 annually. The health impacts as well as the changes in ozone and PM2.5 were all driven primarily by NOx emissions.

  11. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  12. Development of an empirical model to estimate real-world fine particulate matter emission factors: the traffic air quality model.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed S M; Jacko, Robert B; Palmer, George M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the impact of traffic conditions, such as free flow and congestion, on local air quality. The Borman Expressway (I-80/94) in Northwest Indiana is considered a test bed for this research because of the high volume of class 9 truck traffic traveling on it, as well as the existing and continuing installation of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) to improve traffic management along the highway stretch. An empirical traffic air quality (TAQ) model was developed to estimate the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emission factors (grams per kilometer) based solely on the measured traffic parameters, namely, average speed, average acceleration, and class 9 truck density. The TAQ model has shown better predictions that matched the measured emission factor values more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-PART5 model. During congestion (defined as flow-speeds < 50 km/hr [30 mi/hr]), the TAQ model, on average, overpredicted the measured values only by a factor of 1.2, in comparison to a fourfold underprediction using the EPA-PART5 model. On the other hand, during free flow (defined as flow-speeds > 80 km/hr [50 mi/hr]), the TAQ model was conservative in that it overpredicted the measured values by 1.5-fold.

  13. Adverse effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingmei; Lin, Zhiqing; Liao, Kai; Xi, Zhuge; Wang, Dayong

    2015-04-15

    The toxic effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5), collected from Datong, Shanxi province, China, on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in deficits in development, reproduction, locomotion behavior, and lifespan, and induction of intestinal autofluorescence or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Prolonged exposure to PM2.5 led to more severe toxicity on nematodes than acute exposure. In addition, exposure to PM2.5 induced altered expression patterns of genes required for the control of oxidative stress. Reduction in mean defecation cycle length and developmental deficits in AVL and DVB neurons, which are involved in the control of defecation behavior, were also triggered by PM2.5 exposure. Thus, oxidative stress and abnormal defecation behavior may contribute greatly to the toxicity of coal combustion related PM2.5 in nematodes. The results also imply that the long-term adverse effects of coal combustion related PM2.5 on environmental organisms should be carefully considered.

  14. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2017-03-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  15. Global Estimates of Fine Particulate Matter using a Combined Geophysical-Statistical Method with Information from Satellites, Models, and Monitors.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Brauer, Michael; Hsu, N Christina; Kahn, Ralph A; Levy, Robert C; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sayer, Andrew M; Winker, David M

    2016-04-05

    We estimated global fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations using information from satellite-, simulation- and monitor-based sources by applying a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to global geophysically based satellite-derived PM2.5 estimates. Aerosol optical depth from multiple satellite products (MISR, MODIS Dark Target, MODIS and SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and MODIS MAIAC) was combined with simulation (GEOS-Chem) based upon their relative uncertainties as determined using ground-based sun photometer (AERONET) observations for 1998-2014. The GWR predictors included simulated aerosol composition and land use information. The resultant PM2.5 estimates were highly consistent (R(2) = 0.81) with out-of-sample cross-validated PM2.5 concentrations from monitors. The global population-weighted annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 3-fold higher than the 10 μg/m(3) WHO guideline, driven by exposures in Asian and African regions. Estimates in regions with high contributions from mineral dust were associated with higher uncertainty, resulting from both sparse ground-based monitoring, and challenging conditions for retrieval and simulation. This approach demonstrates that the addition of even sparse ground-based measurements to more globally continuous PM2.5 data sources can yield valuable improvements to PM2.5 characterization on a global scale.

  16. The public health benefits of reducing fine particulate matter through conversion to cleaner heating fuels in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Haney, Jay; Douglas, Sharon; Ito, Kazuhiko; Caputo, Steven; Matte, Thomas

    2014-12-02

    In recent years, both New York State and City issued regulations to reduce emissions from burning heating oil. To assess the benefits of these programs in New York City, where the density of emissions and vulnerable populations vary greatly, we simulated the air quality benefits of scenarios reflecting no action, partial, and complete phase-out of high-sulfur heating fuels using the Community MultiScale Air Quality (CMAQ) model conducted at a high spatial resolution (1 km). We evaluated the premature mortality and morbidity benefits of the scenarios within 42 city neighborhoods and computed benefits by neighborhood poverty status. The complete phase-out scenario reduces annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by an estimated 0.71 μg/m(3) city-wide (average of 1 km estimates, 10-90th percentile: 0.1-1.6 μg/m(3)), avoiding an estimated 290 premature deaths, 180 hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and 550 emergency department visits for asthma each year. The largest improvements were seen in areas of highest building and population density and the majority of benefits have occurred through the partial phase out of high-sulfur heating fuel already achieved. While emissions reductions were greatest in low-poverty neighborhoods, health benefits are estimated to be greatest in high-poverty neighborhoods due to higher baseline morbidity and mortality rates.

  17. Rat lung response to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghe; Zhao, Jinzhuo; Jiang, Rongfang; Song, Weimin

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to different ambient pollutants maybe more toxic to lung than exposure to a single pollutant. In this study, we discussed the inflammation and oxidative stress responses of rat lung caused by ozone and PM2.5 versus that of rats exposed to saline, ozone, or single PM2.5 . Wistar rats inhaled 0.8 ppm ozone or air for 4 h and then placed in air for 3 h following intratracheal instillation with 0, 0.2 (low dose), 0.8 (medium dose), 3.2 (high dose) mg/rat PM2.5 dissolved in sterile saline (0.25 mL/rat), repeated twice per week for 3 weeks, the cumulative doses of PM2.5 in animals were 1.2, 4.8, and 19.2 mg. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last (sixth) exposure. The collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for inflammatory cells and cytokines. Lung tissues were processed for light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examinations. Results showed that total cell number in BALF of PM2.5 -exposed groups were higher than control (p < 0.05). PM2.5 instillation caused dose-trend increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase, and total protein of BALF. Exposure to ozone alone only caused TNF-α significant change in above-mentioned indicators of lung injury. On the other hand, ozone could enhance PM2.5-induced inflammatory changes and pathological characters in rat lungs. SOD and GSH-Px activities in lung were reduced in PM2.5-exposed rats with and without prior ozone exposure compared to control. To determine whether the PM2.5 and ozone affect endothelium system, iNOS, eNOS, and ICAM-1 mRNA levels in lung were analyzed by real-time PCR. These data demonstrated that inflammation and oxidative stress were involved in toxicology mechanisms of PM2.5 in rat lung and ozone potentiated these effects induced by PM2.5. These results have implications for understanding the pulmonary effects induced by ozone and PM2.5.

  18. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. F.; Latif, M. T.; Saw, W. H.; Amil, N.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Sahani, M.; Tahir, N. M.; Chung, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35 %), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11 %), sea salt (SS) (7 %), and trace elements (TE) (2 %). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 %) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %), coal burning (19 %), nitrate aerosol (17 %), and mineral/road dust (13 %). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass

  19. Fine ambient particles induce oxidative stress and metal binding genes in human alveolar machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient pollutant particles (APP) increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The alveolar macrophages (AMs) are one cell type in the lung directly exposed to APP. Upon contact with APP, AMs are activated and produce reactive oxygen species, but the scope ofthis ox...