Science.gov

Sample records for ambient ionospheric plasma

  1. Ionospheric plasma cloud dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the thermospheric neutral wind and ionospheric drift made at Eglin AFB, Florida and Kwajalein Atoll are discussed. The neutral wind measurements at Eglin had little variation over a period of four years for moderate magnetic activity (Kp 4); the ionospheric drifts are small. Evidence is presented that indicates that increased magnetic activity has a significant effect on the neutral wind magnitude and direction at this midlatitude station. The neutral wind at dusk near the equator is generally small although in one case out of seven it was significantly larger. It is described how observations of large barium releases can be used to infer the degree of electrodynamic coupling of ion clouds to the background ionosphere. Evidence is presented that indicates that large barium releases are coupled to the conjugate ionosphere at midlatitudes.

  2. A Multi-ring Ionospheric Plasma Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An ionospheric plasma probe was constructed which consists of a long cylinder with the end facing the flow closed by an end plate made up of multiple annular rings and a center disk. A theoretical argument is given which yields the plasma potential and electron temperature in terms of known plasma parameters and the currents to the various rings of the end plate. This probe was successfully operated in an ionospheric flow simulation facility and the resulting plasma potential is in excellent agreement with the traditional Langmuir analysis (1.22 volts).

  3. VLF remote sensing of the ambient and modified lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirkol, Mehmet Kursad

    2000-08-01

    Electron density and temperature changes in the D region are sensitively manifested as changes in the amplitude and phase of subionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals propagating beneath the perturbed region. Both localized and large scale disturbances (either in electron density or temperature) in the D region cause significant scattering of VLF waves propagating in the earth- ionosphere waveguide, leading to measurable changes in the amplitude and phase of the VLF waves. Large scale auroral disturbances, associated with intensification of the auroral electrojet, as well as ionospheric disturbances produced during relativistic electron enhancements, cause characteristic changes over relatively long time scales that allow the assessment of the `ambient' ionosphere. Localized ionospheric disturbances are also produced by powerful VLF transmitting facilities such as the High Power Auroral Stimulation (HIPAS) facility, the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), and also by lightning discharges. Amplitude and phase changes of VLF waveguide signals scattered from such artificially heated ionospheric patches are known to be detectable. In this study, we describe a new inversion algorithm to determine altitude profiles of electron density and collision frequency within such a localized disturbance by using the measured amplitude and phase of three different VLF signals at three separate receiving sites. For this purpose a new optimization algorithm is developed which is primarily based on the recursive usage of the three dimensional version of the Long Wave Propagation, Capability (LWPC) code used to model the subionospheric propagation and scattering of VLF signals in the earth- ionosphere waveguide in the presence of ionospheric disturbances.

  4. DEMETER Observations of Equatorial Plasma Depletions and Related Ionospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelier, J.; Malingre, M.; Pfaff, R.; Jasperse, J.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    population of super-thermal ionospheric ions with a density of about 2-3% of the thermal ion population. The super- thermal ions appeared to be heated to temperatures of a few eV at times when LH turbulence and monochromatic wave packets are observed while the temperature of the core ion population is not affected. High time resolution plasma density measurements show the presence of strong small scale plasma irregularities in the depletions that scatter the high amplitude whistler waves and may lead to the development of strong LH turbulence and of monochromatic wave packets. The ensuing interaction between these waves and the ambient ions may lead to the formation of a super-thermal tail in the ion distribution function. Ion acceleration by LH turbulence and solitary waves is a commonly observed phenomenon along auroral magnetic field lines but, to our knowledge, this is the first time that a similar process has been observed in the equatorial ionosphere. These findings exemplify a novel coupling mechanism between the troposphere and the ionosphere: Under highly disturbed conditions at times of magnetic storms, part of the energy released by lightning and radiated as whistlers can dissipate in the equatorial ionosphere and produce super-thermal ion populations.

  5. Collisionless Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space phenomena, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these rarified environments, collective electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms in a reproducible laboratory setting, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field induction probes. Large Doppler shifts detected in a He II ion spectral line directly indicate initial ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field, indicative of a fundamental process known as Larmor coupling. Characterization of the laser-produced debris plasma via a radiation-hydrodynamics code permits an explicit calculation of the laminar electric field in the framework of a ``hybrid'' model (kinetic ions, charge-neutralizing massless fluid electrons), thus allowing for a simulation of the initial response of a distribution of He II test ions. A synthetic Doppler-shifted spectrum constructed from the simulated velocity distribution of the accelerated test ions excellently reproduces the spectroscopic measurements, confirming the role of Larmor coupling in the debris-ambient interaction.

  6. The character of drift spreading of artificial plasma clouds in the middle-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaunstein, N.

    1996-02-01

    Nonlinear equations describing the evolution of plasma clouds with real initial sizes, along and across the geomagnetic field B, which drift in the ionosphere in the presence of an ambient electric field and a neutral wind have been solved and analysed. An ionospheric model close to the real conditions of the middle-latitude ionosphere is introduced, taking into account the altitude dependence of the transport coefficients and background ionospheric plasma. The striation of the initial plasma cloud into a cluster of plasmoids, stretched along the field B, is obtained. The process of dispersive splitting of the initial plasma cloud can be understood in terms of gradient drift instability (GDI) as a most probable striation mechanism. The dependence of the characteristic time of dispersive splitting on the value of the ambient electric field, the initial plasma disturbance in the cloud and its initial sizes was investigated. The stretching criterion, necessary for the plasma cloud's striation is obtained. The possibility of the drift stabilization effect arising from azimuthal drift velocity shear, obtained by Drake et al. [1988], is examined for various parameters of the barium cloud and the background ionospheric conditions. A comparison with experimental data on the evolution of barium clouds in rocket experiments at the height of the lower ionosphere is made.

  7. Small-scale plasma irregularities in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-12-01

    The individual volt-ampere curves from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter electron temperature probe showed evidence for small-scale density irregularities, or short-period plasma waves, in regions of the nightside ionosphere where the Orbiter electric field detector observed waves in its 100-Hz channel. A survey of the nightside volt-ampere curves has revealed several hundred examples of such irregularities. The I-V structures correspond to plasma density structure with spatial scale sizes in the range of about 100-2000 m, or alternatively they could be viewed as waves having frequencies extending toward 100 Hz. They are often seen as isolated events, with spatial extent along the orbit frequently less than 80 km. The density irregularities or waves occur in or near prominent gradients in the ambient plasma concentrations both at low altitudes where molecular ions are dominant and at higher altitudes in regions of reduced plasma density where O(+) is the major ion. Electric field 100-Hz bursts occur simultaneously, with the majority of the structured I-V curves providing demonstrative evidence that at least some of the E field signals are produced within the ionosphere.

  8. Nonlinear dynamic processes in modified ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, A.; Terina, G.

    Presented work is a contribution to the experimental and theoretical study of nonlinear effects arising on ionospheric plasma under the action of powerful radio emission (G.I. Terina, J. Atm. Terr. Phys., 1995, v.57, p.273; A.V. Kochetov et. al., Advances in Space Research, 2002, in press). The experimental results were obtained by the method of sounding of artificially disturbed ionosphere by short radio pulses. The amplitude and phase characteristics of scattered signal as of "caviton" type (CS) (analogy of narrow-band component of stimulation electromagnetic emission (SEE)) as the main signal (MS) of probing transmitter are considered. The theoretical model is based on numerical solution of driven nonlinear Shrödinger equation (NSE) in inhomogeneous plasma. The simulation allows us to study a self-consistent spatial-temporal dynamics of field and plasma. The observed evolution of phase characteristics of MS and CS qualitatively correspond to the results of numerical simulation and demonstrate the penetration processes of powerful electromagnetic wave in supercritical (in linear approach) plasma regions. The modeling results explain also the periodic generation of CS, the travel CS maximum down to density gradient, the aftereffect of CS. The obtained results show the excitation of strong turbulence and allow us to interpret CS, NC and so far inexplicable phenomena as "spikes" too. The work was supported in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants Nos. 99-02-16642, 99-02- 16399).

  9. Cassini measurements of cold plasma in the ionosphere of Titan.

    PubMed

    Wahlund, J E; Boström, R; Gustafsson, G; Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Pedersen, A; Averkamp, T F; Hospodarsky, G B; Persoon, A M; Canu, P; Neubauer, F M; Dougherty, M K; Eriksson, A I; Morooka, M W; Gill, R; André, M; Eliasson, L; Müller-Wodarg, I

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Langmuir probe (LP) sensor observed the cold plasma environment around Titan during the first two flybys. The data show that conditions in Saturn's magnetosphere affect the structure and dynamics deep in the ionosphere of Titan. The maximum measured ionospheric electron number density reached 3800 per cubic centimeter near closest approach, and a complex chemistry was indicated. The electron temperature profiles are consistent with electron heat conduction from the hotter Titan wake. The ionospheric escape flux was estimated to be 10(25) ions per second.

  10. Back-diffusion plasma generator for ionosphere study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. K.; Oyama, K.-I.; Chen, A. B.

    2017-11-01

    To produce ionospheric plasma environments at ground level is essential to get information not only for the development of CubeSat-class spacecraft but also for the design of ionospheric plasma instruments and to confirm their performance. In this paper, we describe the principle of plasma generation and characteristics of the back-diffusion plasma source, which can produce in-lab plasma similar to the Earth’s ionosphere, E and F regions, conditions of electron and ion temperature and density. The ion and electron energy distributions of the plasma generated by a back-diffusion source are measured by means of a cleaned Langmuir probe and gridded particle energy analyzers. The ion motion in front of the source is investigated by a hard-sphere collision model in SIMION software and the simulation results are comparable with the findings of our experiment. Furthermore, plasma densities and ion temperatures at different positions in front of the source are also demonstrated. The back-diffusion source has been accommodated for ionospheric plasma productions in several Asian institutes. The plasma characteristics of the source shown in this paper will benefit space research groups in the development of space plasma instruments.

  11. Artificial plasma jet in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.

    The dynamics of an artificially injected plasma beam in the near-earth space are analyzed in terms of the beam structure, its propagation across the magnetic field, and the resulting wave phenomena (Porcupine Project, flight 4, March 31, 1979). Out of the four ejectable canisters attached to the main payload, two were instrumented by the U.S., one by the USSR (the Xenon plasma beam experiment), and one by West Germany (carrying a barium ion jet experiment). The propagation of the plasma seems to occur in three stages, with high-frequency broad-band oscillations mainly localized in the 'core' of the jet, while low-frequency oscillations were spatially separated from it. The generation region of LF oscillations was found to be much wider than the jet core. As a result of the interaction between the plasma beam and the ambient medium a heating of electrons, up to energies of about 20 eV, associated with LF noise was observed. The behavior of high-energy ions and the observed HF wave phenomena need further analysis.

  12. Experimental studies of ionospheric irregularities and related plasma processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Kay D.

    1992-01-01

    Utah State University (USU) continued its program of measuring and interpreting electron density and its variations in a variety of ionospheric conditions with the Experimental Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities and Related Plasma Processes program. The program represented a nearly ten year effort to provide key measurements of electron density and its fluctuations using sounding rockets. The program also involved the joint interpretation of the results in terms of ionospheric processes. A complete campaign summary and a brief description of the major rocket campaigns are also included.

  13. Kinetic modeling of the Saturn ring-ionosphere plasma environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A time-independent kinetic plasma model was developed on the basis of the Li et al. (1988) semikinetic plasma model and was used to study the interaction of the Saturnian ionosphere and ring plasma. The model includes the gravitational magnetic mirror and centripetal and ambipolar electric forces, and the effect of the mixing of two plasma populations. The results obtained indicate that the density, temperature, and composition of plasma near the rings changing in the direction from the inner C ring to the outer A ring, due to the fact that the predominant source of plasma changes from the ionosphere to the rings. The model results also suggest that the outflow of hydrogen from the ionosphere to the rings may be shut off for field lines passing through the outer B and A ring, due to the ambipolar electric field set up by the warm ring plasma trapped near the ring plane by the centipetal force. In these regions, there will be a net flux of O(+) ions from the rings to the ionosphere.

  14. The INAF/IAPS Plasma Chamber for ionospheric simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The plasma chamber is particularly suitable to perform studies for the following applications: - plasma compatibility and functional tests on payloads envisioned to operate in the ionosphere (e.g. sensors onboard satellites, exposed to the external plasma environment); - calibration/testing of plasma diagnostic sensors; - characterization and compatibility tests on components for space applications (e.g. optical elements, harness, satellite paints, photo-voltaic cells, etc.); - experiments on satellite charging in a space plasma environment; - tests on active experiments which use ion, electron or plasma sources (ion thrusters, hollow cathodes, field effect emitters, plasma contactors, etc.); - possible studies relevant to fundamental space plasma physics. The facility consists of a large volume vacuum tank (a cylinder of length 4.5 m and diameter 1.7 m) equipped with a Kaufman type plasma source, operating with Argon gas, capable to generate a plasma beam with parameters (i.e. density and electron temperature) close to the values encountered in the ionosphere at F layer altitudes. The plasma beam (A+ ions and electrons) is accelerated into the chamber at a velocity that reproduces the relative motion between an orbiting satellite and the ionosphere (≈ 8 km/s). This feature, in particular, allows laboratory simulations of the actual compression and depletion phenomena which take place in the ram and wake regions around satellites moving through the ionosphere. The reproduced plasma environment is monitored using Langmuir Probes (LP) and Retarding Potential Analyzers (RPA). These sensors can be automatically moved within the experimental space using a sled mechanism. Such a feature allows the acquisition of the plasma parameters all around the space payload installed into the chamber for testing. The facility is currently in use to test the payloads of CSES satellite (Chinese Seismic Electromagnetic Satellite) devoted to plasma parameters and electric field

  15. The effects of upstream plasma properties on Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Cassini observations have found that the plasma and magnetic field conditions upstream of Titan are far more complex than they were thought to be after the Voyager encounter. Rymer et al., (2009) used the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) electron observations to classify the plasma conditions along Titan's orbit into 5 types (Plasma Sheet, Lobe, Mixed, Magnetosheath and Misc.). Nemeth et al., (2011) found that the CAPS ion observations could also be separated into the same plasma regions as defined by Rymer et al. Additionally the T-96 encounter found Titan in the solar wind adding a sixth classification. Understanding the effects of the variable upstream plasma conditions on Titan's plasma interaction and the evolution of Titan's ionosphere/atmosphere is one of the main objectives of the Cassini mission. To compliment the mission we perform hybrid simulations of Titan's plasma interaction to examine how the properties of the incident plasma (composition, density, temperature etc…) affect Titan's ionosphere. We examine how much ionospheric plasma is lost from Titan as well as the amount of mass and energy deposited into Titan's atmosphere.

  16. Propagation of an ultrawideband electromagnetic signal in ionospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A. V., E-mail: av-soldatov@vniief.ru; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-10-15

    The propagation of an ultrawideband electromagnetic signal in the ionosphere—a plasma medium with spatially nonuniform characteristics—is studied analytically in the high-frequency approximation. The effect of the plasma dielectric properties and angular divergence on the shape and frequency spectrum of the propagating signal is investigated. It is shown that the spectral energy density of the signal is preserved if collisions of ionospheric plasma electrons are neglected.

  17. Martian Atmospheric and Ionospheric plasma Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Rickard

    2016-04-01

    Solar forcing is responsible for the heating, ionization, photochemistry, and erosion processes in the upper atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the terrestrial planets. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the only one with a fully developed biosphere, while our kin Venus and Mars have evolved into arid inhabitable planets. As for Mars, there are ample evidences for an early Noachian, water rich period on Mars. The question is, what made Mars evolve so differently compared to the Earth? Various hydrosphere and atmospheric evolution scenarios for Mars have been forwarded based on surface morphology, chemical composition, simulations, semi-empiric (in-situ data) models, and the long-term evolution of the Sun. Progress has been made, but the case is still open regarding the changes that led to the present arid surface and tenuous atmosphere at Mars. This presentation addresses the long-term variability of the Sun, the solar forcing impact on the Martian atmosphere, and its interaction with the space environment - an electromagnetic wave and particle interaction with the upper atmosphere that has implications for its photochemistry, composition, and energization that governs thermal and non-thermal escape. Non-thermal escape implies an electromagnetic upward energization of planetary ions and molecules to velocities above escape velocity, a process governed by a combination of solar EUV radiation (ionization), and energy and momentum transfer by the solar wind. The ion escape issue dates back to the early Soviet and US-missions to Mars, but the first more accurate estimates of escape rates came with the Phobos-2 mission in 1989. Better-quality ion composition measurement results of atmospheric/ionospheric ion escape from Mars, obtained from ESA Mars Express (MEX) instruments, have improved our understanding of the ion escape mechanism. With the NASA MAVEN spacecraft orbiting Mars since Sept. 2014, dual in-situ measurement with plasma instruments are now

  18. Plasma effects of active ion beam injections in the ionosphere at rocket altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kintner, P. M.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Data from ARCS rocket ion beam injection experiments are primarily discussed. There are three results from this series of active experiments that are of particular interest in space plasma physics. These are the transverse acceleration of ambient ions in the large beam volume, the scattering of beam ions near the release payload, and the possible acceleration of electrons very close to the plasma generator which produce intense high frequency waves. The ability of 100 ma ion beam injections into the upper E and F regions of the ionosphere to produce these phenomena appear to be related solely to the process by which the plasma release payload and the ion beam are neutralized. Since the electrons in the plasma release do not convect with the plasma ions, the neutralization of both the payload and beam must be accomplished by large field-aligned currents (milliamperes/square meter) which are very unstable to wave growth of various modes.

  19. Diffuse spreading of inhomogeneities in the ionospheric dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shalimov, S. L., E-mail: pmsk7@mail.ru; Kozlovsky, A.

    2015-08-15

    According to results of sounding of the lower ionosphere at altitudes of about 100 km, the duration of radio reflections from sufficiently dense ionized meteor trails, which characterizes their lifetime, can reach a few tens of seconds to several tens of minutes. This is much longer than the characteristic spreading time (on the order of fractions of a second to several seconds) typical in meteor radar measurements. The presence of dust in the lower ionosphere is shown to affect the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, which determines the spreading of plasma inhomogeneities. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends substantially onmore » the charge and size of dust grains, which allows one to explain the results of ionospheric sounding.« less

  20. Plasma motion in the Venus ionosphere: Transition to supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, R.C.; Barnes, A.; McCormick, P.T.

    1991-07-01

    A remarkable feature of the ionosphere of Venus is the presence of nightward supersonic flows at high altitude near the terminator. In general the steady flow of an ideal gas admits a subsonic-supersonic transition only in the presence of special conditions, such as a convergence of the flow followed by divergence, or external forces. In this paper, the authors show that the relatively high pressure dayside plasma wells up slowly, and at high altitude it is accelerated horizontally through a relatively constricted region near the terminator toward the low-density nightside. In effect, the plasma flows through a nozzle that ismore » first converging, then diverging, permitting the transition to supersonic flow. Analysis of results from previously published models of the plasma flow in the upper ionosphere of Venus shows how such a nozzle is formed. The model plasma does indeed accelerate to supersonic speeds, reaching sonic speed just behind the terminator. The computed speeds prove to be close to those observed by the Pioneer Venus orbiter, and the ion transport rates are sufficient to produce and maintain the nightside ionosphere.« less

  1. New SuperDARN Radar Capabilities for Observing Ionospheric Plasma Convection and ITM Coupling in the Mid-Latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Clausen, L. B.; Shepherd, S. G.; Bristow, W. A.; Talaat, E. R.; Barnes, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Within the past year the first pair of SuperDARN radars funded under the NSF MSI program has become operational at a site near Hays, Kansas. The fields of view of the co-located radars are oriented to provide common-volume observations with two existing radars in Virginia (Wallops, Blackstone) and two MSI radars under construction in Oregon (Christmas Valley). The emerging mid-latitude radar chain will complement the existing SuperDARN coverage at polar cap and auroral latitudes within North America. The mid-latitude radars observe the expansion of auroral effects during disturbed periods, subauroral polarization streams, and small-scale ionospheric irregularities on the nightside that open a window on the plasma drifts and electric fields of the quiet-time subauroral ionosphere. They also measure neutral winds at mesospheric heights and the propagation of ionospheric disturbances due to the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The new radar capabilities provide unprecedented views of ITM processes in the subauroral ionosphere with applications to studies of ionospheric electric fields, ion-neutral coupling, atmospheric tides and planetary waves, ionospheric plasma structuring and plasma instability. In this talk we describe the new capabilities and the potential for providing large-scale context for related ITM measurements over North America. We present the first high-resolution two-dimensional maps of ionospheric plasma convection at mid-latitudes as generated from common-volume observations with the Hays and Blackstone radars.

  2. Radio Pumping of Ionospheric Plasma with Orbital Angular Momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Leyser, T. B.; Norin, L.; McCarrick, M.

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results are presented of pumping ionospheric plasma with a radio wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Optical emissions from the pumped plasma turbulence exhibit the characteristic ring-shaped morphology when the pump beam carries OAM. Features of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) that are attributed to cascading Langmuir turbulence are well developed for a regular beam but are significantly weaker for a ring-shaped OAM beam in which case upper hybrid turbulence dominates the SEE.

  3. Radio pumping of ionospheric plasma with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Leyser, T B; Norin, L; McCarrick, M; Pedersen, T R; Gustavsson, B

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results are presented of pumping ionospheric plasma with a radio wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Optical emissions from the pumped plasma turbulence exhibit the characteristic ring-shaped morphology when the pump beam carries OAM. Features of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) that are attributed to cascading Langmuir turbulence are well developed for a regular beam but are significantly weaker for a ring-shaped OAM beam in which case upper hybrid turbulence dominates the SEE.

  4. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  5. Final Progress Report for Ionospheric Dusty Plasma In the Laboratory [Smokey Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Scott

    2010-07-31

    Ionospheric Dusty Plasma in the Laboratory” is a research project with the purpose of finding and reproducing the characteristics of plasma in the polar mesosphere that is unusually cold (down to 140 K) and contains nanometer-sized dust particles. This final progress report summarizes results from four years of effort that include a final year with a no-cost extension.

  6. Atmospheric and Space Sciences: Ionospheres and Plasma Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal

    2018-01-01

    The SpringerBriefs on Atmospheric and Space Sciences in two volumes presents a concise and interdisciplinary introduction to the basic theory, observation & modeling of atmospheric and ionospheric coupling processes on Earth. The goal is to contribute toward bridging the gap between meteorology, aeronomy, and planetary science. In addition recent progress in several related research topics, such atmospheric wave coupling and variability, is discussed. Volume 1 will focus on the atmosphere, while Volume 2 will present the ionospheres and the plasma environments. Volume 2 is aimed primarily at (research) students and young researchers that would like to gain quick insight into the basics of space sciences and current research. In combination with the first volume, it also is a useful tool for professors who would like to develop a course in atmospheric and space physics.

  7. Space Shuttle Exhaust Modifications of the Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Plasma As Diagnosed By Ground Based Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.; Bhatt, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines have been used since the early days of the STS program for active ionospheric modification experiments designed to be viewed by ground based ionospheric radar systems. In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory initiated the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) Program using dedicated Space Shuttle OMS burns scheduled through the US Department of Defense's Space Test Program. SIMPLEX objectives include generation of localized ion-acoustic turbulence and the formation of ionospheric density irregularities for injections perpendicular to the local magnetic field, creating structures which can scatter incident UHF radar signals. We discuss radar observations made during several recent SIMPLEX mid-latitude experiments conducted over the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar system in Westford, Massachusetts. OMS engine firings release 10 kg/s of CO2, H2, H2O, and N2 molecules which charge exchange with ambient O+ ions in the F region, producing molecular ions and long lived electron density depletions as recombination occurs with ambient electrons. Depending on the magnetic field angle, the high velocity of the injected reactive exhaust molecules relative to the background ionosphere can create longitudinal propagating ion acoustic waves with amplitudes well above normal thermal levels and stimulate a wide variety of plasma instability processes. These effects produce high radar cross section targets readily visible to the Millstone Hill system, a high power large aperture radar designed to measure very weak scatter from the quiescent background ionosphere. We will survey the plasma instability parameter space explored to date and discuss plans for future SIMPLEX observations.

  8. A small spacecraft for multipoint measurement of ionospheric plasma.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T M; Lynch, K A; Clayton, R E; Weiss, J; Hampton, D L

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of ionospheric plasma is often performed by a single in situ device or remotely using cameras and radar. This article describes a small, low-resource, deployed spacecraft used as part of a local, multipoint measurement network. A B-field aligned sounding rocket ejects four of these spin-stabilized spacecraft in a cross pattern. In this application, each spacecraft carries two retarding potential analyzers which are used to determine plasma density, flow, and ion temperature. An inertial measurement unit and a light-emitting diode array are used to determine the position and orientation of the devices after deployment. The design of this spacecraft is first described, and then results from a recent test flight are discussed. This flight demonstrated the successful operation of the deployment mechanism and telemetry systems, provided some preliminary plasma measurements in a simple mid-latitude environment, and revealed several design issues.

  9. A small spacecraft for multipoint measurement of ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, T. M.; Lynch, K. A.; Clayton, R. E.; Weiss, J.; Hampton, D. L.

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of ionospheric plasma is often performed by a single in situ device or remotely using cameras and radar. This article describes a small, low-resource, deployed spacecraft used as part of a local, multipoint measurement network. A B-field aligned sounding rocket ejects four of these spin-stabilized spacecraft in a cross pattern. In this application, each spacecraft carries two retarding potential analyzers which are used to determine plasma density, flow, and ion temperature. An inertial measurement unit and a light-emitting diode array are used to determine the position and orientation of the devices after deployment. The design of this spacecraft is first described, and then results from a recent test flight are discussed. This flight demonstrated the successful operation of the deployment mechanism and telemetry systems, provided some preliminary plasma measurements in a simple mid-latitude environment, and revealed several design issues.

  10. Radar studies of midlatitude ionospheric plasma drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherliess, L.; Fejer, B. G.; Holt, J.; Goncharenko, L.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Buonsanto, M. J.

    2001-02-01

    We use incoherent scatter radar measurements from Millstone Hill and Saint Santin to study the midlatitude F region electrodynamic plasma drifts during geomagnetically quiet and active periods. We present initially a local time, season, and solar flux dependent analytical model of the quiet time zonal and meridional E×B drifts over these stations. We discuss, for the first time, the Saint Santin drift patterns during solar maximum. We have used these quiet time models to extract the geomagnetic perturbation drifts which were modeled as a function of the time history of the auroral electrojet indices. Our results illustrate the evolution of the disturbance drifts driven by the combined effects of prompt penetration and longer lasting perturbation electric fields. The meridional electrodynamic disturbance drifts have largest amplitudes in the midnight-noon sector. The zonal drifts are predominantly westward, with largest amplitudes in the dusk-midnight sector and, following a decrease in the high-latitude convection, they decay more slowly than the meridional drifts. The prompt penetration and steady state zonal disturbance drifts derived from radar measurements are in good agreement with results obtained from both the ion drift meter data on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite and from the Rice Convection Model.

  11. Charcateristics of Plasma Waves Excited During Gas Release and Plasma Injection Into The Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, Z.; Gdalevich, G. L.; Mikhailov, I.

    Waves in broad frequency range are generated during the injection of fast plasma as well as release of neutral gas into ionosphere from the spacecraft. The excited wave modes depend on the environmental plasma parameters, geometry of injection as well as on the rate of ionisation of plasma in the stream. The neutral xenon gas was released from the board of the ACTIVE satellite (in 1989) and parallel with the release process the VLF as well as HF waves were diagnosed. On the other hand the xenon plasma from gun generator was injected into the ionosphere from the board of APEX satellite (in 1991) and also broad frequency range of emission was registered. In the present paper are compared the plasma waves characteristics observed in these two types of experiments.

  12. Electromagnetically Driven Plasma-Field Dynamics in Modified Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, Andrey; Terina, Galina

    Under sounding of an artificial ionospheric turbulence by short probing radio pulses of ordinary polarization the two types of scattered signals were observed: a "caviton" signal (CS) and a "plasma" signal (PS), which appeared with the heating transmitter switching on and disap-peared after its switching off (G.I. Terina J. Atm. Terr. Phys, 57, 1995, 273, Izv. VUZov, Radiofizika, 39, 1998, 203). The scattered signal of PS type was revealed also after the heating switching off. It was called an "aftereffect plasma signal" (AEPS) (G.I. Terina Izv .VUZov, Radiofizika, 43, 2000, 958). This signal had large time and spatial delays and appeared mostly when corresponding PS had envelope fluctuations. The aftereffect phenomenon was expressed at time on CS by amplitude increasing at once after the heating transmitter turning off. The theoretical model of this phenomenon is proposed in and some peculiarities of the aftereffect phenomena of the scattered signals in modified ionospheric plasma are considered and discussed. For theoretical interpretation of the characteristics of CS and AEPS the numerical solution of nonlinear Shrüdinger equation (NSE) with driven extension were carried out in inhomogeneous plasma layer with linear electron density profile (A.V. Kochetov, V.A. Mironov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 29, 2002, 1369) and for the one with prescribed density depletion (and A.V. Kochetov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 38, 2006, 2490). The simulation results obtained for linear inhomogeneous plasma layer and for plasma one with density depletion al-low us to interpret the aftereffect of CS and PS qualitatively. The field amplitude increase at relaxation stage displayed at calculations allows us to interpret of CS aftereffect. The large time delays of AEPS can be explained as a result of powerful radio waves trapping in the forming at the plasma resonance regions density depletions (E. Mjøhus, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1998, 14711; B. Eliasson and L. Stenflo, J

  13. Diagnostics of plasma in the ionospheric D-region: detection and study of different ionospheric disturbance types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nina, Aleksandra; Čadež, Vladimir M.; Popović, Luka Č.; Srećković, Vladimir A.

    2017-07-01

    Here we discuss our recent investigations of the ionospheric plasma by using very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) radio waves. We give a review of how to detect different low ionospheric reactions (sudden ionospheric disturbances) to various terrestrial and extra-terrestrial events, show their classification according to intensity and time duration, and present some methods for their detections in time and frequency domains. Investigations of detection in time domain are carried out for intensive long-lasting perturbations induced by solar X-ray flares and for short-lasting perturbations caused by gamma ray bursts. We also analyze time variations of signals used in the low ionospheric monitoring after earthquake events. In addition, we describe a procedure for the detection of acoustic and gravity waves from the VLF/LF signal analysis in frequency domain. The research of the low ionospheric plasma is based on data collected by the VLF/LF receivers located in Belgrade, Serbia. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  14. Laboratory plasma with cold electron temperature of the lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Shannon; Robertson, Scott

    2009-10-01

    For the first time, plasma with cold electron temperatures less than 300K has been created continuously in the laboratory. The plasma is created in a cylindrical double-walled vacuum chamber in which the inner chamber (18cm in diameter and 30cm long) is wrapped in copper tubing through which vapor from liquid nitrogen flows, providing a cooling mechanism for the neutral gas. The inner chamber has two negatively-biased filaments for plasma generation and a platinum wire Langmuir probe for diagnostic measurements. Neutral gas pressures of 1.6mTorr and a total filament emission current of 2mA are used to obtain plasma densities near 4 x 10^8 cm-3. When carbon monoxide is used as the working gas, decreasing the neutral gas temperature also decreases the cold electron temperatures, yielding cold electrons with 21meV (240K) when the neutral CO is at 150K. The same experiment conducted with H2, He, or Ar results in a doubling of the cold electron temperatures, yielding 80meV (930K) when the neutral gas is at 150K. The lower electron temperature with CO is attributed to the asymmetric CO molecule having a nonzero electric dipole moment which increases the cross section for electron energy exchange. Nitric oxide, a dominant constituent of the ionosphere, has a similar dipole moment and collision cross section as carbon monoxide and is likely to be equally effective at cooling electrons.

  15. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  16. Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Schuck, P. W.; Hunton, D. E.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    distribution produced after the supersonic exhaust molecules charge exchanged with ambient oxygen ions. Based on the success of the first SEITE mission, a second dedicated burn of the OMS engine was scheduled to intercept the C/NOFS satellite, this time at an initial range of 430 km. The trajectory of this exhaust cloud was not centered on the satellite so the turbulent edge was sampled by the C/NOFS instruments. The electromagnetic pulse and the in situ plasma turbulence was recorded during the second SEITE experiment. A comparison of the data from the two OMS burns shows that a wide range of plasma waves are consistently produced with rocket engines are fired in the ionosphere.

  17. Direct evidence of double-slope power spectra in the high-latitude ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, A.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2014-03-01

    We report direct observations of the double-slope power spectra for plasma irregularities in the F layer of the polar ionosphere. The investigation of cusp irregularities ICI-2 sounding rocket, which was launched into the polar cusp ionosphere, intersected enhanced plasma density regions with decameter-scale irregularities. Density measurements at unprecedented high resolution with multi-Needle Langmuir Probes allowed for a detailed study of the plasma irregularities down to kinetic scales. Spectral analysis reveals double-slope power spectra for regions of enhanced fluctuations associated mainly with density gradients, with the steepening of the spectra occurring close to the oxygen gyrofrequency. These findings are further supported with the first results from the ICI-3 rocket, which flew through regions with strong precipitation and velocity shears. Previously, double-slope spectra have been observed in the equatorial ionosphere. The present work gives a direct evidence that the double-slope power spectra can be common in the high-latitude ionosphere.

  18. Studies of Ionospheric Plasma Structuring at Low Latitudes from Space and Ground, Their Modeling and Relationship to Scintillations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Studies of Ionospheric Plasma Structuring at Low...program combines observations and modeling of the nighttime ionosphere to come to a better physical understanding of the factors that contribute to...the day-to-day variability of the development of ionospheric irregularities. The scope encompasses irregularities developing at equatorial and mid

  19. Venus' nighttime horizontal plasma flow, 'magnetic congestion', and ionospheric hole production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Mayr, H. G.; Curtis, S. A.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A simple rectilinear, two-dimensional MHD model is used to investigate the effects of field-aligned plasma loss and cooling on a dense plasma convecting across a weak magnetic field, in order to illumine the Venus nighttime phenomena of horizontal plasma flow, magnetic congestion and ionospheric hole production. By parameterizing field-aligned variations and explicitly solving for cross magnetic field variations, it is shown that the abrupt horizontal enhancements of the vertical magnetic field, as well as sudden decreases of the plasma density to very low values (which are characteristic of ionospheric holes), can be produced in the presence of field-aligned losses.

  20. Polar Plasma at Ganymede: Ionospheric outflow and discovery of the plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G.; Paterson, W.; Dorelli, J.; Glocer, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wilson, R. J.; Bard, C.

    2017-12-01

    On the 27th of June 1996, the NASA Galileo spacecraft made humanities first flyby of Jupiter's largest moon, Ganymede, discovering that it is unique to science in being the only moon known to possess an internally generated magnetic dynamo field. Although Galileo carried a plasma spectrometer, the Plasma Subsystem (PLS), converting its highly complex raw data stream into meaningful plasma moments (density, temperature, velocity) is extremely challenging, and was only ever performed for the second (out of six) Ganymede flybys. Resurrecting the original Galileo PLS data analysis software, we processed the raw PLS data from G01, and for the first time present the properties of plasmas encountered. Dense, cold ions were observed outflowing from the moon's north pole (presumed to be dominated by H+ from the icy surface), with more diffuse, warmer field-aligned outflows in the lobes. Dropouts in plasma density combined with velocity perturbations either side of this suggest that Galileo briefly crossed the cusps onto closed magnetic field lines. PLS observations show that upon entry into the magnetosphere, Galileo crossed through the plasma sheet, observing plasma flows consistent with reconnection-driven convection, highly energized 105 eV ions, and a reversal in the magnetic field. The densities of plasmas flowing upwards from Ganymede's ionosphere were higher on open "lobe" field lines than on closed field lines, suggesting that the ionospheric source of these plasmas may be denser at the poles, there may be additional acceleration mechanisms at play, or the balance of ions were outside the energy range of PLS.

  1. Electron density inversed by plasma lines induced by suprathermal electron in the ionospheric modification experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhou, Chen

    2018-05-01

    Incoherent scatter radar (ISR) is the most powerful ground-based measurement facility to study the ionosphere. The plasma lines are not routinely detected by the incoherent scatter radar due to the low intensity, which falls below the measured spectral noise level of the incoherent scatter radar. The plasma lines are occasionally enhanced by suprathermal electrons through the Landau damping process and detectable to the incoherent scatter radar. In this study, by using the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT) UHF incoherent scatter radar, the experiment observation presents that the enhanced plasma lines were observed. These plasma lines were considered as manifest of the suprathermal electrons generated by the high-frequency heating wave during the ionospheric modification. The electron density profile is also obtained from the enhanced plasma lines. This study can be a promising technique for obtaining the accurate electron density during ionospheric modification experiment.

  2. Grid-Sphere Electrodes for Contact with Ionospheric Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.; Poe, Garrett D.

    2010-01-01

    Grid-sphere electrodes have been proposed for use on the positively biased end of electrodynamic space tethers. A grid-sphere electrode is fabricated by embedding a wire mesh in a thin film from which a spherical balloon is formed. The grid-sphere electrode would be deployed from compact stowage by inflating the balloon in space. The thin-film material used to inflate the balloon is formulated to vaporize when exposed to the space environment. This would leave the bare metallic spherical grid electrode attached to the tether, which would present a small cross-sectional area (essentially, the geometric wire shadow area only) to incident neutral atoms and molecules. Most of the neutral particles, which produce dynamic drag when they impact a surface, would pass unimpeded through the open grid spaces. However, partly as a result of buildup of a space charge inside the grid-sphere, and partially, the result of magnetic field effects, the electrode would act almost like a solid surface with respect to the flux of electrons. The net result would be that grid-sphere electrodes would introduce minimal aerodynamic drag, yet have effective electrical-contact surface areas large enough to collect multiampere currents from the ionospheric plasma that are needed for operation of electrodynamic tethers. The vaporizable-balloon concept could also be applied to the deployment of large radio antennas in outer space.

  3. Plasma heating, electric fields and plasma flow by electron beam ionospheric injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1990-01-01

    The electric fields and the floating potentials of a Plasma Diagnostics Payload (PDP) located near a powerful electron beam injected from a large sounding rocket into the auroral zone ionosphere have been studied. As the PDP drifted away from the beam laterally, it surveyed a region of hot plasma extending nearly to 60 m radius. Large polarization electric fields transverse to B were imbedded in this hot plasma, which displayed large ELF wave variations and also an average pattern which has led to a model of the plasma flow about the negative line potential of the beam resembling a hydrodynamic vortex in a uniform flow field. Most of the present results are derived from the ECHO 6 sounding rocket mission.

  4. The response of plasma density to breaking inertial gravity wave in the lower regions of ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenbo, E-mail: Wenbo.Tang@asu.edu; Mahalov, Alex, E-mail: Alex.Mahalov@asu.edu

    2014-04-15

    We present a three-dimensional numerical study for the E and lower F region ionosphere coupled with the neutral atmosphere dynamics. This model is developed based on a previous ionospheric model that examines the transport patterns of plasma density given a prescribed neutral atmospheric flow. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in the model allows us to examine the charge-neutral interactions over the full evolution cycle of an inertial gravity wave when the background flow spins up from rest, saturates and eventually breaks. Using Lagrangian analyses, we show the mixing patterns of the ionospheric responses and the formation of ionospheric layers. The correspondingmore » plasma density in this flow develops complex wave structures and small-scale patches during the gravity wave breaking event.« less

  5. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyser, Thomas B.; James, H. Gordon; Gustavsson, Björn; Rietveld, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency) electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association) Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer) spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O) conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  6. Observations of ionospheric electron beams in the plasma sheet.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H; Fu, S Y; Zong, Q G; Pu, Z Y; Wang, Y F; Parks, G K

    2012-11-16

    Electrons streaming along the magnetic field direction are frequently observed in the plasma sheet of Earth's geomagnetic tail. The impact of these field-aligned electrons on the dynamics of the geomagnetic tail is however not well understood. Here we report the first detection of field-aligned electrons with fluxes increasing at ~1 keV forming a "cool" beam just prior to the dissipation of energy in the current sheet. These field-aligned beams at ~15 R(E) in the plasma sheet are nearly identical to those commonly observed at auroral altitudes, suggesting the beams are auroral electrons accelerated upward by electric fields parallel (E([parallel])) to the geomagnetic field. The density of the beams relative to the ambient electron density is δn(b)/n(e)~5-13% and the current carried by the beams is ~10(-8)-10(-7) A m(-2). These beams in high β plasmas with large density and temperature gradients appear to satisfy the Bohm criteria to initiate current driven instabilities.

  7. Excitation of the lower oblique resonance by an artificial plasma jet in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, J.; Storey, L. R. O.; Bauer, O. H.; Jones, D.

    1984-04-01

    Aboard the Porcupine rockets, bursts of noise were detected in the electron whistler range during the operation of a xenon plasma gun on a package ejected from the main payload. These observations can be interpreted in terms of excitation of the lower oblique resonance by instabilities associated with the motion of the xenon ion beam through the ionospheric plasma.

  8. Behavior of thermal plasma in the ionosphere and magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.; Doupnik, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Models of ion flow in the topside ionosphere were developed. These models took both H(+) and O(+) into account and permitted various parameter studies to be made affecting H(+) escape in polar winds. Extensive computer programs were written to display the measured electron density profiles in ways useful to geophysical analysis. The relationship between the location of the plasmapause as it is found in the equatorial plane and the location of the ionospheric trough was also investigated.

  9. A simulation study of radial expansion of an electron beam injected into an ionospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, J.; Lin, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Injections of nonrelativistic electron beams from a finite equipotential conductor into an ionospheric plasma have been simulated using a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code. The purpose of the study is to survey the simulation parameters for understanding the dependence of beam radius on physical variables. The conductor is charged to a high potential when the background plasma density is less than the beam density. Beam electrons attracted by the charged conductor are decelerated to zero velocity near the stagnation point, which is at a few Debye lengths from the conductor. The simulations suggest that the beam electrons at the stagnation point receive a large transverse kick and the beam expands radially thereafter. The buildup of beam electrons at the stagnation point produces a large electrostatic force responsible for the transverse kick. However, for the weak charging cases where the background plasma density is larger than the beam density, the radial expansion mechanism is different; the beam plasma instability is found to be responsible for the radial expansion. The simulations show that the electron beam radius for high spacecraft charging cases is of the order of the beam gyroradius, defined as the beam velocity divided by the gyrofrequency. In the weak charging cases, the beam radius is only a fraction of the beam gyroradius. The parameter survey indicates that the beam radius increases with beam density and decreases with magnetic field and beam velocity. The beam radius normalized by the beam gyroradius is found to scale according to the ratio of the beam electron Debye length to the ambient electron Debye length. The parameter dependence deduced would be useful for interpreting the beam radius and beam density of electron beam injection experiments conducted from rockets and the space shuttle.

  10. Low and Midlatitude Ionospheric Plasma Density Irregularities and Their Effects on Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Stolle, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Earth's magnetic field results from various internal and external sources. The electric currents in the ionosphere are major external sources of the magnetic field in the daytime. High-resolution magnetometers onboard low-Earth-orbit satellites such as CHAMP and Swarm can detect small-scale currents in the nighttime ionosphere, where plasma density gradients often become unstable and form irregular density structures. The magnetic field variations caused by the ionospheric irregularities are comparable to that of the lithospheric contribution. Two phenomena in the nighttime ionosphere that contribute to the magnetic field variation are presented: equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID). EPB is formed by the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability over the dip equator and grows nonlinearly to as high as 2000 km apex altitude. It is characterized by deep plasma density depletions along magnetic flux tubes, where the diamagnetic effect produced by a pressure-gradient-driven current enhances the main field intensity. MSTID is a few hundred kilometer-scale disturbance in the midlatitude ionosphere generated by the coupled electrodynamics between the ionospheric E and F regions. The field-aligned currents associated with EPBs and MSTIDs also have significant signatures in the magnetic field perpendicular to the main field direction. The empirical discovery of the variations in the magnetic field due to plasma irregularities has motivated the inclusion of electrodynamics in the physical modeling of these irregularities. Through an effective comparison between the model results and observations, the physical process involved has been largely understood. The prediction of magnetic signatures due to plasma irregularities has been advanced by modeling studies, and will be helpful in interpreting magnetic field observations from satellites.

  11. Nonlinear interaction of an intense radio wave with ionospheric D/E layer plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Agarwal, Sujeet Kumar

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic wave with the D/E layer plasma in the ionosphere. A simultaneous solution of the electromagnetic wave equation and the equations describing the kinetics of D/E layer plasma is obtained; the phenomenon of ohmic heating of electrons by the electric field of the wave causes enhanced collision frequency and ionization of neutral species. Electron temperature dependent recombination of electrons with ions, electron attachment to O 2 molecules, and detachment of electrons from O2 - ions has also been taken into account. The dependence of the plasma parameters on the square of the electric vector of the wave E0 2 has been evaluated for three ionospheric heights (viz., 90, 100, and 110 km) corresponding to the mid-latitude mid-day ionosphere and discussed; these results are used to investigate the horizontal propagation of an intense radio wave at these heights.

  12. Understanding Transient Forcing with Plasma Instability Model, Ionospheric Propagation Model and GNSS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, K.; Zettergren, M. D.; Datta-Barua, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fluctuations in the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals observed as amplitude and phase scintillations are produced by plasma density structures in the ionosphere. Phase scintillation events in particular occur due to structures at Fresnel scales, typically about 250 meters at ionospheric heights and GNSS frequency. Likely processes contributing to small-scale density structuring in auroral and polar regions include ionospheric gradient-drift instability (GDI) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), which result, generally, from magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions (e.g. reconnection) associated with cusp and auroral zone regions. Scintillation signals, ostensibly from either GDI or KHI, are frequently observed in the high latitude ionosphere and are potentially useful diagnostics of how energy from the transient forcing in the cusp or polar cap region cascades, via instabilities, to small scales. However, extracting quantitative details of instabilities leading to scintillation using GNSS data drastically benefits from both a model of the irregularities and a model of GNSS signal propagation through irregular media. This work uses a physics-based model of the generation of plasma density irregularities (GEMINI - Geospace Environment Model of Ion-Neutral Interactions) coupled to an ionospheric radio wave propagation model (SIGMA - Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere) to explore the cascade of density structures from medium to small (sub-kilometer) scales. Specifically, GEMINI-SIGMA is used to simulate expected scintillation from different instabilities during various stages of evolution to determine features of the scintillation that may be useful to studying ionospheric density structures. Furthermore we relate the instabilities producing GNSS scintillations to the transient space and time-dependent magnetospheric phenomena and further predict characteristics of scintillation in different geophysical

  13. Dynamic properties of ionospheric plasma turbulence driven by high-power high-frequency radiowaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Mishin, E. V.; Shindin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    A review is given of the current state-of-the-art of experimental studies and the theoretical understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in the ionospheric F-layer irradiated by high-power high-frequency ground-based transmitters. The main focus is on the dynamic features of high-frequency turbulence (plasma waves) and low-frequency turbulence (density irregularities of various scales) that have been studied in experiments at the Sura and HAARP heating facilities operated in temporal and frequency regimes specially designed with consideration of the characteristic properties of nonlinear processes in the perturbed ionosphere using modern radio receivers and optical instruments. Experimental results are compared with theoretical turbulence models for a magnetized collisional plasma in a high-frequency electromagnetic field, allowing the identification of the processes responsible for the observed features of artificial ionospheric turbulence.

  14. Magnetosheath jets: MMS observations of internal structures and jet interactions with ambient plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaschke, F.; Karlsson, T.; Hietala, H.; Archer, M. O.; Voros, Z.; Nakamura, R.; Magnes, W.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The dayside magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock is commonly permeated by high-speed jets. Under low IMF cone angle conditions, large scale jets alone (with cross-sectional diameters of over 2 Earth radii) have been found to impact the subsolar magnetopause once every 6 minutes - smaller scale jets occurring much more frequently. The consequences of jet impacts on the magnetopause can be significant: they may trigger local reconnection and waves, alter radiation belt electron drift paths, disturb the geomagnetic field, and potentially generate diffuse throat aurora at the dayside ionosphere. Although some basic statistical properties of jets are well-established, their internal structure and interactions with the surrounding magnetosheath plasma are rather unknown. We present Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations which reveal a rich jet-internal structure of high-amplitude plasma moment and magnetic field variations and associated currents. These variations/structures are generally found to be in thermal and magnetic pressure balance; they mostly (but not always) convect with the plasma flow. Small velocity differences between plasma and structures are revealed via four-spacecraft timing analysis. Inside a jet core region, where the plasma velocity maximizes, structures are found to propagate forward (i.e., with the jet), whereas backward propagation is found outside that core region. Although super-magnetosonic flows are detected by MMS in the spacecraft frame of reference, no fast shock is seen as the jet plasma is sub-magnetosonic with respect to the ambient magnetosheath plasma. Instead, the fast jet plasma pushes ambient magnetosheath plasma ahead of the jet out of the way, possibly generating anomalous sunward flows in the vicinity, and modifies the magnetic field aligning it with the direction of jet propagation.

  15. Formation of artificial plasma disturbances in the lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmet'eva, N. V.; Frolov, V. L.; Vyakhirev, V. D.; Kalinina, E. E.; Bolotin, I. A.; Akchurin, A. D.; Zykov, E. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of experiments on sounding the disturbed ionospheric region produced by the high-power RF radiation of the "Sura" heating facility, which were performed simultaneously at two observation points. One point is located on the territory of the heating facility the other, and the other, at the observatory of Kazan State University (the "Observatory" point) in 170 km to the East from the facility. The experiments were aimed at studying the mechanism of formation of artificial disturbances in the lower ionosphere in the case of reflection of a high-power wave in the F region and determining the parameters of the signals of backscattering from artificial electron density irregularities which are formed as a result of ionospheric perturbations. The ionosphere was modified by a high-power RF O-mode wave, which was emitted by the transmitters of the "Sura" facility, in sessions several seconds or minutes long. The disturbed region was sounded using the vertical-sounding technique at the "Vasil'sursk" laboratory by the partial-reflection facility at a frequency of 2.95 MHz, and by the modified ionospheric station "Tsiklon" at ten frequencies ranged from 2 to 6.5 MHz at the "Observatory" point. At the same time, vertical-sounding ionograms were recorded in the usual regime. At the reception points, simultaneous changes in the amplitudes of the vertical-sounding signals and the aspect backscattering signals were recorded. These records correlate with the periods of operation of the heating facility. The characteristics and dynamics of the signals are discussed.

  16. Spatial structure of plasma density perturbations, induced in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF radio waves: Review of experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    In the review, the results of experimental studies of spatial structure of small-, middle-, and large scale plasma density perturbations induced in the ionosphere by its pumping by powerful HF O-mode (ordinary) radio waves, are analyzed. It is shown that the region with induced plasma density perturbations occupied all ionosphere body from its E-region up to the topside ionosphere in the height and it has the horizontal length of about of 300-500 km. Peculiarities of generation of artificial ionosphere irregularities of different scale-lengths in the magnetic zenith region are stated. Experimental results obtained under conditions of ionosphere periodical pumping when the generation of travel ionosphere disturbances is revealed are also discussed.

  17. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  18. Numerical simulation of the plasma thermal disturbances during ionospheric modification experiments at the SURA heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Alexey; Huba, J. D.

    indent=1cm We present the results of numerical simulation of the near-Earth plasma disturbances produced by resonant heating of the ionospheric F-region by high-power HF radio emission from the SURA facility. The computational model is based on the modified version of the SAMI2 code (release 1.00). The model input parameters are appropriated to the conditions of the SURA-DEMETER experiment. In this work, we study the spatial structure and temporal characteristics of stimulated large-scale disturbances of the electron number density and temperature. It is shown that the stimulated disturbances are observed throughout the ionosphere. Disturbances are recorded both in the region below the pump wave reflection level and in the outer ionosphere (up to 3000 km). At the DEMETER altitude, an increase in the ion number density is stipulated by the oxygen ions O (+) , whereas the number density of lighter H (+) ions decreases. A typical time of the formation of large-scale plasma density disturbances in the outer ionosphere is 2-3 min. After the heater is turned off, the disturbances relaxation time is approximately 30 min. The simulation results are important for planning future promising experiments on the formation of ionospheric artificial density ducts. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 12-02-00747-a), and the Government of the Russian Federation (contract No. 14.B25.31.0008).

  19. Detection of the plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere with GPS measurements onboard Swarm satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2016-07-01

    We present new results on the detection of the topside ionospheric irregularities/plasma bubbles using GPS measurements from Precise Orbit Determination (POD) GPS antenna onboard Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. For this purpose we analyze the GPS measurements onboard the ESA's constellation mission Swarm, consisted of three identical satellites with orbit altitude of 450-550 km. We demonstrate that LEO GPS can be an effective tool for monitoring the occurrence of the topside ionospheric irregularities and may essentially contribute to the multi-instrumental analysis of the ground-based and in situ data. In the present study we analyze the occurrence and global distribution of the equatorial ionospheric irregularities during post-sunset period. To support our observations and conclusions, we involve into our analysis in situ plasma density provided by Swarm constellation. Joint analysis of the Swarm GPS and in situ measurements allows us to estimate the occurrence rate of the topside ionospheric irregularities during 2014-2015. The obtained results demonstrate a high degree of similarities in the occurrence pattern of the seasonal and longitudinal distribution of the topside ionospheric irregularities derived on both types of the satellite observations. This work was partially funded by RFBR according to the research project No.16-05-01077 a.

  20. Studies of Ionospheric Plasma Structuring at Low Latitudes from Space and Ground, their Modeling and Relationship to Scintillations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    2006JA011646, 2006. [published, refereed] Lee, J. K., F. Kamalabadi, and J. J. Makela, Three-dimensional tomography of ionospheric variability using a...Studies of Ionospheric Plasma Structuring at Low Latitudes from Space and Ground, their Modeling and...illinois.edu Award Number: N00173-05-1-G904 LONG-TERM GOALS This program combines observations and modeling of the nighttime ionosphere to come to a

  1. Analysis of Plasma Bubble Signatures in the Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    the equinoctial months resulted in greater slant TEC differences and, hence, greater communication problems. The results of this study not only...resulting in miscalculated enemy positions and misidentified space objects and orbit tracks. Errors in orbital positions could result in disastrous...uses a time-dependent physics-based model of the global ionosphere-plasmasphere and a Kalman filter as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real

  2. Ionospheric Plasma Drift Analysis Technique Based On Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ari, Gizem; Toker, Cenk

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric drift measurements provide important information about the variability in the ionosphere, which can be used to quantify ionospheric disturbances caused by natural phenomena such as solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. One of the prominent ways for drift measurement depends on instrumentation based measurements, e.g. using an ionosonde. The drift estimation of an ionosonde depends on measuring the Doppler shift on the received signal, where the main cause of Doppler shift is the change in the length of the propagation path of the signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Unfortunately, ionosondes are expensive devices and their installation and maintenance require special care. Furthermore, the ionosonde network over the world or even Europe is not dense enough to obtain a global or continental drift map. In order to overcome the difficulties related to an ionosonde, we propose a technique to perform ionospheric drift estimation based on ray tracing. First, a two dimensional TEC map is constructed by using the IONOLAB-MAP tool which spatially interpolates the VTEC estimates obtained from the EUREF CORS network. Next, a three dimensional electron density profile is generated by inputting the TEC estimates to the IRI-2015 model. Eventually, a close-to-real situation electron density profile is obtained in which ray tracing can be performed. These profiles can be constructed periodically with a period of as low as 30 seconds. By processing two consequent snapshots together and calculating the propagation paths, we estimate the drift measurements over any coordinate of concern. We test our technique by comparing the results to the drift measurements taken at the DPS ionosonde at Pruhonice, Czech Republic. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR14/001 projects.

  3. Comparison of ionospheric plasma drifts obtained by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, Daniel; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Toker, Cenk; Mosna, Zbysek; Gok, Gokhan; Rejfek, Lubos; Ari, Gizem

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric observatory in Pruhonice (Czech Republic, 50N, 14.9E) provides regular ionospheric sounding using Digisonde DPS-4D. The paper is focused on F-region vertical drift data. Vertical component of the drift velocity vector can be estimated by several methods. Digisonde DPS-4D allows sounding in drift mode with direct output represented by drift velocity vector. The Digisonde located in Pruhonice provides direct drift measurement routinely once per 15 minutes. However, also other different techniques can be found in the literature, for example the indirect estimation based on the temporal evolution of measured ionospheric characteristics is often used for calculation of the vertical drift component. The vertical velocity is thus estimated according to the change of characteristics scaled from the classical quarter-hour ionograms. In present paper direct drift measurement is compared with technique based on measuring of the virtual height at fixed frequency from the F-layer trace on ionogram, technique based on variation of h`F and hmF. This comparison shows possibility of using different methods for calculating vertical drift velocity and their relationship to the direct measurement used by Digisonde. This study is supported by the Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  4. The ionospheric contribution to the plasma environment in near-earth space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, R. D.; Lennartsson, W.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    SCATHA and ISEE 1 satellite ion mass spectrometer data on ion composition near GEO are reviewed. The data were gathered during and close to magnetic storm activity to assess the characteristics of ion composition variations in order to predict the effects of hot GEO plasma on spacecraft instruments. Attention is given to both substorms and storms, the former being associated, at high latitudes, with auroral activity, the latter with ring currents. The ionosphere was found to supply hot H(+), O(+) and He(+) ions to the GEO magnetosphere, while the solar wind carried H(+) and He(+) ions. The ionosphere was the dominant source in both quiet and storm conditions in the inner magnetosphere.

  5. Stormtime coupling of the ring current, plasmasphere, and topside ionosphere: Electromagnetic and plasma disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Burke, W. J.

    2005-07-01

    We compare plasma and field disturbances observed in the ring current/plasmasphere overlap region and in the conjugate ionosphere during the magnetic storm of 5 June 1991. Data come from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) flying in a geostationary transfer orbit and three satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series in Sun-synchronous polar orbits. In the region between ring current nose structures and the electron plasma sheet, CRRES detected wave-like features in local electric and magnetic fields, embedded in structured cold plasmas. Mapped to the ionosphere, these fields should reflect structuring within subauroral plasma streams (SAPS). Indeed, during the period of interest, DMSP F8, F9, and F10 satellites observed highly structured SAPS in the evening ionosphere at topside altitudes. They were collocated with precipitating ring current ions, enhanced fluxes of suprathermal electrons and ions, elevated electron temperatures, and irregular plasma density troughs. Overall, these events are similar to electromagnetic structures observed by DMSP satellites within SAPS during recent geomagnetic storms (Mishin et al., 2003, 2004). Their features can be explained in terms of Alfvén and fast magnetosonic perturbations. We developed a scenario for the formation of elevated electron temperatures at the equatorward side of the SAPS. It includes a lower-hybrid drift instability driven by diamagnetic currents, consistent with strong lower- and upper-hybrid plasma wave activity and intense fluxes of the low-energy electrons and ions near the ring current's inner edge.

  6. Observed and modelled effects of auroral precipitation on the thermal ionospheric plasma: comparing the MICA and Cascades2 sounding rocket events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Gayetsky, L.; Fernandes, P. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Lessard, M.; Cohen, I. J.; Hampton, D. L.; Ahrns, J.; Hysell, D. L.; Powell, S.; Miceli, R. J.; Moen, J. I.; Bekkeng, T.

    2012-12-01

    Auroral precipitation can modify the ionospheric thermal plasma through a variety of processes. We examine and compare the events seen by two recent auroral sounding rockets carrying in situ thermal plasma instrumentation. The Cascades2 sounding rocket (March 2009, Poker Flat Research Range) traversed a pre-midnight poleward boundary intensification (PBI) event distinguished by a stationary Alfvenic curtain of field-aligned precipitation. The MICA sounding rocket (February 2012, Poker Flat Research Range) traveled through irregular precipitation following the passage of a strong westward-travelling surge. Previous modelling of the ionospheric effects of auroral precipitation used a one-dimensional model, TRANSCAR, which had a simplified treatment of electric fields and did not have the benefit of in situ thermal plasma data. This new study uses a new two-dimensional model which self-consistently calculates electric fields to explore both spatial and temporal effects, and compares to thermal plasma observations. A rigorous understanding of the ambient thermal plasma parameters and their effects on the local spacecraft sheath and charging, is required for quantitative interpretation of in situ thermal plasma observations. To complement this TRANSCAR analysis we therefore require a reliable means of interpreting in situ thermal plasma observation. This interpretation depends upon a rigorous plasma sheath model since the ambient ion energy is on the order of the spacecraft's sheath energy. A self-consistent PIC model is used to model the spacecraft sheath, and a test-particle approach then predicts the detector response for a given plasma environment. The model parameters are then modified until agreement is found with the in situ data. We find that for some situations, the thermal plasma parameters are strongly driven by the precipitation at the observation time. For other situations, the previous history of the precipitation at that position can have a stronger

  7. Handling cycle slips in GPS data during ionospheric plasma bubble events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banville, S.; Langley, R. B.; Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2010-12-01

    During disturbed ionospheric conditions such as the occurrence of plasma bubbles, the phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic waves transmitted by GPS satellites undergo rapid fluctuations called scintillation. When this phenomenon is observed, GPS receivers are more prone to signal tracking interruptions, which prevent continuous measurement of the total electron content (TEC) between a satellite and the receiver. In order to improve TEC monitoring, a study was conducted with the goal of reducing the effects of signal tracking interruptions by correcting for "cycle slips," an integer number of carrier wavelengths not measured by the receiver during a loss of signal lock. In this paper, we review existing cycle-slip correction methods, showing that the characteristics associated with ionospheric plasma bubbles (rapid ionospheric delay fluctuations, data gaps, increased noise, etc.) prevent reliable correction of cycle slips. Then, a reformulation of the "geometry-free" model conventionally used for ionospheric studies with GPS is presented. Geometric information is used to obtain single-frequency estimates of TEC variations during momentary L2 signal interruptions, which also provides instantaneous cycle-slip correction capabilities. The performance of this approach is assessed using data collected on Okinawa Island in Japan during a plasma bubble event that occurred on 23 March 2004. While an improvement in the continuity of TEC time series is obtained, we question the reliability of any cycle-slip correction technique when discontinuities on both GPS legacy frequencies occur simultaneously for more than a few seconds.

  8. Equatorial Ionospheric Disturbance Field-Aligned Plasma Drifts Observed by C/NOFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Balan, N.; Le, Huijun; Chen, Yiding; Zhao, Biqiang

    2018-05-01

    Using C/NOFS satellite observations, this paper studies the disturbance field-aligned plasma drifts in the equatorial topside ionosphere during eight geomagnetic storms in 2011-2015. During all six storms occurred in the solstices, the disturbance field-aligned plasma drift is from winter to summer hemisphere especially in the morning-midnight local time sector and the disturbance is stronger in June solstice. The two storms occurred at equinoxes have very little effect on the field-aligned plasma drift. Using the plasma temperature data from DMSP satellites and Global Positioning System-total electron content, it is suggested that the plasma density gradient seems likely to cause the disturbance winter-to-summer plasma drift while the role of plasma temperature gradient is opposite to the observed plasma drift.

  9. Titan's Topside Ionospheric Composition: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Mass Spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward; Hartle, Richard; Ali, Ashraf; Cooper, John; Lipatov, Alexander; Simpson, David; Sarantos, Menelaos; Chornay, Dennis; Smith, Todd

    2017-01-01

    We present ion composition measurements of Titan's topside ionosphere using both T9 and T15 Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) measurements. The IMS is able to make measurements of Titan's ionosphere due to ionospheric outflows as originally reported for the T9 flyby. This allows one to take advantage of the unique capabilities of the CAPS IMS which measures both the mass-per-charge (M/Q) of the ions and the fragments of the ions produced inside the sensor such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen fragments. Specific attention will be given to such ions as NH4 +, N +, O +, CH4 +, CxHy +, and HCNH + ions as examples. The CAPS IMS uses a time-of-flight (TOF) technique which accelerates ions up to 14.6 kV, so they can pass through ultra-thin carbon foils. Neutral fragments are used to measure the ion M/Q and positive fragments to measure the atomic components. We preliminarily find, by using IMS measurements of T9 and T15 ionospheric outflows, evidence for methane group ions, nitrogen ions, ammonium ions, water group ions and CnHm + ions with n = 2, 3, and 4 within Titan's topside ionosphere. E.C. Sittler acknowledges support at Goddard Space Flight Center by the CAPS Cassini Project from JPL funds under contract # NAS703001TONMO711123/1405851.

  10. Plasma irregularities in the D-region ionosphere in association with sprite streamer initiation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianqi; Pasko, Victor P; McHarg, Matthew G; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C

    2014-05-07

    Sprites are spectacular optical emissions in the mesosphere induced by transient lightning electric fields above thunderstorms. Although the streamer nature of sprites has been generally accepted, how these filamentary plasmas are initiated remains a subject of active research. Here we present observational and modelling results showing solid evidence of pre-existing plasma irregularities in association with streamer initiation in the D-region ionosphere. The video observations show that before streamer initiation, kilometre-scale spatial structures descend rapidly with the overall diffuse emissions of the sprite halo, but slow down and stop to form the stationary glow in the vicinity of the streamer onset, from where streamers suddenly emerge. The modelling results reproduce the sub-millisecond halo dynamics and demonstrate that the descending halo structures are optical manifestations of the pre-existing plasma irregularities, which might have been produced by thunderstorm or meteor effects on the D-region ionosphere.

  11. Linking Plasma Conditions in the Magnetosphere with Ionospheric Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Kozyra, Janet; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Berrios, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the full magnetosphere, ring current and ionosphere system has become an indispensable tool in analyzing the series of events that occur during geomagnetic storms. The CCMC has a full model suite available for the magnetosphere, together with visualization tools that allow a user to perform a large variety of analyses. The January, 21, 2005 storm was a moderate-size storm that has been found to feature a large penetration electric field and unusually large polar caps (low-latitude precipitation patterns) that are otherwise found in super storms. Based on simulations runs at CCMC we can outline the likely causes of this behavior. Using visualization tools available to the online user we compare results from different magnetosphere models and present connections found between features in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere that are connected magnetically. The range of magnetic mappings found with different models can be compared with statistical models (Tsyganenko) and the model's fidelity can be verified with observations from low earth orbiting satellites such as DMSP and TIMED.

  12. Intermediate scale plasma density irregularities in the polar ionosphere inferred from radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, E. B.; Komjathy, A.; Langley, R. B.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Butala, M.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    In this research, we report intermediate scale plasma density irregularities in the high-latitude ionosphere inferred from high-resolution radio occultation (RO) measurements in the CASSIOPE (CAScade Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer) - GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites radio link. The high inclination of the CASSIOPE satellite and high rate of signal receptionby the occultation antenna of the GPS Attitude, Positioning and Profiling (GAP) instrument on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe platform on CASSIOPE enable a high temporal and spatial resolution investigation of the dynamics of the polar ionosphere, magnetosphere-ionospherecoupling, solar wind effects, etc. with unprecedented details compared to that possible in the past. We have carried out high spatial resolution analysis in altitude and geomagnetic latitude of scintillation-producing plasma density irregularities in the polar ionosphere. Intermediate scale, scintillation-producing plasma density irregularities, which corresponds to 2 to 40 km spatial scales were inferred by applying multi-scale spectral analysis on the RO phase delay measurements. Using our multi-scale spectral analysis approach and Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) observations, we infer that the irregularity scales and phase scintillations have distinct features in the auroral oval and polar cap regions. In specific terms, we found that large length scales and and more intense phase scintillations are prevalent in the auroral oval compared to the polar cap region. Hence, the irregularity scales and phase scintillation characteristics are a function of the solar wind and the magnetospheric forcing. Multi-scale analysis may become a powerful diagnostic tool for characterizing how the ionosphere is dynamically driven by these factors.

  13. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  14. Modeling ionospheric pre-reversal enhancement and plasma bubble growth rate using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P. K.; Lin, C. C. H.; Chen, C. H.; Matsuo, T.

    2017-12-01

    We report that assimilating total electron content (TEC) into a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model by using the ensemble Kalman filter results in improved specification and forecast of eastward pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) electric field (E-field). Through data assimilation, the ionospheric plasma density, thermospheric winds, temperature and compositions are adjusted simultaneously. The improvement of dusk-side PRE E-field over the prior state is achieved primarily by intensification of eastward neutral wind. The improved E-field promotes a stronger plasma fountain and deepens the equatorial trough. As a result, the horizontal gradients of Pedersen conductivity and eastward wind are increased due to greater zonal electron density gradient and smaller ion drag at dusk, respectively. Such modifications provide preferable conditions and obtain a strengthened PRE magnitude closer to the observation. The adjustment of PRE E-field is enabled through self-consistent thermosphere and ionosphere coupling processes captured in the model. The assimilative outputs are further utilized to calculate the flux tube integrated Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate during March 2015 for investigation of global plasma bubble occurrence. Significant improvements in the calculated growth rates could be achieved because of the improved update of zonal electric field in the data assimilation forecast. The results suggest that realistic estimate or prediction of plasma bubble occurrence could be feasible by taking advantage of the data assimilation approach adopted in this work.

  15. Tsunami in the Ionosphere ? a pinch of gravity with a good plasma sauce !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Ms Lucie; Kherani, Alam; Lognonné, Philippe; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

    A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami has been reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005) and after the recent earthquakes in Sumatra and Chile in 2007. All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. Most of these ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006) via the ocean/neutral atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In addition, the numerical modeling supplies useful helps in the estimation of expected anomalies in the global scale to explore the effect of geomagnetic field in the neutral/plasma coupling (Occhipinti et al., 2008). Here we present an overview of the physical coupling mechanism highlighting the strong ampli- fication mechanism of atmospheric IGW; it allows to detect these anomalies when the tsunami is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. This property adds to the increasing coverage of ionospheric sounding measurements, suggests the implication of ionospheric sounding in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., in press.

  16. Laboratory study of collisionless coupling between explosive debris plasma and magnetized ambient plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, A. S.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Lee, B. R.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Winske, D.; Niemann, C.

    2017-08-01

    The explosive expansion of a localized plasma cloud into a relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a variety of astrophysical and space phenomena. In these rarified environments, collisionless electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the expanding "debris" plasma to the surrounding ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms, compliment in situ measurements of space phenomena, and provide validation of previous computational and theoretical work, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device and the Raptor laser facility at the University of California, Los Angeles to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and a magnetic flux probe. Doppler shifts detected in a He1+ ion spectral line indicate that the ambient ions initially accelerate transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field. A qualitative analysis in the framework of a "hybrid" plasma model (kinetic ions and inertia-less fluid electrons) demonstrates that the ambient ion trajectories are consistent with the large-scale laminar electric field expected to develop due to the expanding debris. In particular, the transverse ambient ion motion provides direct evidence of Larmor coupling, a collisionless momentum exchange mechanism that has received extensive theoretical and numerical investigation. In order to quantitatively evaluate the observed Doppler shifts, a custom simulation utilizing a detailed model of the laser-produced debris plasma evolution calculates the laminar electric field and computes the initial response of a distribution of ambient test ions. A synthetic Doppler

  17. Small-scale plasma, magnetic, and neutral density fluctuations in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hoegy, W.R.; Brace, L.H.; Kasprazak, W.T.

    1990-04-01

    Pioneer Venus orbiter measurements have shown that coherent small-scale waves exist in the electron density, the electron temperature, and the magnetic field in the lower ionosphere of Venus just downstream of the solar terminator (Brace et al., 1983). The waves become less regular and less coherent at larger solar zenith angles, and Brace et al. suggested that these structures may have evolved from the terminator waves as they are convected into the nightside ionosphere, driven by the day-to-night plasma pressure gradient. In this paper the authors describe the changes in wave characteristics with solar zenith angle and show that themore » neutral gas also has related wave characteristics, probably because of atmospheric gravity waves. The plasma pressure exceeds the magnetic pressure in the nightside ionosphere at these altitudes, and thus the magnetic field is carried along and controlled by the turbulent motion of the plasma, but the wavelike nature of the thermosphere may also be coupled to the plasma and magnetic structure. They show that there is a significant coherence between the ionosphere, thermosphere, and magnetic parameters at altitudes below about 185 km, a coherence which weakens in the antisolar region. The electron temperature and density are approximately 180{degree} out of phase and consistently exhibit the highest correlation of any pair of variables. Waves in the electron and neutral densities are moderately correlated on most orbits, but with a phase difference that varies within each orbit. The average electron temperature is higher when the average magnetic field is more horizontal; however, the correlation between temperature and dip angle does not extend to individual wave structures observed within a satellite pass, particularly in the antisolar region.« less

  18. Design and construction of Keda Space Plasma Experiment (KSPEX) for the investigation of the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongkai; Lei, Jiuhou; Cao, Jinxiang; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Yaodong

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the design and construction of the Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX), which aims to study the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions, are described in detail. The device is composed of three stainless-steel sections: two source chambers at both ends and an experimental chamber in the center. KSPEX is a steady state experimental device, in which hot filament arrays are used to produce plasmas in the two sources. A Macor-mesh design is adopted to adjust the plasma density and potential difference between the two plasmas, which creates a boundary layer with a controllable electron density gradient and inhomogeneous radial electric field. In addition, attachment chemicals can be released into the plasmas through a tailor-made needle valve which leads to the generation of negative ions plasmas. Ionospheric depletions can be modeled and simulated using KSPEX, and many micro-physical processes of the formation and evolution of an ionospheric depletion can be experimentally studied.

  19. Ionospheric storm effects and equatorial plasma irregularities during the 17-18 March 2015 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2016-09-01

    The intense magnetic storm on 17-18 March 2015 caused large disturbances of the ionosphere. Based on the plasma density (Ni) observations performed by the Swarm fleet of satellites, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission, and the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite, we characterize the storm-related perturbations at low latitudes. All these satellites sampled the ionosphere in morning and evening time sectors where large modifications occurred. Modifications of plasma density are closely related to changes of the solar wind merging electric field (Em). We consider two mechanisms, prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF), as the main cause for the Ni redistribution, but effects of meridional wind are also taken into account. At the start of the storm main phase, the PPEF is enhancing plasma density on the dayside and reducing it on the nightside. Later, DDEF takes over and causes the opposite reaction. Unexpectedly, there appears during the recovery phase a strong density enhancement in the morning/prenoon sector and a severe Ni reduction in the afternoon/evening sector, and we suggest a combined effect of vertical plasma drift, and meridional wind is responsible for these ionospheric storm effects. Different from earlier studies about this storm, we also investigate the influence of storm dynamics on the initiation of equatorial plasma irregularities (EPIs). Shortly after the start of the storm main phase, EPIs appear in the postsunset sector. As a response to a short-lived decline of Em, EPI activity appears in the early morning sector. Following the second start of the main phase, EPIs are generated for a few hours in the late evening sector. However, for the rest of the storm main phase, no more EPIs are initiated for more than 12 h. Only after the onset of recovery phase does EPI activity start again in the postmidnight sector, lasting more than 7 h. This comprehensive view of

  20. Ionospheric Storm Effects and Equatorial Plasma Irregularities During the 17-18 March 2015 Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Luhr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The intense magnetic storm on 17-18 March 2015 caused large disturbances of the ionosphere. Based on the plasma density (Ni) observations performed by the Swarm fleet of satellites, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission, and the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite, we characterize the storm-related perturbations at low latitudes. All these satellites sampled the ionosphere in morning and evening time sectors where large modifications occurred. Modifications of plasma density are closely related to changes of the solar wind merging electric field (E (sub m)). We consider two mechanisms, prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF), as the main cause for the Ni redistribution, but effects of meridional wind are also taken into account. At the start of the storm main phase, the PPEF is enhancing plasma density on the dayside and reducing it on the nightside. Later, DDEF takes over and causes the opposite reaction. Unexpectedly, there appears during the recovery phase a strong density enhancement in the morning/pre-noon sector and a severe Ni reduction in the afternoon/evening sector, and we suggest a combined effect of vertical plasma drift, and meridional wind is responsible for these ionospheric storm effects. Different from earlier studies about this storm, we also investigate the influence of storm dynamics on the initiation of equatorial plasma irregularities (EPIs). Shortly after the start of the storm main phase, EPIs appear in the post-sunset sector. As a response to a short-lived decline of E (sub m), EPI activity appears in the early morning sector. Following the second start of the main phase, EPIs are generated for a few hours in the late evening sector. However, for the rest of the storm main phase, no more EPIs are initiated for more than 12 hours. Only after the onset of recovery phase does EPI activity start again in the post-midnight sector, lasting more than 7 hours

  1. The Storm Time Evolution of the Ionospheric Disturbance Plasma Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Chen, Yiding; Kuai, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we use the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellites observations to analyze the storm time evolution of the disturbance plasma drifts in a 24 h local time scale during three magnetic storms driven by long-lasting southward IMF Bz. The disturbance plasma drifts during the three storms present some common features in the periods dominated by the disturbance dynamo. The newly formed disturbance plasma drifts are upward and westward at night, and downward and eastward during daytime. Further, the disturbance plasma drifts are gradually evolved to present significant local time shifts. The westward disturbance plasma drifts gradually migrate from nightside to dayside. Meanwhile, the dayside downward disturbance plasma drifts become enhanced and shift to later local time. The local time shifts in disturbance plasma drifts are suggested to be mainly attributed to the evolution of the disturbance winds. The strong disturbance winds arisen around midnight can constantly corotate to later local time. At dayside the westward and equatorward disturbance winds can drive the F region dynamo to produce the poleward and westward polarization electric fields (or the westward and downward disturbance drifts). The present results indicate that the disturbance winds corotated to later local time can affect the local time features of the disturbance dynamo electric field.

  2. Ionospheric Research with Miniaturized Plasma Sensors Aboard FalconSAT-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.; Herrero, F. A.; Chun, F. K.; McHarg, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    Investigations into a novel technique to measure ionosphere-thermosphere parameters have culminated in the Flat Plasma Spectrometer (FLAPS) experiment, presently under development through a collaboration between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the U. S. Air Force Academy (USAFA). FLAPS is capable of providing measurements of the full neutral wind vector, full ion-drift velocity vector, neutral and ion temperatures, and deviations from thermalization. In addition, coarse mass spectroscopy is possible using an energy analysis technique. The suite of instruments is comprised of a set of 16 individual neutral and ion analyzers, each of which is designed to perform a specific function. Advances in miniaturization technology have enabled a design in which the 16-sensor suite resides on a circular microchannel plate with an effective area of 25 cm2. The FLAPS electronics package, consisting of low voltage and high voltage power supplies, a microprocessor, and Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) amplifiers, requires a volume of 290 cm3, power of 1.5 W, and a mass of 500 g. The suite requires a +5V regulated power line from the spacecraft, and the telemetry interface is a 5.0 V TTL-compatible serial connection. Data collection rates vary from 1 to 1000 (192 Byte) spectra per second. The motivation for the FLAPS experiment is driven by objectives that fall into both basic science and technology demonstration categories. Scientifically, there is strong interest in the effects of ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and non-thermalized plasma on the processes associated with equatorial F-region ionospheric plasma bubbles. These bubbles have been known to scintillate transionospheric propagation of radio waves, often resulting in disruptions of space-based communication and navigation systems. FLAPS investigations will assist in quantifying the impact of various processes on the instigation or suppression of plasma bubbles; certain outstanding questions

  3. Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions: Near Earth manifestations of the plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faelthammar, Carl-Gunne

    1986-01-01

    As the universe consists almost entirely of plasma, the understanding of astrophysical phenomena must depend critically on the understanding of how matter behaves in the plasma state. In situ observations in the near Earth cosmical plasma offer an excellent opportunity of gaining such understanding. The near Earth cosmical plasma not only covers vast ranges of density and temperature, but is the site of a rich variety of complex plasma physical processes which are activated as a results of the interactions between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. The geomagnetic field connects the ionosphere, tied by friction to the Earth, and the magnetosphere, dynamically coupled to the solar wind. This causes an exchange of energy an momentum between the two regions. The exchange is executed by magnetic-field-aligned electric currents, the so-called Birkeland currents. Both directly and indirectly (through instabilities and particle acceleration) these also lead to an exchange of plasma, which is selective and therefore causes chemical separation. Another essential aspect of the coupling is the role of electric fields, especially magnetic field aligned (parallel) electric fields, which have important consequences both for the dynamics of the coupling and, especially, for energization of charged particles.

  4. Simulation study of interactions of Space Shuttle-generated electron beams with ambient plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes results obtained through the support of NASA Grant NAGW-1936. The objective of this report is to conduct large scale simulations of electron beams injected into space. The topics covered include the following: (1) simulation of radial expansion of an injected electron beam; (2) simulations of the active injections of electron beams; (3) parameter study of electron beam injection into an ionospheric plasma; and (4) magnetosheath-ionospheric plasma interactions in the cusp.

  5. Variability of plasma-line enhancement in ionospheric modification experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simple explanation for the variations of plasma-line intensity is suggested. The explanation is based on the fact that the plasma waves responsible for scattering the radar waves occur over a very limited range of heights. The explanation further makes use of the fact that the position of these height ranges of generation depends primarily on the gradient of the number density and to a lesser extent on the temperature and the orientation of the diagnostic radar beam.

  6. Theoretical study of the ionospheric plasma cave in the equatorial ionization anomaly region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Tsung; Lin, C. H.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Huba, J. D.; Chang, L. C.; Liu, H.-L.; Lin, J. T.; Rajesh, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the physical mechanism of an unusual equatorial electron density structure, plasma cave, located underneath the equatorial ionization anomaly by using theoretical simulations. The simulation results provide important new understanding of the dynamics of the equatorial ionosphere. It has been suggested previously that unusual E>⇀×B>⇀ drifts might be responsible for the observed plasma cave structure, but model simulations in this paper suggest that the more likely cause is latitudinal meridional neutral wind variations. The neutral winds are featured by two divergent wind regions at off-equator latitudes and a convergent wind region around the magnetic equator, resulting in plasma divergences and convergence, respectively, to form the plasma caves structure. The tidal-decomposition analysis further suggests that the cave related meridional neutral winds and the intensity of plasma cave are highly associated with the migrating terdiurnal tidal component of the neutral winds.

  7. Plasma disturbances observed in the ionosphere in the vicinity of a highly charged space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehlum, B. N.; Denig, W. F.; Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K. M.; Svenes, K.; Maynard, N. C.; Trøim, J.; Holmgren, G.; Burke, W. J.

    A mother-daughter rocket code named Maimik was launched from Andoya Rocket Range on November 10, 1985, near 20.00 local time. The daughter carried an electron accelerator, and a series of plasma diagnostic instruments were installed both on the daughter and on the trailing mother. The main aims of the experiment were to investigate (1) beam-plasma interaction processes in the ionosphere, (2) occurrence of dc and ac electric fields generated by the beam and (3) charging and neutralization of the vehicles.

  8. Experimental Evidence on the Dependence of the Standard GPS Phase Scintillation Index on the Ionospheric Plasma Drift Around Noon Sector of the Polar Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.-H.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Moen, J.; Xing, Z.-Y.; Chadwick, R.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Lester, M.

    2018-03-01

    First experimental proof of a clear and strong dependence of the standard phase scintillation index (σφ) derived using Global Positioning System measurements on the ionospheric plasma flow around the noon sector of polar ionosphere is presented. σφ shows a strong linear dependence on the plasma drift speed measured by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars, whereas the amplitude scintillation index (S4) does not. This observed dependence can be explained as a consequence of Fresnel frequency dependence of the relative drift and the used constant cutoff frequency (0.1 Hz) to detrend the data for obtaining standard σφ. The lack of dependence of S4 on the drift speed possibly eliminates the plasma instability mechanism(s) involved as a cause of the dependence. These observations further confirm that the standard phase scintillation index is much more sensitive to plasma flow; therefore, utmost care must be taken when identifying phase scintillation (diffractive phase variations) from refractive (deterministic) phase variations, especially in the polar region where the ionospheric plasma drift is much larger than in equatorial and midlatitude regions.

  9. HF Propagation Effects Caused by an Artificial Plasma Cloud in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, D. R.; Groves, K. M.; McNeil, W. J.; Caton, R. G.; Parris, R. T.; Pedersen, T. R.; Cannon, P. S.; Angling, M. J.; Jackson-Booth, N. K.

    2014-12-01

    In a campaign carried out by the NASA sounding rocket team, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment to study the interactions of artificial ionization and the background plasma and measure the effects on high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. The rockets released samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region of the ionosphere that ionized forming a plasma cloud that persisted for tens of minutes to hours in the post-sunset period. Data from the experiments has been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on HF radio wave propagation. Swept frequency HF links transiting the artificial ionization region were employed to produce oblique ionograms that clearly showed the effects of the samarium cloud. Ray tracing has been used to successfully model the effects of the ionized cloud. Comparisons between observations and modeled results will be presented, including model output using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) and PIM constrained by electron density profiles measured with the ALTAIR radar at Kwajalein. Observations and modeling confirm that the cloud acted as a divergent lens refracting energy away from direct propagation paths and scattering energy at large angles relative to the initial propagation direction. The results confirm that even small amounts of ionized material injected in the upper atmosphere can result in significant changes to the natural propagation environment.

  10. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousasantos, Jonas; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade; Alam Kherani, Esfhan; Magalhães Fares Saba, Marcelo; Rodolfo de Campos, Diovane

    2018-03-01

    The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September-October) during the deep solar minimum (2009) presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble) detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection) and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  11. Plasma Instability Growth Rates in the F-Region Cusp Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, J. I.; Daabakk, Y.; Oksavik, K.; Clausen, L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Abe, T.; Saito, Y.; Baddeley, L. J.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Sigernes, F.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    There are at least two different micro-instability processes that applies to the F-region cusp/polar cap ionosphere. These are the Gradient Drift Instability (GDI) and the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability (KHI). Due to space weather effects on radio communication and satellite signals it is of practical interest to assess the relative importance of these two instability modes and to quantify their growth rates. The Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI) rocket program has been developed to investigate these plasma instabilities and formation scintillation irregularities. High resolution measurements are critical to get realistic quantities on the growth rates. The results achieved so far demonstrates that cusp ionosphere precipitation can give rise to km scale plasma structures on which grow rates are down to a few tens of seconds compared to earlier measures of ten minutes based on ground observations. This has to do with the spatial resolution required for these measurements. Growth rates for the KHI instability is found to be of the same order, which is consistent with growth rates calculated from the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. I.e. both instability modes can be highly efficient in the cusp ionosphere.

  12. ROSCOE Manual, Volume 14A-1 - Ambient Atmosphere (Major and Minor Neutral Species and Ionosphere).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-30

    height EDDSCH 100 - 300 Parabola, determined by data-point values EBOTD and EF2MXD at altitudes HEBOTD and HF2MXD and vertical slope at altitude HF2MXD...Ionosphere) c Science Applications, Inc. P.O. Box 2351 La Jolla, California 92038 30 June 1979 Final Report for Period 1 January 1976-30 June 1979...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Science Applications, Inc. V/ AREA 6 WORK U NIT NUMBERS P.O. Box 2351 Subtask S99QAXHCO62-37 La

  13. The Plasma Environment Associated With Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jonathon M.; Heelis, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the density structure of equatorial depletions referred to here as equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). Data recorded by the Ion Velocity Meter as part of the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) aboard the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite are used to study EPBs from 1600 to 0600 h local time at altitudes from 350 to 850 km. The data are taken during the 7 years from 2008 to 2014, more than one half of a magnetic solar cycle, that include solar minimum and a moderate solar maximum. Using a rolling ball algorithm, EPBs are identified by profiles in the plasma density, each having a depth measured as the percent change between the background and minimum density (ΔN/N). During solar moderate activity bubbles observed in the topside postsunset sector are more likely to have large depths compared to those observed in the topside postmidnight sector. Large bubble depths can be observed near 350 km in the bottomside F region in the postsunset period. Conversely at solar minimum the distribution of depths is similar in the postsunset and postmidnight sectors in all longitude sectors. Deep bubbles are rarely observed in the topside postsunset sector and never in the bottomside above 400 km in altitude. We suggest that these features result from the vertical drift of the plasma for these two solar activity levels. These drift conditions affect both the background density in which bubbles are embedded and the growth rate of perturbations in the bottomside where bubbles originate.

  14. Integrated Multi-Point Space Plasma Measurements With Four Ionospheric Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Selcher, C.; Wilkens, M. R.; McHarg, M. G.; Krause, L.; Chun, F.; Enloe, L.; Panholzer, R.; Sakoda, D.; Phelps, R.; D Roussel-Dupre, D.; Colestock, P.; Close, S.

    2006-12-01

    The STP-1 launch scheduled for late 2006 will place four satellites with ionospheric plasma diagnostics into the same nearly circular orbit with an altitude of 560 km and inclination of 35.4°. The satellites will allow for unique multipoint measurements of ionospheric scintillations and their causes. Both the radio and in-situ diagnostics will provide coverage of low- and mid-latitudes. The four satellites, STPSat1, NPSat1, FalconSat3, and CFE will follow the same ground-track but because of drag and mass differences their relative velocities will be different and vary during the lifetime of the satellites. The four satellites will start close together; separate over a few months and coming back together with near conjunctions at six and eight months. Two satellite conjunctions between NPSat1 and STPSat1 will occur most often, approximately one month apart at the end of the mission. STPSat1 is equipped with CITRIS (sCintillation and TEC Receiver In Space) which will measure scintillations in the VHF, UHF and L-band along with measuring Total Electron Content (TEC) along the propagation path. NPSat1 will carry a three-frequency CERTO (Coherent Electromagnetic Radio TOmography) Beacon which broadcasts phase-coherent signals at 150.012 MHz, 400.032 MHz, and 1066.752 MHz. CITRIS will be able to measure TEC and Scintillations along the orbital path (propagation path from NPSat1 to STPSat1) as well as between the CITRIS and the ground. NPSat1 carries electron and ion saturation Langmuir Probes, while FalconSat3 carries the FLAPS (FLAt Plasma Spectrometer) and PLANE (Plasma Local Anomalous Noise Environment). The in-situ diagnostic complement the CITRIS/CERTO radio techniques in many ways. The CIBOLA Flight Experiment (CFE) contains a wide band receiver covering 100 to 500 MHz. The CFE data can be processed to show distortion of wide-band modulations by ionospheric irregularities. CFE and CITRIS can record ground transmissions from the French DORIS beacons which radiate

  15. Characteristics of the Plasma Source for Ground Ionosphere Simulation Surveyed by Disk-Type Langmuir Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Lee, Junchan; Kim, Songoo; Chung, Taejin; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Cha, Wonho; Min, Kyoungwook; Kim, Vitaly P.

    2017-12-01

    A space plasma facility has been operated with a back-diffusion-type plasma source installed in a mid-sized vacuum chamber with a diameter of 1.5 m located in Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). To generate plasma with a temperature and density similar to the ionospheric plasma, nickel wires coated with carbonate solution were used as filaments that emit thermal electrons, and the accelerated thermal electrons emitted from the heated wires collide with the neutral gas to form plasma inside the chamber. By using a disk-type Langmuir probe installed inside the vacuum chamber, the generation of plasma similar to the space environment was validated. The characteristics of the plasma according to the grid and plate anode voltages were investigated. The grid voltage of the plasma source is realized as a suitable parameter for manipulating the electron density, while the plate voltage is suitable for adjusting the electron temperature. A simple physical model based on the collision cross-section of electron impact on nitrogen molecule was established to explain the plasma generation mechanism.

  16. A simulation study of interactions of space-shuttle generated electron beams with ambient plasma and neutral gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to conduct large scale simulations of electron beams injected into space. The study of the active injection of electron beams from spacecraft is important, as it provides valuable insight into the plasma beam interactions and the development of current systems in the ionosphere. However, the beam injection itself is not simple, being constrained by the ability of the spacecraft to draw current from the ambient plasma. The generation of these return currents is dependent on several factors, including the density of the ambient plasma relative to the beam density, the presence of neutrals around the spacecraft, the configuration of the spacecraft, and the motion of the spacecraft through the plasma. Two dimensional (three velocity) particle simulations with collisional processes included are used to show how these different and often coupled processes can be used to enhance beam propagation from the spacecraft. To understand the radial expansion mechanism of an electron beam injected from a highly charged spacecraft, two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were conducted for a high density electron beam injected parallel to magnetic fields from an isolated equipotential conductor into a cold background plasma. The simulations indicate that charge build-up at the beam stagnation point causes the beam to expand radially to the beam electron gyroradius.

  17. A simulation study of interactions of Space-Shuttle generated electron beams with ambient plasma and neutral gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The object was to conduct large scale simulations of electron beams injected into space. The study of active injection of electron beams from spacecraft is important since it provides valuable insight into beam-plasma interactions and the development of current systems in the ionosphere. However, the beam injection itself is not simple, being constrained by the ability of the spacecraft to draw return current from the ambient plasma. The generation of these return currents is dependent on several factors, including the density of the ambient plasma relative to the beam density, the presence of neutrals around the spacecraft, the configuration of the spacecraft, and the motion of the spacecraft through the plasma. Two dimensional particle simulations with collisional processes included are used to show how these different and often coupled processes can be utilized to enhance beam propagation from the spacecraft. To understand the radical expansion of mechanism of an electron beam from a highly charged spacecraft, two dimensional particle in cell simulations were conducted for a high density electron beam injected parallel to magnetic fields from an isolated equipotential conductor into a cold background plasma. The simulations indicate that charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam to expand radially to the beam electron gyroradius.

  18. Intermediate-scale plasma irregularities in the polar ionosphere inferred from GPS radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, E. B.; Komjathy, A.; Langley, R. B.; Verkhoglyadova, O.; Butala, M. D.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    We report intermediate-scale plasma irregularities in the polar ionosphere inferred from high-resolution radio occultation (RO) measurements using GPS (Global Positioning System) to CASSIOPE (CAScade Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer) satellite radio links. The high inclination of CASSIOPE and the high rate of signal reception by the GPS Attitude, Positioning, and Profiling RO receiver on CASSIOPE enable a high-resolution investigation of the dynamics of the polar ionosphere with unprecedented detail. Intermediate-scale, scintillation-producing irregularities, which correspond to 1 to 40 km scales, were inferred by applying multiscale spectral analysis on the RO phase measurements. Using our multiscale spectral analysis approach and satellite data (Polar Operational Environmental Satellites and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program), we discovered that the irregularity scales and phase scintillations have distinct features in the auroral oval and polar cap. We found that large length scales and more intense phase scintillations are prevalent in the auroral oval compared to the polar cap implying that the irregularity scales and phase scintillation characteristics are a function of the solar wind and magnetospheric forcings.

  19. UCB current detector experiment on Swedish auroral payloads. [ionospheric current and plasma flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F.

    1974-01-01

    A split Langmuir probe has been developed to make in situ measurements of ionospheric current density and plasma bulk flow. The probe consists of two conducting elements that are separated by a thin insulator that shield each other over a 2 pi solid angle, and that are simultaneously swept from negative to positive with respect to the plasma. By measuring the current to each plate and the difference current between plates, information is obtained on the plasma's current density, bulk flow, electron temperature, and density. The instrument was successfully flown twice on sounding rockets into auroral events. Measurement data indicate that the total auroral current configuration is composed of several alternating east and west electrojets associated with several alternating up and down Birkeland currents.

  20. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, M; Oyama, K-I; Abe, T; Yau, A W

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (ionosphere. However, observation of electron energy spectrum in this energy range is quite limited because of technical difficulties of measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  1. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-05-01

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (ne) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d104d1 2D3/2-3d104p1 2P3/2 at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (Te) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ˜590 nm.

  2. Zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over brazilian region using oi630nm airglow digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, D. C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, V. M.; Takahashi, H.

    The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region are analyzed in this study that is based on OI630nm airglow digital images. These digital images were obtained by an all-sky imager system between October 1998 and August 2000, at Cachoeira Paulista (22.5°S, 45°W), a low latitude region. In this period, 138 nights of OI 630 nm airglow experiments were carried out of which 30 nights detected the ionospheric plasma bubbles. These 30 nights correspond to magnetically quiet days (ΣK_P<24+) and were grouped according approximately to their season. KEY WORDS: Imager System, Ionospheric Plasma Bubbles, Zonal drift velocities, OI630nm.

  3. Plasma turbulence in the ionosphere prior to earthquakes, some remarks on the DEMETER registrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błęcki, Jan; Parrot, Michel; Wronowski, Roman

    2011-06-01

    The question about presence of some precursors of the earthquakes has a long history. The answer is still not resolved, but researchers are looking for the effects which can be registered prior to earthquakes. One of the factors which has been found is the variation of the electromagnetic field observed on ground as well as onboard satellites. The disturbances of the electromagnetic field around areas of the earthquakes as pre-seismic events can occur few hours or even few days before the main shock. The payload of the DEMETER French microsatellite allows to measure waves and also some important plasma parameters (ion composition, electron density and temperature, energetic particles) with high temporal resolution in the ionosphere over the seismic regions. In the present work, analysis of the low frequency fluctuations of the electric fields for selected strong earthquakes in Japan (2004), China (2008), Taiwan (2006) and New Zealand (2009) are given. Special attention will be given to the study of the spectral characteristics of these variations and the search for nonlinear effects. This analysis is possible in the time interval where the waveform has been transmitted. The mechanism of the energy transmission from earthquakes to the ionosphere is not clear, but we can discuss the behavior of the ionospheric plasma and the search for instabilities which could be a source of electromagnetic field variations. A brief discussion of the characteristics of the spectra and multi-spectra is given in this paper. Attention is particularly given to the effect prior to the earthquake in New Zealand, when a nonlinear interaction leading to a lower hybrid wave generation was directly seen.

  4. Self-Consistent Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling and Associated Plasma Energization Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (MI) coupling and associated with this process electron and ion energization processes have interested scientists for decades and, in spite of experimental and theoretical research efforts, are still ones of the least well known dynamic processes in space plasma physics. The reason for this is that the numerous physical processes associated with MI coupling occur over multiple spatial lengths and temporal scales. One typical example of MI coupling is large scale ring current (RC) electrodynamic coupling that includes calculation of the magnetospheric electric field that is consistent with the ring current (RC) distribution. A general scheme for numerical simulation of such large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes has been presented earlier in many works. The mathematical formulation of these models are based on "modified frozen-in flux theorem" for an ensemble of adiabatically drifting particles in the magnetosphere. By tracking the flow of particles through the inner magnetosphere, the bounce-averaged phase space density of the hot ions and electrons can be reconstructed and the magnetospheric electric field can be calculated such that it is consistent with the particle distribution in the magnetosphere. The new a self-consistent ring current model has been developed that couples electron and ion magnetospheric dynamics with calculation of electric field. Two new features were taken into account in addition to the RC ions, we solve an electron kinetic equation in our model, self-consistently including these results in the solution. Second, using different analytical relationships, we calculate the height integrated ionospheric conductances as the function of precipitated high energy magnetospheric electrons and ions as produced by our model. This results in fundamental changes to the electric potential pattern in the inner magnetosphere, with a smaller Alfven boundary than previous potential formulations would predict but

  5. Statistics on the parameters of nonisothermal ionospheric plasma in large mesospheric electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, S.; Rozumenko, V.; Tyrnov, O.; Manson, A.; Meek, C.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency at D region altitudes, and consequently the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region undergoes a transition into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the databases on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude) and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented in Meek, C. E., A. H. Manson, S. I. Martynenko, V. T. Rozumenko, O. F. Tyrnov, Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, in press. The large mesospheric electric fields is experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the interval 0 ionospheric plasma.

  6. Statistical parameters of nonisothermal lower ionospheric plasma in the electrically active mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the lower mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency and consequently of the transition of the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the datasets on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude), and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University, Ukraine (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented by [Meek, C.E., Manson, A.H., Martynenko, S.I., Rozumenko, V.T., Tyrnov, O.F. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 881-890, 2004. 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.02.002]. The large mesospheric electric fields in the 60-67-km altitude range are experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the 0 < E < 2.5 V/m interval. These data have permitted the resulting differential distributions of relative disturbances in the electron temperature, θ, and the effective electron collision frequency, η, to be determined. The most probable θ and η values are found to be in the 1.4-2.2 interval, and hence the nonstationary state of the lower part of the D region needs to be accounted for in studying processes coupling the electrically active mesosphere and the lower ionospheric plasma.

  7. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies in ionospheric TEC and plasma density before the 17 July 2006 M7.7 south of Java earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Dan; Cao, Jinbin; Battiston, Roberto; Li, Liuyuan; Ma, Yuduan; Liu, Wenlong; Zhima, Zeren; Wang, Lanwei; Wray Dunlop, Malcolm

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report significant evidence for preseismic ionospheric anomalies in total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) and plasma density appearing on day 2 before the 17 July 2006 M7.7 south of Java earthquake. After distinguishing other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities, we found a temporal precursor around the epicenter on day 2 before the earthquake (15 July 2006), which agrees well with the spatial variations in latitude-longitude-time (LLT) maps. Meanwhile, the sequences of latitude-time-TEC (LTT) plots reveal that the TECs on epicenter side anomalously decrease and lead to an anomalous asymmetric structure with respect to the magnetic equator in the daytime from day 2 before the earthquake. This anomalous asymmetric structure disappears after the earthquake. To further confirm these anomalies, we studied the plasma data from DEMETER satellite in the earthquake preparation zone (2046.4 km in radius) during the period from day 45 before to day 10 after the earthquake, and also found that the densities of both electron and total ion in the daytime significantly increase on day 2 before the earthquake. Very interestingly, O+ density increases significantly and H+ density decreases, while He+ remains relatively stable. These results indicate that there exists a distinct preseismic signal (preseismic ionospheric anomaly) over the epicenter.

  8. Stability of plasma treated superhydrophobic surfaces under different ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Faze; Liu, Jiyu; Cui, Yao; Huang, Shuai; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Xu, Wenji; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Plasma hydrophilizing of superhydrophobic substrates has become an important area of research, for example, superhydrophobic-(super)hydrophilic patterned surfaces have significant practical applications such as lab-on-chip systems, cell adhesion, and control of liquid transport. However, the stability of plasma-induced hydrophilicity is always considered as a key issue since the wettability tends to revert back to the untreated state (i.e. aging behavior). This paper focuses on the stability of plasma treated superhydrophobic surface under different ambient conditions (e.g. temperature and relative humidity). Water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to monitor the aging process. Results show that low temperature and low relative humidity are favorable to retard the aging process and that pre-storage at low temperature (-10°C) disables the treated surface to recover superhydrophobicity. When the aging is performed in water, a long-lasting hydropholicity is obtained. As the stability of plasma-induced hydrophilcity over a desired period of time is a very important issue, this work will contribute to the optimization of storage conditions of plasma treated superhydrophobic surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rocket-borne thermal plasma instrument "MIPEX" for the ionosphere D, E layer in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. K.; Chen, A. B. C.; Lin, C. C. H.; Wu, T. J.; Liu, K. S.; Chuang, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the design concepts, performances and status of a thermal plasma particle instrument package "Mesosphere and Ionosphere Plasma Exploration complex (MIPEX)", which is going to be installed onboard a NSPO-funded hybrid rocket, to investigate the electrodynamic processes in ionosphere D, E layers above Taiwan are reported. MIPEX is capable of measuring plasma characteristics including ion temperature, ion composition, ion drift, electron temperature and plasma density at densities as low as 1-10 cm-1. This instrument package consists of an improved retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM), a simplified ion drift meter and a planar Langmuir probe. To achieve the working atmospheric pressure of CEM at the height of lower D layer ( 70km), a portable vacuum pump is also placed in the package. A prototype set of the MIPEX has been developed and tested in the Space Plasma Operation Chamber (SPOC) at NCKU, where in ionospheric plasma is generated by back-diffusion plasma sources. A plasma density of 10-106 cm-1, ion temperature of 300-1500 K and electron temperature of 1000-3000K is measured and verified. Limited by the flight platform and the performance of the instruments, the in-situ plasma measurements at the Mesosphere and lower Thermosphere is very challenging and rare. MIPEX is capable of extending the altitude of the effective plasma measurement down to 70 km height and this experiment can provide unique high-quality data of the plasma environment to explore the ion distribution and the electrodynamic processes in the Ionosphere D, E layers at dusk.

  10. Studies of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the cusp ionosphere using sounding rocket data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, Alexander A.; Spicher, Andres; Ilyasov, Askar A.; Miloch, Wojciech J.; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.

    2018-04-01

    Microprocesses associated with plasma inhomogeneities are studied on the basis of data from the Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI-3) sounding rocket. The ICI-3 rocket is devoted to investigating a reverse flow event in the cusp F region ionosphere. By numerical stability analysis, it is demonstrated that inhomogeneous-energy-density-driven (IEDD) instability can be a mechanism for the excitation of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities. The Local Intermittency Measure (LIM) method also applied the rocket data to analyze irregular structures of the electric field during rocket flight in the cusp. A qualitative agreement between high values of the growth rates of the IEDD instability and the regions with enhanced LIM is observed. This suggests that IEDD instability is connected to turbulent non-Gaussian processes.

  11. New ISTP Solar Max: A Multi-Spacecraft Study of the Flow of Ionospheric Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    The unique instrumentation on the Polar satellite combined with the simultaneous measurement of different parts of the magnetosphere with multiple satellites make possible the study of magnetospheric processes in a special way. In particular, the study of the ionospheric supply of plasma to the magnetosphere can by accomplished to give important results on the plasmas which drive the dynamics of the magnetosphere. This study concentrated on the period of September to December, 2001 in which the Polar orbit had precessed to the point that the line of apsides was near the equatorial plane. This unique orbital configuration enabled the TIDE instrument to measure outflowing ions across the polar cap and then transit the magnetotail lobes and observe the dramatic change in plasma characteristics as the satellite entered the plasma sheet. Contact was made with investigators on the Cluster and Geotail satellite missions and corresponding time frames were studied in the data. There were two approximate conjunctions between Polar and Geotail and data were compared to look for features which might be related. The higher energy concentration of the Geotail instrument made direct comparisons with TIDE difficult, and the Cluster measurements did not surface any cases that corresponded closely in space and time. There were, however, many interesting aspects of the Polar orbits which permitted the observation of the changing ionospheric outflowing plasma characteristics. As in earlier measurements, the ionospheric plasma could be seen flowing up the magnetic field lines out of the northern and southern polar caps. Its energy suggested a polar wind origin energized by the centrifugal acceleration of flow through the polar cusp. The roughly 10eV ions then moved out into the lobes of the magnetotail where they could be seen flowing toward the plasma sheet in both the northern and southern magnetotail lobes. There was also a double field-aligned region of warm ions observed just

  12. Spectroscopic Measurements of Collision-less Coupling Between Explosive Debris Plasmas and Ambient, Magnetized Background Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton; Schaeffer, Derek; Everson, Erik; Vincena, Stephen; van Compernolle, Bart; Constantin, Carmen; Clark, Eric; Niemann, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Emission spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to assess collision-less momentum and energy coupling between explosive debris plasmas and ambient, magnetized background plasmas of astrophysical relevance. In recent campaigns on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) (nelec =1012 -1013 cm-3, Telec ~ 5 eV, B0 = 200 - 400 G) utilizing the new Raptor laser facility (1053 nm, 100 J per pulse, 25 ns FWHM), laser-ablated carbon debris plasmas were generated within ambient, magnetized helium background plasmas and prominent spectral lines of carbon and helium ions were studied in high spectral (0 . 01 nm) and temporal (50 ns) resolution. Time-resolved velocity components extracted from Doppler shift measurements of the C+4 227 . 1 nm spectral line along two perpendicular axes reveal significant deceleration as the ions stream and gyrate within the helium background plasma, indicating collision-less momentum coupling. The He+1 320 . 3 nm and 468 . 6 nm spectral lines of the helium background plasma are observed to broaden and intensify in response to the carbon debris plasma, indicative of strong electric fields (Stark broadening) and energetic electrons. The experimental results are compared to 2D hybrid code simulations.

  13. Identification of seismic activity sources on the subsatellite track by ionospheric plasma disturbances detected with the Sich-2 onboard probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, Valentin A.; Lazuchenkov, Dmitry N.; Gorev, Nikolai B.; Kochubei, Galina S.

    2018-01-01

    Using a cylindrical Langmuir probe and the authors' proprietary two-channel pressure transducer, ionospheric plasma parameter distributions along the orbit of the Sich-2 satellite (Ukraine, 2011-2012) were measured. This paper is concerned with identifying the space-time location of ionospheric plasma disturbance sources, including the epicenters of actual earthquakes (before or during the satellite flyover) and incipient earthquakes on the subsatellite track, from the measured distributions of the electron density and temperature and the neutral particle temperature along the satellite orbit. To do this, the measured ionospheric plasma parameter distributions are connected to the coordinates on the subsatellite track. It is shown that local disturbances in the electron density and temperature and neutral particle temperature distributions in the satellite orbit in the ionosphere may serve as indicators of seismic activity on the subsatellite track. The epicenters of incipient earthquakes may be set off from other plasma parameter disturbance sources associated with seismic activity using information provided by special monitoring and survey centers that monitor the current seismic situation.

  14. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, A. W.; Whalen, B. A.; Harris, F. R.; Gattinger, R. L.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of plasma depletion, ion composition modification, and airglow emissions in the Waterhole experiments are presented. The detailed ion chemistry and airglow emission processes related to the ionospheric hole formation in the experiment are examined, and observations are compared with computer simulation results. The latter indicate that the overall depletion rates in different parts of the depletion region are governed by different parameters.

  15. Energetic O+ and H+ Ions in the Plasma Sheet: Implications for the Transport of Ionospheric Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohtani, S.; Nose, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study statistically examines the characteristics of energetic ions in the plasma sheet using the Geotail/Energetic Particle and Ion Composition data. An emphasis is placed on the O+ ions, and the characteristics of the H+ ions are used as references. The following is a summary of the results. (1) The average O+ energy is lower during solar maximum and higher during solar minimum. A similar tendency is also found for the average H+ energy, but only for geomagnetically active times; (2) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities are several times higher during solar maximum than during solar minimum; (3) The average H+ and O+ energies and the O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities all increase with geomagnetic activity. The differences among different solar phases not only persist but also increase with increasing geomagnetic activity; (4) Whereas the average H+ energy increases toward Earth, the average O+ energy decreases toward Earth. The average energy increases toward dusk for both the H+ and O+ ions; (5) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities increase toward Earth during all solar phases, but most clearly during solar maximum. These results suggest that the solar illumination enhances the ionospheric outflow more effectively with increasing geomagnetic activity and that a significant portion of the O+ ions is transported directly from the ionosphere to the near ]Earth region rather than through the distant tail.

  16. Plasma flux and gravity waves in the midlatitude ionosphere during the solar eclipse of 20 May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Wu, Chen; Huang, Xueqin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhong, Dingkun; Qi, Hao; Huang, Liang; Qiao, Lei; Wang, Jin

    2015-04-01

    The solar eclipse effects on the ionosphere are very complex. Except for the ionization decay due to the decrease of the photochemical process, the couplings of matter and energy between the ionosphere and the regions above and below will introduce much more disturbances. Five ionosondes in the Northeast Asia were used to record the midlatitude ionospheric responses to the solar eclipse of 20 May 2012. The latitude dependence of the eclipse lag was studied first. The foF2 response to the eclipse became slower with increased latitude. The response of the ionosphere at the different latitudes with the same eclipse obscuration differed from each other greatly. The plasma flux from the protonsphere was possibly produced by the rapid temperature drop in the lunar shadow to make up the ionization loss. The greater downward plasma flux was generated at higher latitude with larger dip angle and delayed the ionospheric response later. The waves in the foEs and the plasma frequency at the fixed height in the F layer are studied by the time period analytic method. The gravity waves of 43-51 min center period during and after the solar eclipse were found over Jeju and I-Cheon. The northward group velocity component of the gravity waves was estimated as ~108.7 m/s. The vertical group velocities between 100 and 150 km height over the two stations were calculated as ~5 and ~4.3 m/s upward respectively, indicating that the eclipse-induced gravity waves propagated from below the ionosphere.

  17. Monitoring of sporadic plasma layers in the lower ionosphere in the communication link satellite-to-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelyev, Alexander; Matyugov, Stanislav; Wickert, Jens; Liou, Yuei An; Yakovlev, Oleg

    Method of global monitoring of sporadic plasma layers in the lower ionosphere is developed. In-vestigations were carried out by use of analysis of the amplitude and phase components of radio holograms obtained during the radio occultation missions CHAMP, FORMOSAT-3. Sporadic amplitude scintillation observed in RO experiments contain important information concerning the seasonal, geographical, and temporal distributions of the ionospheric disturbances and de-pend on solar activity. The geographical and seasonal distributions of sporadic layers in the lower ionosphere as function of solar activity in the period 2002-2008 years is obtained. The general number of RO events with strong amplitude variations can be used as an indicator of the ionospheric activity. We found that during 2001-2008 the daily averaged S4 index measured during CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) mission depends essentially on solar ac-tivity. The maximum occurred in January 2002, minimum has been observed in summer 2008. Different temporal behavior of S4 index has been detected for polar (with latitude greater than 55 degrees) and low latitude (moderate and equatorial) regions. For polar regions S4 index is slowly decreasing with solar activity. In the low latitude areas S4 index is sharply oscillat-ing, depending on the solar ultraviolet emission variations. The geographical distribution of S4 index variations indicates different origin of ionospheric plasma disturbances in polar and low latitude areas. Origin of the plasma disturbances in the polar areas may be connected with influence of solar wind, the ultraviolet emission of the Sun may be the main cause of the ionospheric irregularities in the low latitude zone. Analysis reveals global oscillations of S4 index with the periods of 5-7 months. Analysis of these oscillations may provide additional connection with solar activity. Therefore, the S4 index of RO signal is important radio physical indicator of solar activity.

  18. The influence of artificial electron heating on plasma irregularities in the lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyzyurov, Yurij; Chernogor, Leonid F.

    It is known small-scale ionospheric irregularities below the homopause level are generated by the neutral air turbulence. Usually an approximation of isothermality Te = Ti = Tn is valid for the lower ionosphere, especially, at middle latitudes. However, the approximation may be broken due to electron heating by powerful radio waves. In the report we consider theoretically reaction of ionospheric irregularities created by the neutral turbulence on the increasing of electron temperature Te due to the radio wave action. For this aim, expressions for the irregularity spectrum, the mean-square level of the plasma density fluctuations, and the radar backscatter cross-section per unit volume have been obtained. Using the expressions we have calculated the spectral form, the rms fluctuation level, and the cross-section σ for the case of the mid-latitude ionosphere at an altitude near 100 km when the ratio of the electron to ion temperature Te /Ti increased from 1 to 10. The spectrum has corresponded to the inertial range of turbulence, the rms level has been estimated for irregularity length-scales smaller than 500 m, and σ has been evaluated for the diagnostic radar frequencies from 5 to 50 MHz and the vertical direction of antenna beam. It was shown that an increase in Te produces a decrease in both the fluctuation level and the backscatter cross-section. In our calculations this level reduced from 6.2 to 4.8 %; the cross-section σ from 1.28×10-8 to 9.06×10-9 m-1 at 5 MHz and from 1.25×10-11 to 8.93×10-12 m-1 at 50 MHz. The rise in Te has also resulted in an increase in the spectral slope (for the approximation of spectrum by a power law k -p , the index p took values from 1.62 to 2.34). These changes are explained by a decrease in the cut-off wavenumber in the irregularity spectrum resulted from an increase in the ambipolar diffusivity due to the rise in Te .

  19. Strong IMF By-Related Plasma Convection in the Ionosphere and Cusp Field-Aligned Currents Under Northward IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Lu, G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present in this paper an investigation of IMF-By related plasma convection and cusp field-aligned currents using FAST data and AMIE model during a prolonged interval with large positive IMF By and northward Bz conditions (By/Bz much greater than 1). Using the FAST single trajectory observations to validate the global convection patterns at key times and key locations, we have demonstrated that the AMIE procedure provides a reasonably good description of plasma circulations in the ionosphere during this interval. Our results show that the plasma convection in the ionosphere is consistent with the anti-parallel merging model. When the IMF has a strongly positive By component under northward conditions, we find that the global plasma convection forms two cells oriented nearly along the Sun-earth line in the ionosphere. In the northern hemisphere, the dayside cell has clockwise convection mainly circulating within the polar cap on open field lines. A second cell with counterclockwise convection is located in the nightside circulating across the polar cap boundary, The observed two-cell convection pattern appears to be driven by the reconnection along the anti-parallel merging lines poleward of the cusp extending toward the dusk side when IMF By/Bz much greater than 1. The magnetic tension force on the newly reconnected field lines drives the plasma to move from dusk to dawn in the polar cusp region near the polar cap boundary. The field-aligned currents in the cusp region flow downward into the ionosphere. The return field-aligned currents extend into the polar cap in the center of the dayside convection cell. The field-aligned currents are closed through the Peterson currents in the ionosphere, which flow poleward from the polar cap boundary along the electric field direction.

  20. Spatial Structure of Large-Scale Plasma Density Perturbations HF-Induced in the Ionospheric F 2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Komrakov, G. P.; Glukhov, Ya. V.; Andreeva, E. S.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Kurbatov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the experimental results obtained by studying the large-scale structure of the HF-disturbed ionospheric region. The experiments were performed using the SURA heating facility. The disturbed ionospheric region was sounded by signals radiated by GPS navigation satellite beacons as well as by signals of low-orbit satellites (radio tomography). The results of the experiments show that large-scale plasma density perturbations induced at altitudes higher than the F2 layer maximum can contribute significantly to the measured variations of the total electron density and can, with a certain arrangement of the reception points, be measured by the GPS sounding method.

  1. Persistent Longitudinal Variations of Plasma Density and DC Electric Fields in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Observed with Probes on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Liebrecht, C.; Bromund, K.; Roddy, P.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous measurements using in situ probes on consecutive orbits of the C/N0FS satellite reveal that the plasma density is persistently organized by longitude, in both day and night conditions and at all locations within the satellite orbit, defined by its perigee and apogee of 401 km and 867 km, respectively, and its inclination of 13 degrees. Typical variations are a factor of 2 or 3 compared to mean values. Furthermore, simultaneous observations of DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts in the low latitude ionosphere also reveal that their amplitudes are also strongly organized by longitude in a similar fashion. The drift variations with longitude are particularly pronounced in the meridional component perpendicular to the magnetic field although they are also present in the zonal component as well. The longitudes of the peak meridional drift and density values are significantly out of phase with respect to each other. Time constants for the plasma accumulation at higher altitudes with respect to the vertical drift velocity must be taken into account in order to properly interpret the detailed comparisons of the phase relationship of the plasma density and plasma velocity variations. Although for a given period corresponding to that of several days, typically one longitude region dominates the structuring of the plasma density and plasma drift data, there is also evidence for variations organized about multiple longitudes at the same time. Statistical averages will be shown that suggest a tidal "wave 4" structuring is present in both the plasma drift and plasma density data. We interpret the apparent association of the modulation of the E x B drifts with longitude as well as that of the ambient plasma density as a manifestation of tidal forces at work in the low latitude upper atmosphere. The observations demonstrate how the high duty cycle of the C/NOFS observations and its unique orbit expose fundamental processes at work in the low latitude

  2. Ionospheric plasma deterioration in the area of enhanced seismic activity as compared to antipodal sites far from seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara; Arikan, Feza; Poustovalova, Ljubov; Stanislawska, Iwona

    2016-07-01

    The early magnetogram records from two nearly antipodal sites at Greenwich and Melbourne corresponding to the activity level at the invariant magnetic latitude of 50 deg give a long series of geomagnetic aa indices since 1868. The aa index derived from magnetic perturbation values at only two observatories (as distinct from the planetary ap index) experiences larger extreme values if either input site is well situated to the overhead ionospheric and/or field aligned current systems producing the magnetic storm effects. Analysis of the earthquakes catalogues since 1914 has shown the area of the peak global earthquake occurrence in the Pacific Ocean southwards from the magnetic equator, and, in particular, at Australia. In the present study the ionospheric critical frequency, foF2, is analyzed from the ionosonde measurements at the nearby observatories, Canberra and Slough (Chilton), and Moscow (control site) since 1944 to 2015. The daily-hourly-annual percentage occurrence of positive ionospheric W index (pW+) and negative index (pW-) is determined. It is found that the ionospheric plasma depletion pW- of the instant foF2 as compared to the monthly median is well correlated to the aa index at all three sites but the positive storm signatures show drastic difference at Canberra (no correlation of pW+ with aa index) as compared to two other sites where the high correlation is found of the ionospheric plasma density enhancement with the geomagnetic activity. A possible suppression of the enhanced ionospheric variability over the region of intense seismicity is discussed in the paper. This study is supported by TUBITAK EEEAG 115E915.

  3. Some new features of ionospheric plasma depletions over the Indian zone using all sky optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, H. S. S.; Raizada, S.

    2000-08-01

    An all sky optical imaging system was operated from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR) (14° N, 80° E, 5.5° N dip latitude) during January-March, 1993 to observe ionospheric plasma depletions through 630 nm and 777.4 nm night glow emissions. Strong plasma depletions were observed only on four nights viz., 14, 17, 19 and 21 February, 1993. Except the 17 February, which was a magnetically disturbed day, all the other nights pertained to magnetically quiet period. A number of plasma depletion parameters such as, degree of depletion, east-west extent, tilt with respect to the geomagnetic field, inter-depletion distance, drift velocity and plasma enhancements or brightness patterns were estimated. Some of the important results are: (a) It was found that the east-west extent of plasma depletions varied with the degree of depletion; for the 630 nm images the degree of depletion ranged between 6-9% per 100 km east-west extent and for 777.4 nm images it was 3% per 100 km east-west extent, (b) The average inter-depletion distance (IDD) was in the range of 1500±100 km during the magnetically disturbed period and 740±60 km during quiet periods. This is suggestive of gravity wave modulation of the bottom side of the F-region. While the large scale gravity waves (1500±100 km) of auroral origin could be responsible during magnetically disturbed period, smaller scale gravity waves (740±60 km) having their origin in the lower atmosphere could produce initial perturbation in the bottom side of the F-region, (c) Plasma depletions are observed to have an eastward tilt in the range of 10-15° with respect to the geomagnetic field. It has been suggested here that these tilts are associated with the variation of plasma drift with altitude, (d) plasma depletions are observed to be moving eastwards with drift velocities in the range of 40-190 ms-1, and (e) Strong plasma enhancements or brightness patterns were observed on three nights. The degree of enhancement was by a factor of 1

  4. The Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) Experiment: High Frequency (HF) Signatures and Interactions with the Ambient Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Pedersen, T. R.; Parris, R. T.; Su, Y.; Cannon, P. S.; Jackson-booth, N. K.; Angling, M. J.; Retterer, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    With support from the NASA sounding rocket team, AFRL performed two separate 5 kg releases of samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region near Kwajalein Atoll in May 2013. A fraction of the samarium subsequently ionized forming a plasma cloud that persisted for tens of minutes to hours in the post-sunset period. Numerous sensors were used to characterize the clouds including the ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar, multiple GPS and optical instruments, satellite radio beacons, and a dedicated network of high frequency (HF) radio links. The primary objectives of the experiments were to understand the dynamics, evolution and chemistry of Sm atoms in the earth's upper atmosphere. Sm is predicted to both photo-ionize and chemi-ionize through charge exchange with neutral oxygen (O). Ionization rates and loss reactions are not well known. A secondary objective was to understand the interaction of an artificial plasma cloud with the low latitude ionosphere during the pre-reversal enhancement period leading up to the post-sunset development of large-scale Rayleigh-Taylor instability. It was initially hoped that the introduction of the artificial plasma might be sufficient to quench the development of the instability by maintaining high conductivity within the affected flux tubes. Modeling results showed that this result was unlikely due to the relatively small amount of material being released. However, it appeared possible that the presence of SmO+ near the bottomside of the F-region might be capable of reducing the formation of short-scale irregularities within the larger Rayleigh-Taylor 'bubbles'. Indeed, preliminary results indicate that the artificial layers, positioned at 170 and 180 km respectively, did interact with the overlying F region and in at least one case, cause a decrease in the short-scale component of the natural irregularity spectrum. The results suggest that it may be possible to mitigate the formation of low-latitude irregularities responsible for radio

  5. Dayside ionosphere of Titan: Impact on calculated plasma densities due to variations in the model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Vrinda; Bhardwaj, Anil

    2018-01-01

    recombination rate coefficients of the ions C2H5+ and CH5+ by a factor of 10 reduces the difference between modeled and observed densities of the major ions, the modeled electron density is still higher than the observation by ∼ 60% at the peak. We suggest that there might be some unidentified chemical reactions that may account for the additional loss of plasma in Titan's ionosphere.

  6. Pre-launch simulation experiment of microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment in the space plasma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, N.; Tsutsui, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, I.

    1980-09-01

    A pre-flight test experiment of a microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment (MINIX) has been carried out in a space plasma simulation chamber. Though the first rocket experiment ended up in failure because of a high voltage trouble, interesting results are observed in the pre-flight experiment. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 300% temperature increase is observed. Strong excitations of plasma waves by the transmitted microwaves in the VLF and HF range are observed as well. These microwave effects may have to be taken into account in solar power satellite projects in the future.

  7. Toward an integrated view of ionospheric plasma instabilities: Altitudinal transitions and strong gradient case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, Roman A.

    2016-04-01

    A general dispersion relation is derived that integrates the Farley-Buneman, gradient-drift, and current-convective plasma instabilities (FBI, GDI, and CCI) within the same formalism for an arbitrary altitude, wave propagation vector, and background density gradient. The limiting cases of the FBI/GDI in the E region for nearly field-aligned irregularities, GDI/CCI in the main F region at long wavelengths, and GDI at high altitudes are successfully recovered using analytic analysis. Numerical solutions are found for more general representative cases spanning the entire ionosphere. It is demonstrated that the results are consistent with those obtained using a general FBI/GDI/CCI theory developed previously at and near E region altitudes under most conditions. The most significant differences are obtained for strong gradients (scale lengths of 100 m) at high altitudes such as those that may occur during highly structured soft particle precipitation events. It is shown that the strong gradient case is dominated by inertial effects and, for some scales, surprisingly strong additional damping due to higher-order gradient terms. The growth rate behavior is examined with a particular focus on the range of wave propagations with positive growth (instability cone) and its transitions between altitudinal regions. It is shown that these transitions are largely controlled by the plasma density gradients even when FBI is operational.

  8. Electric field formation in three different plasmas: A fusion reactor, arc discharge, and the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwan Chul

    2017-11-01

    Three examples of electric field formation in the plasma are analyzed based on a new mechanism driven by ion-neutral collisions. The Gyro-Center Shift analysis uses the iteration of three equations including perpendicular current induced by the momentum exchange between ions and neutrals when there is asymmetry over the gyro-motion. This method includes non-zero divergence of current that leads the solution of time dependent state. The first example is radial electric field formation at the boundary of the nuclear fusion device, which is a key factor in the high-confinement mode operation of future fusion reactors. The second example is the reversed rotation of the arc discharge cathode spot, which has been a mysterious subject for more than one hundred years. The third example is electric field formations in the earth's ionosphere, which are important components of the equatorial electrojet and black aurora. The use of one method that explains various examples from different plasmas is reported, along with a discussion of the applications.

  9. Radar probing of ionospheric plasmas precisely confirms linear kinetic plasma theory (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Donald

    2010-05-01

    In 1958 W. E. Gordon first suggested that huge radars could probe the ionosphere via scattering from independent electrons, even though the radar cross section of a single electron is only 10-28 m2. This suggestion quickly led to the construction of two enormous radars in the early 1960s, one near Lima, Peru, and one near Arecibo, Puerto Rico. It soon became apparent that the theory of this scatter was more complicated than originally envisaged by Gordon. Although the new theory was more complicated, it was much richer: by measuring the detailed shape of the Doppler frequency spectrum (or alternatively the signal autocorrelation function, the ACF), a radar researcher could determine many, if not most, of the parameters of interest of the plasma. There is now a substantial network of major radar facilities scattered from the magnetic equator (Peru) to the high arctic latitudes (Svalbard and Resolute Bay), all doing important ionospheric research. The history of what is now called Incoherent Scatter (even though it is not truly incoherent) is fascinating, and I will touch on a few highlights. The sophisticated radar and data processing techniques that have been developed are also impressive. In this talk, however, I want to focus mainly on the details of the theory and on how the radar observations have confirmed the predictions of classical linear plasma kinetic theory to an amazingly high degree of precision, far higher than has any other technique that I am aware of. The theory can be, and has been, developed from two very different points of view. One starts with 'dressed particles,' or Coulomb 'clouds' around ions and electrons moving with a Maxwellian velocity distribution; the second starts by considering all the charged particles to be made up of a spectrum of density plane waves and then invokes a generalized version of the Nyquist Noise Theorem to calculate the thermal amplitudes of the waves. Both approaches give exactly the same results, results that

  10. Effects of ionizing energetic electrons and plasma transport in the ionosphere during the initial phase of the December 2006 magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, A. V.; Huang, C.-M.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Andreeva, E. S.; Nesterov, I. A.; Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Tumanova, Yu. S.

    2016-06-01

    The initial phase of a major geomagnetic storm on 14 December 2006 was selected in order to investigate the ionizing effect of energetic electrons in the ionosphere. The global network of GPS receivers was used to analyze the total electron content (TEC). A strong positive ionospheric storm of ~20 TEC units (TECU) with ~6 h duration was observed on the dayside during the interval of northward interplanetary magnetic field. At the same time, the NOAA/POES satellites observed long-lasting intense fluxes of >30 keV electrons in the topside ionosphere at middle and low latitudes, including a near-equatorial forbidden zone outside of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). We found that the TEC increases overlapped well with the enhancements of energetic electrons. Modeling of the ionospheric response by using a Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Protonosphere, based on the standard mechanisms of plasma transport, could only partially explain the ionospheric response and was unable to predict the long-duration increase of TEC. For the energetic electrons, we estimated the ionizing effect of ~45 TECU and ~23 TECU in the topside ionosphere, respectively, inside and outside of SAA. The ionizing effect contributed from 50% to 100% of TEC increases and provided the long duration and wide latitudinal extension of the positive ionospheric storm. This finding is a very important argument in supporting significant ionizing effect of energetic electrons in the storm time ionosphere both at middle and low latitudes.

  11. First CLUSTER plasma and magnetic field measurements of flux transfer events in conjunction with their ionospheric flow signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, I. J.; Taylor, M. G.; Lavraud, B.; Cowley, S. W.; Lester, M.; Fenrich, F. R.; Fazakerley, A.; Räme, H.; Sofko, G.; Balogh, A.

    2001-12-01

    The launch of the Cluster satellite constellation allows, amongst other things, the study of the small-scale spatio-temporal structures in the near-Earth geospace. We present a case study of the high-altitude northern hemispheric cusp by the Cluster-II spacecraft constellation under southward IMF conditions. During this interval Cluster traversed the northern hemispheric dayside region and crossed the magnetopause close to the noon-midnight meridian, and observed both the plasma and magnetic field observations of transient reconnection for a number of hours. Throughout this interval, the ionospheric footprint of the spacecraft maps into the Canadian sector of the Earth's ionosphere into the Saskatoon and Kapuskasing HF radars fields-of-view. This SuperDARN HF radar pair observe the ionospheric flows generated by this transient reconnection during this interval at approximately the same magnetic latitude and local time. The calculated orientation of the reconnected flux tubes is found to be in accordance with the prevailing IMF conditions and the direction of motion of the excited ionospheric flows. We discuss these observations in terms of transient magnetic flux transfer and in terms of the size and location of the active reconnection X-line at the low-latitude magnetopause.

  12. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  13. The effect of the geomagnetic field on negative voltage spheres in the ionospheric plasma: Fluid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1994-07-01

    Experiments involving the interaction of spherical conducting objects biases with hight voltages in the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) environment have been conducted and designed. In these experiments, both positive and negative voltages have been applied to the spheres. Previously, there have been theoretical and numerical studies of positive voltage spheres in plasmas with and without magnetic fields. There also have been studies of negative voltage objects in unmagnetized plasmas. Here, we used a fluid model to study the plasma response to a negative voltage sphere immersed in a magnetized plasma. Our main purpose was to investigate the role of the magnetic field during the early-time interaction between the negative voltage sphere and the ambient plasma in the LEO environment. In this study, different applied voltages, magnetic field strengths, and rise-times of the applied voltages were considered. It was found that with the strength of the geomagnetic field the ions are basically not affected by the magnetic field on the time scale of hundreds of plasma periods considered in this study. The ion density distribution around the sphere and the collected ion flux by the sphere are basically the same as in the case without the magnetic field. The electron motion is strongly affected by the magnetic field. One effect is to change the nature of the electron over-shoot oscillation from regular to somewhat turbulent. Although the electrons move along the magnetic field much more easily than across the magnetic field, some redirection effect causes the electron density to distribute as if the magnetic field effect is minimal. The sheath struture and the electric field around the sphere tend to be spherical. A finite rise-time of the applied voltage reduces the oscillatory activities and delays the ion acceleration. However, the effect of the rise-time depends on both the duration of the rise-time and the ion plasma period.

  14. Theoretical and experimental zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Daniela C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, Vivian M.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble zonal drift velocity observations and their comparison with model calculations. The bubble zonal velocities were measured using airglow OI630 nm all-sky digital images and the model calculations were performed taking into account flux-tube integrated Pedersen conductivity and conductivity weighted neutral zonal winds. The digital images were obtained from an all-sky imaging system operated over the low-latitude station Cachoeira Paulista (Geogr. 22.5S, 45W, dip angle 31.5S) during the period from October 1998 to August 2000. Out of the 138 nights of imager observation, 29 nights with the presence of plasma bubbles are used in this study. These 29 nights correspond to geomagnetically rather quiet days (∑K P < 24+) and were grouped according to season. During the early night hours, the calculated zonal drift velocities were found to be larger than the experimental values. The best matching between the calculated and observed zonal velocities were seen to be for a few hours around midnight. The model calculation showed two humps around 20 LT and 24 LT that were not present in the data. Average decelerations obtained from linear regression between 20 LT and 24 LT were found to be: (a) Spring 1998, -8.61 ms -1 h -1; (b) Summer 1999, -0.59 ms -1 h -1; (c) Spring 1999, -11.72 ms -1 h -1; and (d) Summer 2000, -8.59 ms -1 h -1. Notice that Summer and Winter here correspond to southern hemisphere Summer and Winter, not northern hemisphere.

  15. Effects of Geomagnetic Storms on the Postsunset Vertical Plasma Drift in the Equatorial Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Song

    2018-05-01

    It has been observed that geomagnetic storms cause suppression of the occurrence of equatorial spread F or plasma bubbles in the evening sector. In this study, we use ion drift data measured by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite over 6 years (2008-2014) to derive the dependence of the vertical ion drift at the prereversal enhancement peak on the strength of magnetic storms (the Dst index). It is found that the average vertical ion drift does not change much for Dst in the range between 0 and -60 nT but decreases approximately linearly with the increasing magnitude of Dst for Dst < -60 nT. The net decrease in the average vertical ion drift is 30 m/s when Dst changes from -60 to -90 nT. This result is derived when the ion drift data during the storm main phase are excluded, so the decrease of the vertical ion drift is caused by storm time disturbance dynamo. A possible interpretation of this phenomenon is that geomagnetic activity must be strong enough (e.g., Dst < -60 nT) so disturbance winds can reach the equatorial region and change plasma drifts there. The storm time disturbance dynamo becomes dominant in the equatorial ionospheric dynamics near the end of the storm main phase, 4.7 hr after the storm onset. The postsunset vertical ion drift is significantly decreased during the early stage of the storm recovery phase but becomes almost fully recovered when Dst increases close to -60 nT.

  16. A multi-instrument case study of high-latitude ionospheric GNSS scintillation due to drifting plasma irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, C.; Oksavik, K.; Moen, J. I.; Romano, V.

    2013-12-01

    For this study, GPS receiver scintillation and Total Electron Content (TEC) data from high-latitude locations on Svalbard have been combined with several other data sets, including the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and allsky cameras, to perform a multi-instrument case study of high-latitude GPS ionospheric scintillations in relation to drifting plasma irregularities at night over Svalbard on 31 October 2011. Scintillations are rapid amplitude and phase fluctuations of electromagnetic signals. GNSS-based systems may be disturbed by ionospheric plasma irregularities and structures such as plasma patches (areas of enhanced electron density in the polar cap) and plasma gradients. When the GNSS radio signals propagate through such areas, in particular gradients, the signals experience scintillations that at best increases positioning errors and at worst may break the receiver's signal lock, potentially resulting in the GNSS receiver losing track of its position. Due to the importance of many GNSS applications, it is desirable to study the scintillation environment to understand the limitations of the GNSS systems. We find scintillation mainly localised to plasma gradients, with predominantly phase scintillation at the leading edge of patches and both phase and amplitude scintillation at the trailing edge. A single edge may also contain different scintillation types at different locations.

  17. Variations of ionospheric plasma at different altitudes before the 2005 Sumatra Indonesia Ms 7.2 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xuemin; Novikov, Victor; Shen, Xuhui

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many researchers pay more attention to abnormities before earthquake, and in this study, seismo-ionospheric synchronous disturbances at different altitudes by GPS and satellite observations were first studied around one Sumatra Indonesia Ms 7.2 earthquake that occurred on 5 July 2005. By using the same temporal and spatial methods, data of GPS-total electron content (TEC) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, electron density (Ne) from Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions, and ion density (Ni) from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program were deeply analyzed. The ionospheric plasma disturbances in GPS-TEC and increasement of Ne at 710 km were found on 4 July, and plasma density at the three altitudes has all increased on 7 July after the earthquake. All the disturbances were not just above the epicenter. TEC perturbations have happened at the east of the epicenter for the two days, and electron density enhancement at 710 km has moved to west of the TEC perturbations at the same time on 4 July, which may be caused by E × B drift. The moving direction of upgoing plasma was simulated using SAMI2 model. The results have shown that the plasma will move to higher altitude along the geomagnetic force line, which could exactly account for the plasma density enhancement in the northern direction of the geomagnetic south latitude earthquake.

  18. An investigation of methods for updating ionospheric scintillation models using topside in-situ plasma density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secan, James A.

    1991-05-01

    Modern military communication, navigation, and surveillance systems depend on reliable, noise-free transionospheric radio-frequency channels. They can be severely impacted by small-scale electron-density irregularities in the ionosphere, which cause both phase and amplitude scintillation. Basic tools used in planning and mitigation schemes are climatological in nature and thus may greatly over- and under-estimate the effects of scintillation in a given scenario. This report summarizes the results of the first year of a three-year investigation into the methods for updating ionospheric scintillation models using observations of ionospheric plasma-density irregularities measured by DMSP Scintillation Meter (SM) sensor. Results are reported from the analysis of data from a campaign conducted in January 1990 near Tromso, Norway, in which near coincident in-situ plasma-density and transionospheric scintillation measurements were made. Estimates for the level of intensity and phase scintillation on a transionospheric UHF radio link in the early-evening auroral zone were calculated from DMSP SM data and compared to the levels actually observed.

  19. Poker flat radar observations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling electrodynamics of the earthward penetrating plasma sheet following convection enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Zou, S.; Heinselman, C. J.; Nicolls, M. J.; Anderson, P. C.

    2009-05-01

    The plasma sheet moves earthward (equatorward in the ionosphere) after enhancements in convection, and the electrodynamics of this response is strongly influenced by Region 2 magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. We have used Poker Flat Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) observations associated with two relatively abrupt southward turnings of the IMF to provide an initial evaluation of aspects of this response. The observations show that strong westward sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) flow regions moved equatorward as the plasma sheet electron precipitation (the diffuse aurora) penetrated equatorward following the IMF southward turnings. Consistent with our identification of these flows as SAPS, concurrent DMSP particle precipitation measurements show the equatorial boundary of ion precipitation equatorward of the electron precipitation boundary and that westward flows lie within the low-conductivity region between the two boundaries where the plasma sheet ion pressure gradient is expected to drive downward R2 currents. Evidence for these downward currents is seen in the DMSP magnetometer observations. Preliminary examination indicates that the SAPS response seen in the examples presented here may be common. However, detailed analysis will be required for many more events to reliably determine if this is the case. If so, it would imply that SAPS are frequently an important aspect of the inner magnetospheric electric field distribution, and that they are critical for understanding the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to enhancements in convection, including understanding the earthward penetration of the plasma sheet. This earthward penetration is critical to geomagnetic disturbance phenomena such as the substorm growth phase and the formation of the stormtime ring current. Additionally, for one example, a prompt electric field response to the IMF southward turnings is seen within the inner plasma sheet.

  20. Characterizing ISS Charging Environments with On-Board Ionospheric Plasma Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Jospeh I.; Craven, Paul D.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright Jr, Kenneth; Parker, Paul D.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Kramer, Leonard; Hartman, William A.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by interactions of the biased United States (US) 160 volt solar arrays with the relatively high density, low temperature plasma environment in low Earth orbit. Conducting surfaces on the vehicle structure charge negative relative to the ambient plasma environment because ISS structure is grounded to the negative end of the US solar arrays. Transient charging peaks reaching potentials of some tens of volts negative controlled by photovoltaic array current collection typically occur at orbital sunrise and sunset as well as near orbital noon. In addition, surface potentials across the vehicle structure vary due to an induced v x B (dot) L voltage generated by the high speed motion of the conducting structure across the Earth's magnetic field. Induced voltages in low Earth orbit are typically only approx.0.4 volts/meter but the approx.100 meter scale dimensions of the ISS yield maximum induced potential variations ofapprox.40 volts across the vehicle. Induced voltages are variable due to the orientation of the vehicle structure and orbital velocity vector with respect to the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field along the ISS orbit. In order to address the need to better understand the ISS spacecraft potential and plasma environments, NASA funded development and construction of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) which was deployed on an ISS starboard truss arm in August 2006. The suite of FPMU instruments includes two Langmuir probes, a plasma impedance probe, and a potential probe for use in in-situ monitoring of electron temperatures and densities and the vehicle potential relative to the plasma environment. This presentation will describe the use of the FPMU to better characterize interactions of the ISS with the space environment, changes in ISS charging as the vehicle configuration is modified during ISS construction, and contributions of FPMU vehicle potential and plasma environment

  1. Ionospheric research opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickel, Dwight

    1985-05-01

    Ground-based explosions have been exploited successfully in the past as a relatively controlled source for producing ionospheric disturbances. On June 25, the Defense Nuclear Agency will conduct a high explosives test on the northern section of the White Sands Missile Range. Approximately 4,800 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) will be detonated at ground level, producing an acoustic shock wave with a surface pressure change of approximately 20 mbar at a 6 km range. This shock front will have sufficient strength to propagate into the ionosphere with at least a 10% change in the ambient pressure across the disturbance front in the lower F region. Such an ionospheric perturbation will give ionospheric researchers an excellent opportunity to investigate acoustic propagation at ionospheric heights, shock dissipation effect, the ion-neutral coupling process, acoustic-gravity wave (traveling ionospheric disturbance) generation mechanisms, and associated RF phenomena.

  2. Mesoscale Ionospheric Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    Mesoscale Ionospheric Prediction Gary S. Bust 10000 Burnet Austin Texas, 78758 phone: (512) 835-3623 fax: (512) 835-3808 email: gbust...time-evolving non-linear numerical model of the mesoscale ionosphere , second to couple the mesoscale model to a mesoscale data assimilative analysis...third to use the new data-assimilative mesoscale model to investigate ionospheric structure and plasma instabilities, and fourth to apply the data

  3. In-situ studies of plasma irregularities in high latitude ionosphere with the ICI-2 sounding rocket within the 4DSpace project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloch, Wojciech; Moen, Joran; Spicher, Andres

    Ionospheric plasma is often characterized by irregularities, instabilities, and turbulence. Two regions of the ionospheric F-layer are of particular interest: low-latitudes for the equatorial anomaly and electrojet, and high-latitude regions where the most dynamic phenomena occur due to magnetic field lines coupling to the magnetosphere and the solar wind. The spectra of plasma fluctuations in the low-latitude F-layer usually exhibit a power law with a steeper slope at high frequencies [1]. Until recently, there was no clear evidence of the corresponding double slope spectra for plasma fluctuations in the high latitude ionospheric F-layer, and this difference was not well understood. We report the first direct observations of the double slope power spectra for plasma irregularities in the F-layer of the polar ionosphere [2]. The ICI-2 sounding rocket, which intersected enhanced plasma density regions with decameter scale irregularities in the cusp region, measured the electron density with unprecedented high resolution. This allowed for a detailed study of the plasma irregularities down to kinetic scales. Spectral analysis reveals double slope power spectra for regions of enhanced fluctuations associated mainly with density gradients, with the steepening of the spectra occurring close to the oxygen gyro-frequency. The double slope spectra are further supported by the results from the ICI-3 sounding rocket. Double slope spectra were not resolved in previous works presumably due to limited resolution of instruments. The study is a part of the 4DSpace initiative for integrated studies of the ionospheric plasma turbulence with multi-point, multi-scale in-situ studies by sounding rockets and satellites, and numerical and analytical models. A brief overview of the 4DSpace initiative is given. [1] M.C. Kelley, The Earth’s Ionosphere Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics (Elsevier, Amsterdam 2009). [2] A. Spicher, W. J. Miloch, and J. I. Moen, Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, (in

  4. Preliminary Interpretation of Ambient Pickup Ions at Titan Observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument is scheduled to observe the plasma environment at Titan October 26,2004 from the Cassini Orbiter. Preliminary CAPS ion measurements from this encounter will be compared with measurements made by the Voyager I Plasma Science Instrument (PSI). The comparison will be used to evaluate previous interpretations and predictions of the Titan plasma environment that have been made using PSI measurements. The comparisons will focus on the composition and nature of the ambient plasma and pickup ions. Using the CAPS ion measurements, some of the questions to be addressed, as stimulated by the previous interpretations and predictions made evaluating PSI data, are the following: A) Are H+ and N+ the major ion components of Saturn's rotating magnetosphere in the vicinity of Titan? B) Are other ambient ions present? C) Are finite gyroradius effects apparent in ambient N+ as the result of its interaction with Titans atmosphere? D) Are the principal pickup ions composed of H+, H2+, N+, N2+ and CH4+? E) Is the dominant pickup ion closest to Titan's ionopause N2+? F) Is there evidence of slowing down of the ambient plasma due to pickup ion mass loading? F) If so, does the ambient plasma slow down rapidly, as the ionopause is approached and heavier pickup ions like N2+ are added? During the Voyager I flyby, Titan was in Saturn's magnetosphere. If Titan is in Saturn's magnetosheath or the solar wind at the encounter, questions similar to the above will be addressed as appropriate.

  5. Investigation of Ionospheric Turbulence and Whistler Wave Interactions with Space Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-21

    an oscillating LOS velocity with the same periodicity as the heating modulation pattern. A set of Fourier periodogram from the MUIR LOS velocity...scale ionospheric turbulence are discussed separately, viz., (a) anomalous heat source-induced acoustic gravity waves (AGW), and (b) HF radio wave...ionospheric ducts, acoustic gravity waves (AGWs), anomalous heat sources, inner and outer radiation belts, L parameter, whistler wave interactions

  6. Induction signals from Callisto's ionosphere and their implications on a possible subsurface ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkorn, Oliver; Saur, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    We investigate whether induction within Callisto's electrically conductive ionosphere can explain observed magnetic fields which have previously been interpreted as evidence of induction in a saline, electrically conductive subsurface ocean. Callisto's ionosphere is subject to the flow of time-periodic magnetized plasma of Jupiter's magnetosphere, which induces electric fields and electric currents in Callisto's electrically conductive ionosphere. We develop a simple analytic model for a first quantitative understanding of the effects of induction in Callisto's ionosphere caused by the interaction with a time-variable magnetic field environment. With this model, we also investigate how the associated ionospheric currents close in the ambient magnetospheric plasma. Based on our model, we find that the anisotropic nature of Callisto's ionospheric conductivity generates an enhancement effect on ionospheric loop currents which are driven by the time-variable magnetic field. This effect is similar to the Cowling channel effect known from Earth's ionosphere. Subsequently, we numerically calculate the expected induced magnetic fields due to Jupiter's time-variable magnetic field in an anisotropic conductive ionosphere and compare our results with the Galileo C-3 and C-9 flybys. We find that induction within Callisto's ionosphere is responsible for a significant part of the observed magnetic fields. Ionospheric induction creates induced magnetic fields to some extent similar as expected from a subsurface water ocean. Depending on currently unknown properties such as Callisto's nightside ionosphere, the existence of layers of "dirty ice" and the details of the plasma interaction, a water ocean might be located much deeper than previously thought or might not exist at all.

  7. Equivalent circuit simulation of cylindrical monopole impedance measurements in ionospheric electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraga, A.

    flight, at least due to attitude changes, so mentioned basic structures may be relevant in stray compensated bridge configuration. It is found that strongly disturbed measurements are related to activation of fast diodes, designed for input protection. Injections of charged particle beams saturated instrument. On line telemetry transmission interfered directly by receipted VHF fields and indirectly by particle acceleration leading to differential charging and direct current flow. In dense equatorial plasma, very peculiar evolution of base voltage spectra is linked to differential charging and intense direct current flow of thermal electrons. Deep, quasi periodic modulations or irregular excursions on time scales much shorter than sweep period are indicative of differential charging by ambient, energetic minor populations. Presented data and simulations address challenges in instrument design, monitoring and onboard data processing.

  8. Four-peak longitudinal distribution of the equatorial plasma bubbles observed in the topside ionosphere: Possible troposphere tide influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, L. N.; Filippov, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider an idea of the troposphere tide influence on the character of the longitudinal variations in the distribution of the equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) observed in the topside ionosphere. For this purpose, the obtained EPB longitudinal patterns were compared with the thermosphere and ionosphere characteristics having the prominent "wave-like" longitudinal structures with wave number 4, which are uniquely associated with the influence of the troposphere DE3 tides. The characteristics of the equatorial mass density anomaly (EMA), equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), zonal wind and pre-reversal E × B drift enhancement (PRE) were used for comparison. The equinox seasons during high solar activity were under consideration. It was obtained that the longitudinal patterns of the EMA and zonal wind show the surprising similarity with the EPB distributions (R ≅ 0.8, R ≅ 0.72). On the other hand, the resemblance with the ionosphere characteristics (EIA, PRE) is rather faint (R ≅ 0.37, R ≅ 0.12). It was shown that the thermosphere zonal winds are the most possible transfer mediator of the troposphere DE3 tide influence. The most successful moment for the transfer of the troposphere DE3 tide energy takes place in the beginning of the EPB production, namely, during the seed perturbation development.

  9. Numerical simulations of a sounding rocket in ionospheric plasma: Effects of magnetic field on the wake formation and rocket potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darian, D.; Marholm, S.; Paulsson, J. J. P.; Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Mortensen, M.; Miloch, W. J.

    2017-09-01

    The charging of a sounding rocket in subsonic and supersonic plasma flows with external magnetic field is studied with numerical particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A weakly magnetized plasma regime is considered that corresponds to the ionospheric F2 layer, with electrons being strongly magnetized, while the magnetization of ions is weak. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field orientation influences the floating potential of the rocket and that with increasing angle between the rocket axis and the magnetic field direction the rocket potential becomes less negative. External magnetic field gives rise to asymmetric wake downstream of the rocket. The simulated wake in the potential and density may extend as far as 30 electron Debye lengths; thus, it is important to account for these plasma perturbations when analyzing in situ measurements. A qualitative agreement between simulation results and the actual measurements with a sounding rocket is also shown.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of 3D beams of fast magnetosonic waves propagating in the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashov, V. Yu.; Belashova, E. S.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of the model of the three-dimensional (3D) generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation for magnetic field h = B / B the formation, stability, and dynamics of 3D soliton-like structures, such as the beams of fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves generated in ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma at a low-frequency branch of oscillations when β = 4 πnT/ B 2 ≪ 1 and β > 1, are studied. The study takes into account the highest dispersion correction determined by values of the plasma parameters and the angle θ = ( B, k), which plays a key role in the FMS beam propagation at those angles to the magnetic field that are close to π/2. The stability of multidimensional solutions is studied by an investigation of the Hamiltonian boundness under its deformations on the basis of solving of the corresponding variational problem. The evolution and dynamics of the 3D FMS wave beam are studied by the numerical integration of equations with the use of specially developed methods. The results can be interpreted in terms of the self-focusing phenomenon, as the formation of a stationary beam and the scattering and self-focusing of the solitary beam of FMS waves. These cases were studied with a detailed investigation of all evolutionary stages of the 3D FMS wave beams in the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma.

  11. Current leakage for low altitude satellites - Modeling applications. [simulation of high voltage solar cell array in ionospheric plasma environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, A.; Mccoy, J. E.; Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    To simulate the behavior of a high voltage solar cell array in the ionospheric plasma environment, the large (90 ft x 55 ft diameter) vacuum chamber was used to measure the high-voltage plasma interactions of a 3 ft x 30 ft conductive panel. The chamber was filled with Nitrogen and Argon plasma at electron densities of up to 1,000,000 per cu cm. Measurements of current flow to the plasma were made in three configurations: (a) with one end of the panel grounded, (b) with the whole panel floating while a high bias was applied between the ends of the panel, and (c) with the whole panel at high negative voltage with respect to the chamber walls. The results indicate that a simple model with a constant panel conductivity and plasma resistance can adequately describe the voltage distribution along the panel and the plasma current flow. As expected, when a high potential difference is applied to the panel ends more than 95% of the panel floats negative with respect to the plasma.

  12. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  13. Comparison of Three Plasma Sources for Ambient Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Kirsty; Salter, Tara L.; Bowfield, Andrew; Walsh, James L.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Bradley, James W.

    2014-09-01

    Plasma-based desorption/ionization sources are an important ionization technique for ambient surface analysis mass spectrometry. In this paper, we compare and contrast three competing plasma based desorption/ionization sources: a radio-frequency (rf) plasma needle, a dielectric barrier plasma jet, and a low-temperature plasma probe. The ambient composition of the three sources and their effectiveness at analyzing a range of pharmaceuticals and polymers were assessed. Results show that the background mass spectrum of each source was dominated by air species, with the rf needle producing a richer ion spectrum consisting mainly of ionized water clusters. It was also seen that each source produced different ion fragments of the analytes under investigation: this is thought to be due to different substrate heating, different ion transport mechanisms, and different electric field orientations. The rf needle was found to fragment the analytes least and as a result it was able to detect larger polymer ions than the other sources.

  14. Comparison of three plasma sources for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McKay, Kirsty; Salter, Tara L; Bowfield, Andrew; Walsh, James L; Gilmore, Ian S; Bradley, James W

    2014-09-01

    Plasma-based desorption/ionization sources are an important ionization technique for ambient surface analysis mass spectrometry. In this paper, we compare and contrast three competing plasma based desorption/ionization sources: a radio-frequency (rf) plasma needle, a dielectric barrier plasma jet, and a low-temperature plasma probe. The ambient composition of the three sources and their effectiveness at analyzing a range of pharmaceuticals and polymers were assessed. Results show that the background mass spectrum of each source was dominated by air species, with the rf needle producing a richer ion spectrum consisting mainly of ionized water clusters. It was also seen that each source produced different ion fragments of the analytes under investigation: this is thought to be due to different substrate heating, different ion transport mechanisms, and different electric field orientations. The rf needle was found to fragment the analytes least and as a result it was able to detect larger polymer ions than the other sources.

  15. Laboratory simulation of the interaction between a tethered satellite system and the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannaroni, G.; Giovi, R.; de Venuto, F.

    1992-10-01

    The authors report on the measurements performed in the IFSI/CNR plasma chamber at Frascati related to the laboratory investigation of the interaction between a plasma source and an ambient plasma of ionospheric type. Such an interaction is of relevant interest for the possibility of using electrodynamic tethered satellite systems, orbiting at ionospheric altitude, for generating electric power or propulsion in space. The interaction region was analyzed at various conditions of ambient magnetic field (/0-0.5/ G) and at different polarization levels of the plasma source (/0-40/ V). The plasma measurements were carried out with a diagnostic system using an array of Langmuir probes movable in the chamber so that a map of the plasma parameters could be obtained at the different experimental conditions.

  16. Waves generated in the vicinity of an argon plasma gun in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Lysak, R. L.; Peria, W.; Lynch, K. A.

    1993-06-01

    Wave and particle observations were made in the close vicinity of an argon plasma gun carned to over 600 km altitude on a sounding rocket. The gun was carned on a subpayload, separated from the main payload early in the flight. Twelve-second argon ion ejections were energized alternately with a peak energy of 100 or 200 eV. They produced waves, with multiple harmonics, in the range of ion cyclotron waves, 10 to 1000 Hz at rocket altitudes. Many of these waves could not be identified as corresponding to the cyclotron frequencies of any of the ions, argon or ambient, known to be present. In addition, the wave frequencies were observed to rise and fall and to change abruptly during a 12-s gun operation. The wave amplitudes, near a few hundred Hertz, were of the order of O. 1 V/m. Some of the waves may be ion-ion hybrid waves. Changes in ion populations were observed at the main payload and at the subpayload during gun operations. A gun-related, field-aligned, electron population also appeared.

  17. Waves generated in the vicinity of an argon plasma gun in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Lysak, R. L.; Peria, W.; Lynch, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    Wave and particle observations were made in the close vicinity of an argon plasma gun carned to over 600 km altitude on a sounding rocket. The gun was carned on a subpayload, separated from the main payload early in the flight. Twelve-second argon ion ejections were energized alternately with a peak energy of 100 or 200 eV. They produced waves, with multiple harmonics, in the range of ion cyclotron waves, 10 to 1000 Hz at rocket altitudes. Many of these waves could not be identified as corresponding to the cyclotron frequencies of any of the ions, argon or ambient, known to be present. In addition, the wave frequencies were observed to rise and fall and to change abruptly during a 12-s gun operation. The wave amplitudes, near a few hundred Hertz, were of the order of O. 1 V/m. Some of the waves may be ion-ion hybrid waves. Changes in ion populations were observed at the main payload and at the subpayload during gun operations. A gun-related, field-aligned, electron population also appeared.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of the 3D FMS and Alfven wave beams propagating in plasma of ionosphere and magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashov, Vasily

    We study the formation, structure, stability and dynamics of the multidimensional soliton-like beam structures forming on the low-frequency branch of oscillation in the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma for cases when beta=4pinT/B(2) <<1 and beta>1. In first case with the conditions omega>{k_{yz}}(2,) v_{x}$<plasma parameters and the angle Theta=(B,k) [2]. In another case the dynamics of the finite-amplitude Alfvén waves propagating in the ionosphere and magnetosphere near-to-parallel to the field B is described by the 3D derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (3-DNLS) equation for the magnetic field of the wave h=(B_{y}+iB_{z})/2B/1-beta/ [3]. To study the stability of multidimensional solitons in both cases we use the method developed in [2] and investigated the Hamiltonian bounding with its deformation conserving momentum by solving the corresponding variation problem. To study evolution of solitons and their collision dynamics the proper equations were being integrated numerically using the codes specially developed and described in detail in [3]. As a result, we have obtained that in both cases for a single solitons on a level with wave spreading and collapse the formation of multidimensional solitons can be observed. These results may be interpreted in terms of self-focusing phenomenon for the FMS and Alfvén waves’ beam as stationary beam formation, scattering and self-focusing of wave beam. The soliton collisions on a level with known elastic interaction can lead to formation of complex structures including the multisoliton bound states. For all cases the problem of multidimensional soliton dynamics in the ionospheric and

  19. The bactericidal effect of surface micro-discharge plasma under different ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T.; Zimmermann, J. L.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments on the bactericidal properties of plasmas using a surface micro-discharge (SMD) device in an atmosphere under different ambient temperatures and humidities was carried out. This plasma dispenser was developed for use as a disinfection system in private and public places (hospitals, medical practices, etc). The bactericidal effect is due to the interplay of the plasma and the chemical products produced via interactions with O2/N2 and H2O vapour in air. To use this device in different countries and therefore under various ambient conditions, it is important to understand its behaviour and efficiency, especially with respect to air temperature and humidity. The experimental results obtained in this study show that the bactericidal properties of the SMD plasma dispenser are not sensitive to the different temperatures and humidities.

  20. Significance of ambient conditions in uranium absorption and emission features of laser ablation plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Skrodzki, P. J.; Shah, N. P.; Taylor, N.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs laser ablation (LA) to investigate mechanisms for U optical signal variation under various environmental conditions during laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Potential explored mechanisms for signal quenching related to ambient conditions include plasma chemistry (e.g., uranium oxide formation), ambient gas confinement effects, and other collisional interactions between plasma constituents and the ambient gas. LA-LAS studies show that the persistence of the U ground state population is significantly reduced in the presence of air ambient compared to nitrogen. LA-OES results yield congested spectra from which the U I 356.18 nm transition is prominent andmore » serves as the basis for signal tracking. LA-OES signal and persistence vary negligibly between the test gases (air and N2), unlike the LA-LAS results. The plume hydrodynamic features and plume fundamental properties showed similar results in both air and nitrogen ambient. Investigation of U oxide formation in the laser-produced plasma suggests that low U concentration in a sample hinders consistent detection of UO molecular spectra.« less

  1. Significance of ambient conditions in uranium absorption and emission features of laser ablation plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Skrodzki, P. J.; Shah, N. P.; Taylor, N.

    2016-10-02

    This study employs laser ablation (LA) to investigate mechanisms for U optical signal variation under various environmental conditions during laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Potential mechanisms explored for signal quenching related to ambient conditions include plasma chemistry (e.g., uranium oxide formation), ambient gas confinement effects, and other collisional interactions between plas-ma constituents and the ambient gas. LA-LAS studies show that the persistence of the U ground state population is significantly reduced in the presence of air ambient compared to nitrogen. LA-OES yields congested spectra from which the U I 356.18 nm transition is prominent and servesmore » as the basis for signal tracking. LA-OES signal and per-sistence vary negligibly between the test gases (air and N 2), unlike the LA-LAS results. The plume hydrodynamic features and plume fundamental properties showed similar results in both air and nitrogen ambient. In conclusion, investigation of U oxide formation in the laser-produced plasma suggests that low U concentration in a sample hinders consistent detection of UO molecular spectra.« less

  2. A High Frequency Radio Technique for Measuring Plasma Drifts in the Ionosphere.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    MN’-’,oor-no o o o 000 0 0 0 0 00 r- 00 00000 0 0 0 0 0 r- n 0 0 0 0,, 0 , onM.... M o 0 0000 o00 nOWo ao,°on ,00- 0000 . • ° • AD-R149 569 A HIGH...Technique of Com- plex Amplitude Multifrequency Scanning for Ionospheric Spatial Doppler Measurements, Final Report AFCRL-72-0468, LTIRF- 347 /IP

  3. Characterizing the Meso-scale Plasma Flows in Earth's Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielse, C.; Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Deng, Y.; McWilliams, K. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Decadal Survey put forth several imperative, Key Science Goals. The second goal communicates the urgent need to "Determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs...over a range of spatial and temporal scales." Sun-Earth connections (called Space Weather) have strong societal impacts because extreme events can disturb radio communications and satellite operations. The field's current modeling capabilities of such Space Weather phenomena include large-scale, global responses of the Earth's upper atmosphere to various inputs from the Sun, but the meso-scale ( 50-500 km) structures that are much more dynamic and powerful in the coupled system remain uncharacterized. Their influences are thus far poorly understood. We aim to quantify such structures, particularly auroral flows and streamers, in order to create an empirical model of their size, location, speed, and orientation based on activity level (AL index), season, solar cycle (F10.7), interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inputs, etc. We present a statistical study of meso-scale flow channels in the nightside auroral oval and polar cap using SuperDARN. These results are used to inform global models such as the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) in order to evaluate the role of meso-scale disturbances on the fully coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Measuring the ionospheric footpoint of magnetospheric fast flows, our analysis technique from the ground also provides a 2D picture of flows and their characteristics during different activity levels that spacecraft alone cannot.

  4. Collisionless coupling of a high- β expansion to an ambient, magnetized plasma. I. Rayleigh model and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of a magnetized, expanding plasma with a high ratio of kinetic energy density to ambient magnetic field energy density, or β, are examined by adapting a model of gaseous bubbles expanding in liquids as developed by Lord Rayleigh. New features include scale magnitudes and evolution of the electric fields in the system. The collisionless coupling between the expanding and ambient plasma due to these fields is described as well as the relevant scaling relations. Several different responses of the ambient plasma to the expansion are identified in this model, and for most laboratory experiments, ambient ions should be pulled inward, against the expansion due to the dominance of the electrostatic field.

  5. Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Irregularities and Plasma Instabilities in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Gathered by the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Robert F.; Freudenreich, H.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides a unique data set which includes detailed measurements of irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with spread-F depletions. We present vector AC electric field observations gathered on C/NOFS that address a variety of key questions regarding how plasma irregularities, from meter to kilometer scales, are created and evolve. The talk focuses on occasions where the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400 km as solar activity has increased. In particular, during the equinox periods of 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set: The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second result is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is near or below the F-peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field

  6. Collisionless coupling of a high- β expansion to an ambient, magnetized plasma. II. Experimental fields and measured momentum coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2018-04-01

    The momentum coupled to a magnetized, ambient argon plasma from a high- β, laser-produced carbon plasma is examined in a collisionless, weakly coupled limit. The total electric field was measured by separately examining the induced component associated with the rapidly changing magnetic field of the high- β (kinetic β˜106), expanding plasma and the electrostatic component due to polarization of the expansion. Their temporal and spatial structures are discussed and their effect on the ambient argon plasma (thermal β˜10-2) is confirmed with a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic, which directly probed the argon ion velocity distribution function. For the given experimental conditions, the electrostatic field is shown to dominate the interaction between the high- β expansion and the ambient plasma. Specifically, the expanding plasma couples energy and momentum into the ambient plasma by pulling ions inward against the flow direction.

  7. Low-rank approximation in the numerical modeling of the Farley-Buneman instability in ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, S. V.; Smirnov, A. P.; Tyrtyshnikov, E. E.

    2014-04-01

    We consider numerical modeling of the Farley-Buneman instability in the Earth's ionosphere plasma. The ion behavior is governed by the kinetic Vlasov equation with the BGK collisional term in the four-dimensional phase space, and since the finite difference discretization on a tensor product grid is used, this equation becomes the most computationally challenging part of the scheme. To relax the complexity and memory consumption, an adaptive model reduction using the low-rank separation of variables, namely the Tensor Train format, is employed. The approach was verified via a prototype MATLAB implementation. Numerical experiments demonstrate the possibility of efficient separation of space and velocity variables, resulting in the solution storage reduction by a factor of order tens.

  8. Ionospheric chemical releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, Paul A.; Scales, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    Ionospheric plasma density irregularities can be produced by chemical releases into the upper atmosphere. F-region plasma modification occurs by: (1) chemically enhancing the electron number density; (2) chemically reducing the electron population; or (3) physically convecting the plasma from one region to another. The three processes (production, loss, and transport) determine the effectiveness of ionospheric chemical releases in subtle and surprising ways. Initially, a chemical release produces a localized change in plasma density. Subsequent processes, however, can lead to enhanced transport in chemically modified regions. Ionospheric modifications by chemical releases excites artificial enhancements in airglow intensities by exothermic chemical reactions between the newly created plasma species. Numerical models were developed to describe the creation and evolution of large scale density irregularities and airglow clouds generated by artificial means. Experimental data compares favorably with theses models. It was found that chemical releases produce transient, large amplitude perturbations in electron density which can evolve into fine scale irregularities via nonlinear transport properties.

  9. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitations, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by POLAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFls) in and near the auroral oval on southern perigee (approximately 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass-angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the dusk side after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawn side during the recovery phase. The UFls showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approximately 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above approximately 200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument (EFI) were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs. the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  10. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitation, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by Polar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFIs) in and near the aurora] oval on southern perigee (approx. 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the duskside after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawnside during the recovery phase. The UFIs showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approx. 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above -200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs, the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  11. Laser-Induced Plasmas in Ambient Air for Incoherent Broadband Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Albert A.; Dixneuf, Sophie; Orphal, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    The emission from a laser-induced plasma in ambient air, generated by a high power femtosecond laser, was utilized as pulsed incoherent broadband light source in the center of a quasi-confocal high finesse cavity. The time dependent spectra of the light leaking from the cavity was compared with those of the laser-induced plasma emission without the cavity. It was found that the light emission was sustained by the cavity despite the initially large optical losses of the laser-induced plasma in the cavity. The light sustained by the cavity was used to measure part of the S_1←S_0 absorption spectrum of gaseous azulene at its vapour pressure at room temperature in ambient air as well as the strongly forbidden γ--band in molecular oxygen: b^1σ^+_g (ν'=2)← X^3σ^-_g (ν''=0)

  12. Ground and Space-Based Measurement of Rocket Engine Burns in the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Bhatt, A.; Boyd, I. D.; Burt, J. M.; Caton, R. G.; Coster, A.; Erickson, P. J.; Huba, J. D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    On-orbit firings of both liquid and solid rocket motors provide localized disturbances to the plasma in the upper atmosphere. Large amounts of energy are deposited to ionosphere in the form of expanding exhaust vapors which change the composition and flow velocity. Charge exchange between the neutral exhaust molecules and the background ions (mainly O+) yields energetic ion beams. The rapidly moving pickup ions excite plasma instabilities and yield optical emissions after dissociative recombination with ambient electrons. Line-of-sight techniques for remote measurements rocket burn effects include direct observation of plume optical emissions with ground and satellite cameras, and plume scatter with UHF and higher frequency radars. Long range detection with HF radars is possible if the burns occur in the dense part of the ionosphere. The exhaust vapors initiate plasma turbulence in the ionosphere that can scatter HF radar waves launched from ground transmitters. Solid rocket motors provide particulates that become charged in the ionosphere and may excite dusty plasma instabilities. Hypersonic exhaust flow impacting the ionospheric plasma launches a low-frequency, electromagnetic pulse that is detectable using satellites with electric field booms. If the exhaust cloud itself passes over a satellite, in situ detectors measure increased ion-acoustic wave turbulence, enhanced neutral and plasma densities, elevated ion temperatures, and magnetic field perturbations. All of these techniques can be used for long range observations of plumes in the ionosphere. To demonstrate such long range measurements, several experiments were conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory including the Charged Aerosol Release Experiment, the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust experiments, and the Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments.

  13. Features of the Electromagnetic and Plasma Disturbances Induced at the Altitudes of the Earth's Outer Ionosphere by Modification of the Ionospheric F 2 Region Using High-Power Radio Waves Radiated by the SURA Heating Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Rapoport, V. O.; Schorokhova, E. A.; Belov, A. S.; Parrot, M.; Rauch, J.-L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we systematize the results of studying the characteristics of the plasma-density ducts, which was conducted in 2005-2010 during the DEMETER-satellite operation. The ducts are formed at altitudes of about 700 km as a result of the ionospheric F 2 region modification by high-power high-frequency radio waves radiated by the midlatitude SURA heating facility. All the performed measurements are used as the basis for determining the formation conditions for such ducts, the duct characteristics are studied, and the opportunities for the duct influence on the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and propagation of radio waves of various frequency ranges are demonstrated. The results of numerical simulation of the formation of such ducts are presented.

  14. Plasma Density and Electro-Magnetic Field Perturbations Hf-Induced in the Outer Ionosphere: Review of Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Rauch, Jean-Louis; Parrot, Michel; Rapoport, Victor; Shorokhova, Elena

    In the report we consider features of plasma density and electro-magnetic field perturbations induced in the Earth’s outer ionosphere by modification of F _{2} region by O-mode powerful HF radio waves radiated by the SURA heating facility. Experiments presented were carried out in 2005 - 2010. Plasma density perturbations were detected at altitudes of about of 700 km by instruments onboard the French DEMETER satellite when it intersected the disturbed magnetic flux tube. The formation of artificial HF-induced plasma density ducts in the outer ionosphere is a central discovery, which was made during the SURA-DEMETER experiments [1,2]. Analysis of experimental data available makes it possible to formulate ducts features and point out the conditions under which the formation of such ducts takes place. 1. Under night conditions ducts are characterized by the increased plasma density in the range from 20% to 80% relatively to its background value. As this takes place, the excess in the plasma ion component is due to O (+) ions dominating at altitudes of about 700 km, whereas the densities of lower mass H (+) and He ({+) } ions typically decrease by a percentage amount that is much more the relative increase in the density of O (+) ions. The duct formation was never observed under daytime conditions. According to [3] the HF-induced ducts were observed by ionosphere pumping in morning and evening hours but in these cases their intensity was no more than a few percentages. 2. The size of the ducts along the satellite orbits is of about 80 - 100 km. It is a reason why such ducts can be observed only if the minimal distance between the satellite and the center of the heated flux tube is less than 50 km. 3. The formation of ducts is observed only if the effective radiated power is more than 40 MW. For the SURA facility, to heat the ionosphere at higher efficiency due to the “magnetic-zenith effect”, the HF beam is often inclined by 12 - 16(°) southward. 4. The pump

  15. Ionospheric vertical plasma drift perturbations due to the quasi 2 day wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-05-01

    The thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics-general circulation model is utilized to study the vertical E × B drift perturbations due to the westward quasi 2 day wave with zonal wave numbers 2 and 3 (W2 and W3). The simulations show that both wind components contribute directly and significantly to the vertical drift, which is not merely confined to low latitudes. The vertical drifts at the equator induced by the total wind perturbations of W2 are comparable with that at middle latitudes, while the vertical drifts from W3 are much stronger at middle latitudes than at the equator. The ion drift perturbations induced by the zonal and meridional wind perturbations of W2 are nearly in-phase with each other, whereas the phase discrepancies of the ion drift induced by the individual wind component of W3 are much larger. This is because the wind perturbations of W2 and W3 have different latitudinal structures and phases, which result in different ionospheric responses through wind dynamo.

  16. An investigation of mechanisms other than lightning to explain certain wideband plasma wave bursts detected in the Venusian nightside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Several related topics are briefly discussed. Reviewed here is work on an investigation of plasma wave phenomena associated with the question of lightning on Venus. The work supported the contention that lightning is at least a candidate explanation for many of the 100 Hz-only Pioneer Venus orbital electric field detector (OEFD) signals. A review of the work on the investigation of mechanisms other than lightning to explain certain wideband plasma wave bursts detected in the Venusian nightside ionosphere is given. A summary is given of our analysis of data from 23 OEFD observing periods as well as a discussion of the properties of specifically multifrequency events. Our opportunity to work on this topic was not sufficient to draw any firm conclusions about the origins of the multifrequency bursts, but we call attention to what we consider to be several candidate sources. Also discussed are case studies to test for evidence of whistler mode propagation from subionospheric sources, results of a search for dispersive effects in the OEFD data, the results for a search for simultaneous 100 Hz and 730 Hz observations at altitudes below 150 km, changes with altitude in dispersive broadening effects in the time signatures of 100 Hz bursts, and a survey of activity at altitudes above 1000 km.

  17. High latitude field aligned light ion flows in the topside ionosphere deduced from ion composition and plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Hoegy, W. R.; Chen, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using a comprehensive ionospheric data set comprised of all available ion composition and plasma temperature measurements from satellites, the vertical distributions of ion composition and plasma temperatures are defined from middle latitudes up into the polar cap for summer conditions for altitudes below about 1200 km. These data are sufficient to allow a numerical estimation of the latitudinal variation of the light ion outflows from within the plasmasphere to the polar wind regions. The altitude at which significant light ion outflow begins is found to be lower during solar minimum conditions than during solar maximum. The H(+) outward speeds are of the order of 1 km/s near 1100 km during solar maximum but attain several km/s speeds for solar minimum. He(+) shows a similar altitude development of flow but attains polar cap speeds much less than 1 km/s at altitudes below 1100 km, particularly under solar maximum conditions. Outward flows are also found in the topside F-region for noontime magnetic flux tubes within the plasmasphere.

  18. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, G. Asher; Ackerman, Luke K.; Johnson, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  19. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources.

    PubMed

    Newsome, G Asher; Ackerman, Luke K; Johnson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  20. The effect of the ambient plasma conditions on the variation of charge on dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, M.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, M.; Bujarbarua, S.

    2003-02-01

    An experimental study has been performed into the variation of charge on dust grains with change in the ambient plasma conditons. A dust beam containing submicron sized silver grains was passed through plasma. The dust grains were charged by the plasma particles as well as by primary electrons from the filament. An increase in the filament current increased both the plasma density and the number density of the primary electrons. The grain charge was found out both from the deflection of the dust grains and also from the floating potential. The experimental observations shows that the secondary emission caused by the primary electrons significantly influenced and played a prominent role in the establishment of charge on the grains.

  1. Developing of the ionospheric plasma turbulence over the epicenters of the extremely strong earthquakes - the results of the DEMETER satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecki, J. S.; Parrot, M.; Wronowski, R.; Kosciesza, M.

    2011-12-01

    The DEMETER French microsatellite satellite was launched in June 2004 and finished its operation in December 2010. During the time of the DEMETER satellite operation some gigantic earthquakes took place. We will report the electromagnetic effects registered by DEMETER prior to the earthquakes with magnitude over 8 or just close to this value. We selected events with good coverage of the measurements in the burst mode when the wave form of the electric field variations were registered. It is because the special attention will be given to study of the characteristics of the spectra of these variations and search of the nonlinear effects. This analysis is possible in the time interval when the waveform has been transmitted. Using wavelet and bispectral analysis as well as the statistical characteristics of the measured parameter, we find that registered variations are associated with developing of the ionospheric plasma turbulence. It is mainly Kolmogorov type of the turbulence. The payload of the DEMETER allows to measure important plasma parameters (ion composition, electron density and temperature, energetic particles) with high temporal resolution in the ionosphere over the seismic regions. The correlation of the observed plasma turbulence with changes of the other parameters will be also given. In the present work analysis of the low frequency fluctuations of the electric and magnetic fields for the selected strong earthquakes will be given. The mechanism of the energy transmission from the earthquake to the ionosphere is not clear, but we can discuss the behavior of the ionospheric plasma and search of the instabilities which could be a source of the electromagnetic field variations. Some attempt of this discussion will be given in the presentation. We will present results obtained prior to the some giant earthquakes (Peru2007, Wechuan China 2008, Haiti 2010, Chile 2010).

  2. Determining the electron energy distribution near the plasma potential in the earth's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.; Cutler, J. R.; Dobbs, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A determination of the plasma potential using an electrostatic analyzer is described in which the potential difference between the instrument slit system and surrounding plasma is minimized. Data obtained from rocket-borne instrumentation demonstrate the viability of this technique for electron fluxes between thermal energies (about 0.5 V) and suprathermal energies (many volts).

  3. Case study of inclined sporadic E layers in the Earth's ionosphere observed by CHAMP/GPS radio occultations: Coupling between the tilted plasma layers and internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubenko, Vladimir N.; Pavelyev, A. G.; Kirillovich, I. A.; Liou, Y.-A.

    2018-04-01

    We have used the radio occultation (RO) satellite data CHAMP/GPS (Challenging Minisatellite Payload/Global Positioning System) for studying the ionosphere of the Earth. A method for deriving the parameters of ionospheric structures is based upon an analysis of the RO signal variations in the phase path and intensity. This method allows one to estimate the spatial displacement of a plasma layer with respect to the ray perigee, and to determine the layer inclination and height correction values. In this paper, we focus on the case study of inclined sporadic E (Es) layers in the high-latitude ionosphere based on available CHAMP RO data. Assuming that the internal gravity waves (IGWs) with the phase-fronts parallel to the ionization layer surfaces are responsible for the tilt angles of sporadic plasma layers, we have developed a new technique for determining the parameters of IGWs linked with the inclined Es structures. A small-scale internal wave may be modulating initially horizontal Es layer in height and causing a direction of the plasma density gradient to be rotated and aligned with that of the wave propagation vector k. The results of determination of the intrinsic wave frequency and period, vertical and horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic vertical and horizontal phase speeds, and other characteristics of IGWs under study are presented and discussed.

  4. Recent observations of traveling ionospheric disturbances and plasma bubbles using Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers in Asian and African sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuchiya, S.; Moral, A. C.; Okoh, D.

    2017-12-01

    We review recent observational results of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) and equatorial plasma bubbles obtained by using airglow imagers and Fabry-Perot interferometers of the Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers (OMTIs) at Asian and African sectors. The OMTIs contains 20 airglow imagers and 5 Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) at Canada, USA (Alaska), Russia, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Australia, and Nigeria (http://stdb2.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/omti/). The 3-dimentional Fast Fourier Transformation of airglow images makes it possible to analyze 16-year airglow images obtained at Shigaraki (34.8N) and Rikubetsu (43.5N), Japan, to obtain phase velocity spectra of gravity waves and MSTIDs. The MSTIDs spectra show clear southwestward preference of propagation and minor northeastward propagation over Japan. We also found clear negative correlation between MSTID power and solar F10.7 flux, indicating that MSTIDs becomes more active during solar quiet time. This fact suggest the control of ionospheric Perkins and E-F coupling instabilities by solar activities. Three TIDs in airglow images over Indonesia, including midnight brightness waves (MBWs), were compared with CHAMP-satellite overpass to investigate neutral density variations in the thermosphere associated with the TIDs. We found clear correspondence in variations between the airglow intensities and neutral densities, suggesting that the observed TIDs over the equatorial region is caused by gravity waves. We also compare average thermospheric temperatures measured by the four FPIs for 3-4 years with the MSIS90E and GAIA models. The comparison shows that GAIA generally shows better fitting than the MSIS90E, but at the equatorial stations, GAIA tends to fail to reproduce the FPI temperature, probably due to ambiguity of location of the midnight temperature maximum. We also made statistics of plasma bubble occurrence using airglow imager and GNSS receiver at Abuja (9

  5. On the expansion of ionospheric plasma into the near-wake of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, N. H.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Samir, U.; Hwang, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    During the Spacelab 2 mission, while the Plasma Diagnostics Package was attached to the Remote Manipulator System, differential ion vector measurements were obtained in the near wake at a distance of 4-5 Shuttle radii. The Orbiter's wake was found to fill in at a much faster rate than can be explained by simple thermal motion. The measurements strongly suggest that filling of the Orbiter's wake is produced by the process of 'collisionless plasma expansion into a vacuum' and that, for oblique angles of the magnetic field and velocity vectors, the near wake plasma depletion a few radii downstream is not sensitive to the body scale size.

  6. Macroscopic time and altitude distribution of plasma turbulence induced in ionospheric modification experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, H.; Dubois, D.; Russell, D.

    1996-03-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This research concentrated on the time dependence of the heater, induced-turbulence, and electron-density profiles excited in the ionosphere by a powerful radio-frequency heater wave. The macroscopic density is driven by the ponderomotive pressure and the density self-consistently determines the heater propagation. For typical parameters of the current Arecibo heater, a dramatic quasi-periodic behavior was found. For about 50 ms after turn-on of the heater wave, the turbulence is concentrated at the first standing-wave maximum of the heater near reflectionmore » altitude. From 50--100 ms the standing-wave pattern drops by about 1--2 km in altitude and the quasi-periodicity reappears at the higher altitudes with a period of roughly 50 ms. This behavior is due to the half-wavelength density depletion grating that is set up by the ponderomotive pressure at the maxima of the heater standing-wave pattern. Once the grating is established the heater can no longer propagate to higher altitudes. The grating is then unsupported by the heater at these altitudes and decays, allowing the heater to propagate again and initiate another cycle. For stronger heater powers, corresponding to the Arecibo upgrade and the HAARP heater now under construction, the effects are much more dramatic.« less

  7. Branches of electrostatic turbulence inside solitary plasma structures in the auroral ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golovchanskaya, Irina V.; Kozelov, Boris V.; Chernyshov, Alexander A.

    2014-08-15

    The excitation of electrostatic turbulence inside space-observed solitary structures is a central topic of this exposition. Three representative solitary structures observed in the topside auroral ionosphere as large-amplitude nonlinear signatures in the electric field and magnetic-field-aligned current on the transverse scales of ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} m are evaluated by the theories of electrostatic wave generation in inhomogeneous background configurations. A quantitative analysis shows that the structures are, in general, effective in destabilizing the inhomogeneous energy-density-driven (IEDD) waves, as well as of the ion acoustic waves modified by a shear in the parallel drift of ions. It is demonstrated that the dominatingmore » branch of the electrostatic turbulence is determined by the interplay of various driving sources inside a particular solitary structure. The sources do not generally act in unison, so that their common effect may be inhibiting for excitation of electrostatic waves of a certain type. In the presence of large magnetic-field-aligned current, which is not correlated to the inhomogeneous electric field inside the structure, the ion-acoustic branch becomes dominating. In other cases, the IEDD instability is more central.« less

  8. Spectroscopic Measurements of Collision-less Coupling Between Laser-Produced, Super-Alfvénic Debris Plasmas and Magnetized, Ambient Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton; Everson, E.; Schaeffer, D.; Constantin, C.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Clark, S.; Niemann, C.

    2013-06-01

    Emission spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to assess collision-less momentum and energy coupling between super-Alfvénic debris plasmas and magnetized, ambient plasmas of astrophysical relevance. In a recent campaign on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) utilizing the Phoenix laboratory Raptor laser (130 J, 25 ns FWHM), laser-ablated carbon debris plasmas were generated within magnetized, ambient helium plasmas (nelec ≈ 3×1012 cm-3, Telec ≈ 5.5 eV, B0 = 200 G), and prominent spectral lines of carbon and helium ions were studied in high resolution (˜ 0.01 nm). Time-resolved Doppler shift and width measurements of a C V ion spectral line reveal significant deceleration as the ions stream through the background plasma, which may indirectly indicate momentum coupling. Spectral lines of He II ions are observed to intensify by orders of magnitude and broaden, indicating energy transfer from the debris plasma to the background plasma.

  9. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dong; Wu, Shu-Qun; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  10. Investigation of the radiation properties of magnetospheric ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Shufan; Zhao, Guangxin; Wang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetic extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play an important role in modulating the Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics. High-frequency (HF) modulated heating of the ionosphere acts as a viable means to generate artificial ELF waves. The artificial ELF waves can reside in two different plasma regions in geo-space by propagating in the ionosphere and penetrating into the magnetosphere. As a consequence, the entire trajectory of ELF wave propagation should be considered to carefully analyze the wave radiation properties resulting from modulated ionospheric heating. We adopt a model of full wave solution to evaluate the Poynting vector of the ELF radiation field in the ionosphere, which can reflect the propagation characteristics of the radiated ELF waves along the background magnetic field and provide the initial condition of waves for ray tracing in the magnetosphere. The results indicate that the induced ELF wave energy forms a collimated beam and the center of the ELF radiation shifts obviously with respect to the ambient magnetic field with the radiation power inversely proportional to the wave frequency. The intensity of ELF wave radiation also shows a weak correlation with the size of the radiation source or its geographical location. Furthermore, the combination of ELF propagation in the ionosphere and magnetosphere is proposed on basis of the characteristics of the ELF radiation field from the upper ionospheric boundary and ray tracing simulations are implemented to reasonably calculate magnetospheric ray paths of ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating.

  11. Adiabatic Betatron deceleration of ionospheric charged particles: a new explanation for (i) the rapid outflow of ionospheric O ions, and for (ii) the increase of plasma mass density observed in magnetospheric flux tubes during main phases of geomagnetic s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005

  12. Electrodynamic Tether Operations beyond the Ionosphere in the Low-Density Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2007-01-01

    In the classical concept for the operation of electrodynamic tethers in space, a voltage is generated across the tether, either by the tether's orbital motion through the earth's planetary magnetic field or by a power supply; electrons are then collected from the ionospheric plasma at the positive pole; actively emitted back into space at the negative pole; and the circuit is closed by currents driven through the ambient conducting ionosphere. This concept has been proven to work in space by the Tethered Satellite System TSS-1 and TSS-1R Space Shuttle missions; and the Plasma Motor-Generator (PMG) tether flight experiment. However, it limits electrodynamic tether operations to the F-region of the ionosphere where the plasma density is sufficient to conduct the required currents--in other words, between altitudes of approximately 200 to 1000 km in sunlight. In the earth's shadow, the ionospheric density drops precipitously and tether operations, using the above approach, are not effective--even within this altitude range. There are numerous missions that require in-space propulsion in the Earth's shadow and/or outside of the above altitude range. This paper will, therefore, present the fundamentals of a concept that would allow electrodynamic tethers to operate almost anywhere within the magnetosphere, the region of space containing the earth's planetary magnetic field. In other words, because operations would be virtually independent of any ambient plasma, the range of electrodynamic operations would be extended into the earth's shadow and out to synchronous orbit--forty times the present operational range. The key to this concept is the active generation of plasma at each pole of the tether so that current generation ,does not depend on the conductivity of the ambient ionosphere. Arguments will be presented, based on ,existing flight data, which shed light on the behavior of charge emissions in space and show the plausibility of the concept.

  13. Highly Structured Plasma Density and Associated Electric and Magnetic Field Irregularities at Sub-Auroral, Middle, and Low Latitudes in the Topside Ionosphere Observed with the DEMETER and DMSP Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Robert F.; Liebrecht, C; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Parrot, M.; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Detailed observations of the plasma structure and irregularities that characterize the topside ionosphere at sub-auroral, middle, and low-latitudes are gathered with probes on the DEMETER and DMSP satellites. In particular, we present DEMETER observations near 700 km altitude that reveal: (1) the electric field irregularities and density depletions at mid-latitudes are remarkably similar to those associated with equatorial spread-F at low latitudes; (2) the mid-latitude density structures contain both depletions and enhancements with scale lengths along the spacecraft trajectory that typically vary from 10's to 100's of km; (3) in some cases, ELF magnetic field irregularities are observed in association with the electric field irregularities on the walls of the plasma density structures and appear to be related to finely-structured spatial currents and/or Alfven waves; (4) during severe geomagnetic storms, broad regions of nightside plasma density structures are typically present, in some instances extending from the equator to the subauroral regions; and (5) intense, broadband electric and magnetic field irregularities are observed at sub-auroral latitudes during geomagnetic storm periods that are typically associated with the trough region. Data from successive DEMETER orbits during storm periods in both the daytime and nighttime illustrate how enhancements of both the ambient plasma density, as well as sub-auroral and mid-latitude density structures, correlate and evolve with changes in the Dst. The DEMETER data are compared with near simultaneous observations gathered by the DMSP satellites near 840 km. The observations are related to theories of sub-auroral and mid-latitude plasma density structuring during geomagnetic storms and penetration electric fields and are highly germane to understanding space weather effects regarding disruption of communication and navigation signals in the near-space environment.

  14. Laboratory simulation of the electrodynamic interactions of a tethered satellite with an ionospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Lebreton, J. P.; Vannaroni, G.; Cosmovici, C.; Debrie, R.; Hamelin, M.; Pomathiod, L.; Arends, H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved experimental set-up in the Orleans Plasma Chamber allowed investigations of the I-V characteristics of a conductive spherical body (10 cm diameter) in a plasma environment. Moreover, the influence of a transversal magnetic field at 0.6 and 1.2 G was investigated, for the first time, both on the sheath potential profile and current collection. Floating potential profiles were measured at 16 different radial distances from the test body up to 9 body radii in 8 different angular positions. The test body potential could be increased in the range from -200 V up to +100 V. Preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  15. Ion dynamics of a laser produced aluminium plasma at different ambient pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Pranitha; Shashikala, H. D.; Philip, Reji

    2018-01-01

    Plasma is generated by pulsed laser ablation of an Aluminium target using 1064 nm, 7 ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. The spatial and temporal evolution of the whole plasma plume, as well as that of the ionic (Al2+) component present in the plume, are investigated using spectrally resolved time-gated imaging. The influence of ambient gas pressure on the expansion dynamics of Al2+ is studied in particular. In vacuum (10-5 Torr, 10-2 Torr) the whole plume expands adiabatically and diffuses into the ambient. For higher pressures in the range of 1-10 Torr plume expansion is in accordance with the shock wave model, while at 760 Torr the expansion follows the drag model. On the other hand, the expansion dynamics of the Al2+ component, measured by introducing a band pass optical filter in the detection system, fits to the shock wave model for the entire pressure range of 10-2 Torr to 760 Torr. The expansion velocities of the whole plume and the Al2+ component have been measured in vacuum. These dynamics studies are of potential importance for applications such as laser-driven plasma accelerators, ion acceleration, pulsed laser deposition, micromachining, laser-assisted mass spectrometry, ion implantation, and light source generation.

  16. A study of the cleft region using synoptic ionospheric plasma data obtained by the polar orbiting satellites Aeros-B and Isis-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kist, R.; Klumpar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of O(+) and NO(+) in the dayside high-latitude cleft region of the ionosphere are investigated based on synoptic particle and plasma measurements obtained by the polar orbiting Aeros-B and Isis-2 satellites. At a time when the orbital planes of the satellites are almost at right angles to each other, three maxima in ion temperature are observed, with two of them accompanied by an increased electron temperature and electron density irregularities, and the density of the molecular ions NO(+) and O2(+) is found to increase at the expense of O(+) density. Results are discussed in terms of a theory relating perpendicular electric fields to oxygen atom reaction rates. Systematic analysis of the Aeros data base reveals 14 additional instances of O(+) to NO(+) conversion, with a large variety of forms and structures reflecting the complex structure and dynamics of the high-latitude dayside ionosphere.

  17. Electron content of the ionosphere and the plasma sphere on the basis of ATS-6-Data, NNSS-data, and ionograms. [Navy Navigation Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitinger, R.; Hartmann, G. K.; Davies, K.

    1976-01-01

    The reported investigation takes into account data obtained with the aid of the geostationary satellite ATS-6, the satellites of the U.S. navy navigation system (NNSS) at an altitude between 900 and 1200 km, and the satellites ISIS 1 and ISIS 2. The altitude range between ground and ATS-6 is divided into two regions, including the 'ionosphere', involving the region with an upper limit of 2000 km, and the 'plasma sphere', involving the region above an altitude of 2000 km. Data concerning the electron content obtained from different sources are compared, taking into account discrepancies between ionogram-derived values and values computed on the basis of satellite measurements. Attention is also given to the vertical electron content of the ionosphere on the basis of a combination of data obtained with the aid of the ATS-6 and the NNSS.

  18. Propagation of atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet into ambient air at laminar gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchuk, M.; Stepanova, O.; Kurakina, N.; Spodobin, V.

    2017-05-01

    The formation of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in a gas flow passing through the discharge gap depends on both gas-dynamic properties and electrophysical parameters of the plasma jet generator. The paper presents the results of experimental and numerical study of the propagation of the APPJ in a laminar flow of helium. A dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) generated inside a quartz tube equipped with a coaxial electrode system, which provided gas passing through it, served as a plasma source. The transition of the laminar regime of gas flow into turbulent one was controlled by the photography of a formed plasma jet. The corresponding gas outlet velocity and Reynolds numbers were revealed experimentally and were used to simulate gas dynamics with OpenFOAM software. The data of the numerical simulation suggest that the length of plasma jet at the unvarying electrophysical parameters of DBD strongly depends on the mole fraction of ambient air in a helium flow, which is established along the direction of gas flow.

  19. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ravi Pratap, E-mail: ravips@iitk.ac.in; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2015-12-15

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablatedmore » plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.« less

  20. Handheld low-temperature plasma probe for portable "point-and-shoot" ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua S; Shelley, Jacob T; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-07-16

    We describe a handheld, wireless low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization source and its performance on a benchtop and a miniature mass spectrometer. The source, which is inexpensive to build and operate, is battery-powered and utilizes miniature helium cylinders or air as the discharge gas. Comparison of a conventional, large-scale LTP source against the handheld LTP source, which uses less helium and power than the large-scale version, revealed that the handheld source had similar or slightly better analytical performance. Another advantage of the handheld LTP source is the ability to quickly interrogate a gaseous, liquid, or solid sample without requiring any setup time. A small, 7.4-V Li-polymer battery is able to sustain plasma for 2 h continuously, while the miniature helium cylinder supplies gas flow for approximately 8 continuous hours. Long-distance ion transfer was achieved for distances up to 1 m.

  1. Effect of catalyst on deposition of vanadium oxide in plasma ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Saini, Sujit K.; Reddy, G. B.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we have studied effect of catalyst (buffer layer) on structure, morphology, crystallinity, uniformity of nanostructured thin films deposited in nitrogen plasma ambient keeping all other process parameters constant. The process used for deposition is novel known as Plasma Assisted Sublimation Process (PASP). Samples were then studied using SEM, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy. By structural analysis it was found out that samples deposited on Ni layer composed chiefly of α-V2O5 but minor amount of other phases were present in the sample. Samples deposited on Al catalyst layer revealed different phase of V2O5, where sample deposited on Ag was composed chiefly of VO2±x phase. Further analysis revealed that morphology of samples is also affected by catalyst. While samples deposited in Al and Ag layer tend to have reasonably defined geometry, sample deposited on Ni layer were irregular in shape and size. All the results well corroborate with each other.

  2. Semiannual and solar activity variations of daytime plasma observed by DEMETER in the ionosphere-plasmasphere transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; Yang, J. Y.; Berthelier, J. J.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2015-12-01

    Using the plasma data of Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) satellite and the NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric model, we examined the semiannual and solar activity variations of the daytime plasma and neutral composition densities in the ionosphere-plasmasphere transition region (~670-710 km). The results demonstrate that the semiannually latitudinal variation of the daytime oxygen ions (O+) is basically controlled by that of neutral atomic oxygen (O), whereas the latitude distributions of the helium and hydrogen ions (He+ and H+) do not fully depend on the neutral atomic helium (He) and hydrogen (H). The summer enhancement of the heavy oxygen ions is consistent with the neutral O enhancement in the summer hemisphere, and the oxygen ion density has significantly the summer-dense and winter-tenuous hemispheric asymmetry with respect to the dip equator. Although the winter enhancements of the lighter He+ and H+ ions are also associated with the neutral He and H enhancements in the winter hemisphere, the high-density light ions (He+ and H+) and electrons (e-) mainly appear at the low and middle magnetic latitudes (|λ| < 50°). The equatorial accumulations of the light plasma species indicate that the light charged particles (He+, H+, and e-) are easily transported by some equatorward forces (e.g., the magnetic mirror force and centrifugal force). The frequent Coulomb collisions between the charged particles probably lead to the particle trappings at different latitudes. Moreover, the neutral composition densities also influence their ion concentrations during different solar activities. From the low-F10.7 year (2007-2008) to the high-F10.7 year (2004-2005), the daytime oxygen ions and electrons increase with the increasing neutral atomic oxygen, whereas the daytime hydrogen ions tend to decrease with the decreasing neutral atomic hydrogen. The helium ion density has no obvious solar activity variation, suggesting that the

  3. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  4. Space-Based Three-Dimensional Imaging of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles: Advancing the Understanding of Ionospheric Density Depletions and Scintillation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-28

    Scintillation 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Comberiate, Joseph M. 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...bubble climatology. A tomographic reconstruction technique was modified and applied to SSUSI data to reconstruct three-dimensional cubes of ionospheric... modified and applied to SSUSI data to reconstruct three-dimensional cubes of ionospheric electron density. These data cubes allowed for 3-D imaging of

  5. Simultaneous Measurements of Substorm-Related Electron Energization in the Ionosphere and the Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivadas, N.; Semeter, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Kero, A.

    2017-10-01

    On 26 March 2008, simultaneous measurements of a large substorm were made using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm (THEMIS) spacecraft, and all sky cameras. After the onset, electron precipitation reached energies ≳100 keV leading to intense D region ionization. Identifying the source of energetic precipitation has been a challenge because of lack of quantitative and magnetically conjugate measurements of loss cone electrons. In this study, we use the maximum entropy inversion technique to invert altitude profiles of ionization measured by the radar to estimate the loss cone energy spectra of primary electrons. By comparing them with magnetically conjugate measurements from THEMIS-D spacecraft in the nightside plasma sheet, we constrain the source location and acceleration mechanism of precipitating electrons of different energy ranges. Our analysis suggests that the observed electrons ≳100 keV are a result of pitch angle scattering of electrons originating from or tailward of the inner plasma sheet at 9RE, possibly through interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The electrons of energy 10-100 keV are produced by pitch angle scattering due to a potential drop of ≲10 kV in the auroral acceleration region (AAR) as well as wave-particle interactions in and tailward of the AAR. This work demonstrates the utility of magnetically conjugate ground- and space-based measurements in constraining the source of energetic electron precipitation. Unlike in situ spacecraft measurements, ground-based incoherent scatter radars combined with an appropriate inversion technique can be used to provide remote and continuous-time estimates of loss cone electrons in the plasma sheet.

  6. Experimental study of atmospheric-pressure micro-plasmas for the ambient sampling of conductive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhengchao; He, Feng; Si, Xinlu; Bradley, James W.; Ouyang, Jiting

    2018-02-01

    Conductive solid material sampling by micro-plasma under ambient atmosphere was studied experimentally. A high-voltage pulse generator was utilized to drive discharge between a tungsten needle and metal samples. The effects of pulse width on discharge, micro-plasma and sampling were investigated. The electrical results show that two discharge current pulses can be formed in one voltage pulse. The duration of the first current pulse is of the order of 100 ns. The duration of the second current pulse depends on the width of the voltage pulse. The electrical results also show that arc micro-plasma was generated during both current pulses. The results of the emission spectra of different sampled materials indicate that the relative emission intensity of elemental metal ions will increase with pulse width. The excitation temperature and electron density of the arc micro-plasmas increase with the voltage pulse width, which contributes to the increase of relative emission intensity of metal ions. The optical images and energy dispersive spectroscopy results of the sampling spots on metal surfaces indicate that discharge with a short voltage pulse can generate a small sputtering crater.

  7. A combined spectroscopic and plasma chemical kinetic analysis of ionospheric samarium releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Dressler, Rainer A.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Caton, Ronald G.; Miller, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Two rocket-borne releases of samarium vapor in the upper atmosphere occurred in May 2013, as part of the Metal Oxide Space Clouds experiment. The releases were characterized by a combination of optical and RF diagnostic instruments located at the Roi-Namur launch site and surrounding islands and atolls. The evolution of the optical spectrum of the solar-illuminated cloud was recorded with a spectrograph covering a 400-800 nm spectral range. The spectra exhibit two distinct spectral regions centered at 496 and 636 nm within which the relative intensities change insignificantly. The ratio between the integrated intensities within these regions, however, changes with time, suggesting that they are associated with different species. With the help of an equilibrium plasma spectral model we attribute the region centered at 496 nm to neutral samarium atoms (Sm I radiance) and features peaking at 649 nm to a molecular species. No evidence for structure due to Sm+ (Sm II) is identified. The persistence of the Sm I radiance suggests a high dissociative recombination rate for the chemi-ionization product, SmO+. A one-dimensional plasma chemical kinetic model of the evolution of the density ratio NSmO/NSm(t) demonstrates that the molecular feature peaking at 649 nm can be attributed to SmO radiance. SmO+ radiance is not identified. By adjusting the Sm vapor mass of the chemical kinetic model input to match the evolution of the total electron density determined by ionosonde data, we conclude that less than 5% of the payload samarium was vaporized.

  8. New Model for Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskinen, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    A new model for ionospheric irregularities at Mars is presented. It is shown that wind-driven currents in the dynamo region of the Martian ionosphere can be unstable to the electromagnetic gradient drift instability. This plasma instability can generate ionospheric density and magnetic field irregularities with scale sizes of approximately 15-20 km down to a few kilometers. We show that the instability-driven magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes relative to background are correlated with the ionospheric density fluctuation amplitudes relative to background. Our results can explain recent observations made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft in the Martian ionosphere dynamo region.

  9. Radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kirchner, D L; Huff, R L; Morgan, D D; Persoon, A M; Averkamp, T F; Duru, F; Nielsen, E; Safaeinili, A; Plaut, J J; Picardi, G

    2005-12-23

    We report the first radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars with the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) instrument on board the orbiting Mars Express spacecraft. Several types of ionospheric echoes are observed, ranging from vertical echoes caused by specular reflection from the horizontally stratified ionosphere to a wide variety of oblique and diffuse echoes. The oblique echoes are believed to arise mainly from ionospheric structures associated with the complex crustal magnetic fields of Mars. Echoes at the electron plasma frequency and the cyclotron period also provide measurements of the local electron density and magnetic field strength.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers as selective adsorbents for ambient plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2017-05-01

    The application of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as molecular scavengers for ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry has been reported for the first time. MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer; nicotine, propyphenazone, or methylparaben as templates; ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker; and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as polymerization initiator. To perform ambient plasma ionization experiments, a setup consisting of the heated crucible, a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) plasma ion source, and a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer has been used. The heated crucible with programmable temperature allows for desorption of the analytes from MIPs structure which results in their direct introduction into the ion stream. Limits of detection, linearity of the proposed analytical procedure, and selectivities have been determined for three analytes: nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben. The analytes used were chosen from various classes of organic compounds to show the feasibility of the analytical procedure. The limits of detections (LODs) were 10 nM, 10, and 0.5 μM for nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben, respectively. In comparison with the measurements performed for the non-imprinted polymers, the values of LODs were improved for at least one order of magnitude due to preconcentration of the sample and reduction of background noise, contributing to signal suppression. The described procedure has shown linearity in a broad range of concentrations. The overall time of single analysis is short and requires ca. 5 min. The developed technique was applied for the determination of nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben in spiked real-life samples, with recovery of 94.6-98.4%. The proposed method is rapid, sensitive, and accurate which provides a new option for the detection of small organic compounds in various samples. Graphical abstract The experimental setup used for analysis.

  11. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  12. Impact of a cometary outburst on its ionosphere. Rosetta Plasma Consortium observations of the outburst exhibited by comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 19 February 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajra, R.; Henri, P.; Vallières, X.; Galand, M.; Héritier, K.; Eriksson, A. I.; Odelstad, E.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Burch, J. L.; Broiles, T.; Goldstein, R.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Richter, I.; Goetz, C.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Nilsson, H.; Altwegg, K.; Rubin, M.

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed study of the cometary ionospheric response to a cometary brightness outburst using in situ measurements for the first time. The comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) at a heliocentric distance of 2.4 AU from the Sun, exhibited an outburst at 1000 UT on 19 February 2016, characterized by an increase in the coma surface brightness of two orders of magnitude. The Rosetta spacecraft monitored the plasma environment of 67P from a distance of 30 km, orbiting with a relative speed of 0.2 m s-1. The onset of the outburst was preceded by pre-outburst decreases in neutral gas density at Rosetta, in local plasma density, and in negative spacecraft potential at 0950 UT. In response to the outburst, the neutral density increased by a factor of 1.8 and the local plasma density increased by a factor of 3, driving the spacecraft potential more negative. The energetic electrons (tens of eV) exhibited decreases in the flux of factors of 2 to 9, depending on the energy of the electrons. The local magnetic field exhibited a slight increase in amplitude ( 5 nT) and an abrupt rotation ( 36.4°) in response to the outburst. A weakening of 10-100 mHz magnetic field fluctuations was also noted during the outburst, suggesting alteration of the origin of the wave activity by the outburst. The plasma and magnetic field effects lasted for about 4 h, from 1000 UT to 1400 UT. The plasma densities are compared with an ionospheric model. This shows that while photoionization is the main source of electrons, electron-impact ionization and a reduction in the ion outflow velocity need to be accounted for in order to explain the plasma density enhancement near the outburst peak.

  13. Dissociative Recombination of FeO(+) with Electrons: Implications for Plasma Layers in the Ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Bones, D L; Plane, J M C; Feng, W

    2016-03-10

    The dissociative recombination (DR) of FeO(+) ions with electrons has been studied in a flowing afterglow reactor. FeO(+) was generated by the pulsed laser ablation of a solid Fe target, and then entrained in an Ar(+) ion/electron plasma where the absolute electron density was measured using a Langmuir probe. A kinetic model describing gas-phase chemistry and diffusion to the reactor walls was fitted to the experimental data, yielding a DR rate coefficient at 298 K of k(FeO(+) + e(-)) = (5.5 ± 1.0) × 10(-7) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), where the quoted uncertainty is at the 2σ level. Fe(+) ions in the lower thermosphere are oxidized by O3 to FeO(+), and this DR reaction is shown to provide a more important route for neutralizing Fe(+) below 110 km than the radiative/dielectronic recombination of Fe(+) with electrons. The experimental system was first validated by measuring two other DR reaction rate coefficients: k(O2(+) + e(-)) = (2.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-7) and k(N2O(+) + e(-)) = (3.3 ± 0.8) × 10(-7) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), which are in good agreement with the recent literature.

  14. High Power HF Excitation of Low Frequency Stimulated Electrostatic Waves in the Ionospheric Plasma over HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul; Selcher, Craig A.

    High Power electromagnetic (EM) waves transmitted from the HAARP facility in Alaska can excite low frequency electrostatic waves by several processes including (1) direct magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter (MSBS) and (2) parametric decay of high frequency electrostatic waves into electron and ion Bernstein waves. Either an ion acoustic (IA) wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency (fCI) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave just above fCI can be produced by MSBS. The coupled equations describing the MSBS instabil-ity show that the production of both IA and EIC waves is strongly influenced by the wave propagation direction relative to the background magnetic field. Experimental observations of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska have confirmed the theoretical predictions that only IA waves are excited for propagation along the magnetic zenith and that EIC waves can only be detected with oblique propagation angles. The electron temperature in the heated plasma is obtained from the IA spectrum offsets from the pump frequency. The ion composition can be determined from the measured EIC frequency. Near the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency, the EM pump wave is converted into an electron Bernstein (EB) wave that decays into another EB wave and an ion Bernstein (IB) wave. Strong cyclotron resonance with the EB wave leads to acceleration of the electrons. Ground based SEE observations are related to the theory of low-frequency electrostatic wave generation.

  15. Modifying the ionosphere with intense radio waves.

    PubMed

    Utlaut, W F; Cohen, R

    1971-10-15

    The ionospheric modification experiments provide an opportunity to better understand the aeronomy of the natural ionosphere and also afford the control of a naturally occurring plasma, which will make possible further progress in plasma physics. The ionospheric modification by powerful radio waves is analogous to studies of laser and microwave heating of laboratory plasmas (20). " Anomalous" reflectivity effects similar to the observed ionospheric attenuation have already been noted in plasmas modulated by microwaves, and anomalous heating may have been observed in plasmas irradiated by lasers. Contacts have now been established between the workers in these diverse areas, which span a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Perhaps ionospheric modification will also be a valuable technique in radio communications.

  16. Screening of agrochemicals in foodstuffs using low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua S; García-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-05-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) permits direct ambient ionization and mass analysis of samples in their native environment with minimal or no prior preparation. LTP utilizes dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to create a low power plasma which is guided by gas flow onto the sample from which analytes are desorbed and ionized. In this study, the potential of LTP-MS for the detection of pesticide residues in food is demonstrated. Thirteen multi-class agricultural chemicals were studied (ametryn, amitraz, atrazine, buprofezin, DEET, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, imazalil, isofenphos-methyl, isoproturon, malathion, parathion-ethyl and terbuthylazine). To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach, LTP-MS experiments were performed directly on fruit peels as well as on fruit/vegetable extracts. Most of the agrochemicals examined displayed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) for the direct measurement in the low picogram range. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm identification of selected pesticides by using for these experiments spiked fruit/vegetable extracts (QuEChERS, a standard sample treatment protocol) at levels as low as 1 pg, absolute, for some of the analytes. Comparisons of the data obtained by direct LTP-MS were made with the slower but more accurate conventional LC-MS/MS procedure. Herbicides spiked in aqueous solutions were detectable at LODs as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) without the need for any sample preparation. The results demonstrate that ambient LTP-MS can be applied for the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased produce and in natural water samples. Quantitative analysis was also performed in a few selected cases and displayed a relatively high degree of linearity over four orders of magnitude.

  17. Faraday Rotation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Signals as a Method of Ionospheric Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noël, J.-M.

    2017-10-01

    Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices that are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low Earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this manuscript we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick ionospheric model.

  18. Electromagnetic fluctuations generated in the boundary layer of laboratory-created ionospheric depletions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Lei, Jiuhou, E-mail: leijh@ustc.edu.cn; Collaborative Innovation Center of Astronautical Science and Technology, Harbin 150001

    Ionospheric depletions, produced by release of attachment chemicals into the ionosphere, were widely investigated and taken as a potential technique for the artificial modification of space weather. In this work, we reported the experimental evidence of spontaneously generated electromagnetic fluctuations in the boundary layer of laboratory-created ionospheric depletions. These depletions were produced by releasing attachment chemicals into the ambient plasmas. Electron density gradients and sheared flows arose in the boundary layer between the ambient and the negative ions plasmas. These generated electromagnetic fluctuations with fundamental frequency f{sub 0} = 70 kHz lie in the lower hybrid frequency range, and the mode propagates withmore » angles smaller than 90° (0.3π–0.4π) relative to the magnetic field. Our results revealed that these observed structures were most likely due to electromagnetic components of the electron-ion hybrid instability. This research demonstrates that electromagnetic fluctuations also can be excited during active release experiments, which should be considered as an essential ingredient in the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions.« less

  19. A Review of Ionospheric Scintillation Models.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, S

    This is a general review of the existing climatological models of ionospheric radio scintillation for high and equatorial latitudes. Trans-ionospheric communication of radio waves from transmitter to user is affected by the ionosphere which is highly variable and dynamic in both time and space. Scintillation is the term given to irregular amplitude and phase fluctuations of the received signals and related to the electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Key sources of ionospheric irregularities are plasma instabilities; every irregularities model is based on the theory of radio wave propagation in random media. It is important to understand scintillation phenomena and the approach of different theories. Therefore, we have briefly discussed the theories that are used to interpret ionospheric scintillation data. The global morphology of ionospheric scintillation is also discussed briefly. The most important (in our opinion) analytical and physical models of scintillation are reviewed here.

  20. Variability in the topside ionosphere of Mars as seen by the MAVEN NGIMS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayyasi, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elrod, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Topside features in the ionosphere of Mars have been observed with every class of instrument to make ionospheric measurements of the planet. Many of these features include plasma enhancements that persist above the main ionospheric layer. A variety of physical mechanisms have been proposed to produce these enhancements, yet there remain inconsistencies between observational trends and theoretical drivers. The NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument is making in situ measurements to provide the chemical composition of the Martian ionized and neutral atmosphere. NGIMS observations typically span the altitude region at Mars in which both the ionospheric peak and topside plasma features are observed. In this presentation, NGIMS electron density data is analyzed for detections of topside enhancements that are closest to and above the main ionospheric peak. The ion composition of the detected topside bulges are subsequently analyzed against the ambient neutral species measurements and topographic parameters for insights into the mechanisms likely to be producing these enigmatic features.

  1. Ion densities in Titan's ionosphere, multi-instrument case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Crary, F. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Andrews, D. J.; Vigren, E.; Mandt, K. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2015-10-01

    The Cassini s/c in-situ plasma measurements of Titan's ionosphere by Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Langmuir Probe (LP), Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Electron (ELS) and Ion Beam (IBS) are combined for selected flybys (T16, T29, T40& T56) to further constrain plasma parameters of ionosphere at altitudes 880-1400 km.

  2. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Nagy, A. F.

    1980-11-01

    The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth, and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionospheres, the relevant observations, and the most recent model calculations. The theory section includes a discussion of ambipolar diffusion in a partially ionized plasma, diffusion in a fully ionized plasma, supersonic plasma flow, photochemistry, and heating and cooling processes. The sections on observations and model calculations cover the neutral atmosphere composition, the ion composition, the electron density, and the electron, ion, and neutral temperatures.

  3. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamic Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, V. M.; Chmyrev, V. M.

    Numerous phenomena that occur in the mesosphere, ionosphere, and the magnetosphere of the Earth are caused by the sources located in the lower atmosphere and on the ground. We describe the effects produced by lightning activity and by ground-based transmitters operated in high frequency (HF) and very low frequency (VLF) ranges. Among these phenomena are the ionosphere heating and the formation of plasma density inhomogeneities, the excitation of gamma ray bursts and atmospheric emissions in different spectral bands, the generation of ULF/ELF/VLF electromagnetic waves and plasma turbulence in the ionosphere, the stimulation of radiation belt electron precipitations and the acceleration of ions in the upper ionosphere. The most interesting results of experimental and theoretical studies of these phenomena are discussed below. The ionosphere is subject to the action of the conductive electric current flowing in the atmosphere-ionosphere circuit. We present a physical model of DC electric field and current formation in this circuit. The key element of this model is an external current, which is formed with the occurrence of convective upward transport of charged aerosols and their gravitational sedimentation in the atmosphere. An increase in the level of atmospheric radioactivity results in the appearance of additional ionization and change of electrical conductivity. Variation of conductivity and external current in the lower atmosphere leads to perturbation of the electric current flowing in the global atmosphere-ionosphere circuit and to the associated DC electric field perturbation both on the Earth's surface and in the ionosphere. Description of these processes and some results of the electric field and current calculations are presented below. The seismic-induced electric field perturbations produce noticeable effects in the ionosphere by generating the electromagnetic field and plasma disturbances. We describe the generation mechanisms of such experimentally

  4. Surface analysis under ambient conditions using plasma-assisted desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Lucy V; Rutten, Frank J M; Barrett, David A; Whitmore, Terry; Seymour, David; Greenwood, Claire; Aranda-Gonzalvo, Yolanda; Robinson, Steven; McCoustra, Martin

    2007-08-15

    A novel plasma-assisted desorption/ionization (PADI) method that can be coupled with atmospheric pressure sampling mass spectrometry to yield mass spectral information under ambient conditions of pressure and humidity from a range of surfaces without the requirement for sample preparation or additives is reported. PADI is carried out by generating a nonthermal plasma which interacts directly with the surface of the analyte. Desorption and ionization then occur at the surface, and ions are sampled by the mass spectrometer. The PADI technique is demonstrated and compared with desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) for the detection of active ingredients in a range of over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceutical formulations, including nonsterodial anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, Ibugel, and ibuprofen), analgesics (paracetamol, Anadin Extra), and Beecham's "all in one" cold and flu remedy. PADI has also been successfully applied to the analysis of nicotine in tobacco and thiosulfates in garlic. PADI experiments have been performed using a prototype source interfaced with a Waters Platform LCZ single-quadrupole mass spectrometer with limited modifications and a Hiden Analytical HPR-60 molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). The ability of PADI to rapidly detect active ingredients in pharmaceuticals without the need for prior sample preparation, solvents, or exposed high voltages demonstrates the potential of the technique for high-throughput screening in a pharmaceutical or forensic environment.

  5. Recent Advances in Studies of Ionospheric Modification Using Rocket Exhaust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Rocket exhaust interacts with the ionosphere to produce a wide range of disturbances. A ten second burn of the Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines on the Space Shuttle deposits over 1 Giga Joule of energy into the upper atmosphere. The exhaust vapors travel at speeds between 4.7 and 10.7 km/s coupling momentum into the ions by both collisions and charge exchange. Long-lived plasma irregularities are formed by the artificial hypersonic “neutral wind” passing through the ionosphere. Charge exchange between the fast neutrals and the ambient ions yields high-speed ion beams that excite electro-static plasma waves. Ground based radar has been used to detect both field aligned irregularities and electrostatic turbulence driven by the Space Shuttle OMS exhaust. Molecular ions produced by the charge exchange with molecules in the rocket exhaust recombine with a time scale of 10 minutes leaving a residual plasma depression. This ionospheric “hole” fills in by ambipolar diffusion leaving a depleted magnetic flux tube. This large scale reduction in Pedersen conductivity can provide a seed for plasma interchange instabilities. For instance, a rocket firing on the bottom side of the ionosphere near the equator can trigger a Rayleigh-Taylor instability that is naturally seen as equatorial Spread-F. The Naval Research Laboratory has been exploring these phenomena with dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle OMS engines and exhaust releases from rockets. The Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) series of experiments uses ground radars to probe the ionosphere affected by dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle OMS engines. Radars located at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts; Arecibo, Puerto Rico; Jicamarca, Peru; Kwajalein, Marshall Island; and Alice Springs, Australia have participated in the SIMPLEX program. A companion program called Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiment has or will use satellites to fly through the turbulence

  6. Attribution of ionospheric vertical plasma drift perturbations to large-scale waves and the dependence on solar activity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Richmond, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we quantify the contribution of individual large-scale waves to ionospheric electrodynamics, and examine the dependence of the ionospheric perturbations on solar activity. We focus on migrating diurnal tide (DW1) plus mean winds, migrating semidiurnal tide (SW2), quasi-stationary planetary wave 1 (QSPW1), and nonmigrating semidiurnal westward wave 1 (SW1) under northern winter conditions, when QSPW1 and SW1 are climatologically strong. From TIME-GCM simulations under solar minimum conditions, we calculate equatorial vertical ExB drifts due to mean winds and DW1, SW2, SW1 and QSPW1. In particular, wind components of both SW2 and SW1 become large at mid to high latitudes in the E-region, and kernel functions obtained from numerical experiments reveal that they can significantly affect the equatorial ion drift, likely through modulating the E-region wind dynamo. The most evident changes of total ionospheric vertical drift when solar activity is increased are seen around dawn and dusk, reflecting the more dominant role of large F-region Pedersen conductivity and of the F-region dynamo under high solar activity. Therefore, the lower atmosphere driving of the ionospheric variability is more evident under solar minimum conditions, not only because variability is more identifiable in a quieter background, but also because the E-region wind dynamo is more significant. These numerical experiments also demonstrate that the amplitudes, phases and latitudinal and vertical structures of large-scale waves are important in quantifying the ionospheric responses.

  7. Ionospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Data from research on ionospheric D, E, and F, regions are reported. Wave propagation, mass spectrometer measurements, and atmospheric reactions of HO2 with NO and NO2 and NH2 with NO and O2 are summarized.

  8. Ionospheric signatures of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, M.; Liu, J.

    2003-12-01

    The geostationary metrology satellite (GMS) monitors motions of thunderstorm cloud, while the lightning detection network (LDN) in Taiwan and the very high Frequency (VHF) radar in Chung-Li (25.0›XN, 121.2›XE) observed occurrences of lightning during May and July, 1997. Measurements from the digisonde portable sounder (DPS) at National Central University shows that lightning results in occurrence of the sporadic E-layer (Es), as well as increase and decrease of plasma density at the F2-peak and E-peak in the ionosphere, respectively. A network of ground-based GPS receivers is further used to monitor the spatial distribution of the ionospheric TEC. To explain the plasma density variations, a model is proposed.

  9. The quadrupole ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishbeth, H.

    1986-01-01

    The principal features that might exist in the terrestrial paleoionosphere, if the geomagnetic field were to assume a quadrupole form during a polarity reversal are discussed. Complicated phenomena would be expected to occur at magnetic equators and magnetospherically-driven plasma convection might occur at latitudes where the magnetic field is steeply inclined. The influence of magnetic field strength on ionospheric structure is considered in general terms.

  10. 27 August 2001 substorm: Preonset phenomena, two main onsets, field-aligned current systems, and plasma flow channels in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, V. M.; Mishin, V. V.; Lunyushkin, S. B.; Wang, J. Y.; Moiseev, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    We supplement the results of the 27 August 2001 substorm studied earlier in the series of papers. Described is the plasma flow in the nightside ionosphere from the near-polar region from the polar cap to the auroral oval during the substorm preonset phase and two expansion onsets, EO1 and EO2, produced by reconnection in the closed tail (magnetic reconnection (MR1) and in the open tail lobes (MR2), respectively. We discuss the location of the MR2 region (is it near, middle, and/or distant tail?) and the EO2 trigger mechanism. The upward substorm current wedge field-aligned current (FAC) and the downward FAC in the polar cap dusk sector that were both produced by different types of magnetosphere-ionosphere feedback instability are found to provide the main contribution to the system of FACs during EO1 and EO2. Also, we obtain the estimates for the EO1 and EO2 power and energy. Addressed are the variations in the tail lobe magnetic flux and their (variations) association with EO2. In addition, we describe a 3-D system of mesoscale cells, each of which involves a plasma vortex and a local FAC maximum. The cells of this system in the inner magnetosphere and in the tail lobes intensify one after other within 2 min interval. At last, we substantiate the assumption that the fast plasma flow recorded by the Cluster satellites 7 min prior to EO1 was a bursty bulk flow from the most distant tail.

  11. Thermodynamics of strongly coupled repulsive Yukawa particles in ambient neutralizing plasma: Thermodynamic instability and the possibility of observation in fine particle plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totsuji, Hiroo

    2008-07-01

    The thermodynamics is analyzed for a system composed of particles with hard cores, interacting via the repulsive Yukawa potential (Yukawa particulates), and neutralizing ambient (background) plasma. An approximate equation of state is given with proper account of the contribution of ambient plasma and it is shown that there exists a possibility for the total isothermal compressibility of Yukawa particulates and ambient plasma to diverge when the coupling between Yukawa particulates is sufficiently strong. In this case, the system undergoes a transition into separated phases with different densities and we have a critical point for this phase separation. Examples of approximate phase diagrams related to this transition are given. It is emphasized that the critical point can be in the solid phase and we have the possibility to observe a solid-solid phase separation. The applicability of these results to fine particle plasmas is investigated. It is shown that, though the values of the characteristic parameters are semiquantitative due to the effects not described by this model, these phenomena are expected to be observed in fine particle plasmas, when approximately isotropic bulk systems are realized with a very strong coupling between fine particles.

  12. Experimentally investigate ionospheric depletion chemicals in artificially created ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yu; Cao Jinxiang; Wang Jian

    2012-09-15

    A new approach for investigating ionosphere chemical depletion in the laboratory is introduced. Air glow discharge plasma closely resembling the ionosphere in both composition and chemical reactions is used as the artificially created ionosphere. The ionospheric depletion experiment is accomplished by releasing chemicals such as SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} into the model discharge. The evolution of the electron density is investigated by varying the plasma pressure and input power. It is found that the negative ion (SF{sub 6}{sup -}, CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}{sup -}) intermediary species provide larger reduction of the electron density than the positive ionmore » (CO{sub 2}{sup +}) intermediary species. The negative ion intermediary species are also more efficient in producing ionospheric holes because of their fast reaction rates. Airglow enhancement attributed to SF{sub 6} and CO{sub 2} releases agrees well with the published data. Compared to the traditional methods, the new scheme is simpler to use, both in the release of chemicals and in the electron density measurements. It is therefore more efficient for investigating the release of chemicals in the ionosphere.« less

  13. Real-time breath analysis with active capillary plasma ionization-ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bregy, Lukas; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Nudnova, Maryia M; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    On-line analysis of exhaled human breath is a growing area in analytical science, for applications such as fast and non-invasive medical diagnosis and monitoring. In this work, we present a novel approach based on ambient ionization of compounds in breath and subsequent real-time mass spectrometric analysis. We introduce a plasma ionization source for this purpose, which has no need for additional gases, is very small, and is easily interfaced with virtually any commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (API-MS) without major modifications. If an API-MS instrument exists in a laboratory, the cost to implement this technology is only around [Formula: see text]500, far less than the investment for a specialized mass spectrometric system designed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis. In this proof-of-principle study we were able to measure mass spectra of exhaled human breath and found these to be comparable to spectra obtained with other electrospray-based methods. We detected over 100 VOCs, including relevant metabolites like fatty acids, with molecular weights extending up to 340 Da. In addition, we were able to monitor the time-dependent evolution of the peaks and show the enhancement of the metabolism after a meal. We conclude that this approach may complement current methods to analyze breath or other types of vapors, offering an affordable option to upgrade any pre-existing API-MS to a real-time breath analyzer.

  14. AMPS data management requirements study. [user manuals (computer programs)/display devices - computerized simulation/experimentation/ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A data simulation is presented for instruments and associated control and display functions required to perform controlled active experiments of the atmosphere. A comprehensive user's guide is given for the data requirements and software developed for the following experiments: (1) electromagnetic wave transmission; (2) passive observation of ambient plasmas; (3) ionospheric measurements with a subsatellite; (4) electron accelerator beam measurements; and (5) measurement of acoustic gravity waves in the sodium layer using lasers. A complete description of each experiment is given.

  15. SPEAR-1: An experiment to measure current collection in the ionosphere by high voltage biased conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, W. John; Myers, Neil B.; Roberts, Jon A.; Thompson, D. C.

    1990-12-01

    An experiment is described in which a high electrical potential difference, up to 45 kV, was applied between deployed conducting spheres and a sounding rocket in the ionosphere. Measurements were made of the applied voltage and the resulting currents for each of 24 applications of different high potentials. In addition, diagnostic measurements of optical emissions in the vicinity of the spheres, energetic particle flow to the sounding rocket, dc electric field and wave data were made. The ambient plasma and neutral environments were measured by a Langmuir probe and a cold cathode neutral ionization gauge, respectively. The payload is described and examples of the measured current and voltage characteristics are presented. The characteristics of the measured currents are discussed in terms of the diagnostic measurements and the in-situ measurements of the vehicle environment. In general, it was found that the currents observed were at a level typical of magnetically limited currents from the ionospheric plasma for potentials less than 12 kV, and slightly higher for larger potentials. However, due to the failure to expose the plasma contactor, the vehicle sheath modified the sphere sheaths and made comparisons with the analytic models of Langmuir-Blodgett and Parker-Murphy less meaningful. Examples of localized enhancements of ambient gas density resulting from the operation of the attitude control system thrusters (cold nitrogen) were obtained. Current measurements and optical data indicated localized discharges due to enhanced gas density that reduced the vehicle-ionosphere impedance.

  16. Ionospheric modification using relativistic electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Peter M.; Fraser-Smith, Anthony C.; Gilchrist, B. E.

    1990-01-01

    The recent development of comparatively small electron linear accelerators (linacs) now makes possible a new class of ionospheric modification experiments using beams of relativistic electrons. These experiments can potentially provide much new information about the interactions of natural relativistic electrons with other particles in the upper atmosphere, and it may also make possible new forms of ionization structures extending down from the lower ionosphere into the largely un-ionized upper atmosphere. The consequences of firing a pulsed 1 A, 5 Mev electron beam downwards into the upper atmosphere are investigated. If a small pitch angle with respect to the ambient geomagnetic field is selected, the beam produces a narrow column of substantial ionization extending down from the source altitude to altitudes of approximately 40 to 45 km. This column is immediately polarized by the natural middle atmosphere fair weather electric field and an increasingly large potential difference is established between the column and the surrounding atmosphere. In the regions between 40 to 60 km, this potential can amount to many tens of kilovolts and the associated electric field can be greater than the field required for breakdown and discharge. Under these conditions, it may be possible to initiate lightning discharges along the initial ionization channel. Filamentation may also occur at the lower end to drive further currents in the partially ionized gases of the stratosphere. Such discharges would derive their energy from the earth-ionosphere electrical system and would be sustained until plasma depletion and/or electric field reduction brought the discharge under control. It is likely that this artificially-triggered lightning would produce measurable low-frequency radiation.

  17. Historical overview of HF ionospheric modification research

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, W.E.; Duncan, L.M.

    1990-10-01

    Radio waves have inadvertently modified the Earth's ionosphere since the Luxembourg observations of Tellegen in 1933 and perhaps since Marconi in 1901. The history of ionospheric modification by radio waves is reviewed, beginning with Marconi, describing the Luxembourg effect and its explanations, and its early use to deduce the properties of the lower ionosphere in the 1930s. The measurements became more sophisticated in the 1950s, leading to the call for high-power high-frequency modification experiments in the upper ionosphere. Beginning in 1970, radio facilities became available of sufficient powers to induce changes in the ionospheric plasma detectable by a wide arraymore » of diagnostic instruments and techniques. A summary of these effects is presented based upon work up to 1990. These studies were originally motivated as a means of better understanding the natural ionosphere using a weak perturbational approach. However, a rich spectrum of nonlinear wave-plasma interactions was quickly discovered and ionospheric modification research became strongly motivated by issues in basic plasma physics. The ionosphere and near-Earth space are now exploited as an exceptional plasma laboratory-without-walls for the study of fundamental plasma processes requiring large spatial or temporal scales. Here we present a brief overview of these processes and phenomena, illustrated using results obtained from the Arecibo ionospheric modification facilities. The lessons learned and phenomena explored thus far offer many opportunities for controlling the ionospheric environment critical to many civilian and military telecommunications systems, both to disrupt systems normally operational and to create new propagation paths otherwise unavailable.« less

  18. Martian Ionospheric Observation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Galindo, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    The Martian ionosphere is a plasma embedded within the neutral upper atmosphere of the planet. Its main source is the ionization of the CO2-dominated Martian mesosphere and thermosphere by the energetic EUV solar radiation. The ionosphere of Mars is subject to an important variability induced by changes in its forcing mechanisms (e.g., the UV solar flux) and by variations in the neutral atmosphere (e.g., the presence of global dust storms, atmospheric waves and tides, changes in atmospheric composition, etc.). Its vertical structure is dominated by a maximum in the electron concentration placed at about 120–140 km of altitude, coincident with the peak of the ionization rate. Below, a secondary peak produced by solar X-rays and photoelectron-impact ionization is observed. A sporadic third layer, possibly of meteoric origin, has been also detected below. The most abundant ion in the Martian ionosphere is O2+, although O+ can become more abundant in the upper ionospheric layers. While below about 180–200 km the Martian ionosphere is dominated by photochemical processes, above those altitudes the dynamics of the plasma become more important. The ionosphere is also an important source of escaping particles via processes such as dissociative recombination of ions or ion pickup. So, characterization of the ionosphere provides or can provide information about such disparate systems and processes as the solar radiation getting to the planet, the neutral atmosphere, the meteoric influx, the atmospheric escape to space, or the interaction of the planet with the solar wind. It is thus not surprising that the interest about this region dates from the beginning of the space era. From the first measurements provided by the Mariner 4 mission in the 1960s to the contemporaneous observations, still ongoing, by the Mars Express and MAVEN orbiters, our current knowledge of this atmospheric region is the consequence of the accumulation of more than 50 years of discontinuous

  19. Ion Escape from the Ionosphere of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R.; Sittler, E.; Lipatov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ions have been observed to flow away from Titan along its induced magnetic tail by the Plasma Science Instrument (PLS) on Voyager 1 and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) on Cassini. In both cases, the ions have been inferred to be of ionospheric origin. Recent plasma measurements made at another unmagnetized body, Venus, have also observed similar flow in its magnetic tail. Much earlier, the possibility of such flow was inferred when ionospheric measurements made from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) were used to derive upward flow and acceleration of H(+), D(+) and O(+) within the nightside ionosphere of Venus. The measurements revealed that the polarization electric field in the ionosphere produced the principal upward force on these light ions. The resulting vertical flow of H(+) and D(+) was found to be the dominant escape mechanism of hydrogen and deuterium, corresponding to loss rates consistent with large oceans in early Venus. Other electrodynamic forces were unimportant because the plasma beta in the nightside ionosphere of Venus is much greater than one. Although the plasma beta is also greater than one on Titan, ion acceleration is expected to be more complex, especially because the subsolar point and the subflow points can be 180 degrees apart. Following what we learned at Venus, upward acceleration of light ions by the polarization electric field opposing gravity in the ionosphere of Titan will be described. Additional electrodynamic forces resulting from the interaction of Saturn's magnetosphere with Titan's ionosphere will be examined using a recent hybrid model.

  20. Ionosphere of venus: first observations of the effects of dynamics on the dayside ion composition.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H A; Brinton, H C; Bauer, S J; Hartle, R E; Cloutier, P A; Michel, F C; Daniell, R E; Donahue, T M; Maehl, R C

    1979-02-23

    Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometers have returned the first in situ measurements of the Venus dayside ion composition, including evidence of pronounced structural variability resulting from a dynamic interaction with the solar wind. The ionospheric envelope, dominated above 200 kilometers by O(+), responds dramatically to variations in the solar wind pressure, Which is observed to compress the thermal ion distributions from heights as great as 1800 kilometers inward to 280 kilometers. At the thermal ion boundary, or ionopause, the ambient ions are swept away by the solar wind, such that a zone of accelerated suprathermnal plasma is encountered. At higher altitudes, extending outward on some orbits for thousands of kilometers to the bows shock, energetic ion currents are detected, apparently originating from the shocked solar wind plasma. Within the ionosphere, observations of pass-to-pass differences in the ion scale heights are indicative of the effects of ion convection stimlulated by the solar wind interaction.

  1. Preface: C/NOFS Results and Equatorial Ionospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Gentile, L. C.; Retterer, J.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Stoneback, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite was launched into orbit in April 2008 as part of an ongoing effort to understand and identify plasma irregularities that adversely impact the propagation of radio waves in the upper atmosphere. Combined with recent improvements in radar, airglow, and ground-based studies, as well as state-of-the-art modeling techniques, the C/NOFS mission has led to new insights into equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics. In order to document these advances, the C/NOFS Results and Equatorial Dynamics Technical Interchange Meeting was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 12 to 14 March 2013. The meeting was a great success with 55 talks and 22 posters, and covered topics including the numerical simulations of plasma irregularities, the effects of atmospheric tides, stratospheric phenomena, and magnetic storms on the upper atmosphere, causes and predictions of scintillation-causing ionospheric irregularities, current and future instrumentation efforts in the equatorial region. The talks were broken into the following three topical sessions: A. Ambient Ionosphere and Thermosphere B. Transient Phenomena in the Low-Latitude Ionosphere C. New Missions, New Sensors, New Science and Engineering Issues. The following special issue was planned as a follow-up to the meeting. We would like to thank Mike Pinnock, the editors and staff of Copernicus, and our reviewers for their work in bringing this special issue to the scientific community. Our thanks also go to Patricia Doherty and the meeting organizing committee for arranging the C/NOFS Technical Interchange Meeting.

  2. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. C/NOFS remote sensing of ionospheric reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, W. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Martinis, C. R.; Gentile, L. C.

    2016-05-01

    Alfvén waves play critical roles in the electrodynamic coupling of plasmas at magnetically conjugate regions in near-Earth space. Associated electric (E*) and magnetic (δB*) field perturbations sampled by sensors on satellites in low-Earth orbits are generally superpositions of incident and reflected waves. However, lack of knowledge about ionospheric reflection coefficients (α) hinders understanding of generator outputs and load absorption of Alfvén wave energies. Here we demonstrate a new method for estimating α using satellite measurements of ambient E* and δB* then apply it to a case in which the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite flew conjugate to the field of view of a 630.0 nm all-sky imager at El Leoncito, Argentina, while medium-scale traveling ionosphere disturbances were detected in its field of view. In regions of relatively large amplitudes of E* and δB*, calculated α values ranged between 0.67 and 0.88. This implies that due to impedance mismatches, the generator ionosphere puts out significantly more electromagnetic energy than the load can absorb. Our analysis also uncovered caveats concerning the method's range of applicability in regions of low E* and δB*. The method can be validated in future satellite-based auroral studies where energetic particle precipitation fluxes can be used to make independent estimates of α.

  4. C/NOFS Remote Sensing of Ionospheric Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, W. J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Martinis, C. R.; Gentile, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Alfvn waves play critical roles in the electrodynamic coupling of plasmas at magnetically conjugate regions in near-Earth space. Associated electric (E*) and magnetic (dec B*) field perturbations sampled by sensors on satellites in low-Earth orbits are generally super positions of incident and reflected waves. However, lack of knowledge about ionospheric reflection coefficients (alpha) hinders understanding of generator outputs and load absorption of Alfvn wave energies. Here we demonstrate a new method for estimating using satellite measurements of ambient E* and dec B* then apply it to a case in which the Communication Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS) satellite flew conjugate to the field of view of a 630.0 nm all-sky imager at El Leoncito, Argentina, while medium-scale traveling ionosphere disturbances were detected in its field of view. In regions of relatively large amplitudes of E* and B*,calculated values ranged between 0.67 and 0.88. This implies that due to impedance mismatches, the generator ionosphere puts out significantly more electromagnetic energy than the load can absorb. Our analysis also uncovered caveats concerning the methods range of applicability in regions of low E* and B*. The method can be validated in future satellite-based auroral studies where energetic particle precipitation fluxes can be used to make independent estimates of alpha.

  5. The Electrical Impact of Lightning Quasi-Electrostatic Fields on the Nighttime Lower Ionosphere: The Case of Negative Sprite Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, M. A.; Liu, N.; Rassoul, H.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that electrostatic (ES) and quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields can be established in the lower ionosphere by underlying thunderstorms. We recently found that although the thunderstorm ES field is not strong enough to produce transient luminous events (TLEs) such as halos and sprites, it generates significant effects on the electrical properties of the nighttime lower ionosphere [Salem et al., GRL., 42(6), doi: 10.1002/2015GL063268, 2015; Salem et al., GRL., 43(1), doi: 10.1002/2015GL066933, 2016]. In particular, according to Salem et al. [2016], the nighttime lower ionospheric height measured using the VLF wave reflection technique can be increased due to the effects of the ES field. In this work, we continue to study the nighttime lower ionospheric response to QE fields of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. In contrast to thunderstorm ES fields, QE fields can be much stronger and trigger halos. Halos are relatively homogeneous glows centered on 75-85 km altitude, with a horizontal extent of tens of kilometers and a vertical thickness of several kilometers. They typically appear within a few milliseconds of their parent CGs. In particular, negative halos are caused by unusually impulsive negative CGs [Boggs et al., JGR. Atmos., doi: 10.1002/2015JD024188, 121(2), 2016; Liu et al., GRL., 43(6), doi: 10.1002/2016GL068256, 2016]. This study uses a one-dimensional plasma discharge fluid model combined with a simplified ionospheric ion chemistry model described by Liu [JGR., 117, doi: 10.1029/2011JA017062, 2012]. The response of the nighttime lower ionosphere to impulsive negative CGs is investigated for different ambient ionospheric density profiles and different CG properties (e.g., charge moment changes and charge transfer times). Finally, the modeling results of the lower ionosphere recovery time are analyzed to investigate the role of negative halos in producing different types of early VLF events.

  6. On the analysis of incoherent scatter radar data from non-thermal ionospheric plasma - Effects of measurement noise and an inexact theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvanto, K.

    1990-07-01

    Statistical inversion theory is employed to estimate parameter uncertainties in incoherent scatter radar studies of non-Maxwellian ionospheric plasma. Measurement noise and the inexact nature of the plasma model are considered as potential sources of error. In most of the cases investigated here, it is not possible to determine electron density, line-of-sight ion and electron temperatures, ion composition, and two non-Maxwellian shape factors simultaneously. However, if the molecular ion velocity distribution is highly non-Maxwellian, all these quantities can sometimes be retrieved from the data. This theoretical result supports the validity of the only successful non-Maxwellian, mixed-species fit discussed in the literature. A priori information on one of the parameters, e.g., the electron density, often reduces the parameter uncertainties significantly and makes composition fits possible even if the six-parameter fit cannot be performed. However, small (less than 0.5) non-Maxwellian shape factors remain difficult to distinguish.

  7. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2 - 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of KI/KII were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma- sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  8. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2- 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of K(sub I)/K(sub II) were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  9. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms.

    PubMed

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-12-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active ( D s t <-100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.

  10. A two-dimensional theory of plasma contactor clouds used in the ionosphere with an electrodynamic tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. E.; Gatsonis, N. A.; Rivas, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma contactors have been proposed as a means of making good electrical contact between biased surfaces such as found at the ends of an electrodynamic tether and the space environment. A plasma contactor is a plasma source which emits a plasma cloud which facilitates the electrical connection. The physics of this plasma cloud is investigated for contactors used as electron collectors and it is shown that contactor clouds in space will consist of a spherical core possibly containing a shock wave. Outside of the core the cloud will expand anisotropically across the magnetic field leading to a turbulent cigar shape structure along the field. This outer region is itself divided into two regions by the ion response to the electric field. A two-dimensional theory of the motion of the cloud across the magnetic field is developed. The current voltage characteristic of an Argon plasma contactor cloud is estimated for several ion currents in the range of 1-100 Amperes. It is shown that small ion current contactors are more efficient than large ion current contactors. This suggests that if a plasma contactor is used on an electrodynamic tether then a miltiple tether array will be more efficient than a single tether.

  11. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  12. Time resolved interferometric study of the plasma plume induced shock wave in confined geometry: Two-dimensional mapping of the ambient and plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Kaushik; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in

    2016-04-15

    An experimental investigation of the laser produced plasma induced shock wave in the presence of confining walls placed along the axial as well as the lateral direction has been performed. A time resolved Mach Zehnder interferometer is set up to track the primary as well as the reflected shock waves and its effect on the evolving plasma plume has been studied. An attempt has been made to discriminate the electronic and medium density contributions towards the changes in the refractive index of the medium. Two dimensional spatial distributions for both ambient medium density and plasma density (electron density) have beenmore » obtained by employing customised inversion technique and algorithm on the recorded interferograms. The observed density pattern of the surrounding medium in the presence of confining walls is correlated with the reflected shock wave propagation in the medium. Further, the shock wave plasma interaction and the subsequent changes in the shape and density of the plasma plume in confined geometry are briefly described.« less

  13. Earthquake-Ionosphere Coupling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamogawa, Masashi

    After a giant earthquake (EQ), acoustic and gravity waves are excited by the displacement of land and sea surface, propagate through atmosphere, and then reach thermosphere, which causes ionospheric disturbances. This phenomenon was detected first by ionosonde and by HF Doppler sounderin the 1964 M9.2 Great Alaskan EQ. Developing Global Positioning System (GPS), seismogenic ionospheric disturbance detected by total electron content (TEC) measurement has been reported. A value of TEC is estimated by the phase difference between two different carrier frequencies through the propagation in the dispersive ionospheric plasma. The variation of TEC is mostly similar to that of F-region plasma. Acoustic-gravity waves triggered by an earthquake [Heki and Ping, EPSL, 2005; Liu et al., JGR, 2010] and a tsunami [Artu et al., GJI, 2005; Liu et al., JGR, 2006; Rolland, GRL, 2010] disturb the ionosphere and travel in the ionosphere. Besides the traveling ionospheric disturbances, ionospheric disturbances excited by Rayleigh waves [Ducic et al, GRL, 2003; Liu et al., GRL, 2006] as well as post-seismic 4-minute monoperiodic atmospheric resonances [Choosakul et al., JGR, 2009] have been observed after the large earthquakes. Since GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) with more than 1200 GPS receiving points in Japan is a dense GPS network, seismogenic ionospheric disturbance is spatially observed. In particular, the seismogenic ionospheric disturbance caused by the M9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku EQ (henceforth the Tohoku EQ) on 11 March 2011 was clearly observed. Approximately 9 minutes after the mainshock, acoustic waves which propagated radially emitted from the tsunami source area were observed through the TEC measurement (e. g., Liu et al. [JGR, 2011]). Moreover, there was a depression of TEC lasting for several tens of minutes after a huge earthquake, which was a large-scale phenomenon extending to a radius of a few hundred kilometers. This TEC depression may be

  14. Thermal structure and major ion composition of the Venus ionosphere - First RPA results from Venus orbiter. [Retarding Potential Analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, W. C.; Miller, K. L.; Spenner, K.; Novak, V.; Whitten, R. C.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Pioneer Venus in situ measurements of thermal plasma quantities were obtained by a retarding potential analyzer. Evidence for significant solar wind heating of the ionosphere and indications that the ionosphere is close to diffusive equilibrium are reported. Information on ionopause height, the ionospheric particle pressures at the ionopause, and the measured ratio of ionospheric scale height to ionopause ratio is presented.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation by parametric decay of upper hybrid waves in ionospheric modification experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leyser, T.B.

    1994-06-01

    A nonlinear dispersion relation for the parametric decay of an electrostatic upper hybrid wave into an ordinary mode electromagnetic wave, propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and an electrostatic low frequency wave, being either a lower hybrid wave or a high harmonic ion Bernstein wave, is derived. The coherent and resonant wave interaction is considered to take place in a weakly magnetized and collisionless Vlasov plasma. The instability growth rate is computed for parameter values typical of ionospheric modification experiments, in which a powerful high frequency electromagnetic pump wave is injected into the ionospheric F-region from ground-based transmitters. Themore » electromagnetic radiation which is excited by the decaying upper hybrid wave is found to be consistent with the prominent and commonly observed downshifted maximum (DM) emission in the spectrum of stimulated electromagnetic emission.« less

  16. Faraday rotation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) signals as a method of ionospheric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noel, J. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices which are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this work we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick model.

  17. The effects of electron thermal radiation on laser ablative shock waves from aluminum plasma into ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Sai Shiva, S.; Leela, Ch.; Prem Kiran, P., E-mail: premkiranuoh@gmail.com, E-mail: prem@uohyd.ac.in

    2016-05-15

    The effect of electron thermal radiation on 7 ns laser ablative shock waves from aluminum (Al) plasma into an ambient atmospheric air has been numerically investigated using a one-dimensional, three-temperature (electron, ion, and radiation) radiation hydrodynamic code MULTI. The governing equations in Lagrangian form are solved using an implicit scheme for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The shockwave velocities (V{sub sw}) obtained numerically are compared with our experimental values obtained over the intensity range of 2.0 × 10{sup 10} to 1.4 × 10{sup 11 }W/cm{sup 2}. It is observed that the numerically obtained V{sub sw} is significantly influenced by the thermal radiation effects which are foundmore » to be dominant in the initial stage up to 2 μs depending on the input laser energy. Also, the results are found to be sensitive to the co-ordinate geometry used in the simulation (planar, cylindrical, and spherical). Moreover, it is revealed that shock wave undergoes geometrical transitions from planar to cylindrical nature and from cylindrical to spherical nature with time during its propagation into an ambient atmospheric air. It is also observed that the spatio-temporal evolution of plasma electron and ion parameters such as temperature, specific energy, pressure, electron number density, and mass density were found to be modified significantly due to the effects of electron thermal radiation.« less

  18. Space weather. Ionospheric control of magnetotail reconnection.

    PubMed

    Lotko, William; Smith, Ryan H; Zhang, Binzheng; Ouellette, Jeremy E; Brambles, Oliver J; Lyon, John G

    2014-07-11

    Observed distributions of high-speed plasma flows at distances of 10 to 30 Earth radii (R(E)) in Earth's magnetotail neutral sheet are highly skewed toward the premidnight sector. The flows are a product of the magnetic reconnection process that converts magnetic energy stored in the magnetotail into plasma kinetic and thermal energy. We show, using global numerical simulations, that the electrodynamic interaction between Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere produces an asymmetry consistent with observed distributions in nightside reconnection and plasmasheet flows and in accompanying ionospheric convection. The primary causal agent is the meridional gradient in the ionospheric Hall conductance which, through the Cowling effect, regulates the distribution of electrical currents flowing within and between the ionosphere and magnetotail. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Imaging Magnetospheric Boundries at Ionospheric Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, J.; Nottingham, D.; Wroten, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2001-12-01

    Stable auroral red (SAR) arcs are excited by a downward heat flux within a narrow range of fluxtubes that define the plasmapause-ring current interaction region. Ambient F-region electrons near and above the peak height (300-500 km) are heated and collisionally excite atomic oxygen to the O(1D) state, thereby emitting 6300 A photons. At the same time, the diffuse aurora at 6300 A is excited by the precipitation of plasma sheet electrons into the lower thermosphere, exciting O(1D) to emit near 200 km. An all-sky imaging system operating at a sub-auroral site (e.g., at Millstone Hill) can readily record the SAR arc centroid location and the equatorial edge of the diffuse aurora in the same 6300 A image. We have analyzed 75 such cases showing where both stuctures occur in the ionosphere and then conducted field-line mapping to define the L-shell domains of origin in the equatorial plane of the inner magnetosphere (L ~ 2.5 - 4). To within the measurement and mapping accuracies, both boundaries coincide, i.e., the inner edge of the plasma sheet essentially falls along the plasmapause. Since the O(1D) 6300 A emission corresponds to ~2 ev of excitation by magnetospheric processes, this technique defines ELENA (Extremely Low Energetic Neutral Atom) imaging of magnetospheric structures.

  20. Role of Ambient Gas Composition on Cold Physical Plasma-Elicited Cell Signaling in Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anke; Bekeschus, Sander; Jablonowski, Helena; Barton, Annemarie; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Wende, Kristian

    2017-06-06

    A particularly promising medical application of cold physical plasma is the support of wound healing. This is presumably achieved by modulating inflammation as well as skin cell signaling and migration. Plasma-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are assumed the central biologically active plasma components. We hypothesized that modulating the environmental plasma conditions from pure nitrogen (N 2 ) to pure oxygen (O 2 ) in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen) will change type and concentration of ROS/RNS and effectively tune the behavior of human skin cells. To investigate this, HaCaT keratinocytes were studied in vitro with regard to cell metabolism, viability, growth, gene expression signature, and cytokine secretion. Flow cytometry demonstrated only slight effects on cytotoxicity. O 2 shielding provided stronger apoptotic effects trough caspase-3 activation compared to N 2 shielding. Gene array technology revealed induction of signaling and communication proteins such as immunomodulatory interleukin 6 as well as antioxidative and proproliferative molecules (HMOX1, VEGFA, HBEGF, CSF2, and MAPK) in response to different plasma shielding gas compositions. Cell response was correlated to reactive species: oxygen-shielding plasma induces a cell response more efficiently despite an apparent decrease of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), which was previously shown to be a major player in plasma-cell regulation, emphasizing the role of non-H 2 O 2 ROS like singlet oxygen. Our results suggest differential effects of ROS- and RNS-rich plasma, and may have a role in optimizing clinical plasma applications in chronic wounds. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving the Nightside Mid-latitude Ionospheric Density in the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere and plasmasphere interact with each other through upwelling of plasma into the plasmasphere during the day and downwelling of the plasma into the ionosphere during the night. The storage of ion density in the plasmasphere and subsequent downwelling maintains the ion density in the nighttime mid-latitude ionosphere. Global models of the upper atmosphere that do not contain a plasmasphere, but are limited in altitude, such as the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics Global Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model(GITM) need a boundary condition that allows for some sort of downwelling to occur. In the TIEGCM, this has been set to a constant downward flux, while GITM has had no downwelling specification at all, which has caused the nighttime mid-latitude densities to be much too low. We present a new boundary condition in GITM, where there is downward ion flux from the upper boundary, allowing the ionosphere to be maintained during the night. This new boundary condition is dependent on the the Disturbance Storm Time (Dst), since, as the activity level increases (i.e., Dst decreases), the plasmasphere is eroded and will not serve to supply the ionosphere at night. Various quiet time and active time comparisons to ionosonde electron density and total electron content data will be presented that show that the ionospheric density in GITM is improved due to this new boundary condition.

  2. Ionospheric plasma flow about a system of electrically biased flat plates. M.S. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Joel L.

    1993-01-01

    The steady state interaction of two electrically biased parallel plates immersed in a flowing plasma characteristic of low earth orbit is studied numerically. Fluid equations are developed to describe the motion of the cold positively charged plasma ions, and are solved using finite-differences in two dimensions on a Cartesian grid. The behavior of the plasma electrons is assumed to be described by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Results are compared to an analytical and a particle simulation technique for a simplified flow geometry consisting of a single semi-infinite negatively biased plate. Comparison of the extent of the electrical disturbance into the flowing plasma and the magnitude of the current collected by the plate is very good. The interaction of two equally biased parallel plates is studied as a function of applied potential. The separation distance at which the current collected by either plate decreases by five and twenty percent is determined as a function of applied potential. The percent decreases were based on a non-interacting case. The decrease in overall current is caused by a decrease in ionic density in the region between the plates. As the separation between the plates decreases, the plates collect the ions at a faster rate than they are supplied to the middle region by the oncoming plasma flow. The docking of spacecraft in orbit is simulated by moving two plates of unequal potential toward one another in a quasi-static manner. One plate is held at a large negative potential while the other floats electrically in the resulting potential field. It is found that the floating plate does not charge continuously negative as it approaches the other more negatively biased plate. Instead, it charges more and then less negative as ionic current decreases and then increases respectively upon approach. When the two plates come into contact, it is expected that the electrically floating plate will charge rapidly negative to a potential near that of

  3. Negative ion and dust grain charge in Titan's ionosphere: multi-instrument case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Crary, F.; Andrews, D.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini s/c in-situ plasma measurements of Titan's ionosphere by Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Langmuir Probe (LP), Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Electron (ELS) and Ion Beam (IBS) spectrometers are combined for selected flybys (T16, T20, T29, T40 and T56) to further constrain plasma parameters of ionosphere below 1400 km.

  4. Effect of mass and density of ambient gas on the interaction of laser-blow-off plasma plumes propagating in close proximity

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in

    2016-04-15

    The effects of mass and pressure of ambient gas on the propagation dynamics of two laser-blow-off plasma plumes created in close proximity are investigated. A time gated fast imaging technique is used for recording the images of the laterally colliding plumes under different experimental conditions. Pressure is varied from 0.1 to 3 mbar in three ambient, i.e., helium, neon, and argon. Emphasis is given on the nature of shock-shock interaction under different ambient conditions. It has been observed that the shock-velocity, shape, strength, and their interactions are strongly dependent on the mass and density of the ambient gases. The rolemore » of the interacting shocks and their subsequent reflections on the formation and geometrical shape of the interaction region in different ambient conditions is briefly described.« less

  5. Plasma Waves in the Magnetosheath of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Research supported by this grant is divided into three basic topics of investigation. These are: (1) Plasma waves in the Venus magnetosheath, (2) Plasma waves in the Venus foreshock and solar wind, (3) plasma waves in the Venus nightside ionosphere and ionotail. The main issues addressed in the first area - Plasma waves in the Venus magnetosheath - dealt with the wave modes observed in the magnetosheath and upper ionosphere, and whether these waves are a significant source of heating for the topside ionosphere. The source of the waves was also investigated. In the second area - Plasma waves in the Venus foreshock and solar wind, we carried out some research on waves observed upstream of the planetary bow shock known as the foreshock. The foreshock and bow shock modify the ambient magnetic field and plasma, and need to be understood if we are to understand the magnetosheath. Although most of the research was directed to wave observations on the dayside of the planet, in the last of the three basic areas studied, we also analyzed data from the nightside. The plasma waves observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on the nightside continue to be of considerable interest since they have been cited as evidence for lightning on Venus.

  6. Potential Industrial Applications of the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) Operating in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece Roth, J.

    2004-11-01

    The majority of industrial plasma processing with glow discharges has been conducted at pressures below 10 torr. This tends to limit applications to high value workpieces as a result of the high capital cost of vacuum systems and the production constraints of batch processing. It has long been recognized that glow discharge plasmas would play a much larger industrial role if they could be generated at one atmosphere. The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP), developed at the University of Tennessee's Plasma Sciences Laboratory, is a non-thermal RF plasma operating on displacement currents with the time-resolved characteristics of a classical low pressure DC normal glow discharge. As a glow discharge, the OAUGDP operates with maximum electrical efficiency at the Stoletow point, where the energy input per ion-electron pair is a minimum [1, 2]. Several interdisciplinary teams have investigated potential applications of the OAUGDP. These teams included collaborators from the UTK Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC), and the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microbiology, and Food Science and Technology, as well as the NASA Langley Research Center. The potential applications of the OAUGDP have all been at one atmosphere and room temperature, using air as the working gas. These applications include sterilizing medical and dental equipment; sterilizable air filters to deal with the "sick building syndrome"; removal of soot from Diesel engine exhaust; subsonic plasma aerodynamic effects, including flow re-attachment to airfoils and boundary layer modification; electrohydrodynamic (EDH) flow control of working gases; increasing the surface energy of materials; improving the adhesion of paints and electroplated layers: improving the wettability and wickability of fabrics; stripping of photoresist; and plasma deposition and directional etching of potential microelectronic relevance. [1] J. R. Roth, Industrial Plasma Engineering

  7. On the Spatial Power Spectrum of the E x B Gradient Drift Instability in Ionospheric Plasma Clouds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-14

    Perkins et al., 1973]. In reality, an artificially injected plasma cloud will, initially, be two- dimensional in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic...Motion of Artificial Ion Clouds in the Upper Atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 15, 1, 1967. Kelley, M.C., K.D. Baker, and J.C. Ulwick, Late Time Barium...42960 COMiANDER WORLOA’AY POS’AL CENTER J.S. ARMY MISSILE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY "’OS ANGELES, CA. 90009 REDSTONE ARSENAL, AL 35809 OICY ATTN CODE 52 0ICY

  8. Soviet ionospheric modification research

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.; Carlson, H.C.; Djuth, F.T.

    1988-07-01

    Soviet published literature in ionospheric modification research by high-power radio waves is assessed, including an evaluation of its impact on and applications to future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This assessment is organized to place equal emphasis on basic research activities, designed to investigate both the natural geophysical environment and fundamental plasma physics; advanced research programs, such as those studying artificial ionization processes and oblique high-power radio propagation and practical system applications and operational limitations addressed by this research. The assessment indicates that the Soviet Union sustains high-quality theoretical and experimental research programs in ionospheric modification, with a breadth and levelmore » of effort greatly exceeding comparable Western programs. Soviet theoretical research tends to be analytical and intuitive, as compared to the Western emphasis on numerical simulation techniques. The Soviet experimental approach is less exploratory, designed principally to confirm theoretical predictions. Although limited by inferior diagnostic capabilities, Soviet experimental facilities are more numerous, operate on a more regular basis, and transmit radio wave powers exceeding those os Western facilities. Because of its broad scope of activity, the Soviet Union is better poised to quickly exploit new technologies and system applications as they are developed. This panel has identified several key areas of Soviet research activity and emerging technology that may offer long-term opportunities for remote-sensing and telecommunications advantages. However, we have found no results that suggest imminent breakthrough discoveries in these fields.« less

  9. Mechanisms of Ionospheric Mass Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of ionospheric O+ escape flux on electromagnetic energy flux and electron precipitation into the ionosphere is derived for a hypothetical ambipolar pick-up process, powered the relative motion of plasmas and neutral upper atmosphere, and by electron precipitation, at heights where the ions are magnetized but influenced by photo-ionization, collisions with gas atoms, ambipolar and centrifugal acceleration. Ion pick-up by the convection electric field produces "ring-beam" or toroidal velocity distributions, as inferred from direct plasma measurements, from observations of the associated waves, and from the spectra of incoherent radar echoes. Ring-beams are unstable to plasma wave growth, resulting in rapid relaxation via transverse velocity diffusion, into transversely accelerated ion populations. Ion escape is substantially facilitated by the ambipolar potential, but is only weakly affected by centrifugal acceleration. If, as cited simulations suggest, ion ring beams relax into non-thermal velocity distributions with characteristic speed equal to the local ion-neutral flow speed, a generalized "Jeans escape" calculation shows that the escape flux of ionospheric O+ increases with Poynting flux and with precipitating electron density in rough agreement with observations.

  10. Forecasting Ionospheric Real-time Scintillation Tool (FIRST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Redmon, R.; Bullett, T.; Caton, R. G.; Retterer, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    It is well-known that the generation of equatorial, F-region plasma density irregularities, via the Generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism is critically dependent on the magnitude of the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) in upward ExB drift velocity after sunset. These plasma density bubbles that are generated after sunset lead to the scintillation of trans-ionospheric radio wave signals that pass through these bubbles and is commonly referred to as scintillation activity. Communication and Navigation systems can be severely disrupted by these plasma density irregularities. A measure of scintillation activity is given by the S4 Index and a network of Air Force, ground-based UHF and L-band receivers measuring the S4 Index is called the SCIntillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) network. After sunset, the height-rise with time of the bottom- side of the F-layer reflects the magnitude of the upward ExB drift velocity. The value of the ionospheric parameter, h'F (the virtual height of the bottom-side F-layer) at 1930 LT reflects the integrated ExB drift effect on lifting the F-layer to an altitude where the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability mechanism becomes important. It is found that there exists a threshold in the h'F value at 1930 LT and the onset of scintillation activity as measured by the S4 Index value in the Peruvian longitude sector. This h'F threshold value is found to decrease with decreasing F10.7 cm fluxes in a linear manner (R = 0.99). T o examine this relationship, theoretically, we incorporate a suite of first-principle models of the ambient ionosphere (PBMOD) developed at the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) to investigate R-T growth rates and threshold h'F (1930 LT) values as a function of solar cycle activity. In addition, this paper describes a technique for automatically forecasting, in real-time, the occurrence or non-occurrence of scintillation activity that relies on real-time data from a ground-based ionospheric sounder at or near the

  11. Comparing XPS on bare and capped ZrN films grown by plasma enhanced ALD: Effect of ambient oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneshwar, Triratna; Cadien, Ken

    2018-03-01

    In this article we compare x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on bare- and capped- zirconium nitride (ZrN) films to investigate the effect of ambient sample oxidation on the detected bound O in the form of oxide ZrO2 and/or oxynitride ZrOxNy. ZrN films in both bare- and Al2O3/AlN capped- XPS samples were grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) technique using tetrakis dimethylamino zirconium (TDMAZr) precursor, forming gas (5% H2, rest N2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and as received research grade process gases under identical process conditions. Capped samples were prepared by depositing 1 nm thick PEALD AlN on ZrN, followed by additional deposition of 1 nm thick ALD Al2O3, without venting of ALD reactor. On bare ZrN sample at room temperature, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements with increasing ambient exposure times (texp) showed a self-limiting surface oxidation with the oxide thickness (dox) approaching 3.7 ± 0.02 nm for texp > 120 min. In XPS data measured prior to sample sputtering (tsput = 0), ZrO2 and ZrOxNy were detected in bare- samples, whereas only ZrN and Al2O3/AlN from capping layer were detected in capped- samples. For bare-ZrN samples, appearance of ZrO2 and ZrOxNy up to sputter depth (dsput) of 15 nm in depth-profile XPS data is in contradiction with measured dox = 3.7 nm, but explained from sputtering induced atomic inter-diffusion within analyzed sample. Appearance of artifacts in the XPS spectra from moderately sputtered (dsput = 0.2 nm and 0.4 nm) capped-ZrN sample, provides an evidence to ion-bombardment induced modifications within analyzed sample.

  12. The hot plasma environment and floating potentials of an electron-beam-emitting rocket in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Winckler, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The plasma environment surrounding the Echo III accelerator payload is examined with an extensive array of particle sensors. Suprathermal electrons are produced isotropically around the payload during the gun firings and decay away in approximately 32 ms. The largest directional intensities of this component are observed at the higher altitudes. Quick echo electrons are also observed to produce suprathermal electrons when they encounter the payload. The hot electrons surrounding the accelerator payload during gun injections bring sufficient charge to the payload to neutralize it provided the loss of charge by secondary production on the payload skin is small. Since the hot population exists for tens of milliseconds after the gun turnoff, it results in driving the payload up to 4 volts negative during this time. Quick echo electrons creating suprathermal electrons around the payload also drive the payload to a few volts negative.

  13. Spectral Characteristics of Laser-Induced Graphite Plasma in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinmei; Zheng, Peichao; Liu, Hongdi; Fang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    An experimental setup of laser-induced graphite plasma was built and the spectral characteristics and properties of graphite plasma were studied. From the temporal behavior of graphite plasma, the duration of CN partials (B2 Σ+ → X2 Σ+) emission was two times longer than that of atomic carbon, and all intensities reached the maximum during the early stage from 0.2 μs to 0.8 μs. The electron temperature decreased from 11807 K to 8755 K, the vibration temperature decreased from 8973 K to 6472 K, and the rotational temperature decreased from 7288 K to 4491 K with the delay time, respectively. The effect of the laser energy was also studied, and it was found that the thresholds and spectral characteristics of CN molecular and C atomic spectroscopy presented great differences. At lower laser energies, the electron excited temperature, the electron density, the vibrational temperature and rotational temperature of CN partials increased rapidly. At higher laser energies, the increasing of electron excited temperature and electron density slow down, and the vibrational temperature and rotational temperature even trend to saturation due to plasma shielding and dissociation of CN molecules. The relationship among the three kinds of temperatures was Telec>Tvib>Trot at the same time. The electron density of the graphite plasma was in the order of 1017 cm-3 and 1018 cm-3. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61205149), Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of State Education Ministry, Science Research Funds of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (KJ1500436), Scientific and Technological Talents Training Project of Chongqing (CSTC2013kjrc-qnrc40002), Key Project of Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Project of Chongqing (CSTC2015jcyjB0358), Visiting Scholarship of State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology (2007DA10512714409)

  14. LIFDAR: A Diagnostic Tool for the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, O. E.; Rodgers, C. T.; Batholomew, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    ITT Corporation proposes a novel system to measure and monitor the ion species within the Earth's ionosphere called Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection and Ranging (LIFDAR). Unlike current ionosphere measurements that detect electrons and magnetic field, LIFDAR remotely measures the major contributing ion species to the electron plasma. The LIFDAR dataset has the added capability to demonstrate stratification and classification of the layers of the ionosphere to ultimately give a true tomographic view. We propose a proof of concept study using existing atmospheric LIDAR sensors combined with a mountaintop observatory for a single ion species that is prevalent in all layers of the atmosphere. We envision the LIFDAR concept will enable verification, validation, and exploration of the physics of the magneto-hydrodynamic models used in ionosphere forecasting community. The LIFDAR dataset will provide the necessary ion and electron density data for the system wide data gap. To begin a proof of concept, we present the science justification of the LIFDAR system based on the model photon budget. This analysis is based on the fluorescence of ionized oxygen within the ionosphere versus altitude. We use existing model abundance data of the ionosphere during normal and perturbed states. We propagate the photon uncertainties from the laser source through the atmosphere to the plasma and back to the collecting optics and detector. We calculate the expected photon budget to determine signal to noise estimates based on the targeted altitude and detection efficiency. Finally, we use these results to derive a LIFDAR observation strategy compatible with operational parameters.

  15. Multistage plasma initiation process by pulsed CO2 laser irradiation of a Ti sample in an ambient gas (He, Ar, or N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, J.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Dubreuil, B.

    1993-02-01

    New experimental results are reported on plasma initiation in front of a titanium sample irradiated by ir (λ=10.6 μm) laser pulses in an ambient gas (He, Ar, and N2) at pressures ranging from several Torr up to the atmosphere. The plasma is studied by space- and time-resolved emission spectroscopy, while sample vaporization is probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Threshold laser intensities leading to the formation of a plasma in the vapor and in the ambient gases are determined. Experimental results support the model of a vaporization mechanism for the plasma initiation (vaporization-initiated plasma breakdown). The plasma initiation is described by simple numerical criteria based on a two-stage process. Theoretical predictions are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experiment. This study provides also a clear explanation of the influence of the ambient gas on the laser beam-metal surface energy transfer. Laser irradiation always causes an important vaporization when performed in He, while in the case of Ar or N2, the interaction is reduced in heating and vaporization of some surface defects and impurities.

  16. The theory of ionospheric focused heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Duncan, L. M.

    1987-01-01

    Ionospheric modification by high power radio waves and by chemical releases are combined in a theoretical study of ionospheric focused heating. The release of materials which promote electron-ion recombination creates a hole in the bottomside ionosphere. The ionospheric hole focuses high power radio waves from a ground-based transmitter to give a 20 dB or greater enhancement in power density. The intense radio beam excites atomic oxygen by collisions with accelerated electrons. Airglow from the excited oxygen provides a visible trace of the focused beam. The large increase in the intensity of the radio beam stimulates new wave-plasma interactions. Numerical simulations show that the threshold for the two-plasmon decay instability is exceeded. The interaction of the pump electromagnetic wave with the backward plasmon produces a scattered electromagnetic wave at 3/2 the pump frequency. The scattered wave provides a unique signature of the two-plasmon decay process for ground-based detection.

  17. A preliminary study of extended magnetic field structures in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, James D.; Lane, Barton G.; Post, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    Several plasma phenomena which are to be expected around a magnet in LEO were identified and analyzed qualitatively. The ASTROMAG cusp magnet will create an extended field whose strength drops to the ambient level over a scale length of approx. 15 m; the combined field has a complex topology with ring nulls and open and closed field lines. The entire configuration is moving through the partially ionized F-layer of the ionosphere at a speed slow compared to the local Alfven speed but fast compared to the ion sound speed. The ambient plasma crosses the extended field structure in a time short compared to the ion Larmor period yet long relative to the electron Larmor period. Thus, electrons behave as a magnetized fluid while ions move ballistically until reflected from higher fields near the cusp. Since the Debye length is short compared to the field scale length, an electrostatic shock-like structure forms to equilibrate the flows and achieve quasi-neutrality. The ambient plasma will be excluded from a cavity near the magnet. The size and nature of the strong interaction region in which the magnet significantly perturbs the ambient flow were determined by studying ion orbits numerically. Lecture viewgraphs summarizing these results are presented.

  18. The response of the ionosphere to the injection of chemically reactive vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    As a gas released in the ionosphere expands, it is rapidly cooled. When the vapor becomes sufficiently tenuous, it is reheated by collisions with the ambient atmosphere and its flow is then governed by diffusive expansion. As the injected gas becomes well mixed with the plasma, a hole is created by chemical processes. In the case of diatomic hydrogen release, depression of the electron concentrations is governed by the charge exchange reaction between oxygen ions and hydrogen, producing positive hydroxyl ions. Hydroxyl ions rapidly react with the electron gas to produce excited oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Enhanced airglow emissions result from the transition of the excited atoms to lower energy states. The electron temperature in the depleted region rises sharply causing a thermal expansion of the plasma and a further reduction in the local plasma concentration.

  19. Effects of Ambient Humidity on Plant Growth Enhancement by Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation to Plant Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Humidity is an important factor for plasma-bio applications because composition of species generated by atmospheric pressure plasmas significantly depends on the humidity. Here we have examined effects of humidity on the growth enhancement to study the mechanism. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 10 seeds of Raphanus sativus L. were set for x = 5 mm and y = 3 mm below the electrodes. The humidity Hair was 10 - 90 %Rh. The ratio of length of plants with plasma irradiation to that of control increases from 1.2 for Hair = 10 %Rh to 2.5 for Hair = 50 %Rh. The ratio is 2.5 for Hair = 50-90 %Rh. This humidity dependence is similar to the humidity dependence of O2+-H2O,H3O*, NO2--H2Oand NO3--H2Odensities, whereas it is different from that of other species such as O3, NO, and so on. The similarity gives information on key species for the growth enhancement.

  20. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms

    PubMed Central

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-01-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429

  1. Cord plasma insulin and in utero exposure to ambient air pollution.

    PubMed

    Madhloum, Narjes; Janssen, Bram G; Martens, Dries S; Saenen, Nelly D; Bijnens, Esmée; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Penders, Joris; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Lefebvre, Wouter; Plusquin, Michelle; Nawrot, Tim S

    2017-08-01

    Cardio-metabolic risk factors including insulin levels are at young age barely perceived as harmful, but over time these risk factors may track and lead to higher risk of metabolic syndrome. Studies showed that exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in childhood. We determined whether the origin of type 2 diabetes can be found in the early childhood by examining the levels of insulin in the neonatal cord blood and whether this can be considered as a disease marker for later life. In the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing) birth cohort, we recruited 620 mother-infant pairs between February 2nd 2010 until August 12th 2014 at the East-Limburg Hospital in Genk, Belgium. We investigated in 590 newborns the association between cord plasma insulin levels and exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in various exposure windows during pregnancy. Trimester-specific air pollutant exposure levels were estimated for each mother's home address using a spatiotemporal model. Cord plasma insulin levels averaged 33.1pmol/L (25-75th percentile: 20.1-53.5), while PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy averaged (SD) 13.7μg/m 3 (2.4). Independent of maternal age, newborn's sex, birth weight, gestational age, parity, early-pregnancy BMI, ethnicity, smoking status, time of the day, maternal education, time of delivery, and season of delivery, cord plasma insulin levels increased with 15.8% (95% CI 7.8 to 24.4, p<0.0001) for each SD increment in PM 2.5 levels during the entire pregnancy and was most pronounced in the 2nd trimester (13.1%, 95% CI 3.4 to 23.7, p=0.007) of pregnancy. The results for PM 10 exposure were similar with those of PM 2.5 exposure but we did not observe an association between cord blood insulin levels and NO 2 exposure. Exposure to particulate air pollution during pregnancy is associated with increased levels of cord plasma insulin at birth. The public health relevance of

  2. Variations of the ionospheric plasma concentration in the region of the main ionospheric trough during the magnetic storm of December 18-19, 1978, in connection with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gdalevich, G.L.; Afonin, V.V.; Eliseev, A.Y.

    1986-07-01

    Data from the Kosmos-900 satellite are used to examine variations of the ion concentration in the region of the main ionospheric trough at altitudes of about 500 km during the storm of December 18-19, 1978. These variations of ion densities are compared with the variations of the parameters of the interplanetary medium, in particular, with the E /sub y/ = -VB /sub z/ component of the interplanetary electric field. The results of the comparison are discussed. A scheme is proposed for the formation and motion of the trough during magnetic disturbances.

  3. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN TITAN’S SUNLIT IONOSPHERE: MODEL–OBSERVATION COMPARISONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vigren, E.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Wahlund, J.-E.

    2016-08-01

    The dayside ionosphere of the Saturnian satellite Titan is generated mainly from photoionization of N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. We compare model-derived suprathermal electron intensities with spectra measured by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer/Electron Spectrometer (CAPS/ELS) in Titan's sunlit ionosphere (altitudes of 970–1250 km) focusing on the T40, T41, T42, and T48 Titan flybys by the Cassini spacecraft. The model accounts only for photoelectrons and associated secondary electrons, with a main input being the impinging solar EUV spectra as measured by the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energy and Dynamics/Solar EUV Experiment and extrapolated to Saturn. Associated electron-impact electron production rates have beenmore » derived from ambient number densities of N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (measured by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer/Closed Source Neutral mode) and related energy-dependent electron-impact ionization cross sections. When integrating up to electron energies of 60 eV, covering the bulk of the photoelectrons, the model-based values exceed the observationally based values typically by factors of ∼3 ± 1. This finding is possibly related to current difficulties in accurately reproducing the observed electron number densities in Titan's dayside ionosphere. We compare the utilized dayside CAPS/ELS spectra with ones measured in Titan's nightside ionosphere during the T55–T59 flybys. The investigated nightside locations were associated with higher fluxes of high-energy (>100 eV) electrons than the dayside locations. As expected, for similar neutral number densities, electrons with energies <60 eV give a higher relative contribution to the total electron-impact ionization rates on the dayside (due to the contribution from photoelectrons) than on the nightside.« less

  4. Ionospheric Measurements Using Environmental Sampling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, R. E.; Jackson, J. E.; Kane, J. A.; Serbu, G. P.

    1960-01-01

    Two rockets were flown to peak altitudes of 220 km in September 1959 to test various methods planned for future measurements of ionization parameters in the ionosphere, exosphere, and interplanetary plasma. The experiments used techniques which sample the ambient environment in the immediate vicinity of the research vehicle. Direct methods were chosen since indirect propagation techniques do not provide the temperatures of charged particles, are insensitive to ion densities, and cannot measure local electron densities under all conditions. Very encouraging results have been obtained from a preliminary analysis of data provided by one of the two flights. A new rf probe technique was successfully used to determine the electron density profile. This was indicated by its agreement with the results of a companion cw propagation experiment, particularly when the probe data were corrected for the effects of the ion sheath which surrounds the vehicle. The characteristics of this sheath were determined directly in flight by an electric field meter which provided the sheath field, and by a Langmuir probe which measured the total potential across the sheath. The electron temperatures deduced from the Langmuir probe data are greater than the neutral gas temperatures previously measured for the same location and season, but these measurements possibly were taken under different atmospheric conditions. Ion densities were calculated from the ion trap data for several altitudes ranging from 130 to 210 km and were found to be within 20 percent of the measured electron densities.

  5. Numerical study of the generation and propagation of ultralow-frequency waves by artificial ionospheric F region modulation at different latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhou, Chen; Shi, Run; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yuannong

    2016-09-01

    Powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves can be used to efficiently modify the upper-ionospheric plasmas of the F region. The pressure gradient induced by modulated electron heating at ultralow-frequency (ULF) drives a local oscillating diamagnetic ring current source perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, which can act as an antenna radiating ULF waves. In this paper, utilizing the HF heating model and the model of ULF wave generation and propagation, we investigate the effects of both the background ionospheric profiles at different latitudes in the daytime and nighttime ionosphere and the modulation frequency on the process of the HF modulated heating and the subsequent generation and propagation of artificial ULF waves. Firstly, based on a relation among the radiation efficiency of the ring current source, the size of the spatial distribution of the modulated electron temperature and the wavelength of ULF waves, we discuss the possibility of the effects of the background ionospheric parameters and the modulation frequency. Then the numerical simulations with both models are performed to demonstrate the prediction. Six different background parameters are used in the simulation, and they are from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model and the neutral atmosphere model (NRLMSISE-00), including the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP; 62.39° N, 145.15° W), Wuhan (30.52° N, 114.32° E) and Jicamarca (11.95° S, 76.87° W) at 02:00 and 14:00 LT. A modulation frequency sweep is also used in the simulation. Finally, by analyzing the numerical results, we come to the following conclusions: in the nighttime ionosphere, the size of the spatial distribution of the modulated electron temperature and the ground magnitude of the magnetic field of ULF wave are larger, while the propagation loss due to Joule heating is smaller compared to the daytime ionosphere; the amplitude of the electron temperature oscillation decreases with

  6. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER: Influence of the ambient air pressure on short-wavelength radiation from a laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, A. F.; Zemtsov, S. S.; Fedyushin, B. T.

    1991-12-01

    A detailed experimental investigation was made of the radiation from a plasma created on an aluminum target by a pulsed CO2 laser at different ambient gas pressures. Measurements were made of the energy and angular distribution of the radiation and of the efficiency of conversion of laser energy into reemitted plasma radiation. The intensity of this radiation was found to exhibit pressure-dependent pulsations. The maximum reflection of the laser radiation from the plasma was recorded at a pressure of ~ 40 Torr. An interpretation is given of the experimental data.

  7. Characterization of ultrafast laser-ablation plasma plumes at various Ar ambient pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Phillips, M. C.; ...

    2015-07-30

    Expansion dynamics and internal plume structures of fs laser ablated brass plasma in Ar at various pressure levels ranging from vacuum to atmospheric were studied using multitude of diagnostic tools including time resolved and time integrated 2-dimensional imaging, optical time of flight measurements and visible emission spectroscopy. Temporal evolution of excited Cu and Zn species in the plume were imaged using band pass interference filters and compared its hydrodynamic expansion features with spectrally integrated images of the plume. 2D imaging coupled with monochromatic line selection showed several interesting features at various pressure levels which include velocity differences among the plumemore » species, emission intensity distribution, plasma temperature, electron density etc. Plume confinement, enhanced signal intensity, and dual peak structures in time-of-flight profiles were observed at intermediate pressure range of ~10 Torr. Optimum signal to background ratio was also observed in this pressure range. As a result, possible mechanisms for observed changes in plume shape, optical emission intensity and dual peak structures in time-of-flight profiles were discussed.« less

  8. Sub-Ionospheric Measurements of the Ocean, Atmosphere, and Ionosphere from the CARINA Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Montgomery, J. A., Jr.; Siefring, C. L.; Gatling, G.

    2016-12-01

    New satellites designed to fly between 150 and 250 km has been constructed to study a wide range of geophysical topics extending from the ocean to the topside ionosphere. The key features of the CARINA satellites are (1) the ability of sustain long duration (60 day) orbits below the F-Layer ionosphere, (2) download large quantities of data (10 GBytes) per pass over a ground station, and (3) a heritage instrument payload comprised of an Electric Field Instrument (EFI) with full range measurements from 3 to 13 MHz, a Ram Langmuir Probe (RLP) the measures ion density from 102 to 106 cm-3 with 10 kHz sample rate, an Orbiting GPS Receiver (OGR) providing overhead total electron content and satellite position and the Wake Retro Reflectors (WRR) that use laser ranging for precise orbit determination. Each letter in "CARINA" represents one of the science objectives. "Coastal" ocean wave remote sensing of the sea surface wave height spectrum derived from HF surface wave scatter to the satellite. Assimilation ionospheric models are supported by Global measurements of GPS total electron count (TEC) and in situ plasma density for updating data driven ionospheric models (GAIM, IDA3D, etc.). Radio wave propagation and interactions determine the impact of the bottomside ionosphere on HF ray trajectories, the effects of ionospheric irregularities that yield UHF/L-band scintillations and ionospheric modifications by high power HF waves. Ionospheric structures such are sporadic-E and intermediate layers, traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's) and large scale bottomside fluctuations in the F-layer are directly measured by CARINA sensors. Neutral drag is studied along the orbit through reentry modeling of drag coefficients and neutral density model updates. Finally, Atmospherics and lightning knowledge is acquired through studies of lightning EM pulses and their impact on ionosphere. Two CARINA satellites separated by 2000 km flying above 50 degree inclination represents the

  9. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Milikh, Gennady; Vartanyan, Aram

    2011-01-04

    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Thosemore » observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.« less

  10. AMPS data management requirements study, appendix 1. [user manuals (computer programs)/display devices - computerized simulation/experimentation/ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flow charts and display formats for the simulation of five experiments are given. The experiments are: (1) electromagnetic wave transmission; (2) passive observations of ambient plasma; (3) ionospheric measurements with subsatellite; (4) electron accelerator beam measurements; and (5) measurement of acoustical gravity waves in the sodium layer using lasers. A detailed explanation of the simulation procedure, definition of variables, and an explanation of how the experimenter makes display choices is also presented. A functional description is included on each flow chart and the assumptions and definitions of terms and scope of the flow charts and displays are presented.

  11. Assessing the Suitability of the ClOud Reflection Algorithm (CORA) in Modelling the Evolution of an Artificial Plasma Cloud in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson-Booth, N.

    2016-12-01

    Artificial Ionospheric Modification (AIM) attempts to modify the ionosphere in order to alter the propagation environment. It can be achieved through injecting the ionosphere with aerosols, chemicals or radio signals. The effects of any such release can be detected through the deployment of sensors, including ground based high frequency (HF) sounders. During the Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) experiment (undertaken in April/May 2013 in the Kwajalein Atoll, part of the Marshall Islands) several oblique ionograms were recorded from a ground based HF system. These ionograms were collected over multiple geometries and allowed the effects on the HF propagation environment to be understood. These ionograms have subsequently been used in the ClOud Reflection Algorithm (CORA) to attempt to model the evolution of the cloud following release. This paper describes the latest validation results from CORA, both from testing against ionograms, but also other independent models of cloud evolution from MOSC. For all testing the various cloud models (including that generated by CORA) were incorporated into a background ionosphere through which a 3D numerical ray trace was run to produce synthetic ionograms that could be compared with the ionograms recorded during MOSC.

  12. The Effects of Thunderstorm Static and Quasi-Static Electric Fields on the Lower Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Mohammad Ahmad

    rate constant with the electric field, the nighttime steady state electron density profile can be reduced by ˜40% or enhanced by a factor of ˜6. We have improved our model in order to self-consistently calculate the steady state conductivity of the lower ionosphere above a thunderstorm. The new model takes into account the heating effects of thunderstorm electrostatic fields on the free electrons. The modeling results indicate that under steady state condition, although the electron density is generally increased, the nighttime lower ionospheric conductivity can be reduced by up to 1-2 orders of magnitude because electron mobility is significantly reduced due to the electron heating effect. Because of this reduction, it is found that for a typical ionospheric density profile, the resulting changes in the reflection heights of ELF and VLF waves are 5 and 2 km, respectively. In the second part of this dissertation, a one-dimensional plasma discharge fluid model is developed to study the response of the nighttime lower ionosphere to the quasi-electrostatic field produced by cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. When the quasi-electrostatic field reaches and exceeds about E k, a halo can be triggered in the lower ionosphere. The modeling results indicate that the ionospheric perturbation is determined by the ambient ionospheric density profile, the charge. moment change, and charge transfer time. Tenuous ambient profiles result in larger changes in the ionospheric electron density. Cloud-to-ground lightning discharges, with larger charge moment changes and shorter charge transfer times, result in a larger change in the ionospheric electron density. In particular, the enhancement in the lower ionospheric electron density due to impulsive negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes has been investigated. It is found that the enhancement can reach up to about 3 orders of magnitude above ˜70 km altitude in a few seconds. Below ˜75 km altitude, this enhancement recovers in a

  13. A model of the pre-Sedov expansion phase of supernova remnant-ambient plasma coupling and X-ray emission from SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicer, D. S.; Maran, S. P.; Clark, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanism responsible for coupling supernova (SN) remnant to the ambient medium during the pre-Sedov or the so-called free expansion phase, immediately following the progenitor explosion. A theory is developed for the interaction of an SN piston with the ambient medium during the pre-Sedov phase. The possibility of X-ray production by the high-speed portion of the piston during this phase is investigated. The relevant observations of high-energy emissions from the SN 1987A, including the X-ray spectrum, luminosity, and temporal development, are considered. It is shown that the commonly assumed snowplow model for SNR evolution is valid, because of the action of a variety of collisionless two-stream instabilities that permit the coupling of the ambient plasma with SNR.

  14. Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars Probed by MARSIS Topside Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kopf, A. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.

    2018-01-01

    The upper ionosphere of Mars contains a variety of perturbations driven by solar wind forcing from above and upward propagating atmospheric waves from below. Here we explore the global distribution and variability of ionospheric irregularities around the exobase at Mars by analyzing topside sounding data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on board Mars Express. As irregular structure gives rise to off-vertical echoes with excess propagation time, the diffuseness of ionospheric echo traces can be used as a diagnostic tool for perturbed reflection surfaces. The observed properties of diffuse echoes above unmagnetized regions suggest that ionospheric irregularities with horizontal wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers are particularly enhanced in the winter hemisphere and at high solar zenith angles. Given the known inverse dependence of neutral gravity wave amplitudes on the background atmospheric temperature, the ionospheric irregularities probed by MARSIS are most likely associated with plasma perturbations driven by atmospheric gravity waves. Though extreme events with unusually diffuse echoes are more frequently observed for high solar wind dynamic pressures during some time intervals, the vast majority of the diffuse echo events are unaffected by varying solar wind conditions, implying limited influence of solar wind forcing on the generation of ionospheric irregularities. Combination of remote and in situ measurements of ionospheric irregularities would offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the ionospheric dynamics at Mars.

  15. Imaging the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere with ionospheric tomography using COSMIC GPS TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto Jayawardena, Talini S.; Chartier, Alex T.; Spencer, Paul; Mitchell, Cathryn N.

    2016-01-01

    GPS-based ionospheric tomography is a well-known technique for imaging the total electron content (TEC) between GPS satellites and receivers. However, as an integral measurement of electron concentration, TEC typically encompasses both the ionosphere and plasmasphere, masking signatures from the topside ionosphere-plasmasphere due to the dominant ionosphere. Imaging these regions requires a technique that isolates TEC in the topside ionosphere-plasmasphere. Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS) employs tomography to image the electron distribution in the ionosphere. Its implementation for regions beyond is yet to be seen due to the different dynamics present above the ionosphere. This paper discusses the extension of MIDAS to image these altitudes using GPS phase-based TEC measurements and follows the work by Spencer and Mitchell (2011). Plasma is constrained to dipole field lines described by Euler potentials, resulting in a distribution symmetrical about the geomagnetic equator. A simulation of an empirical plasmaspheric model by Gallagher et al. (1988) is used to verify the technique by comparing reconstructions of the simulation with the empirical model. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) is used as GPS receiver locations. The verification is followed by a validation of the modified MIDAS algorithm, where the regions' TEC is reconstructed from COSMIC GPS phase measurements and qualitatively compared with previous studies using Jason-1 and COSMIC data. Results show that MIDAS can successfully image features/trends of the topside ionosphere-plasmasphere observed in other studies, with deviations in absolute TEC attributed to differences in data set properties and the resolution of the images.

  16. Ionospheric "Volcanology": Ionospheric Detection of Volcano Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Shults, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rakoto, V.

    2016-12-01

    It is known that volcano eruptions and explosions can generate acoustic and gravity waves. These neutral waves further propagate into the atmosphere and ionosphere, where they are detectable by atmospheric and ionospheric sounding tools. So far, the features of co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations are not well understood yet. The development of the global and regional networks of ground-based GPS/GNSS receivers has opened a new era in the ionospheric detection of natural hazard events, including volcano eruptions. It is now known that eruptions with the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of more than 2 can be detected in the ionosphere, especially in regions with dense GPS/GNSS-receiver coverage. The co-volcanic ionospheric disturbances are usually characterized as quasi-periodic oscillations. The Calbuco volcano, located in southern Chile, awoke in April 2015 after 43 years of inactivity. The first eruption began at 21:04UT on 22 April 2015, preceded by only an hour-long period of volcano-tectonic activity. This first eruption lasted 90 minutes and generated a sub-Plinian (i.e. medium to large explosive event), gray ash plume that rose 15 km above the main crater. A larger second event on 23 April began at 04:00UT (01:00LT), it lasted six hours, and also generated a sub-Plinian ash plume that rose higher than 15 km. The VEI was estimated to be 4 to 5 for these two events. In this work, we first study ionospheric TEC response to the Calbuco volcano eruptions of April 2015 by using ground-based GNSS-receivers located around the volcano. We analyze the spectral characteristics of the observed TEC variations and we estimate the propagation speed of the co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations. We further proceed with the normal mode summation technique based modeling of the ionospheric TEC variations due to the Calbuco volcano eruptions. Finally, we attempt to localize the position of the volcano from the ionospheric measurements, and we also estimate the time of the

  17. Numerical simulation of Ganymede's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnielli, Gianluca; Galand, Marina; Leblanc, François; Leclercq, Ludivine; Modolo, Ronan

    2017-04-01

    Ganymede is one of the four Galilean moons that orbit around Jupiter and the key moon targeted by the JUpiter and ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission. Other than being the largest moon in the solar system, it is also the only one known to generate internally a magnetic field which is strong enough to overcome the background jovian field; thus, the moon carves out its own magnetosphere inside that of Jupiter. In addition, at Ganymede's orbit the jovian plasma is sub-Alfvénic and subsonic. The interaction of Ganymede's magnetosphere with its surroundings therefore differs from that of planetary magnetospheres resulting from the interaction with the super-Alfvénic and supersonic solar wind. All this makes Ganymede a peculiar celestial body to study. One of the main goals of the JUICE mission is to characterize Ganymede's exosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere as well as its interaction with the jovian surrounding in great details. Ahead of the arrival of JUICE at Jupiter, models have been developed to predict Ganymede's environment. Observational constraints are primarily given from Galileo and from Earth-based telescopes. They remain limited, especially in terms of the ionospheric number density and temperature. To address the currently poorly constrained ionospheric environment, we have developed a test particle model of Ganymede's plasma environment. The model is driven by the densities of neutral species from the exospheric model of Leblanc et al. (Icarus, 2016) and the electromagnetic field taken from the hybrid model of Leclercq et al. (PSS, 2016). The simulation follows the motion of millions of test particles in the environment of the moon and allows to generate maps of ion densities, bulk velocities, and temperatures. We will present simulation outcomes for different ions, including H+, O+, and O2+. We will also discuss how the results from the simulations are relevant to MHD and exospheric models and in interpreting plasma and particle data obtained by

  18. Simulation and analysis of chemical release in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing-Fan; Guo, Li-Xin; Xu, Zheng-Wen; Zhao, Hai-Sheng; Feng, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Ionospheric inhomogeneous plasma produced by single point chemical release has simple space-time structure, and cannot impact radio wave frequencies higher than Very High Frequency (VHF) band. In order to produce more complicated ionospheric plasma perturbation structure and trigger instabilities phenomena, multiple-point chemical release scheme is presented in this paper. The effects of chemical release on low latitude ionospheric plasma are estimated by linear instability growth rate theory that high growth rate represents high irregularities, ionospheric scintillation occurrence probability and high scintillation intension in scintillation duration. The amplitude scintillations and the phase scintillations of 150 MHz, 400 MHz, and 1000 MHz are calculated based on the theory of multiple phase screen (MPS), when they propagate through the disturbed area.

  19. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere?

  20. Magnetically Controlled Upper Ionosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, T.; Al Aryani, O.; Al Mutawa, S.; Bougher, S. W.; Haider, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The electron density (Ne) profiles measured by the Mars Express spacecraft over regions of strong crustal magnetic fields have shown anomalous characteristics of the topside plasma distribution with variable scale heights. One of such Ne profiles is located at 82oS and 180oE whose topside ionosphere is extended up to an altitude of 700 km. The crustal magnetic field at this southern site is nearly vertical and open to the access of solar wind plasma through magnetic reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field. This can lead to the acceleration of electrons and ions during the daytime ionosphere. The downward accelerated electrons with energies >200 eV can penetrate deep into the Martian upper ionosphere along vertical magnetic field lines and cause heating, excitation and ionization of the background atmosphere. The upward acceleration of ions resulting from energy input by precipitating electrons can lead to enhance ion escape rate and modify scale heights of the topside ionosphere. We have developed a 1-D chemical diffusive model from 100 km to 400 km to interpret the Martian ionospheric structure at 82oS latitude. The primary source of ionization in the model is due to solar EUV radiation. An extra ionization source due to precipitating electrons of 0.25 keV, peaking near an altitude of 145 km is added in the model to reasonably reproduce the measured ionospheric structure below an altitude of 180 km. The behavior of the topside ionosphere can be interpreted by the vertical plasma transport caused by precipitating electrons. The vertical transport of plasma in our model is simulated by vertical ion velocities, whose values can be interpreted as drift velocities along magnetic field lines. We find that the variation of the topside Ne scale heights is sensitive to the magnitudes of upward and downward drifts with an imposed outward flux boundary condition at the top of the model. The model requires an upward flux of more than 107 ions cm-2 s-1 for both O2

  1. Uplift of Ionospheric Oxygen Ions During Extreme Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Huba, Joseph; Lakhina, Gurbax S.

    2013-01-01

    Research reported earlier in literature was conducted relating to estimation of the ionospheric electrical field, which may have occurred during the September 1859 Carrington geomagnetic storm event, with regard to modern-day consequences. In this research, the NRL SAMI2 ionospheric code has been modified and applied the estimated electric field to the dayside ionosphere. The modeling was done at 15-minute time increments to track the general ionospheric changes. Although it has been known that magnetospheric electric fields get down into the ionosphere, it has been only in the last ten years that scientists have discovered that intense magnetic storm electric fields do also. On the dayside, these dawn-to-dusk directed electric fields lift the plasma (electrons and ions) up to higher altitudes and latitudes. As plasma is removed from lower altitudes, solar UV creates new plasma, so the total plasma in the ionosphere is increased several-fold. Thus, this complex process creates super-dense plasmas at high altitudes (from 700 to 1,000 km and higher).

  2. LISN: A distributed observatory to image and study ionospheric irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, R.; Valladares, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    During nighttime the low-latitude ionosphere commonly develops plasma irregularities and density structures able to disrupt radio wave signals. This interference produces an adverse impact on satellite communication and navigation signals. For example, EM signals originated from satellites can suffer fading as deep as 20 dB even at UHF frequencies. In addition, civil aviation is increasingly dependent upon Global Navigation Satellite Systems and disruption of the navigation capability from ionospheric irregularities poses a clear threat to passengers and crews. To monitor and specify the conditions of the ionosphere over South America, the Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) was established as a permanent array of scientific instruments that operate continuously and transmit their observables to a central server in a real-time basis. Presently, the LISN observatory includes 3 different types of instruments: (1) 47 GPS receivers, (2) 5 flux-gate magnetometers and (3) 2 Vertical Incidence Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR) ionosondes. In addition to providing a nowcast of the disturbed state of the ionosphere over South America, LISN permits detailed studies of the initiation and development of plasma irregularities. By using data assimilation and tomography techniques, LISN provides continuous estimates of several important geophysical parameters that are indispensable to a program aimed at forecasting the plasma electrodynamics and the formation of density structures in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  3. Investigating the Response and Expansion of Plasma Plumes in a Mesosonic Plasma Using the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the International Space Station (ISS) and the ISS space vehicle, we are exploring a specialized suite of plasma sensors, manipulated by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to probe the near-ISS mesosonic plasma ionosphere moving past the ISS. It is proposed that SASSI consists of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Thermal Ion Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TICHS), Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS), Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), the Collimated PhotoElectron Gun (CPEG), and the University of Michigan Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). There are multiple expected applications for SASSI. Here, we will discuss the study of fundamental plasma physics questions associated with how an emitted plasma plume (such as from the ISS Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU)) responds and expands in a mesosonic magnetoplasma as well as emit and collect current. The ISS PCU Xe plasma plume drifts through the ionosphere and across the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in complex dynamics. This is of practical and theoretical interest pertaining to contamination concerns (e.g. energetic ion scattering) and the ability to collect and emit current between the spacecraft and the ambient plasma ionosphere. This impacts, for example, predictions of electrodynamic tether current performance using plasma contactors as well as decisions about placing high-energy electric propulsion thrusters on ISS. We will discuss the required measurements and connection to proposed instruments for this study.

  4. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling: processes and rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotko, W.

    Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling describes the interaction between the collisionless plasma of the magnetosphere and the ionized and neutral collisional gases of the ionosphere and thermosphere. This coupling introduces feedback and scale interactivity in the form of a time-variable mass flux, electron energy flux and Poynting flux flowing between the two regions. Although delineation of an MI coupling region is somewhat ambiguous, at mid and high latitudes it may be considered as the region of the topside ionosphere and low-altitude magnetosphere where electromagnetic energy is converted to plasma beams and heat via collisionless dissipation processes. Above this region the magnetically guided transmission of electromagnetic power from distant magnetospheric dynamos encounters only weak attenuation. The ionospheric region below it is dominated by ionization processes and collisional cross-field transport and current closure. This tutorial will use observations, models and theory to characterize three major issues in MI coupling: (1) the production of plasma beams and heat in the coupling region; (2) the acceleration of ions leading to massive outflows; and (3) the length and time scale dependence of electromagnetic energy deposition at low altitude. Our success in identifying many of the key processes is offset by a lack of quantitative understanding of the factors controlling the rates of energy deposition and of the production of particle energy and mass fluxes.

  5. Dayside Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling and Prompt Response of Low-Latitude/Equatorial Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.

    2017-12-01

    We use a newly developed numerical simulation model of the ionosphere/thermosphere to investigate magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and response of the low-latitude/equatorial ionosphere. The simulation model adapts an inductive-dynamic approach (including self-consistent solutions of Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in ion momentum equations), that is, based on magnetic field B and plasma velocity v (B-v paradigm), in contrast to the conventional modeling based on electric field E and current j (E-j paradigm). The most distinct feature of this model is that the magnetic field in the ionosphere is not constant but self-consistently varies, e.g., with currents, in time. The model solves self-consistently time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals including photochemistry, and Maxwell's equations. The governing equations solved in the model are a set of multifluid-collisional-Hall MHD equations which are one of unique features of our ionosphere/thermosphere model. With such an inductive-dynamic approach, all possible MHD wave modes, each of which may refract and reflect depending on the local conditions, are retained in the solutions so that the dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere and among different regions of the ionosphere can be self-consistently investigated. In this presentation, we show that the disturbances propagate in the Alfven speed from the magnetosphere along the magnetic field lines down to the ionosphere/thermosphere and that they experience a mode conversion to compressional mode MHD waves (particularly fast mode) in the ionosphere. Because the fast modes can propagate perpendicular to the field, they propagate from the dayside high-latitude to the nightside as compressional waves and to the dayside low-latitude/equatorial ionosphere as rarefaction waves. The apparent prompt response of the low-latitude/equatorial ionosphere, manifesting as the sudden increase of

  6. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  7. Asymmetric DE3 causes WN3 in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinzhe; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Yue, Xinan

    2018-08-01

    This study investigates a mechanism to generate the wavenumber-3 longitude variation in the ionosphere, using the simulations with the Global Coupled Ionosphere Thermosphere Electrodynamics Model, developed by the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (GCITEM-IGGCAS). Due to the asymmetry of geomagnetic field, the asymmetric Hough mode of diurnal eastward wavenumber-3 (DE3) also produces the WN3 structure in the ionosphere by coupling with the magnetic line. The densities of the neutral mass and the plasmas in the ionosphere are studied in detail. The results show a clear WN3 pattern driven by tide's electro-dynamical coupling. We then conclude that the asymmetric component of the DE3 can also cause the WN3 structure in the ionosphere, which confirms the assumption that more than one source could generate WN3 structure in previous studies.

  8. Comparative ionospheres: Terrestrial and giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Trovato, Jeffrey; Moore, Luke; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2018-03-01

    The study of planetary ionospheres within our solar system offers a variety of settings to probe mechanisms of photo-ionization, chemical loss, and plasma transport. Ionospheres are a minor component of upper atmospheres, and thus their mix of ions observed depends on the neutral gas composition of their parent atmospheres. The same solar irradiance (x-rays and extreme-ultra-violet vs. wavelength) impinges upon each of these atmospheres, with solar flux magnitudes changed only by the inverse square of distance from the Sun. If all planets had the same neutral atmosphere-with ionospheres governed by photochemical equilibrium (production = loss)-their peak electron densities would decrease as the inverse of distance from the Sun, and any changes in solar output would exhibit coherent effects throughout the solar system. Here we examine the outer planet with the most observations of its ionosphere (Saturn) and compare its patterns of electron density with those at Earth under the same-day solar conditions. We show that, while the average magnitudes of the major layers of molecular ions at Earth and Saturn are approximately in accord with distance effects, only minor correlations exist between solar effects and day-to-day electron densities. This is in marked contrast to the strong correlations found between the ionospheres of Earth and Mars. Moreover, the variability observed for Saturn's ionosphere (maximum electron density and total electron content) is much larger than found at Earth and Mars. With solar irradiance changes far too small to cause such effects, we use model results to explore the roles of other agents. We find that water sources from Enceladus at low latitudes, and 'ring rain' at middle latitudes, contribute substantially to variability via water ion chemistry. Thermospheric winds and electrodynamics generated at auroral latitudes are suggested causes of high latitude ionospheric variability, but remain inconclusive due to the lack of relevant

  9. Capabilities of software "Vector-M" for a diagnostics of the ionosphere state from auroral emissions images and plasma characteristics from the different orbits as a part of the system of control of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdyushev, V.; Banshchikova, M.; Chuvashov, I.; Kuzmin, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the paper are presented capabilities of software "Vector-M" for a diagnostics of the ionosphere state from auroral emissions images and plasma characteristics from the different orbits as a part of the system of control of space weather. The software "Vector-M" is developed by the celestial mechanics and astrometry department of Tomsk State University in collaboration with Space Research Institute (Moscow) and Central Aerological Observatory of Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The software "Vector-M" is intended for calculation of attendant geophysical and astronomical information for the centre of mass of the spacecraft and the space of observations in the experiment with auroral imager Aurovisor-VIS/MP in the orbit of the perspective Meteor-MP spacecraft.

  10. Electrodynamics of ionospheric weather over low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic state of the ionosphere at low latitudes is largely controlled by electric fields originating from dynamo actions by atmospheric waves propagating from below and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction from above. These electric fields cause structuring of the ionosphere in wide ranging spatial and temporal scales that impact on space-based communication and navigation systems constituting an important segment of our technology-based day-to-day lives. The largest of the ionosphere structures, the equatorial ionization anomaly, with global maximum of plasma densities can cause propagation delays on the GNSS signals. The sunset electrodynamics is responsible for the generation of plasma bubble wide spectrum irregularities that can cause scintillation or even disruptions of satellite communication/navigation signals. Driven basically by upward propagating tides, these electric fields can suffer significant modulations from perturbation winds due to gravity waves, planetary/Kelvin waves, and non-migrating tides, as recent observational and modeling results have demonstrated. The changing state of the plasma distribution arising from these highly variable electric fields constitutes an important component of the ionospheric weather disturbances. Another, often dominating, component arises from solar disturbances when coronal mass ejection (CME) interaction with the earth's magnetosphere results in energy transport to low latitudes in the form of storm time prompt penetration electric fields and thermospheric disturbance winds. As a result, drastic modifications can occur in the form of layer restructuring (Es-, F3 layers etc.), large total electron content (TEC) enhancements, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) latitudinal expansion/contraction, anomalous polarization electric fields/vertical drifts, enhanced growth/suppression of plasma structuring, etc. A brief review of our current understanding of the ionospheric weather variations and the

  11. Ionospheric response to infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by natural hazard events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2015-09-01

    Recent measurements of GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) reveal acoustic wave periods of ˜1-4 min in the F region ionosphere following natural hazard events, such as earthquakes, severe weather, and volcanoes. Here we simulate the ionospheric responses to infrasonic-acoustic waves, generated by vertical accelerations at the Earth's surface or within the lower atmosphere, using a compressible atmospheric dynamics model to perturb a multifluid ionospheric model. Response dependencies on wave source geometry and spectrum are investigated at middle, low, and equatorial latitudes. Results suggest constraints on wave amplitudes that are consistent with observations and that provide insight on the geographical variability of TEC signatures and their dependence on the geometry of wave velocity field perturbations relative to the ambient geomagnetic field. Asymmetries of responses poleward and equatorward from the wave sources indicate that electron perturbations are enhanced on the equatorward side while field aligned currents are driven principally on the poleward side, due to alignments of acoustic wave velocities parallel and perpendicular to field lines, respectively. Acoustic-wave-driven TEC perturbations are shown to have periods of ˜3-4 min, which are consistent with the fraction of the spectrum that remains following strong dissipation throughout the thermosphere. Furthermore, thermospheric acoustic waves couple with ion sound waves throughout the F region and topside ionosphere, driving plasma disturbances with similar periods and faster phase speeds. The associated magnetic perturbations of the simulated waves are calculated to be observable and may provide new observational insight in addition to that provided by GPS TEC measurements.

  12. Characteristics of High Latitude Ionosphere Scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.

    2012-12-01

    As we enter a new solar maximum period, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, especially the ones operating in high latitude and equatorial regions, are facing an increasing threat from ionosphere scintillations. The increased solar activities, however, also offer a great opportunity to collect scintillation data to characterize scintillation signal parameters and ionosphere irregularities. While there are numerous GPS receivers deployed around the globe to monitor ionosphere scintillations, most of them are commercial receivers whose signal processing mechanisms are not designed to operate under ionosphere scintillation. As a result, they may distort scintillation signal parameters or lose lock of satellite signals under strong scintillations. Since 2008, we have established and continuously improved a unique GNSS receiver array at HAARP, Alaska. The array contains high ends commercial receivers and custom RF front ends which can be automatically triggered to collect high quality GPS and GLONASS satellite signals during controlled heating experiments and natural scintillation events. Custom designed receiver signal tracking algorithms aim to preserve true scintillation signatures are used to process the raw RF samples. Signal strength, carrier phase, and relative TEC measurements generated by the receiver array since its inception have been analyzed to characterize high latitude scintillation phenomena. Daily, seasonal, and solar events dependency of scintillation occurrence, spectral contents of scintillation activities, and plasma drifts derived from these measurements will be presented. These interesting results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our experimental data collection system in providing insightful details of ionosphere responses to active perturbations and natural disturbances.

  13. Contribution of the International Reference Ionosphere to the progress of the ionospheric representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), a joint project of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), is a data-based reference model for the ionosphere and since 2014 it is also recognized as the ISO (International Standardization Organization) standard for the ionosphere. The model is a synthesis of most of the available and reliable observations of ionospheric parameters combining ground and space measurements. This presentation reviews the steady progress in achieving a more and more accurate representation of the ionospheric plasma parameters accomplished during the last decade of IRI model improvements. Understandably, a data-based model is only as good as the data foundation on which it is built. We will discuss areas where we are in need of more data to obtain a more solid and continuous data foundation in space and time. We will also take a look at still existing discrepancies between simultaneous measurements of the same parameter with different measurement techniques and discuss the approach taken in the IRI model to deal with these conflicts. In conclusion we will provide an outlook at development activities that may result in significant future improvements of the accurate representation of the ionosphere in the IRI model.

  14. Ionospheric effects during severe space weather events seen in ionospheric service data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakowski, Norbert; Danielides, Michael; Mayer, Christoph; Borries, Claudia

    Space weather effects are closely related to complex perturbation processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere systems, initiated by enhanced solar energy input. To understand and model complex space weather processes, different views on the same subject are helpful. One of the ionosphere key parameters is the Total Electron Content (TEC) which provides a first or-der approximation of the ionospheric range error in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications. Additionally, horizontal gradients and time rate of change of TEC are important for estimating the perturbation degree of the ionosphere. TEC maps can effectively be gener-ated using ground based GNSS measurements from global receiver networks. Whereas ground based GNSS measurements provide good horizontal resolution, space based radio occultation measurements can complete the view by providing information on the vertical plasma density distribution. The combination of ground based TEC and vertical sounding measurements pro-vide essential information on the shape of the vertical electron density profile by computing the equivalent slab thickness at the ionosonde station site. Since radio beacon measurements at 150/400 MHz are well suited to trace the horizontal structure of Travelling Ionospheric Dis-turbances (TIDs), these data products essentially complete GNSS based TEC mapping results. Radio scintillation data products, characterising small scale irregularities in the ionosphere, are useful to estimate the continuity and availability of transionospheric radio signals. The different data products are addressed while discussing severe space weather events in the ionosphere e.g. events in October/November 2003. The complementary view of different near real time service data products is helpful to better understand the complex dynamics of ionospheric perturbation processes and to forecast the development of parameters customers are interested in.

  15. Far-field coseismic ionospheric disturbances of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. M.; Drobzheva, Ya. V.; Chum, J.

    2015-12-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate the generation of infrasonic waves by a strong earthquake at a distance of 9000 km from the epicenter, their propagation through the atmosphere and their effects in the ionosphere. We provide estimates of the perturbations in the ionosphere at the height (210-220 km) where radiowaves at the sounding frequency (3.595 MHz) of a continuous Doppler radar reflect. Ionospheric perturbations have a global character and amplitudes of 1.5-7.5% of ambient value. Perturbations exist for ~1 h. The form of calculated ionospheric disturbances coincides with the experimental results. The correlation coefficient between calculated and experimental forms was from 0.68 to 0.9.

  16. Intercepted signals for ionospheric science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.; Coster, A. J.; Foster, J. C.; Marchese, J. R.; Berkowitz, Z.; Sahr, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The ISIS array (Intercepted Signals for Ionospheric Science) is a distributed, coherent software radio array designed for the study of geospace phenomena by observing the scatter of ambient radio frequency (RF) signals. ISIS data acquisition and analysis is performed using the MIDAS-M platform (Millstone Data Acquisition System - Mobile). Observations of RF signals can be performed between HF and L-band using the Array nodes and appropriate antennas. The deployment of the Array focuses on observations of the plasmasphere boundary layer. We discuss the concept of the coherent software radio array, describe the ISIS hardware, and give examples of data from the system for selected applications. In particular, we include the first observations of E region irregularities using the Array. We also present single-site passive radar observations of both meteor trails and E region irregularities using adaptive filtering techniques.

  17. Ionospheric TEC Weather Map Over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Pádua, M. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Costa, S. M. A.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Monico, J. F. Galera; Ivo, A.; Sant'Anna, N.

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric weather maps using the total electron content (TEC) monitored by ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers over South American continent, TECMAP, have been operationally produced by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais's Space Weather Study and Monitoring Program (Estudo e Monitoramento Brasileiro de Clima Especial) since 2013. In order to cover the whole continent, four GNSS receiver networks, (Rede Brasileiro de Monitoramento Contínuo) RBMC/Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, International GNSS Service, and Red Argentina de Monitoreo Satelital Continuo, in total 140 sites, have been used. TECMAPs with a time resolution of 10 min are produced in 12 h time delay. Spatial resolution of the map is rather low, varying between 50 and 500 km depending on the density of the observation points. Large day-to-day variabilities of the equatorial ionization anomaly have been observed. Spatial gradient of TEC from the anomaly trough (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) <10) to the crest region (TECU > 80) causes a large ionospheric range delay in the GNSS positioning system. Ionospheric plasma bubbles, their seeding and development, could be monitored. This plasma density (spatial and temporal) variability causes not only the GNSS-based positioning error but also radio wave scintillations. Monitoring of these phenomena by TEC mapping becomes an important issue for space weather concern for high-technology positioning system and telecommunication.

  18. Ionospheric irregularities and acoustic/gravity wave activity above low-latitude thunderstorms

    DOE PAGES

    Lay, Erin H.

    2017-12-18

    Ionospheric irregularities due to plasma bubbles, scintillation, and acoustic/gravity waves are studied in the low-latitude ionosphere in relation to thunderstorm activity. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements from the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) and lightning measurements from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) are compared during two summer months and two winter months in 2013. Large amplitude fluctuations in TEC are found to have a strongly-peaked diurnal pattern in the late evening and nighttime summer ionosphere. The maximum magnitude and coverage area of these fluctuations increases as thunderstorm area increases. Summertime mid-amplitude fluctuations do not exhibit the samemore » diurnal variation, but do increase in magnitude and coverage area as thunderstorm area increases. Wintertime ionospheric fluctuations do not appear to be related to thunderstorm activity. Lastly, these findings show that thunderstorms have an observable effect on magnitude and coverage area of ionospheric fluctuations.« less

  19. Ionospheric irregularities and acoustic/gravity wave activity above low-latitude thunderstorms

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, Erin H.

    Ionospheric irregularities due to plasma bubbles, scintillation, and acoustic/gravity waves are studied in the low-latitude ionosphere in relation to thunderstorm activity. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements from the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) and lightning measurements from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) are compared during two summer months and two winter months in 2013. Large amplitude fluctuations in TEC are found to have a strongly-peaked diurnal pattern in the late evening and nighttime summer ionosphere. The maximum magnitude and coverage area of these fluctuations increases as thunderstorm area increases. Summertime mid-amplitude fluctuations do not exhibit the samemore » diurnal variation, but do increase in magnitude and coverage area as thunderstorm area increases. Wintertime ionospheric fluctuations do not appear to be related to thunderstorm activity. Lastly, these findings show that thunderstorms have an observable effect on magnitude and coverage area of ionospheric fluctuations.« less

  20. Ionospheric Irregularities and Acoustic/Gravity Wave Activity Above Low-Latitude Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Erin H.

    2018-01-01

    Ionospheric irregularities due to plasma bubbles, scintillation, and acoustic/gravity waves are studied in the low-latitude ionosphere in relation to thunderstorm activity. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements from the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network and lightning measurements from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network are compared during two summer months and two winter months in 2013. Large amplitude fluctuations in TEC are found to have a strongly peaked diurnal pattern in the late evening and nighttime summer ionosphere. The maximum magnitude and coverage area of these fluctuations increases as thunderstorm area increases. Summertime midamplitude fluctuations do not exhibit the same diurnal variation but do increase in magnitude and coverage area as thunderstorm area increases. Wintertime ionospheric fluctuations do not appear to be related to thunderstorm activity. These findings show that thunderstorms have an observable effect on magnitude and coverage area of ionospheric fluctuations.

  1. Ionosphere and atmosphere of the moon in the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, W. D.; Barker, W. A.; Parkin, C. W.; Clark, M.; Dyal, P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents calculations of the densities and energies of the various constituents of the lunar ionosphere during the time that the moon is in the geomagnetic tail; the surface concentrations of neon and argon are calculated from a theoretical model to be 3,900 and 1,700, respectively. It is found that a hydrostatic model of the ionospheric plasma is inadequate because the gravitational potential energy of the plasma is considerably smaller than its thermal energy. A hydrodynamic model, comparable to that used to describe the solar wind, is developed to obtain plasma densities and flow velocities as functions of altitude. The electromagnetic properties of the quiescent ionosphere are then investigated, and it is concluded that plasma effects on lunar induction can be neglected for quiescent conditions in the geomagnetic tail lobes.

  2. Experimental evidence of electromagnetic pollution of ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis

    The Earth’s ionosphere responds to external perturbations originated mainly in the Sun, which is the primary driver of the space weather (SW). But solar activity influences on the ionosphere and the Earth's atmosphere (i.e., the energy transfer in the direction of the Sun-magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere-surface of the Earth), though important, is not a unique factor affecting its state - there is also a significant impact of the powerful natural and anthropogenic processes, which occur on the Earth’s surface and propagating in opposite direction along the Earth’s surface-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere chain. Numerous experimental data confirm that the powerful sources and consumers of electrical energy (radio transmitters, power plants, power lines and industrial objects) cause different ionospheric phenomena, for example, changes of the electromagnetic (EM) field and plasma in the ionosphere, and affect on the state of the Earth atmosphere. Anthropogenic EM effects in the ionosphere are already observed by the scientific satellites and the consequences of their impact on the ionosphere are not currently known. Therefore, it is very important and urgent task to conduct the statistically significant research of the ionospheric parameters variations due to the influence of the powerful man-made factors, primarily owing to substantial increase of the EM energy production. Naturally, the satellite monitoring of the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the frequency range from tens of hertz to tens of MHz with wide ground support offers the best opportunity to observe the EM energy release, both in the global and local scales. Parasitic EM radiation from the power supply lines, when entering the ionosphere-magnetosphere system, might have an impact on the electron population in the radiation belt. Its interaction with trapped particles will change their energy and pitch angles; as a result particle precipitations might occur. Observations of EM emission by

  3. Hybrid simulations of Venus' ionospheric magnetization states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehle, Stefan; Motschmann, Uwe; Fränz, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The solar wind interaction with the plasma environment of Venus is studied with focus on ionospheric magnetization states using a 3D hybrid simulation code. The plasma environment of Venus was investigated mainly by Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the still ongoing Venus Express (VEX) mission. Unlike many other planets, Venus' ionosphere is not shielded by a strong magnetosphere. Hence, data measured by spacecraft like PVO and VEX close to the planet are highly sensitive to solar wind and IMF upstream conditions, which cannot be measured while the spacecraft is inside the magnetosheath region about one hour before and after the closest approach. However, solar wind and IMF are known to change within minutes; ionospheric magnetization states, found by PVO and VEX, are highly dependent on the solar wind upstream pressure and also the magnetic field direction may change rapidly in case of a magnetic sector boundary crossing. When these solar wind induced transition effects occur, the causal change in the solar wind cannot be determined from ionospheric in-situ data. Additionally, with an orbital period of 24 hours, measuring transition timescales of solar wind triggered events is not possible. Our self-consistent simulations aim to provide a global picture of the solar wind interaction with Venus focusing on the effects of upstream fluctuations to the magnetic field in the vicinity of the planet. We use the A.I.K.E.F. (Adaptive Ion Kinetic Electron Fluid) 3D hybrid simulation code to model the entire Venus plasma environment. The simulation grid is refined within the ionosphere in order to resolve strong small-scale gradients of the magnetic field and ion density, a necessity to describe the magnetic field depletion inside the Venus' ionosphere. In contrast to other simulation studies, we apply no boundary conditions for the magnetic field at the planetary surface. Furthermore, we include varying upstream conditions like solar wind velocity and density as well as IMF

  4. Influence of Solar Irradiance on Polar Ionospheric Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, A. G.; Yeoman, T. K.; Stephen, M.; Lester, M.

    2016-12-01

    Plasma convection over the poles shows the result of direct interactions between the terrestrial atmosphere, magnetosphere, and the sun. The paths that the ionospheric plasma takes in the polar cap form a variety of patterns, which have been shown to depend strongly on the direction of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and the reconnection rate. While the IMF and level of geomagnetic activity clearly alter the plasma convection patterns, the influence of changing solar irradiance is also important. The solar irradiance and magnetospheric particle precipitation regulate the rate of plasma production, and thus the ionospheric conductivity. Previous work has demonstrated how season alters the convection patterns observed over the poles, demonstrating the importance that solar photoionisation has on plasma convection. This study investigates the role of solar photoionisation on convection more directly, using measurements of ionospheric convection made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) and solar irradiance observations made by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) to explore the influence of the solar cycle on ionospheric convection, and the implications this may have on magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  5. Plasma physics abstracts, 1 January - 31 December 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. C.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    Abstracts are presented on various aspects of plasma physics, including theoretical discussions and ionospheric plasmas. The topics considered cover Alfven waves, magnetized plasmas, plasma diffusion, Poynting flux measurements, electric fields, the magnetosphere, auroras, and plasma convection.

  6. Ionospheric Impacts on UHF Space Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's atmosphere contains regions of ionized plasma caused by the interaction of highly energetic solar radiation. This region of ionization is called the ionosphere and varies significantly with altitude, latitude, local solar time, season, and solar cycle. Significant ionization begins at about 100 km (E layer) with a peak in the ionization at about 300 km (F2 layer). Above the F2 layer, the atmosphere is mostly ionized but the ion and electron densities are low due to the unavailability of neutral molecules for ionization so the density decreases exponentially with height to well over 1000 km. The gradients of these variations in the ionosphere play a significant role in radio wave propagation. These gradients induce variations in the index of refraction and cause some radio waves to refract. The amount of refraction depends on the magnitude and direction of the electron density gradient and the frequency of the radio wave. The refraction is significant at HF frequencies (3-30 MHz) with decreasing effects toward the UHF (300-3000 MHz) range. UHF is commonly used for tracking of space objects in low Earth orbit (LEO). While ionospheric refraction is small for UHF frequencies, it can cause errors in range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle estimation by ground-based radars tracking space objects. These errors can cause significant errors in precise orbit determinations. For radio waves transiting the ionosphere, it is important to understand and account for these effects. Using a sophisticated radio wave propagation tool suite and an empirical ionospheric model, we calculate the errors induced by the ionosphere in a simulation of a notional space surveillance radar tracking objects in LEO. These errors are analyzed to determine daily, monthly, annual, and solar cycle trends. Corrections to surveillance radar measurements can be adapted from our simulation capability.

  7. Predicting ionospheric scintillation: Recent advancements and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. A.; Currie, J. L.; Terkildsen, M.; Bouya, Z.; Parkinson, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Society greatly benefits from space-based infrastructure and technology. For example, signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are used across a wide range of industrial sectors; including aviation, mining, agriculture and finance. Current trends indicate that the use of these space-based technologies is likely to increase over the coming decades as the global economy becomes more technology-dependent. Space weather represents a key vulnerability to space-based technology, both in terms of the space environment effects on satellite infrastructure and the influence of the ionosphere on the radio signals used for satellite communications. In recent decades, the impact of the ionosphere on GNSS signals has re-ignited research interest into the equatorial ionosphere, particularly towards understanding Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). EPBs are a dominant source of nighttime plasma irregularities in the low-latitude ionosphere, which can cause severe scintillation on GNSS signals and subsequent degradation on GNSS product quality. Currently, ionospheric scintillation event forecasts are not being routinely released by any space weather prediction agency around the world, but this is likely to change in the near future. In this contribution, an overview of recent efforts to develop a global ionospheric scintillation prediction capability within Australia will be given. The challenges in understanding user requirements for ionospheric scintillation predictions will be discussed. Next, the use of ground- and space-based datasets for the purpose of near-real time ionospheric scintillation monitoring will be explored. Finally, some modeling that has shown significant promise in transitioning towards an operational ionospheric scintillation forecasting system will be discussed.

  8. Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future

  9. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  10. Dual-frequency radio soundings of planetary ionospheres avoid misinterpretations of ionospheric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, M.; Andert, T.; Bird, M. K.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.; Peter, K.; Tellmann, S.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary ionospheres are usually sounded at single frequency, e.g. S-band or X-band, or at dual-frequencies, e.g. simultaneous S-band and X-band frequencies. The differential Doppler is computed from the received dual-frequency sounding and it has the advantage that any residual motion by the spaceraft body is compensated. The electron density profile is derived from the propagation of the two radio signals through the ionospheric plasma. Vibrational motion of small amplitude by the spacecraft body may still be contained in the single frequency residuals and may be translated into electron densities. Examples from Mars Express and Venus Express shall be presented. Cases from other missions shall be presented where wave-like structures in the upper ionosphere may be a misinterpretation.

  11. Parameterized study of the ionospheric modification associated with sun-aligned polar cap arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, D. J.; Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Zhu, L.

    1993-01-01

    The local ionospheric modification that is due to a generalized steady state solar aligned (SA) arc structure is addressed. For a representative set of SA arc parameters which includes both convection and precipitation, emphasis is placed on the modification by SA polar cap arcs upon the F region electron density and the height integrated conductivity. At low fluxes and low characteristic energies, SA polar cap arcs have the most pronounced relative effect at F region altitudes in darkness for winter solar minimum conditions. The absolute enhancement in summer solar minimum and winter solar maximum is equivalent to that of winter solar minimum, but the higher ambient densities make the relative enhancement less. The TEC enhancement associated with an SA arc may be used to indicate the degree of plasma cross flow across the arc.

  12. Meteoric Ions in Planetary Ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar system debris, in the form of meteoroids, impacts every planet. The flux, relative composition and speed of the debris at each planet depends on the planet's size and location in the solar system. Ablation in the atmosphere evaporates the meteoric material and leaves behind metal atoms. During the ablation process metallic ions are formed by impact ionization. For small inner solar system planets, including Earth, this source of ionization is typically small compared to either photoionization or charge exchange with ambient molecular ions. For Earth, the atmosphere above the main deposition region absorbs the spectral lines capable of ionizing the major metallic atoms (Fe and Mg) so that charge exchange with ambient ions is the dominant source. Within the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars (and possibly Venus), photoionization is important in determining the ion density. For a heavy planet like Jupiter, far from the sun, impact ionization of ablated neutral atoms by impacts with molecules becomes a prominent source of ionization due to the gravitational acceleration to high incident speeds. We will describe the processes and location and extent of metal ion layers for Mars, Earth and Jupiter, concentrating on flagging the uncertainties in the models at the present time. This is an important problem, because low altitude ionosphere layers for the planets, particularly at night, probably consist predominantly of metallic ions. Comparisons with Earth will be used to illustrate the differing processes in the three planetary atmospheres.

  13. Scintillation Observations and Response of The Ionosphere to Electrodynamics (SORTIE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Scintillation Observations and Response of The Ionosphere to Electrodynamics, or SORTIE, mission is a 6U NASA Heliophysics CubeSat designed to study the ionosphere at altitudes below 400km. The SORTIE mission is being developed by a team including ASTRA (lead institution), AFRL, University of Texas at Dallas (UTD), COSMIAC (Satellite Integrator), and Boston College. SORTIE will address cutting-edge science in the area of ionospheric dynamics. The SORTIE mission will address the following science questions: Q1) Discover the sources of wave-like plasma perturbations in the F-region ionosphere. Q2) Determine the relative role of dynamo action and more direct mechanical forcing in the formation of wave-like plasma perturbations. To address these questions we plan to fly a CubeSat with novel sensors that measure key plasma parameters in a circular, low to middle inclination orbit near 350-400 km altitude. The sensors include an ion velocity meter (built by UTD) and a Planar Langmuir Probe (built by AFRL). The SORTIE mission plan is to describe the distribution of wave-like structures in the plasma density of the ionospheric F-region. In doing so, the SORTIE team will determine the possible role of these perturbations in aiding the growth of plasma instabilities. SORTIE will provide (1) the initial spectrum of wave perturbations which are the starting point for the RT calculation; (2) measured electric fields which determine the magnitude of the instability growth rate near the region where plasma bubbles are generated; (3) initial observations of irregularities in plasma density which result from RT growth. SORTIE results will be used as input to PBMOD, an assimilative first-principles physical model of the ionosphere, in order to predict evolution of EPBs. In this presentation, we will review the science objectives, provide an overview of the spacecraft and instrument design, and present a concept of operations plan.

  14. Rapid characterization of lithium ion battery electrolytes and thermal aging products by low-temperature plasma ambient ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vortmann, Britta; Nowak, Sascha; Engelhard, Carsten

    2013-03-19

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are key components for portable electronic devices that are used around the world. However, thermal decomposition products in the battery reduce its lifetime, and decomposition processes are still not understood. In this study, a rapid method for in situ analysis and reaction monitoring in LIB electrolytes is presented based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) with low-temperature plasma probe (LTP) ambient desorption/ionization for the first time. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates the capabilities of ambient mass spectrometry in battery research. LTP-HR-MS is ideally suited for qualitative analysis in the ambient environment because it allows direct sample analysis independent of the sample size, geometry, and structure. Further, it is environmental friendly because it eliminates the need of organic solvents that are typically used in separation techniques coupled to mass spectrometry. Accurate mass measurements were used to identify the time-/condition-dependent formation of electrolyte decomposition compounds. A LIB model electrolyte containing ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate was analyzed before and after controlled thermal stress and over the course of several weeks. Major decomposition products identified include difluorophosphoric acid, monofluorophosphoric acid methyl ester, monofluorophosphoric acid dimethyl ester, and hexafluorophosphate. Solvents (i.e., dimethyl carbonate) were partly consumed via an esterification pathway. LTP-HR-MS is considered to be an attractive method for fundamental LIB studies.

  15. First tsunami gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data

    DOE PAGES

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lognonné, Philippe; Walwer, Damian; ...

    2015-05-09

    After the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Tohoku, the ionospheric signature of the displacements induced in the overlying atmosphere has been observed by ground stations in various regions of the Pacific Ocean. We analyze here the data of radio occultation satellites, detecting the tsunami-driven gravity wave for the first time using a fully space-based ionospheric observation system. One satellite of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) recorded an occultation in the region above the tsunami 2.5 h after the earthquake. The ionosphere was sounded from top to bottom, thus providing themore » vertical structure of the gravity wave excited by the tsunami propagation, observed as oscillations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). The observed vertical wavelength was about 50 km, with maximum amplitude exceeding 1 total electron content unit when the occultation reached 200 km height. We compared the observations with synthetic data obtained by summation of the tsunami-coupled gravity normal modes of the Earth/Ocean/atmosphere system, which models the associated motion of the ionosphere plasma. These results provide experimental constraints on the attenuation of the gravity wave with altitude due to atmosphere viscosity, improving the understanding of the propagation of tsunami-driven gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. They demonstrate that the amplitude of the tsunami can be estimated to within 20% by the recorded ionospheric data.« less

  16. Inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling via MHD waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul; Vasyliūnas, Vytenis M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere (M-IT) coupling via MHD waves by numerically solving time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations for ions and neutrals, together with Maxwell's equations (Ampère's and Faraday's laws) and with photochemistry included. This inductive-dynamic approach we use is fundamentally different from those in previous magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling models: all MHD wave modes are retained, and energy and momentum exchange between waves and plasma are incorporated into the governing equations, allowing a self-consistent examination of dynamic M-I coupling. Simulations, using an implicit numerical scheme, of the 1-D ionosphere/thermosphere system responding to an imposed convection velocity at the top boundary are presented to show how magnetosphere and ionosphere are coupled through Alfvén waves during the transient stage when the IT system changes from one quasi steady state to another. Wave reflection from the low-altitude ionosphere plays an essential role, causing overshoots and oscillations of ionospheric perturbations, and the dynamical Hall effect is an inherent aspect of the M-I coupling. The simulations demonstrate that the ionosphere/thermosphere responds to magnetospheric driving forces as a damped oscillator.

  17. Global Response to Local Ionospheric Mass Ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Delcourt, D. C.; Slinker, S. P.; Fedder, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit a reported "Ionospheric Mass Ejection" using prior event observations to guide a global simulation of local ionospheric outflows, global magnetospheric circulation, and plasma sheet pressurization, and comparing our results with the observed global response. Our simulation framework is based on test particle motions in the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global circulation model electromagnetic fields. The inner magnetosphere is simulated with the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) of Fok and Wolf, driven by the transpolar potential developed by the LFM magnetosphere, and includes an embedded plasmaspheric simulation. Global circulation is stimulated using the observed solar wind conditions for the period 24-25 Sept 1998. This period begins with the arrival of a Coronal Mass Ejection, initially with northward, but later with southward interplanetary magnetic field. Test particles are launched from the ionosphere with fluxes specified by local empirical relationships of outflow to electrodynamic and particle precipitation imposed by the MIlD simulation. Particles are tracked until they are lost from the system downstream or into the atmosphere, using the full equations of motion. Results are compared with the observed ring current and a simulation of polar and auroral wind outflows driven globally by solar wind dynamic pressure. We find good quantitative agreement with the observed ring current, and reasonable qualitative agreement with earlier simulation results, suggesting that the solar wind driven global simulation generates realistic energy dissipation in the ionosphere and that the Strangeway relations provide a realistic local outflow description.

  18. Nanosecond Nd-YAG laser induced plasma emission characteristics in low pressure CO{sub 2} ambient gas for spectrochemical application on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id; Pardede, Marincan

    An experimental study is conducted on the possibility and viability of performing spectrochemical analysis of carbon and other elements in trace amount in Mars, in particular, the clean detection of C, which is indispensible for tracking the sign of life in Mars. For this study, a nanosecond Nd-YAG laser is employed to generate plasma emission from a pure copper target in CO{sub 2} ambient gas of reduced pressure simulating the atmospheric condition of Mars. It is shown that the same shock wave excitation mechanism also works this case while exhibiting remarkably long cooling stage. The highest Cu emission intensities inducedmore » by 4 mJ laser ablation energy is attained in 600 Pa CO{sub 2} ambient gas. Meanwhile the considerably weaker carbon emission from the CO{sub 2} gas appears relatively featureless over the entire range of pressure variation, posing a serious problem for sensitive trace analysis of C contained in a solid sample. Our time resolved intensity measurement nevertheless reveals earlier appearance of C emission from the CO{sub 2} gas with a limited duration from 50 ns to 400 ns after the laser irradiation, well before the initial appearance of the long lasting C emission from the solid target at about 1 μs, due to the different C-releasing processes from their different host materials. The unwanted C emission from the ambient gas can thus be eliminated from the detected spectrum by a proper time gated detection window. The excellent spectra of carbon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from an agate sample are presented to further demonstrate and verify merit of this special time gated LIBS using CO{sub 2} ambient gas and suggesting its viability for broad ranging in-situ applications in Mars.« less

  19. Ionospheric scintillation observations over Kenyan region - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Xiao, Yu; Ming, Ou

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric scintillation refers to the rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a satellite signal as it passes through small-scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere. By analyzing ionospheric scintillation observation datasets from satellite signals such as GPS signals we can study the morphology of ionospheric bubbles. At low latitudes, the diurnal behavior of scintillation is driven by the formation of large-scale equatorial density depletions which form one to two hours after sunset via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism near the magnetic equator. In this work we present ionospheric scintillation activity over Kenya using data derived from a newly installed scintillation monitor developed by CRIRP at Pwani University (39.78°E, 3.24°S) during the period August to December, 2014. The results reveal the scintillation activity mainly occurs from post-sunset to post-midnight hours, and ceases around 04:00 LT. We also found that the ionospheric scintillation tends to appear at the southwest and northwest of the station. These locations coincide with the southern part of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly crest over Kenya region. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  20. The Role of Ionospheric Outflow Preconditioning in Determining Storm Geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.; Ridley, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is now well accepted that ionospheric outflow plays an important role in the development of the plasma sheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, even during quiet times, ionospheric plasma populates the magnetospheric lobes, producing a reservoir of hydrogen and oxygen ions. When the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turns southward, this reservoir is connected to the plasma sheet and ring current through magnetospheric convection. Hence, the conditions of the ionosphere and magnetospheric lobes leading up to magnetospheric storm onset have important implications for storm development. Despite this, there has been little research on this preconditioning; most global simulations begin just before storm onset, neglecting preconditioning altogether. This work explores the role of preconditioning in determining the geoeffectiveness of storms using a coupled global model system. A model of ionospheric outflow (the Polar Wind Outflow Model, PWOM) is two-way coupled to a global magnetohydrodynamic model (the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), which in turn drives a ring current model (the Ring current Atmosphere interactions Model, RAM). This unique setup is used to simulate an idealized storm. The model is started at many different times, from 1 hour before storm onset to 12 hours before. The effects of storm preconditioning are examined by investigating the total ionospheric plasma content in the lobes just before onset, the total ionospheric contribution in the ring current just after onset, and the effects on Dst, magnetic elevation angle at geosynchronous, and total ring current energy density. This experiment is repeated for different solar activity levels as set by F10.7 flux. Finally, a synthetic double-dip storm is constructed to see how two closely spaced storms affect each other by changing the preconditioning environment. It is found that preconditioning of the magnetospheric lobes via ionospheric

  1. Kinetic description of ionospheric dynamics in the three-fluid approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Conservation equations are developed in the three-fluid approximation for general application problems of ionospheric dynamics in the altitude region 90 km to 800 km for all geographic locations. These equations are applied to a detailed study of auroral E region neutral winds and their relationship to ionospheric plasma motions.

  2. Study of Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling Using Whistler Data (P51)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, L.

    2006-11-01

    singh_shubha@yahoo.co.in singhshubhadhu@gmail.com The VLF waves observed at the ground stations are used for probing the ionosphere/magnetosphere parameters. The probing principle depends on the analysis of dispersion produced in the whistler mode waves during their propagation from the source to the observation point. Dispersion depends on the distribution of plasma particles and ambient magnetic field along the path of propagation. Specifically, we derive the information about the equatorial electron density, total electron content in a flux tube, equatorial east-west electric field, transport of electron flux from one region to the other, electron temperature etc. The transport of flux and electric fields are essentially involved in the study of coupling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In the present paper, we shall report the analysis of whistler data recorded at Varanasi and Jammu. The analysis shows that the analyzed whistlers from both the stations belong to mid-high latitudes contrary to the belief that they were low latitude phenomena. Further, there is no correspondence between the dispersion and derived L-value for the path of propagation. This leads to the requirement of detailed study of VLF wave propagation in the inhomogeneous ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The electron density and the total electron content in a flux tube derived from whistler measurements at Varanasi and Jammu are approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the previously reported data from the whistler measurements at mid- high latitudes. However, their variation with L-value has the same nature. The time development of the content of flux is evaluated which could easily explain the reported flux transport during the study of coupling of ionosphere to the magnetosphere. We have also evaluated electric field, which compares well with the previously reported value. These results clearly indicate that the VLF wave propagation at low latitude and their diagnostic

  3. Studies of plasma irregularities and convection in the polar ionosphere using HILAT, SABRE and EISCAT. Interim report, 1 Feb 88-31 Mar 89

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.B.; Lester, M.; Wilkinson, A.J.

    A statistical study of the F-region main ionospheric trough has been undertaken with EISCAT common programme data to assess the possibility that the trough region is a perferential region for the generation of E-region irregularities. Three years of CP-3 data from EISCAT formed the basis of this study. Backscatter observed by the coherent radar, SABRE, was also utilized to study the occurrence of irregularities in the E-region. On 26 out of the 36 days when the trough was observed by EISCAT, SABRE observed coherent backscatter. Although this percentage seems high, there was no consistent relationship between the latitude of themore » trough minimum and the latitude of peak backscatter intensity. A case study involving a four day run of EISCAT in September 1986 indicates that the trough latitude can be affected by changes in the interplanetary magnetic field north-south components. On two days rapid decreases in the latitude of the trough were related to a southward turning of the IMF and the onset of backscatter. The high percentage of occurrence of backscatter is believed to be caused by enhanced convection.« less

  4. Detection of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator Signatures in the Equatorial Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes, Fernando; Klenzing, Jeffrey; Ivanov, Stoyan; Pfaff, Robert; Freudenreich, Henry; Bilitza, Dieter; Rowland, Douglas; Bromund, Kenneth; Liebrecht, Maria Carmen; Martin, Steven; hide

    2012-01-01

    The ionosphere response resulting from minimum solar activity during cycle 23/24 was unusual and offered unique opportunities for investigating space weather in the near-Earth environment. We report ultra low frequency electric field signatures related to the ionospheric Alfven resonator detected by the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite in the equatorial region. These signatures are used to constrain ionospheric empirical models and offer a new approach for monitoring ionosphere dynamics and space weather phenomena, namely aeronomy processes, Alfven wave propagation, and troposphere24 ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms.

  5. Cold Ion Escape from the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränz, Markus; Dubinin, Eduard; Andrews, David; Nilsson, Hans; Fedorov, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    It has always been challenging to observe the flux of ions with energies of less than 10eV escaping from the planetary ionospheres. We here report on new measurements of the ionospheric ion flows at Mars by the ASPERA-3 experiment on board Mars Express. The ion sensor IMA of this experiment has in principle a low-energy cut-off at 10eV but in negative spacecraft charging cold ions are lifted into the range of measurement but the field of view is restricted to about 4x360 deg. In a recent paper Nilsson et al. (Earth Planets Space, 64, 135, 2012) tried to use the method of long-time averaged distribution functions to overcome these constraints. In this paper we first use the same method to show that we get results consistent with this when using ASPERA-3 observations only. But then we can show that these results are inconsistent with observations of the local plasma density by the MARSIS radar instrument on board Mars Express. We demonstrate that the method of averaged distribution function can deliver the mean flow speed of the plasma but the low-energy cut-off does usually not allow to reconstruct the density. We then combine measurements of the cold ion flow speed with the plasma density observations of MARSIS to derive the cold ion flux. In an analysis of the combined nightside datasets we show that the main escape channel is along the shadow boundary on the tailside of Mars. At a distance of about 0.5 Martian radii the flux settles at a constant value which indicates that about half of the transterminator ionospheric flow escapes from the planet. Possible mechanism to generate this flux can be the ionospheric pressure gradient between dayside and nightside or momentum transfer from the solar wind via the induced magnetic field since the flow velocity is in the Alfvénic regime.

  6. First observation of the anomalous electric field in the topside ionosphere by ionospheric modification over EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Vickers, H.; Ogawa, Y.; Senior, A.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an active ground-based technique to estimate the steady state field-aligned anomalous electric field (E*) in the topside ionosphere, up to ~600 km, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) ionospheric modification facility and UHF incoherent scatter radar. When pumping the ionosphere with high-power high-frequency radio waves, the F region electron temperature is significantly raised, increasing the plasma pressure gradient in the topside ionosphere, resulting in ion upflow along the magnetic field line. We estimate E* using a modified ion momentum equation and the Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter model. From an experiment on 23 October 2013, E* points downward with an average amplitude of ~1.6 μV/m, becoming weaker at higher altitudes. The mechanism for anomalous resistivity is thought to be low-frequency ion acoustic waves generated by the pump-induced flux of suprathermal electrons. These high-energy electrons are produced near the pump wave reflection altitude by plasma resonance and also result in observed artificially induced optical emissions.

  7. Ionosphere of Venus - First observations of the dayside ion composition near dawn and dusk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Brinton, H. C.; Bauer, S. J.; Hartle, R. E.; Donahue, T. M.; Cloutier, P. A.; Michel, F. C.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.; Blackwell, B. H.

    1979-01-01

    Independent Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus bus and orbiter spacecraft obtained in situ measurements of the composition of the ionosphere of Venus. The spectrometer on the bus explored the dawn region while the spectrometer on the orbiter explored the duskside region. Information on the ion composition in the topside, the lower ionosphere, and the upper ionosphere is presented. Below the O(+) peak near 200 km, the ions are found to exhibit scale heights consistent with a neutral gas temperature of about 180 K near the terminator. In the upper ionosphere, scale heights of all species reflect the effects of plasma transport.

  8. Planning for coordinated space and ground-based ionospheric modification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Burke, William J.; Carlson, Herbert C.; Heckscher, John L.; Kossey, Paul A.; Weber, E. J.; Kuo, S. P.

    1990-01-01

    The planning and conduction of coordinated space and ground-based ionospheric modification experiments are discussed. The purpose of these experiments is to discuss: (1) the nonlinear VLF wave interaction with the ionospheric plasmas; and (2) the nonlinear propagation of VLF waves in the HF-modified ionosphere. It is expected that the HF-induced ionospheric density striations can render the nonlinear mode conversion of VLF waved into lower hybrid waves. Lower hybrid waves can also be excited parametrically by the VLF waves in the absence of the density striations if the VLF waves are intense enough. Laboratory experiments are planned for crosschecking the results obtained from the field experiments.

  9. Overview of our current understanding of the Titan ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, Thomas

    An ionosphere was first detected on Titan in 1980 by the Voyager 1 radio occultation experi-ment and the first in situ measurements were made in 2004 by the Cassini spacecraft, although many theoretical studies were carried out prior to the Cassini mission. Earth and Titan are similar in that molecular nitrogen is the major neutral atmospheric species but these bodies differ in that the next most abundant species at Earth is molecular oxygen and at Titan is methane. As a consequence, the chemistry in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere is quite different for the two bodies. Titan's upper atmosphere and ionosphere strongly interact with Saturn's magnetospheric plasma. Magnetic fields were observed in Titan's ionosphere by the Cassini magnetometer and are induced as a consequence of this interaction, which affects the flow and distribution of plasma. Energetic electrons and ions from Saturn's magnetosphere precipitate into the upper atmosphere, acting as both heat and ionization sources. However, on the dayside, absorption of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation is thought to be the dominant source of ionization and energy. The electron temperatures measured in the ionosphere by the Cassini Langmuir probe (RPWS/LP) are about 1000 K, greatly exceeding the neutral temper-ature (about 150 K). The ion and neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) onboard Cassini detected a large number of ion species with mass numbers up to 100 Daltons and the energetic plasma spectrometer (CAPS) detected both negative and positive ion species at even higher mass num-bers. Primary ionization processes create N2+, N+, CH4+, CH3+, and other ion species, but a complex ion-neutral chemistry, involving methane and other hydrocarbon and nitriles species (acetylene, ethylene, ethane, hydrogen cyanide, benzene,. . . .), convert these initial species into numerous other species including CH5+, C2H5+, HCNH+, C3H5+, CH2NH2+, C6H7+. As in most ionospheres, chemistry dominates the ionospheric structure at

  10. International Reference Ionosphere -2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  11. Estimation of HF artificial ionospheric turbulence characteristics using comparison of calculated plasma wave decay rates with the measured decay rates of the stimulated electromagnetic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareev, D. D.; Gavrilenko, V. G.; Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown experimentally that the relaxation time of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) after the pump wave turn off decreases when frequency of the electromagnetic wave, responsible for the SEE generation (pump wave f0 or diagnostic wave fdw) approaches 4th harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency fce . Since the SEE relaxation is determined by the damping rate of plasma waves with the same frequency, responsible for the SEE generation, we calculated damping rates of plasma waves with ω ∼ωuh (ω is the plasma wave frequency, ωuh is the upper hybrid frequency) for frequencies close to and distant from the double resonance where ωuh ∼ 4ωce (ωce = 2 πfce). The calculations were performed numerically on the base of linear plasma wave dispersion relation at arbitrary ratio between | Δ | = ω - 4ωce and |k‖ |VTe (VTe is the electron thermal speed and k‖ is the projection of the wave vector onto the magnetic field direction. A comparison of calculation and experimental results has shown that obtained frequency dependence of the SEE decay rate is similar to the damping rate frequency dependence for plasma waves with wave vectors directed at the angles 60-70° to the magnetic field, and gives a strong hint that oblique upper hybrid plasma waves should be responsible for the SEE generation.

  12. Evolution of lower hybrid turbulence in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C.; Mithaiwala, M.

    2015-11-15

    Three-dimensional evolution of the lower hybrid turbulence driven by a spatially localized ion ring beam perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field in space plasmas is analyzed. It is shown that the quasi-linear saturation model breaks down when the nonlinear rate of scattering by thermal electron is larger than linear damping rates, which can occur even for low wave amplitudes. The evolution is found to be essentially a three-dimensional phenomenon, which cannot be accurately explained by two-dimensional simulations. An important feature missed in previous studies of this phenomenon is the nonlinear conversion of electrostatic lower hybrid waves into electromagnetic whistler andmore » magnetosonic waves and the consequent energy loss due to radiation from the source region. This can result in unique low-amplitude saturation with extended saturation time. It is shown that when the nonlinear effects are considered the net energy that can be permanently extracted from the ring beam is larger. The results are applied to anticipate the outcome of a planned experiment that will seed lower hybrid turbulence in the ionosphere and monitor its evolution.« less

  13. Formation of hydrophobic coating on glass surface using atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.; Qiu, Y.; Kuffel, E.

    2004-08-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in material surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of a glass surface for improving hydrophobicity using a non-thermal plasma generated by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) with a needle array-to-plane electrode arrangement in atmospheric air is conducted, and the surface properties of the glass before and after the DBCD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, surface resistance measurement and the wet flashover voltage test. The effects of the plasma dose (the product of average discharge power and treatment time) of DBCD on the surface modification are studied, and the mechanism of interaction between the plasma and glass surface is discussed. It is found that a layer of hydrophobic coating is formed on the glass surface through DBCD treatment, and the improvement of hydrophobicity depends on the plasma dose of the DBCD. It seems that there is an optimum plasma dose for the surface treatment. The test results of thermal ageing and chemical ageing show that the hydrophobic layer has quite stable characteristics.

  14. Influence of Magnetic Topology on Mars' Ionospheric Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Xu, S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Fillingim, M. O.; Lillis, R. J.; Andersson, L.; Fowler, C. M.; Benna, M.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Elrod, M. K.; Girazian, Z.; Vogt, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission has been in Mars' orbit since September 2014 (>1 Mars year), and has collected particle and field data within the ionosphere over wide ranges of altitudes, latitudes, and local times. This study uses MAVEN data to (1) analyze the influence of magnetic topology on the day-side ionosphere and (2) identify the sources of the night-side ionosphere. On the day side, magnetic strength and elevation angle are commonly used as proxies for magnetic topology. In this study, we use pitch-angle-resolved suprathermal electron measurements by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) to directly deduce the magnetic topology instead of using a proxy. On the night side, the main sources of ionospheric plasma are bulk transport and plasma pressure gradient flow from the day side, as well as in situ production by electron impact ionization (EII). Plasma transport at Mars is complicated by the presence of intense crustal magnetic fields. Closed crustal magnetic fields form isolated plasma environments ("miniature magnetospheres") that inhibit external sources of cold ionospheric plasma as well as suprathermal (ionizing) electrons. Inside these closed magnetic loops, we study how the plasma evolves with bulk flow transport as the only source. By comparing closed and non-closed magnetic configurations, the effects of pressure gradient flow and EII can be distinguished. Finally, the densities of O2+, O+, and NO+, as measured by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS), are examined. Inside miniature magnetospheres on the night side, the abundances of these species are found to be primarily controlled by the different recombination rates, as there is little plasma created within these regions by EII or transported from the neighboring regions by plasma pressure gradient flow.

  15. Thermal Structure and Major Ion Composition of the Venus Ionosphere: First RPA Results from Venus Orbiter.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, W C; Spenner, K; Whitten, R C; Spreiter, J R; Miller, K L; Novak, V

    1979-02-23

    Thermal plasma quantities measured by, the retarding potential analyzer (RPA) are, together with companion Pioneer Venus measurements, the first in situ measurements of the Venus ionosphere. High ionospheric ion and electron temperatures imply significant solar wind heating of the ionosphere. Comparison of the measured altitude profiles of the dominant ions with an initial modlel indicates that the ionosphere is close to diffusive equilibrium. The ionopause height was observed to vary from 400 to 1000 kilometers in early orbits. The ionospheric particle pressure at the ionopause is apparently balanced at a solar zenith angle of about 70 degrees by the magnetic field pressure with little contribution from energetic solar wind particles. The measured ratio of ionospheric scale height to ionopause radius is consistent with that inferred from previously measured bow shock positions.

  16. Jupiter's non-auroral Ionosphere and Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, T.; Melin, H.; Burrell, A. G.; Hsu, V.; Johnson, R.; Moore, L.; O'Donoghue, J.; Thayer, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Until recently, our understanding of the non-auroral ionosphere of Jupiter was very limited. However, with the arrival of the Juno spacecraft at Jupiter, we have begun to revise past observations of this region, as well as utilizing modern telescope facilities, in order to reveal a complex array of ionospheric features that show strong coupling with both the local magnetic field and dynamics within the underlying thermosphere. The first feature that was identified was an apparent `Great Dark Spot' in the sub-auroral ionosphere, almost as large as the Great Red Spot. This was observed well away from the northern magnetic pole, mapping to only 2.4 jovian radii. Spectra of the feature showed that it was produced by a 150K cooling in the thermosphere. However, images taken between 1995-2000 showed this feature was consistently observed over two decades at similar magnetic longitudes, but appeared to vary in size, morphology and exact location on a timescale of only days. This suggests that the Great Dark Spot is a large thermospheric vortex driven by auroral heating, similar to transitory features observed at Earth, forming in sub-auroral regions during periods of active aurora. Careful analysis of the Jupiter images then allowed us to measure ionospheric emission down to the equator. This revealed the location of Jupiter's magnetic equator for the first time, appearing as a dark sinusoidal ribbon. This feature appears to be produced as photo-electrons are pushed poleward of the equator when magnetic fields are parallel with the planet's surface, a different process than the dominant plasma fountain that drives Earth's equatorial anomaly. Also revealed were a series of dark spots. Recent Juno magnetometer measurements show that two of these spots appear in regions of high radial magnetic field, suggesting that these regions of the ionosphere are shielded, an inversion of the same process that drives higher ionization in the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  17. Ionosphere Waves Service - A demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespon, François

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service was developed by ionosphere experts to answer several questions: How make the old ionosphere missions more valuable? How provide scientific community with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogues that characterize a huge number of Atmospheric Gravity Waves, Travelling Ionosphere Disturbances and Whistlers events. The Ionosphere Waves Service regroups databases of specific events extracted by experts from a ten of ionosphere missions which end users can access by applying specific searches and by using statistical analysis modules for their domain of interest. The scientific applications covered by the IWS are relative to earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations. In this presentation we propose to detail the service design, the hardware and software architecture, and the service functions. The service interface and capabilities will be the focus of a demonstration in order to help potential end-users for their first access to the Ionosphere Waves Service portal. This work is made with the support of FP7 grant # 263240.

  18. Artificial plasma experiments. Chemical release observations associated with the CRRES program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    This report submitted is the final report and covers work performed under the contract for the period Apr. 12, 1985 - Dec. 23, 1993. The CRRES program investigated earth plasma environment by active experiments in which metal vapors were injected into the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere. The vapor clouds perturb the ambient ionospheric / magnetospheric environment and the effects could be monitored by passive observing instruments. Our part of the CRRES program, the Artificial Plasma Experiment program, was a ground based and aircraft based investigation to observe artificial chemical releases by optical techniques.

  19. Determination of HF artificial ionospheric turbulence characteristics using comparison of calculated plasma wave decay rates with the measured see decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, Savely; Bareev, Denis; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Sergeev, Evgeny

    Damping rates of plasma waves with ω ˜ ωuh (ω is the plasma wave frequency, ωuh is the upper hybrid frequency) were calculated for frequencies close to and distant from the double resonance where ωuh ˜ nωce (ωce is the electron cyclotron frequency, n=4,5 are the gyroharmonic num-bers). The calculations were performed numerically on the base of full plasma wave dispersion relation not restricted by both the 'long wave limit' and 'short wave limit', i.e. a fulfillment of the inequalities |∆| |k |vTe and |∆| |k |vTe was not required. Here ∆ = ω - nωce , vTe = (Te /me )1/2 is the electron thermal velocity and k is the projection of the wave vector onto the magnetic field direction. It is shown that the plasma wave damping rates do not differ noticeably from ones calculated under the long wave and short wave limits. The results obtained are compared with the data of the relaxation of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) after the pump wave turn off, which demonstrate an essential decrease of the relaxation time near 4th electron gyroharmonic, so far as the SEE relaxation is attributed to the damping of plasma waves responsible for the SEE generation. The comparison allows to determine characteristics of plasma waves mostly contributing to the SEE generation, such as wave numbers and the angles between the wave vectors and geomagnetic field, and the altitude region of the SEE source. The dependence of the decay rate on ∆ can be applied also to interpretation of the SEE spectral shape at different pump frequencies near gyroharmonics. The work is supported by RFBR grants 10-02-00642, 09-02-01150 and Federal Special-purpose Program "Scientific and pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia".

  20. Considering the potential of IAR emissions for ionospheric sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, A. S.; Polyushkina, T. N.; Tsegmed, B.; Oinats, A. V.; Pashinin, A. Yu.; Edemskiy, I. K.; Mylnikova, A. A.; Ratovsky, K. G.

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge of the ionospheric state allows us to adjust the forecasts of radio wave propagation, specify the environment models, and follow the changes of space weather. At present, probing of the ionosphere is produced by radio sounding with ground ionosondes, as well as by raying signals from satellites. We want to draw attention to the possibility of the diagnosis of the ionospheric parameters by detecting ultra-low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic emission generated in the so-called ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR). To do this, we present observations of the IAR emission made simultaneously for the first time at three stations using identical induction magnetometers. The stations are within one-hour difference of local time, two of them are mid-latitudinal; the third one is situated in the auroral zone. We compare frequency and frequency difference between adjacent harmonics of the observed multi-band emission with ionospheric parameters measured at the stations using ionosondes and GPS-observations. Diurnal variations of the ionospheric and ULF emission characteristics are also compared. The results show that there is quite a stable correlation between the resonant frequencies of the resonator bands and the critical frequency of the F2 layer of the ionosphere, namely, the frequency of the IAR emission varies inversely as the critical frequency of the ionosphere. This is due to the fact that the frequency of oscillation captured in the resonator is primarily determined by the Alfvén velocity (which depends on the plasma density) in the ionospheric F2 layer. The correlation is high; it varies at different stations, but is observed distinctly along the whole meridian. However, coefficients of a regression equation that connects the ionosphere critical frequency with DSB frequency vary significantly from day to day at all stations. The reason for such a big spread of the regression parameters is not clear and needs further investigation before we are able to

  1. Optical signature of an ionospheric hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous radio and optical diagnostics of a large, artificially-induced ionospheric modification were conducted during the June 1981 launch of a weather satellite. Intensified imaging and photometer observations at 6300 A, along the same ray path as VHF polarimeter measurements of the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC), were made while the rocket plume caused disturbances. A rapid TEC chemical depletion, on the order of -16.8 x 10 to the 12th el/sq cm, caused a burst of 6300 A radiation which expanded over 60 deg of the sky, with a peak intensity of almost 9 k R. Atmospheric diffusion and O(1D) quenching rate theoretical estimates were then tested, using the event as an active space plasma experiment.

  2. Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    CHAMP) and Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C), as well as from the Ionospheric Occultation Experiment (IOX) instrument developed by...strong interest in future collaborative research. TRANSITIONS Our project is still in its initial stage. No software has been transitioned to

  3. Efficient Usage of Dense GNSS Networks in Central Europe for the Visualization and Investigation of Ionospheric TEC Variations.

    PubMed

    Nykiel, Grzegorz; Zanimonskiy, Yevgen M; Yampolski, Yuri M; Figurski, Mariusz

    2017-10-10

    The technique of the orthogonal projection of ionosphere electronic content variations for mapping total electron content (TEC) allows us to visualize ionospheric irregularities. For the reconstruction of global ionospheric characteristics, numerous global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers located in different regions of the Earth are used as sensors. We used dense GNSS networks in central Europe to detect and investigate a special type of plasma inhomogeneities, called travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID). Such use of GNSS sensors allows us to reconstruct the main TID parameters, such as spatial dimensions, velocities, and directions of their movement. The paper gives examples of the restoration of dynamic characteristics of ionospheric irregularities for quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of ionospheric disturbances stimulated by the magnetic storms of two St. Patrick's Days (17 March 2013 and 2015). Additional opportunities for the remote sensing of the ionosphere with the use of dense regional networks of GNSS receiving sensors have been noted too.

  4. The Ptolemaic Approach to Ionospheric Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliunas, V. M.

    2010-12-01

    The conventional treatment of ionospheric electrodynamics (as expounded in standard textbooks and tutorial publications) consists of a set of equations, plus verbal descriptions of the physical processes supposedly represented by the equations. Key assumptions underlying the equations are: electric field equal to the gradient of a potential, electric current driven by an Ohm's law (with both electric-field and neutral-wind terms), continuity of current then giving a second-order elliptic differential equation for calculating the potential; as a separate assumption, ion and electron bulk flows are determined by ExB drifts plus collision effects. The verbal descriptions are in several respects inconsistent with the equations; furthermore, both the descriptions and the equations are not compatible with the more rigorous physical understanding derived from the complete plasma and Maxwell's equations. The conventional ionospheric equations are applicable under restricted conditions, corresponding to a quasi-steady-state equilibrium limit, and are thus intrinsically incapable of answering questions about causal relations or dynamic developments. Within their limited range of applicability, however, the equations are in most cases adequate to explain the observations, despite the deficient treatment of plasma physics. (A historical precedent that comes to mind is that of astronomical theory at the time of Copernicus and for some decades afterwards, when the Ptolemaic scheme could explain the observations at least as well if not better than the Copernican. Some of the verbal descriptions in conventional ionospheric electrodynamics might be considered Ptolemaic also in the more literal sense of being formulated exclusively in terms of a fixed Earth.) I review the principal differences between the two approaches, point out some questions where the conventional ionospheric theory does not provide unambiguous answers even within its range of validity (e.g., topside and

  5. Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuliano, J.; Bahcivan, H.

    2015-12-01

    NSF has recently selected Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX), a 3U Cubesat mission to explore the three-dimensional structure of scintillation-scale ionospheric irregularities associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF). ISX is a collaborative effort between SRI International and Cal Poly. This project addresses the science question: To what distance along a flux tube does an irregularity of certain transverse-scale extend? It has been difficult to measure the magnetic field-alignment of scintillation-scale turbulent structures because of the difficulty of sampling a flux tube at multiple locations within a short time. This measurement is now possible due to the worldwide transition to DTV, which presents unique signals of opportunity for remote sensing of ionospheric irregularities from numerous vantage points. DTV spectra, in various formats, contain phase-stable, narrowband pilot carrier components that are transmitted simultaneously. A 4-channel radar receiver will simultaneously record up to 4 spatially separated transmissions from the ground. Correlations of amplitude and phase scintillation patterns corresponding to multiple points on the same flux tube will be a measure of the spatial extent of the structures along the magnetic field. A subset of geometries where two or more transmitters are aligned with the orbital path will be used to infer the temporal development of the structures. ISX has the following broad impact. Scintillation of space-based radio signals is a space weather problem that is intensively studied. ISX is a step toward a CubeSat constellation to monitor worldwide TEC variations and radio wave distortions on thousands of ionospheric paths. Furthermore, the rapid sampling along spacecraft orbits provides a unique dataset to deterministically reconstruct ionospheric irregularities at scintillation-scale resolution using diffraction radio tomography, a technique that enables prediction of scintillations at other radio frequencies, and

  6. Field-aligned currents in the undisturbed polar ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroehl, H. W.

    1989-09-01

    Field-aligned currents, FAC's, which couple ionospheric currents at high latitudes with magnetospheric currents have become an essential cornerstone to our understanding of plasma dynamics in the polar region and in the earth's magnetosphere. Initial investigators of polar electrodynamics including the aurora were unable to distinguish between the ground magnetic signatures of a purely two-dimensional current and those from a three-dimensional current system, ergo many scientists ignored the possible existence of these vertical currents. However, data from magnetometers and electrostatic analyzers flown on low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellites proved beyond any reasonable doubt that field-aligned currents existed, and that different ionospheric regions were coupled to different magnetospheric regions which were dominated by different electrodynamic processes, e.g., magnetospheric convection electric fields, magnetospheric substorms and parallel electric fields. Therefore, to define the “undisturbed” polar ionosphere and its structure and dynamics, one needs to consider these electrodynamic processes, to select times for analysis when they are not strongly active and to remember that the polar ionosphere may be disturbed when the equatorial, mid-latitude and sub-auroral ionospheres are not. In this paper we will define the principle high-latitude current systems, describe the effects of FAC's associated with these systems, review techniques which would minimize these effects and present our description of the “undisturbed” polar ionosphere.

  7. Ducted electromagnetic waves in the Martian ionosphere detected by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenfei; Orosei, Roberto; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In the data of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding on board the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Mars Express (MEX), a distinctive type of signals (called the "epsilon signature"), which is similar to that previously detected during radio sounding of the terrestrial F region ionosphere, is found. The signature is interpreted to originate from multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves propagating along sounder pulse-created, crustal magnetic field-aligned plasma bubbles (waveguides). The signatures have a low (below 0.5%) occurrence rate and apparent cutoff frequencies 3-5 times higher than the theoretical one for an ordinary mode wave. These properties are explained by the influence of the perpendicular ionospheric plasma density gradient and the sounder pulse frequency on the formation of waveguides.

  8. Incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagfors, Tor

    1989-01-01

    Incoherent scatter radar (ISR) has become the most powerful means of studying the ionosphere from the ground. Many of the ideas and methods underlying the troposphere and stratosphere (ST) radars have been taken over from ISR. Whereas the theory of refractive index fluctuations in the lower atmosphere, depending as it does on turbulence, is poorly understood, the theory of the refractivity fluctuations in the ionosphere, which depend on thermal fluctuations, is known in great detail. The underlying theory is one of the most successful theories in plasma physics, and allows for many detailed investigations of a number of parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, electron mean velocity, and ion mean velocity as well as parameters pertaining to composition, neutral density and others. Here, the author reviews the fundamental processes involved in the scattering from a plasma undergoing thermal or near thermal fluctuations in density. The fundamental scattering properties of the plasma to the physical parameters characterizing them from first principles. He does not discuss the observation process itself, as the observational principles are quite similar whether they are applied to a neutral gas or a fluctuating plasma.

  9. Polarization of Narrowband VLF Transmitter Signals as an Ionospheric Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. C.; Cohen, M. B.; Said, R. K.; Gołkowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) transmitter remote sensing has long been used as a simple yet useful diagnostic for the D region ionosphere (60-90 km). All it requires is a VLF radio receiver that records the amplitude and/or phase of a beacon signal as a function of time. During both ambient and disturbed conditions, the received signal can be compared to predictions from a theoretical model to infer ionospheric waveguide properties like electron density. Amplitude and phase have in most cases been analyzed each as individual data streams, often only the amplitude is used. Scattered field formulation combines amplitude and phase effectively, but does not address how to combine two magnetic field components. We present polarization ellipse analysis of VLF transmitter signals using two horizontal components of the magnetic field. The shape of the polarization ellipse is unchanged as the source phase varies, which circumvents a significant problem where VLF transmitters have an unknown source phase. A synchronized two-channel MSK demodulation algorithm is introduced to mitigate 90° ambiguity in the phase difference between the horizontal magnetic field components. Additionally, the synchronized demodulation improves phase measurements during low-SNR conditions. Using the polarization ellipse formulation, we take a new look at diurnal VLF transmitter variations, ambient conditions, and ionospheric disturbances from solar flares, lightning-ionospheric heating, and lightning-induced electron precipitation, and find differing signatures in the polarization ellipse.

  10. Nonlinear interaction of strong microwave beam with the ionosphere MINIX rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

    A rocket-borne experiment called 'MINIX' was carried out to investigate the nonlinear interaction of a strong microwave energy beam with the ionosphere. The MINIX stands for Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction eXperiment and was carried out on August 29, 1983. The objective of the MINIX is to study possible impacts of the SPS microwave energy beam on the ionosphere, such as the ohmic heating and plasma wave excitation. The experiment showed that the microwave with f = 2.45 GHz nonlinearly excites various electrostatic plasma waves, though no ohmic heating effects were detected.

  11. Axial- and radial-resolved electron density and excitation temperature of aluminum plasma induced by nanosecond laser: Effect of the ambient gas composition and pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dawood, Mahmoud S.; Hamdan, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmad.ba.hamdan@gmail.com, E-mail: Joelle.margot@umontreal.ca; Margot, Joëlle, E-mail: ahmad.ba.hamdan@gmail.com, E-mail: Joelle.margot@umontreal.ca

    2015-11-15

    The spatial variation of the characteristics of an aluminum plasma induced by a pulsed nanosecond XeCl laser is studied in this paper. The electron density and the excitation temperature are deduced from time- and space- resolved Stark broadening of an ion line and from a Boltzmann diagram, respectively. The influence of the gas pressure (from vacuum up to atmospheric pressure) and compositions (argon, nitrogen and helium) on these characteristics is investigated. It is observed that the highest electron density occurs near the laser spot and decreases by moving away both from the target surface and from the plume center tomore » its edge. The electron density increases with the gas pressure, the highest values being occurred at atmospheric pressure when the ambient gas has the highest mass, i.e. in argon. The excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot of line intensities of iron impurities present in the aluminum target. The highest temperature is observed close to the laser spot location for argon at atmospheric pressure. It decreases by moving away from the target surface in the axial direction. However, no significant variation of temperature occurs along the radial direction. The differences observed between the axial and radial direction are mainly due to the different plasma kinetics in both directions.« less

  12. Chemistry in the Thermosphere and Ionosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roble, Raymond G.

    1986-01-01

    An informative review which summarizes information about chemical reactions in the thermosphere and ionosphere. Topics include thermal structure, ultraviolet radiation, ionospheric photochemistry, thermospheric photochemistry, chemical heating, thermospheric circulation, auroral processes and ionospheric interactions. Provides suggested followup…

  13. Investigation of Thermospheric and Ionospheric Changes during Ionospheric Storms with Satellite and Ground-Based Data and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Philip G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this proposed research is to improve our basic understanding of the causes of ionospheric storm behavior in the midlatitude F region ionosphere. This objective will be achieved by detailed comparisons between ground based measurements of the peak electron density (N(sub m)F(sub 2)), Atmosphere Explorer satellite measurements of ion and neutral composition, and output from the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) model. The primary result will be a better understanding of changes in the neutral densities and ion chemistry during magnetic storms that will improve our capability to model the weather of the ionosphere which will be needed as a basis for ionospheric prediction. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions: (1) To what extent are negative ionospheric storm phases caused by changes in the atomic to molecular ratio? (2) Are the changes in neutral density ratio due to increased N2, or decreased O, or both? (3) Are there other chemical processes (e.g., excited N2) that increase O+ loss rates during negative storms? (4) Do neutral density altitude distributions differed from hydrostatic equilibrium? (5) Why do near normal nighttime densities often follow daytime depletions of electron density; and (6) Can changes in h(sub m)F2 fully account for positive storm phases? To answer these questions, we plan to combine ground-based and space-based measurements with the aid of our ionospheric model which is ideally suited to this purpose. These proposed studies will lead to a better capability to predict long term ionospheric variability, leading to better predictions of ionospheric weather.

  14. Viscous Forces in Velocity Boundary Layers around Planetary Ionospheres.

    PubMed

    Pérez-De-Tejada

    1999-11-01

    A discussion is presented to examine the role of viscous forces in the transport of solar wind momentum to the ionospheric plasma of weakly magnetized planets (Venus and Mars). Observational data are used to make a comparison of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses that are operative in the interaction of the solar wind with local plasma (planetary ionospheres). Measurements show the presence of a velocity boundary layer formed around the flanks of the ionosphere where the shocked solar wind has reached super-Alfvénic speeds. It is found that the Reynolds stresses in the solar wind at that region can be larger than the Maxwell stresses and thus are necessary in the local acceleration of the ionospheric plasma. From an order-of-magnitude calculation of the Reynolds stresses, it is possible to derive values of the kinematic viscosity and the Reynolds number that are suitable to the gyrotropic motion of the solar wind particles across the boundary layer. The value of the kinematic viscosity is comparable to those inferred from studies of the transport of solar wind momentum to the earth's magnetosphere and thus suggest a common property of the solar wind around planetary obstacles. Similar conditions could also be applicable to velocity boundary layers formed in other plasma interaction problems in astrophysics.

  15. Magnetospheric Control of Density and Composition in the Polar Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-24

    and C. Valladares, Global aspects of plasma structures, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr . Phys., 61, 127–139, doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(98)00122-9, 1999. Brambles...ionospheric outflow, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr . Phys., 62, 399–420, doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00017-1, 2000. Semeter, J., and M. Zettergren, Model-Based

  16. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka

    2017-04-01

    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  17. Acceleration and Transport of Particles in Collisionless Plasmas: Wakes due to the Interaction with Moving Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarjov, Maxim G.

    2001-06-01

    A method is developed that allows the numerical and analytical description of the effects of ambient magnetic field on the time-dependent 3D structures of space plasma flows due to bodies in motion through a plasma. Some of these effects have been observed in space and ionosphere as stratified, flute and yacht sail like structures of plasma disturbances, jets, wakes and clouds. The method can be used for the simulations of Solar Wind flow taking into account the magnetic field effects and the interactions with the Interstellar Medium. These problems are of practical interest in fluid mechanics, space sciences, astrophysics, in turbulence theory. They also have some fundamental interest in their own right, as they enable one to concentrate on the effects of the ambient electric and magnetic fields.

  18. The ionospheric response to the Saint Patrick storm over South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Di Mauro, D.; Pezzopane, M.; Cesaroni, C.; Povero, G., Sr.; Pini, M., Sr.; Dovis, F., Sr.; Romero, R.; Linty, N.; Abadi, P.; Nuraeni, F.; Husin, A.; Huy Le, M.; La The, V.; Pillat, V. G.; Floury, N.

    2015-12-01

    ERICA, a project funded by the European Space Agency, aims at characterizing the ionospheric variability of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly in the South East Asia. In particular, ERICA focuses on the variation of the plasma electron density in the southern and northern crests of the anomaly and over the dip equator identified by the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough. To achieve this goal, an ad hoc measurements campaign is on-going with ground-based instruments located in the footprints of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly and of the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough in Vietnam and Indonesia.The campaign started on the 1st of March 2015, timing to monitor the Saint Patrick storm effects on the ionosphere by means of ionosondes, double frequency hardware and software defined radio GNSS receivers, ground based and spaceborne magnetometers and Langmuir probe. Such multi-instrumental and multi-parametric observations of the region enables an in-depth investigation of the ionospheric response to the largest geomagnetic storm of the current solar cycle. The observations record positive and negative ionospheric storms, sporadic E layer and spread F conditions, scintillations enhancement and inhibition, TEC gradients. The ancillary information on the local magnetic field allows to highlight the variety of ionospheric perturbations happened during the main and the long recovery phase of the storm.The paper presents the outcomes of the investigation evidencing the peculiarities of a region not yet extensively reported in the open literature.

  19. A Campaign to Study Equatorial Ionospheric Phenomena over Guam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.; Balthazor, R.; Dearborn, M.; Enloe, L.; Lawrence, T.; McHarg, M.; Petrash, D.; Reinisch, B. W.; Stuart, T.

    2007-05-01

    With the development of a series of ground-based and space-based experiments, the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is in the process of planning a campaign to investigate the relationship between equatorial ionospheric plasma dynamics and a variety of space weather effects, including: 1) ionospheric plasma turbulence in the F region, and 2) scintillation of radio signals at low latitudes. A Digisonde Portable Sounder DPS-4 will operate from the island of Guam (with a magnetic latitude of 5.6° N) and will provide measurements of ionospheric total electron content (TEC), vertical drifts of the bulk ionospheric plasma, and electron density profiles. Additionally, a dual-frequency GPS TEC/scintillation monitor will be located along the Guam magnetic meridian at a magnetic latitude of approximately 15° N. In campaign mode, we will combine these ground-based observations with those collected from space during USAFA's FalconSAT-3 and FalconSAT-5 low-earth orbit satellite missions, the first of which is scheduled to be active over a period of several months beginning in the 2007 calendar year. The satellite experiments are designed to characterize in situ irregularities in plasma density, and include measurements of bulk ion density and temperature, minority-to- majority ion mixing ratios, small scale (10 cm to 1 m) plasma turbulence, and ion distribution spectra in energy with sufficient resolution for observations of non-thermalized distributions that may be associated with velocity- space instabilities. Specific targets of investigation include: a) a comparison of plasma turbulence observed on- orbit with spread F on ionograms as measured with the Digisonde, b) a correlation between the vertical lifting of the ionospheric layer over Guam and the onset of radio scintillation activity along the Guam meridian at 15° N magnetic latitude, and c) a correlation between on-orbit turbulence and ionospheric scintillation at 15° N magnetic latitude. These relationships

  20. Magnetoplasma sheath waves on a conducting tether in the ionosphere with applications to EMI propagation on large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmain, K. G.; James, H. G.; Bantin, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A recent space experiment confirmed sheath-wave propagation of a kilometer-long insulated wire in the ionosphere, oriented parallel to the Earth's magnetic field. This space tether experiment, Oedipus-A, showed a sheath-wave passband up to about 2 MHz and a phase velocity somewhat slower than the velocity of light in a vacuum, and also demonstrated both ease of wave excitation and low attenuation. The evidence suggests that, on any large structure in low Earth orbit, transient or continuous wave electromagnetic interference, once generated, could propagate over the structure via sheath waves, producing unwanted signal levels much higher than in the absence of the ambient plasma medium. Consequently, there is a need for a review of both electromagnetic interference/electromagnetic compatibility standards and ground test procedures as they apply to large structures in low Earth orbit.

  1. View of Soviet ionospheric modification research

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.; Showen, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    We have reviewed and provided a technical assessment of Soviet research of the past five to ten years in ionospheric modification by high-power radio waves. This review includes a comprehensive survey of Soviet published literature, conference proceedings, and direct discussions with the involved Soviet researchers. The current state of the art for Soviet research in this field is evaluated, identifying areas of potential breakthrough discoveries, and discussing implications of this work for emerging technologies and future applications. This assessment is divided into the categories of basic research, advanced research, and applications. Basic research is further subdivided into studies of themore » modified natural geophysical environment, nonlinear plasma physics, and polar geophysical studies. Advanced research topics include the generation of artificial ionization mirrors and high-power oblique propagation effects. A separate comparative assessment of Soviet theoretical work also is included in this analysis. Our evaluation of practical and potential applications of this research discusses the utility of ionospheric modification in creating disturbed radio wave propagation environments, and its role in current and future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This technical assessment does not include consideration of ionospheric modification by means other than high-power radio waves. The Soviet effort in ionospheric modification sustains theoretical and experimental research at activity levels considerably greater than that found in comparable programs in the West. Notable strengths of the Soviet program are its breadth of coverage, large numbers of scientific participation, theoretical creativity and insight, and its powerful radio wave transmitting facilities.« less

  2. Cold Ion Escape from the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränz, M.; Dubinin, E.; Wei, Y.; Woch, J.; Morgan, D.; Barabash, S.; Fedorov, A.

    2012-09-01

    It has always been challenging to observe the flux of ions with energies of less than 10eV escaping from the planetary ionospheres. We here report on new measurements of the ionospheric ion flows at Mars by the ASPERA-3 experiment on board Mars Express. We first use support from the MARSIS radar experiment for some orbits with fortunate observation geometry. Here we have observed a transterminator flow of O+ and O+ 2 ions with a super-sonic velocity of around 5km/s and fluxes of 0.8 · 109/cm2s. If we assume a symmetric flux around the terminator this corresponds to an ion flow of 3.1 ± 0.5 × 1025/s half of which is expected to escape from Mars (Fraenz et al, 2010). This escape flux is significantly higher than previously observed on the tailside of Mars, we discuss possible reasons for the difference. Since 2008 the MARSIS radar does nightside local plasma density measurement which often coincide with ASPERA-3 measurements. In a new analysis of the combined nightside datasets (Fig. 1) we show that the main escape channel is along the shadow boundary on the tailside of Mars. At a distance of about 0.5 R_M the flux settles at a constant value (Fig. 2) which indicates that about half of the transterminator ionospheric flow escapes from the planet. Possible mechanism to generate this flux can be the ionospheric pressure gradient between dayside and nightside or momentum transfer from the solar wind via the induced magnetic field since the flow velocity is in the Alfvénic regime.

  3. Cold Ion Escape from the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränz, Markus; Dubinin, Eduard; Wei, Yong; Morgan, David; Barabash, Stas; Lundin, Rickard; Fedorov, Andrei

    2013-04-01

    It has always been challenging to observe the flux of ions with energies of less than 10eV escaping from the planetary ionospheres. We here report on new measurements of the ionospheric ion flows at Mars by the ASPERA-3 experiment on board Mars Express. We first use support from the MARSIS radar experiment for some orbits with fortunate observation geometry. Here we have observed a transterminator flow of O+ and O2+ ions with a super-sonic velocity of around 5km/s and fluxes of 0.8 ? 109/cm2s. If we assume a symmetric flux around the terminator this corresponds to an ion flow of 3.1 ± 0.5 × 1025-s half of which is expected to escape from Mars (Fraenz et al, Plan.Space Sci., 2010). This escape flux is significantly higher than previously observed on the tailside of Mars, we discuss possible reasons for the difference. Since 2008 the MARSIS radar does nightside local plasma density measurements which often coincide with ASPERA-3 measurements. In a new analysis of the combined nightside datasets we show that the main escape channel is along the shadow boundary on the tailside of Mars. At a distance of half a Martian radius the flux settles at a constant value which indicates that about half of the transterminator ionospheric flow escapes from the planet. Possible mechanism to generate this flux can be the ionospheric pressure gradient between dayside and nightside or momentum transfer from the solar wind via the induced magnetic field since the flow velocity is in the Alfvénic regime.

  4. Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR induced modifications of the high latitude (78°N) ionosphere observed by both coherent and incoherent radars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddeley, L. J.; Haggstrom, I.; Wright, D. M.; Isham, B.; Gallop, P.

    2010-12-01

    The SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) system, which is the newest operational heating facility, is located on Svalbard at 78°N (75° CGM) latitude and, as such, is the highest latitudinally located heating system. The unique geomagnetic location of SPEAR also allows it to be inside the Polar Cap at all local times. It is co-located with several facilities, including the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar. The system is also inside the fields of view of several SuperDARN Coherent Scatter Radars. An overview of the SPEAR system, specific operating modes, as well as data from new, currently undergoing and planned experiments conducted in 2010 will be presented and discussed. Procedures for any future collaborative experiments will also be presented.

  5. Analysis of a grid ionospheric vertical delay and its bounding errors over West African sub-Saharan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, O. E.; Otero Villamide, X.; Paparini, C.; Radicella, S. M.; Nava, B.

    2017-02-01

    Investigating the effects of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) ionosphere and space weather on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is very crucial, and a key to successful implementation of a GNSS augmentation system (SBAS) over the equatorial and low-latitude regions. A possible ionospheric vertical delay (GIVD, Grid Ionospheric Vertical Delay) broadcast at a Ionospheric Grid Point (IGP) and its confidence bounds errors (GIVE, Grid Ionospheric Vertical Error) are analyzed and compared with the ionospheric vertical delay estimated at a nearby user location over the West African Sub-Saharan region. Since African sub-Saharan ionosphere falls within the EIA region, which is always characterized by a disturbance in form of irregularities after sunset, and the disturbance is even more during the geomagnetically quiet conditions unlike middle latitudes, the need to have a reliable ionospheric threat model to cater for the nighttime ionospheric plasma irregularities for the future SBAS user is essential. The study was done during the most quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions on October 2013. A specific low latitude EGNOS-like algorithm, based on single thin layer model, was engaged to simulate SBAS message in the study. Our preliminary results indicate that, the estimated GIVE detects and protects a potential SBAS user against sampled ionospheric plasma irregularities over the region with a steep increment in GIVE to non-monitored after local sunset to post midnight. This corresponds to the onset of the usual ionospheric plasma irregularities in the region. The results further confirm that the effects of the geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere are not consistent in affecting GNSS applications over the region. Finally, this paper suggests further work to be investigated in order to improve the threat integrity model activity, and thereby enhance the availability of the future SBAS over African sub-Saharan region.

  6. Cubesat-Based Dtv Receiver Constellation for Ionospheric Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcivan, H.; Leveque, K.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Radio Aurora Explorer mission, funded by NSF's Space Weather and Atmospheric Research program, has demonstrated the utility of CubeSat-based radio receiver payloads for ionospheric research. RAX has primarily been an investigation of microphysics of meter-scale ionospheric structures; however, the data products are also suitable for research on ionospheric effects on radio propagation. To date, the spacecraft has acquired (1) ground-based UHF radar signals that are backscattered from meter-scale ionospheric irregularities, which have been used to measure the dispersion properties of meter-scale plasma waves and (2) ground-based signals, directly on the transmitter-spacecraft path, which have been used to measure radio propagation disturbances (scintillations). Herein we describe the application of a CubeSat constellation of UHF receivers to expand the latter research topic for global-scale ionospheric tomography. The enabling factor for this expansion is the worldwide availability of ground-based digital television (DTV) broadcast signals whose characteristics are optimal for scintillation analysis. A significant part of the populated world have transitioned, or soon to be transitioned, to DTV. The DTV signal has a standard format that contains a highly phase-stable pilot carrier that can be readily adapted for propagation diagnostics. A multi-frequency software-defined radar receiver, similar to the RAX payload, can measure these signals at a large number of pilot carrier frequencies to make radio ray and diffraction tomographic measurements of the ionosphere and the irregularities contained in it. A constellation of CubeSats, launched simultaneously, or in sequence over years, similar to DMSPs, can listen to the DTV stations, providing a vast and dense probing of the ionosphere. Each spacecraft can establish links to a preprogrammed list of DTV stations and cycle through them using time-division frequency multiplexing (TDFM) method. An on board program can

  7. Structure and dynamics of the ionosphere. [Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, A. F.; Brace, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of the Venus ionosphere and the major processes occurring within it are summarized. The daytime ionosphere is created by solar EUV radiation incident on the thermosphere; it is in photochemical equilibrium near its peak at about 142 km, where O2(+) is the major ion, and near diffusive equilibrium in its upper regions, where the major ion is O(+). The day-to-night plasma pressure gradient across the terminator drives a nightward ion flow which, together with electron precipitation, contributes to the formation of the nighttime ionosphere. Large-scale radial holes or plasma depletions extending downwards to nearly the ionization peak in the antisolar region are also observed which are associated with regions of strong radial magnetic fields. The ionopause is a highly dynamic and complex surface, extending from an average altitude of 290 km at the subsolar point to about 1000 km at the terminator and from 200 to over 3000 km on the nightside. A variety of solar wind interaction products are observed in the mantle, a transition region between the ionospheric plasma and the flowing shocked solar wind.

  8. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  9. Comparison of model predictions for the composition of the ionosphere of Mars to MAVEN NGIMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul; Vogt, Marissa; Mayyasi, Majd; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Elrod, Meredith; Bougher, Stephen; Dong, Chuanfei; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Ma, Yingjuan; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft at Mars, the only available measurements of the composition of the planet's ionosphere were those acquired by the two Viking Landers during their atmospheric entries. Many numerical models of the composition of the ionosphere of Mars have been developed, but these have only been validated for species, altitudes, and conditions for which Viking data exist. Here we compare the ionospheric composition and structure predicted by 10 ionospheric models at solar zenith angles of 45-60° against ion density measurements acquired by the MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS). The most successful models included three-dimensional plasma transport driven by interactions with the surrounding space environment but had relatively simple ionospheric chemistry.

  10. Simulation of Ionospheric Response During Solar Eclipse Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordella, L.; Earle, G. D.; Huba, J.

    2016-12-01

    Total solar eclipses are rare, short duration events that present interesting case studies of ionospheric behavior because the structure of the ionosphere is determined and stabilized by varying energies of solar radiation (Lyman alpha, X-ray, U.V., etc.). The ionospheric response to eclipse events is a source of scientific intrigue that has been studied in various capacities over the past 50 years. Unlike the daily terminator crossings, eclipses cause highly localized, steep gradients of ionization efficiency due to their comparatively small solar zenith angle. However, the corona remains present even at full obscuration, meaning that the energy reduction never falls to the levels seen at night. Previous eclipse studies performed by research groups in the US, UK, China and Russia have shown a range of effects, some counter-intuitive and others contradictory. In the shadowed region of an eclipse (i.e. umbra) it is logical to assume a reduction in ionization rates correlating with the reduction of incident solar radiation. Results have shown that even this straightforward hypothesis may not be true; effects on plasma distribution, motion and temperature are more appreciable than might be expected. Recent advancements in ionospheric simulation codes present the opportunity to investigate the relationship between geophysical conditions and geomagnetic location on resulting eclipse event ionosphere. Here we present computational simulation results using the Naval Research Lab (NRL) developed ionospheric modeling codes Sami2 and Sami3 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) modified with spatio-temporal photoionization attenuation functions derived from theory and empirical data.

  11. X-Ray Radiography Measurements of the Thermal Energy in Spark Ignition Plasma at Variable Ambient Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Matusik, Katarzyna E.; Duke, Daniel J.; Kastengren, Alan L.; ...

    2017-04-09

    The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from themore » sparking event is difficult to obtain. We present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug. Our measurements were performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The synchrotron x-ray source enables time-resolved measurements of the density change due to glow discharge in the spark gap with 153 ns temporal and 5 μm spatial resolutions. We also explore the effects of charging time, EGR-relevant gas compositions, and gas pressure on the sparking behavior. We also quantify the influence of the measurement technique on the obtained results.« less

  12. Formation and ascent of nonisothermal ionospheric and chromospheric bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Genkin, L.G.; Erukhimov, L.M.; Myasnikov, E.N.

    1987-11-01

    The influences of nonisothermicity on the dynamics of ionospheric and chromospheric bubbles is discussed. The possibility of the existence in the ionosphere of a recombination-thermal instability, arising from the temperature dependence of the coefficient of charge exchange between molecules and atomic ions, is shown, and its influence on the formation and evolution of equatorial bubbles is analyzed. It is shown that the formation and dynamics of bubbles may depend on recombination processes and gravity, while plasma heating (predominantly by vertical electric fields) leads to the deepening and preservation of bubbles as they move to greater altitudes. The hypothesis is advancedmore » that the formation of bubbles may be connected with the ascent of clumps of molecules in ionospheric tornados.« less

  13. Peculiarities of Ionospheric Response to Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadez, V. M.; Nina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) affect the terrestrial upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere and ionosphere in particular, through sudden impacts of additional X-ray radiation and by increased intensity of the solar wind. As a consequence, a variety perturbation features occur locally as well as globally in the plasma medium in space around the Earth. We study some of such transient phenomena taking place at low altitudes of the ionosphere (below 90 km) by monitoring and analyzing registered amplitude and phase time variations of VLF radio waves with given frequencies. The main object of this research is gaining an additional insight into the structure and physical properties of the lower ionosphere.

  14. Atomic oxygen ions as ionospheric biomarkers on exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Withers, Paul; Dalba, Paul A.

    2018-04-01

    The ionized form of atomic oxygen (O+) is the dominant ion species at the altitude of maximum electron density in only one of the many ionospheres in our Solar System — Earth's. This ionospheric composition would not be present if oxygenic photosynthesis was not an ongoing mechanism that continuously impacts the terrestrial atmosphere. We propose that dominance of ionospheric composition by O+ ions at the altitude of maximum electron density can be used to identify a planet in orbit around a solar-type star where global-scale biological activity is present. There is no absolute numerical value required for this suggestion of an atmospheric plasma biomarker — only the dominating presence of O+ ions at the altitude of peak electron density.

  15. On Features of the Generation of Artificial Ionospheric Irregularities with Transverse Scales of 50-200 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, I. A.; Frolov, V. L.; Akchurin, A. D.; Zykov, E. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    We consider the features of generation of artificial ionospheric irregularities with transverse (to the geomagnetic field) scales l⊥ ≈ 50-200 m in the ionosphere modified by high-power HF radio waves. It was found that there are at least two mechanisms for generation of these irregularities in the ionospheric F region. The first mechanism is related to the resonant interaction between radio waves and the ionospheric plasma, while the second one takes place even in the absence of the resonant interaction. Different polarization of the high-power radiation was used to separate the mechanisms in the measurements.

  16. Mission Concept to Connect Magnetospheric Physical Processes to Ionospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, E. E.; MacDonald, E.; Kepko, L.; Borovsky, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Delzanno, G. L.; Thomsen, M. F.; Sanchez, E. R.; Henderson, M. G.; Nguyen, D. C.; Vaith, H.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Spanswick, E.; Marshall, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Neilson, J.; Carlsten, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    On the Earth's nightside the magnetic connections between the ionosphere and the dynamic magnetosphere have a great deal of uncertainty: this uncertainty prevents us from scientifically understanding what physical processes in the magnetosphere are driving the various phenomena in the ionosphere. Since the 1990s, the space plasma physics group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working on a concept to connect magnetospheric physical processes to auroral phenomena in the ionosphere by firing an electron beam from a magnetospheric spacecraft and optically imaging the beam spot in the ionosphere. The magnetospheric spacecraft will carry a steerable electron accelerator, a power-storage system, a plasma contactor, and instruments to measure magnetic and electric fields, plasma, and energetic particles. The spacecraft orbit will be coordinated with a ground-based network of cameras to (a) locate the electron beam spot in the upper atmosphere and (b) monitor the aurora. An overview of the mission concept will be presented, including recent enabling advancements based on (1) a new understanding of the dynamic spacecraft charging of the accelerator and plasma-contactor system in the tenuous magnetosphere based on ion emission rather than electron collection, (2) a new understanding of the propagation properties of pulsed MeV-class beams in the magnetosphere, and (3) the design of a compact high-power 1-MeV electron accelerator and power-storage system. This strategy to (a) determine the magnetosphere-to-ionosphere connections and (b) reduce accelerator- platform charging responds to one of the six emerging-technology needs called out in the most-recent National Academies Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics. [LA-UR-17-23614

  17. Global-scale Ionospheric Outflow: Major Processes and Unresolved Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Welling, D. T.; Ilie, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Jahn, J. M.; Zou, S.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Valek, P. W.; Elliott, H. A.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Glocer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Outflow from the ionosphere is a major source of plasma to the magnetosphere. Its presence, especially that of ions heavier than He+, mass loads the magnetosphere and changes reconnection rates, current system configurations, plasma wave excitation and wave-particle interactions. It even impacts the propagation of information. We present a brief overview of the major processes and scientific history of this field. There are still major gaps, however, in our understanding of the global-scale nature of ionospheric outflow. We discuss these unresolved problems highlighting the leading questions still outstanding on this topic. First and foremost, since the measurements of ionospheric outflow have largely come from individual satellites and sounding rockets, the processes are best known on the local level, while the spatial distribution of outflow has never been simultaneously measured on more global scales. The spatial coherence and correlation of outflow across time and space have not been quantified. Furthermore, the composition of the outflow is often only measured at a coarse level of H+, He+, and O+, neglecting other species such as N+ or moleculars. However, resolving O+ from N+, as is customary in planetary research, aids in revealing the physics and altitude dependence of the energization processes in the ionosphere. Similarly, fine-resolution velocity space measurements of ionospheric outflow have been limited, yet such observations can also reveal energization processes driving the outflow. A final unresolved issue to mention is magnetically conjugate outflow and the full extent of hemispherically asymmetric outflow fluxes or fluence. Each of these open questions have substantial ramifications for magnetospheric physics; their resolution could yield sweeping changes in our understanding of nonlinear feedback and cross-scale physical interactions, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and geospace system-level science.

  18. Low-latitude Ionospheric Research using the CIRCE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K.; Nicholas, A. C.; Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Coordinated Ionospheric Reconstruction Cubesat Experiment (CIRCE) is a dual-satellite mission consisting of two 6U CubeSats actively maintaining a lead-follow configuration in the same orbit with a launch planned for the 2018-2019 time frame. These nano-satellites will each feature two 1U ultraviolet photometers, observing the 135.6 nm emission of atomic oxygen at nighttime. The primary objective is to characterize the two-dimensional distribution of electrons in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). The methodology used to reconstruct the nighttime ionosphere employs continuous UV photometry from four distinct viewing angles in combination with an additional data source, such as in situ plasma density measurements or a wide-band beacon data, with advanced image space reconstruction algorithm tomography techniques. The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 (CF3) constellation featured six Tiny Ionospheric Photometers, a compact UV sensor design which served as the pathfinder for the CIRCE instruments. The TIP instruments on the CF3 satellites demonstrated detection of ionospheric bubbles before they had penetrated the peak of the F-region ionosphere. We present our mission concept, simulations illustrating the imaging capability of the sensor suite, and a range of science questions addressable using such a system.

  19. Analysis of FORTE data to extract ionospheric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel-Dupré, Robert A.; Jacobson, Abram R.; Triplett, Laurie A.

    2001-01-01

    The ionospheric transfer function is derived for a spherically symmetric ionosphere with an arbitrary radial electron density profile in the limit where the radio frequencies of interest ω are much larger than the plasma frequency ωpe. An expansion of the transfer function to second order in the parameter X (= ω2pe/ω2) is carried out. In this limit the dispersive properties of the ionosphere are manifested as a frequency-dependent time of arrival that includes quadratic, cubic, and quartic terms in 1/ω. The coefficients of these terms are related to the total electron content (TEC) along the slant path from transmitter to receiver, the product of TEC and the longitudinal magnetic field strength along the slant path, and refractive bending and higher-order electron density profile effects, respectively. By fitting the time of arrival versus frequency of a transionospheric signal to a polynomial in 1/ω it is possible to extract the TEC, the longitudinal magnetic field strength, the peak electron density, and an effective thickness for the ionosphere. This exercise was carried out for a number of transionospheric pulses measured in the VHF by the FORTE satellite receiver and generated by the Los Alamos Portable Pulser. The results are compared with predictions derived from the International Reference Ionosphere and the United States Geological Survey geomagnetic field model.

  20. Global ionospheric dynamics and electrodynamics during geomagnetic storms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Tsurutani, B.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Komjathy, A.; Butala, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Globally distributed total electron content (TEC) data has become an important tool for exploring the consequences of storm-time electrodynamics. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling during the main phase is responsible for the largest ionospheric effects observed during geomagnetic storms, mediated by global scale electrodynamics. Recent research using case studies reveals a complex picture of M-I coupling and its relationship to interplanetary drivers such as the solar wind electric field. Periods of direct coupling exist where the solar wind electric field is strongly correlated with prompt penetration electric fields, observed as enhanced vertical plasma drifts or an enhanced electrojet in the daytime equatorial ionosphere. Periods of decoupling between low latitude electric fields and the solar wind electric field are also observed, but the factors distinguishing these two types of response have not been clearly identified. Recent studies during superstorms suggest a role for the transverse (y-component) of the interplanetary magnetic field, which affects magnetospheric current systems and therefore may affect M-I coupling, with significant ionospheric consequences. Observations of the global ionospheric response to a range of geomagnetic storm intensities are presented. Scientific understanding of the different factors that affect electrodynamic aspects of M-I coupling are discussed.

  1. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Petroleum Refining Catalysts and Ambient Fine Aerosols Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of a certified reference material, a robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). High temperature (200 C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO3, HF, and H3BO3) with 20 minute dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst, and PM2.5. This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using 115In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu, and Dy in ambient PM2.5 in an industrial area of Houston, TX.

  2. Applications of a time-dependent polar ionosphere model for radio modification experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallen, Christopher Thomas

    A time-dependent self-consistent ionosphere model (SLIM) has been developed to study the response of the polar ionosphere to radio modification experiments, similar to those conducted at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Gakona, Alaska. SCIM solves the ion continuity and momentum equations, coupled with average electron and ion gas energy equations; it is validated by reproducing the diurnal variation of the daytime ionosphere critical frequency, as measured with an ionosonde. Powerful high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves can drive naturally occurring electrostatic plasma waves, enhancing the ionospheric reflectivity to ultra-high frequency (UHF) radar near the HF-interaction region as well as heating the electron gas. Measurements made during active experiments are compared with model calculations to clarify fundamental altitude-dependent physical processes governing the vertical composition and temperature of the polar ionosphere. The modular UHF ionosphere radar (MUIR), co-located with HAARP, measured HF-enhanced ion-line (HFIL) reflection height and observed that it ascended above its original altitude after the ionosphere had been HF-heated for several minutes. The HFIL ascent is found to follow from HF-induced depletion of plasma surrounding the F-region peak density layer, due to temperature-enhanced transport of atomic oxygen ions along the geomagnetic field line. The lower F-region and topside ionosphere also respond to HF heating. Model results show that electron temperature increases will lead to suppression of molecular ion recombination rates in the lower F region and enhancements of ambipolar diffusion in the topside ionosphere, resulting in a net enhancement of slant total electron content (TEC); these results have been confirmed by experiment. Additional evidence for the model-predicted topside ionosphere density enhancements via ambipolar diffusion is provided by in-situ measurements of ion density and

  3. Ionospheric precursors to large earthquakes: A case study of the 2011 Japanese Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. A.; Kellerman, A. C.; Kane, T. A.; Dyson, P. L.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2013-09-01

    Researchers have reported ionospheric electron distribution abnormalities, such as electron density enhancements and/or depletions, that they claimed were related to forthcoming earthquakes. In this study, the Tohoku earthquake is examined using ionosonde data to establish whether any otherwise unexplained ionospheric anomalies were detected in the days and hours prior to the event. As the choices for the ionospheric baseline are generally different between previous works, three separate baselines for the peak plasma frequency of the F2 layer, foF2, are employed here; the running 30-day median (commonly used in other works), the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). It is demonstrated that the classification of an ionospheric perturbation is heavily reliant on the baseline used, with the 30-day median, the IRI and the TIE-GCM generally underestimating, approximately describing and overestimating the measured foF2, respectively, in the 1-month period leading up to the earthquake. A detailed analysis of the ionospheric variability in the 3 days before the earthquake is then undertaken, where a simultaneous increase in foF2 and the Es layer peak plasma frequency, foEs, relative to the 30-day median was observed within 1 h before the earthquake. A statistical search for similar simultaneous foF2 and foEs increases in 6 years of data revealed that this feature has been observed on many other occasions without related seismic activity. Therefore, it is concluded that one cannot confidently use this type of ionospheric perturbation to predict an impending earthquake. It is suggested that in order to achieve significant progress in our understanding of seismo-ionospheric coupling, better account must be taken of other known sources of ionospheric variability in addition to solar and geomagnetic activity, such as the thermospheric coupling.

  4. Solitons and ionospheric modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

  5. Detection of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator Signatures Onboard C/NOFS: Implications for IRI Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes, F.; Klenzing, J.; Ivanov, S.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Bilitza, D.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008-2009 long-lasting solar minimum activity has been the one of its kind since the dawn of space age, offering exceptional conditions for investigating space weather in the near-Earth environment. First ever detection of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR) signatures in orbit offers new means for investigating ionospheric electrodynamics, namely MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamics) wave propagation, aeronomy processes, ionospheric dynamics, and Sun-Earth connection mechanisms at a local scale. Local and global plasma density heterogeneities in the ionosphere and magnetosphere allow for formation of waveguides and resonators where magnetosonic and shear Alfven waves propagate. The ionospheric magnetosonic waveguide results from complete magnetosonic wave reflection about the ionospheric F-region peak, where the Alfven index of refraction presents a maximum. MHD waves can also be partially trapped in the vertical direction between the lower boundary of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, a resonance mechanism known as IAR. In this work we present C/NOFS (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) electric field measurements related to IAR signatures, discuss the resonance and wave propagation mechanisms in the ionosphere, and address the electromagnetic inverse problem from which electron/ion distributions can be derived. These peculiar IAR electric field measurements provide new, complementary methodologies for inferring ionospheric electron and ion density profiles, and also contribute for the investigation of ionosphere dynamics and space weather monitoring. Specifically, IAR spectral signatures measured by C/NOFS contribute for improving the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, namely electron density and ion composition.

  6. Scale Height variations with solar cycle in the ionosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Lester, Mark; Witasse, Olivier; Milan, Stephen E.; Hall, Benjamin E. S.; Cartacci, Marco; Radicella, Sandro M.; Blelly, Pierre-Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on board the Mars Express spacecraft has been probing the topside of the ionosphere of Mars since June 2005, covering currently almost one solar cycle. A good knowledge of the behaviour of the ionospheric variability for a whole solar period is essential since the ionosphere is strongly dependent on solar activity. Using part of this dataset, covering the years 2005 - 2012, differences in the shape of the topside electron density profiles have been observed. These variations seem to be linked to changes in the ionospheric temperature due to the solar cycle variation. In particular, Mars' ionospheric response to the extreme solar minimum between end-2007 and end-2009 followed a similar pattern to the response observed in the Earth's ionosphere, despite the large differences related to internal origin of the magnetic field between both planets. Plasma parameters such as the scale height as a function of altitude, the main peak characteristics (altitude, density), the total electron content (TEC), the temperatures, and the ionospheric thermal pressures show variations related to the solar cycle. The main changes in the topside ionosphere are detected during the period of very low solar minimum, when ionospheric cooling occurs. The effect on the scale height is analysed in detail. In contrast, a clear increase of the scale height is observed during the high solar activity period due to enhanced ionospheric heating. The scale height variation during the solar cycle has been empirically modelled. The results have been compared with other datasets such as radio-occultation and retarding potential analyser data from old missions, especially in low solar activity periods (e.g. Mariner 4, Viking 1 and 2 landers), as well as with numerical modelling.

  7. Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, C. Q.; Lee, L. C.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and its coupling to the polar ionosphere under boundary conditions at the magnetopause are investigated. In the presence of a driven plasma flow along the magnetopause, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop, leading to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite ionospheric conductivity leads to the decay of these vortices. The competing effect of the formation and decay of vortices leads to the formation of strong vortices only in a limited region. Several enhanced field-aligned power density regions associated with the boundary layer vortices and the upward field-aligned current (FAC) filaments can be found along the postnoon auroral oval. These enhanced field-aligned power density regions may account for the observed auroral bright spots.

  8. Ionospheric modification by radio waves: An overview and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    High-power high-frequency radio waves, when beamed into the Earth's ionosphere, can heat the plasma by particle collisions in the D-layer or generate wave-plasma resonances in the F-layer. These basic phenomena have been used in many research applications. In the D-layer, ionospheric currents can be modulated through conductance modification to produce artificial ULF and VLF waves, which propagate allowing magnetospheric research. In the mesopause, PMSE can be modified allowing dusty plasma research. In the F-layer, wave-plasma interactions generate a variety of artificially stimulated phenomena, such as (1) magnetic field-aligned plasma irregularities linked to anomalous radio wave absorption, (2) stimulated electromagnetic emissions linked to upper-hybrid resonance, (3) optical emissions linked to electron acceleration and collisions with neutrals, and (4) Langmuir turbulence linked to enhanced radar backscatter. These phenomena are reviewed. In addition, some novel applications of ionospheric heaters will be presented, including HF radar sounding of the magnetosphere, the production of E-region optical emissions, and measurements of D-region electron temperature for controlled PMSE research.

  9. Titan Ion Composition at Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Transition Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, R. E.; Shappirio, M.; Simpson, D. J.; COoper, J. F.; Burger, M. H.; Johnson, R. E.; Bertucci, C.; Luhman, J. G.; Ledvina, S. A.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Using Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) ion composition data, we will investigate the compositional changes at the transition region between Saturn's magnetospheric flow and Titan's upper ionosphere. It is this region where scavenging of Titan's upper ionosphere can occur, where it is then dragged away by the magnetospheric flow as cold plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere. This cold plasma may form plumes as originally proposed by (1) during the Voyager 1 epoch. This source of cold plasma may have a unique compositional signature such as methane group ions. Water group ions that are observed in Saturn's outer magnetosphere (2,3) are relatively hot and probably come from the inner magnetosphere where they are born from fast neutrals escaping Enceladus (4) and picked up in the outer magnetosphere as hot plasma (5). This scenario will be complicated by pickup methane ions within Titan's mass loading region, as originally predicted by (6) based on Voyager 1 data and observationally confirmed by (3,7) using CAPS IMS data. But, CH4(+) ions or their fragments can only be produced as pickup ions from Titan's exosphere which can extend beyond the transition region of concern here, while CH5(+) ions can be scavenged from Titan's ionosphere. We will investigate these possibilities.

  10. The Influence of Magnetosheath Beta and Ionospheric Conductivity in the Structure of the Lobes Near Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, F. D.; Eriksson, S.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The saturation of the cross-polar cap potential (CPCP) is an unexplained phenomenon in magnetosphere-ionosphere system science. In the present study, we expand upon the Alfvén Wing model of CPCP saturation by investigating its impact on the magnetosphere-ionosphere current system, particularly the cusp-mantle dynamo associated with lobe field lines. In this expansion of the Alfven wing model, the ability of open flux tubes to deform in response to the fluid stress from the magnetosheath is governed by the magnetosheath plasma beta, which in turn reduces the Maxwell stress imposed on the ionospheric plasma to accelerate it against ion-neutral collisional drag. We perform 32 simulations using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model with varying solar wind density and IMF strength, as well as a dipole tilt of 25 degrees to investigate the relative importance of both magnetosheath plasma beta and ionospheric conductivity in the formation of Alfvén wing-like structures and the saturation of the CPCP. We find that the plasma beta in the magnetosheath is different in each hemisphere and dependent on the stagnation point location. We also show that the lobes become more bent in the summer hemisphere with higher ionospheric conductivity. We find that higher ionospheric conductivity also makes the summer hemisphere lobes more sensitive to changes in the magnetosheath beta.

  11. Topside Ionospheric Response to Solar EUV Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. C.; Hawkins, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of 23 years of thermal plasma measurements in the topside ionosphere from several DMSP spacecraft at ~800 km. The solar cycle variations of the daily averaged densities, temperatures, and H+/O+ ratios show a strong relationship to the solar EUV as described by the E10.7 solar EUV proxy with cross-correlation coefficients (CCCs) with the density greater than 0.85. The H+/O+ varies dramatically from solar maximum when it is O+ dominated to solar minimum when it is H+ dominated. These ionospheric parameters also vary strongly with season, particularly at latitudes well away from the equator where the solar zenith angle (SZA) varies greatly with season. There are strong 27-day solar rotation periodicities in the density, associated with the periodicities in the solar EUV as measured by the TIMED SEE and SDO EVE instruments, with CCCs at times greater than 0.9 at selected wavelengths. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis captures over 95% of the variation in the density over the 23 years in the first two principle components. The first principle component (PC1) is clearly associated with the solar EUV showing a 0.91 CCC with the E10.7 proxy while the PC1 EOFs remain relatively constant with latitude indicating that the solar EUV effects are relatively independent of latitude. The second principle component (PC2) is clearly associated with the SZA variation, showing strong correlations with the SZA and the concomitant density variations at latitudes away from the equator and with the PC2 EOFs having magnitudes near zero at the equator and maximum at high latitude. The magnitude of the variation of the response of the topside ionosphere to solar EUV variability is shown to be closely related to the composition. This is interpreted as the result of the effect of composition on the scale height in the topside ionosphere and the "pivot effect" in which the variation in density near the F2 peak is expected to be amplified by a factor of e at an

  12. Ionization balance in Titan's nightside ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigren, E.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Snowden, D.; Cui, J.; Lavvas, P.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Vuitton, V.; Mandt, K.

    2015-03-01

    Based on a multi-instrumental Cassini dataset we make model versus observation comparisons of plasma number densities, nP = (nenI)1/2 (ne and nI being the electron number density and total positive ion number density, respectively) and short-lived ion number densities (N+, CH2+, CH3+, CH4+) in the southern hemisphere of Titan's nightside ionosphere over altitudes ranging from 1100 and 1200 km and from 1100 to 1350 km, respectively. The nP model assumes photochemical equilibrium, ion-electron pair production driven by magnetospheric electron precipitation and dissociative recombination as the principal plasma neutralization process. The model to derive short-lived-ion number densities assumes photochemical equilibrium for the short-lived ions, primary ion production by electron-impact ionization of N2 and CH4 and removal of the short-lived ions through reactions with CH4. It is shown that the models reasonably reproduce the observations, both with regards to nP and the number densities of the short-lived ions. This is contrasted by the difficulties in accurately reproducing ion and electron number densities in Titan's sunlit ionosphere.

  13. Nonlinear Landau damping in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.; Benson, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    A model is presented to explain the non-resonant waves which give rise to the diffuse resonance observed near 3/2 f sub H by the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, where f sub H is the ambient electron cyclotron frequency. In a strictly linear analysis, these instability driven waves will decay due to Landau damping on a time scale much shorter than the observed time duration of the diffuse resonance. Calculations of the nonlinear wave particle coupling coefficients, however, indicate that the diffuse resonance wave can be maintained by the nonlinear Landau damping of the sounder stimulated 2f sub H wave. The time duration of the diffuse resonance is determined by the transit time of the instability generated and nonlinearly maintained diffuse resonance wave from the remote short lived hot region back to the antenna. The model is consistent with the Alouette/ISIS observations, and clearly demonstrates the existence of nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the ionosphere.

  14. Analysis of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Kim, T. C.; Mishin, E. V.; Kil, H.; Kwak, Y. S.; Paraschiv, I.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At mid-latitudes the source of F-region Field Aligned Irregularities (FAI) is yet to be determined. They can be created in enhanced subauroral flow channels (SAI/SUBS), where strong gradients of electric field, density and plasma temperature are present. Another important source of FAI is connected with Medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. This approach allows to resolve density irregularities on the meter scale. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code will be used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the mid-latitude region. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ data obtained during the 2016 Daejeon (Korea) and MU (Japan) radar campaign and data collected simultaneously by the Swarm satellites passed over Korea and Japan. PA approved #: 88ABW-2017-3641

  15. Ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmapauses'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Hoffman, J. H.; Maynard, N. C.

    1977-01-01

    During August 1972, Explorer 45 orbiting near the equatorial plane with an apogee of about 5.2 R sub e traversed magnetic field lines in close proximity to those simultaneously traversed by the topside ionospheric satellite ISIS 2 near dusk in the L range 2-5.4. The locations of the Explorer 45 plasmapause crossings during this month were compared to the latitudinal decreases of the H(+) density observed on ISIS 2 near the same magnetic field lines. The equatorially determined plasmapause field lines typically passed through or poleward of the minimum of the ionospheric light ion trough, with coincident satellite passes occurring for which the L separation between the plasmapause and trough field lines was between 1 and 2. Vertical flows of the H(+) ions in the light ion trough as detected by the magnetic ion mass spectrometer on ISIS were directed upward with velocities between 1 and 2 kilometers/sec near dusk on these passes. These velocities decreased to lower values on the low latitude side of the H(+) trough but did not show any noticeable change across the field lines corresponding to the magnetospheric plasmapause.

  16. Plasma Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radio communication with space probes requires sending signals through the Earth's ionosphere and usually the solar wind. During planetary flybys, the signal may also pass through the ionosphere of another planet. These ionized media can perturb the radio signal in a variety of ways. Examples of these perturbations are variations in the electrical length between the spacecraft and the ground station, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized signals, amplitude and phase scintillations, and spectral and angular broadening. These plasma effects can have undesirable influences on telemetry performance and thus need to be understood from a communications engineering viewpoint. The plasma effects are, however, useful from a scientific viewpoint, since the effects on the communications link can often be inverted to estimate the physical conditions in the plasma.

  17. Characterization of Ionospheric Dynamics Over The East African Dip Equatorial Region Using GPS-Derived Total Electron Content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, J. O.

    2016-12-01

    Through a linear combination of GPS satellite range and phase measurement observed on two carrier frequencies by terrestrial based GPS receivers, the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) along oblique GPS signal path can be quantified. Using Adjusted Spherical Harmonic (ASHA) expansion, regional TEC maps over the East Africa sector has been achieved. The observed TEC has been used to evaluate the performance of IRI2007 and NeQuick 2 models over the region. Ionospheric irregularities have been measured and the plasma drift velocity and the East-West extent of the irregularities have also been analyzed by using a Very High Frequency (VHF) receiver system that is closely spaced. The hourly TEC images developed have shown that the Southern Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest over the East African sector lies within the Kenyan region, and the occurrence of scintillation is dependent on how well the anomaly crest forms. Scintillation occurrences are intense at and around the edges of EIA crest due to the presence of high ambient electron densities and sharp TEC depletions. Simultaneous recording of amplitude scintillations at VHF and L-band frequencies reveal two distinct types of scintillation namely; the Plasma Bubble Induced (PBI) and the Bottom Side Sinusoidal (BSS). The PBI scintillations are characterized by high intensity during the post-sunset hours of the equinoctial months and appear at both VHF and L-band frequencies. The BSS type are associated with VHF scintillation and are characterized by long duration patches and often exhibit Fresnel oscillation on the roll portion of the power spectrum, which suggest a weak scattering from thin screen irregularities. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  18. Kinetic response of ionospheric ions to onset of auroral electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Kan, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the exact analytic solution of a kinetic model of collisional interaction of ionospheric fions with atmospheric neutrals in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation, shows that the onset of intense auroral electric fields in the topside ionosphere can produce the following kinetic effects: (1) heat the bulk ionospheric ions to approximately 2 eV, thus driving them up to higher altitudes where they can be subjected to collisionless plasma processes; (2) produce a nonMaxwellian superthermal tail in the distribution function; and (3) cause the ion distribution function to be anisotropic with respect to the magnetic field with the perpendicular average thermal energy exceeding the parallel thermal energy.

  19. Kinetic response of ionospheric ions to onset of auroral electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Kan, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    By examining the exact analytic solution of a kinetic model of collisional interaction of ionospheric ions with atmospheric neutrals in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation, we show that the onset of intense auroral electric fields in the topside ionosphere can produce the following kinetic effects: (1) heat the bulk ionospheric ions to approximately 2 eV, thus driving them up to higher altitudes where they can be subjected to collisionless plasma processes; (2) produce a non-Maxwellian superthermal tail in the distribution function; and (3) cause the ion distribution function to be anisotropic with respect to the magnetic field with the perpendicular average thermal energy exceeding the parallel thermal energy.

  20. Superthermal Electron Energy Interchange in the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Liemohn, M. W.; Himwich, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent approach to superthermal electron (SE) transport along closed field lines in the inner magnetosphere is used to examine the concept of plasmaspheric transparency, magnetospheric trapping, and SE energy deposition to the thermal electrons. The dayside SE population is generated both by photoionization of the thermosphere and by secondary electron production from impact ionization when the photoelectrons collide with upper atmospheric neutral particles. It is shown that a self-consistent approach to this problem produces significant changes, in comparison with other approaches, in the SE energy exchange between the plasmasphere and the two magnetically conjugate ionospheres. In particular, plasmaspheric transparency can vary by a factor of two depending on the thermal plasma content along the field line and the illumination conditions of the two conjugate ionospheres. This variation in plasmaspheric transparency as a function of thermal plasma and ionospheric conditions increases with L-shell, as the field line gets longer and the equatorial pitch angle extent of the fly-through zone gets smaller. The inference drawn from these results is that such a self-consistent approach to SE transport and energy deposition should be included to ensure robustness in ionosphere-magnetosphere modeling networks.

  1. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 - a model of international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Zhang, Yongliang; Mertens, Chris; Truhlik, Vladimir; Richards, Phil; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Reinisch, Bodo

    2014-02-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of COSPAR and URSI, IRI was developed as a data-based model to avoid the uncertainty of theory-based models which are only as good as the evolving theoretical understanding. Being based on most of the available and reliable observations of the ionospheric plasma from the ground and from space, IRI describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 km to 2000 km. A working group of about 50 international ionospheric experts is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. Over time as new data became available and new modeling techniques emerged, steadily improved editions of the IRI model have been published. This paper gives a brief history of the IRI project and describes the latest version of the model, IRI-2012. It also briefly discusses efforts to develop a real-time IRI model. The IRI homepage is at http://IRImodel.org.

  2. Interplanetary Radio Transmission Through Serial Ionospheric and Material Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, David; Kennedy, Robert G; Roy, Kenneth I

    2013-01-01

    A usual first principle in planning radio astronomy observations from the earth is that monitoring must be carried out well above the ionospheric plasma cutoff frequency (~5 MHz). Before space probes existed, radio astronomy was almost entirely done above 6 MHz, and this value is considered a practical lower limit by most radio astronomers. Furthermore, daytime ionization (especially D-layer formation) places additional constraints on wave propagation, and waves of frequency below 10-20 MHz suffer significant attenuation. More careful calculations of wave propagation through the earth s ionosphere suggest that for certain conditions (primarily the presence of a magnetic field) theremore » may be a transmission window well below this assumed limit. Indeed, for receiving extraterrestrial radiation below the ionospheric plasma cutoff frequency, a choice of VLF frequency appears optimal to minimize loss. The calculation, experimental validation, and conclusions are presented here. This work demonstrates the possibility of VLF transmission through the ionosphere and various subsequent material barriers. Implications include development of a new robust communications channel, communications with submerged or subterranean receivers / instruments on or offworld, and a new approach to SETI.« less

  3. Modelling the Auroral Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling System at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S.; Provan, G.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system at Jupiter is a topic of central significance in understanding the fundamental properties of its large-scale plasma environment. Theoretical discussion of this topic typically considers the properties of the field-aligned current systems that form part of a large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system associated with momentum exchange between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, communicated via the magnetic field. The current system associated with the main oval is believed to be related to centrifugally-driven outward radial transport of iogenic plasma that leads to sub-corotation in the middle magnetosphere. In addition to the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system, upward-directed field-aligned currents may flow at the open-closed field line boundary due to the shear between outer closed field lines and open field lines, which may relate to emission poleward of the main oval. An axi-symmetric model of the plasma flow in the jovian system, the related coupling currents, and the consequent auroral precipitation based on these combined ideas was initially devised to represent typical steady-state conditions for the system and later extended to consider auroral effects resulting from sudden compressions of the magnetosphere. More recently, the model has been extended along model magnetic field lines into the magnetosphere in order to relate them to in situ observations from the NASA Juno spacecraft at Jupiter. The field-aligned coupling currents associated with the modelled current systems produce a readily-observable azimuthal field signature that bends the field lines out of magnetic meridians. Here we show the computed azimuthal fields produced by our model auroral current system throughout the region between the ionosphere and the magnetic equator, and illustrate the results by evaluation of various model parameters (e.g. field-aligned current density, accelerating voltages, accelerated

  4. The Ionosphere and Ocean Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.

    1999-01-01

    The accuracy of satellite-based single-frequency radar ocean altimeters benefits from calibration of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere below the satellite. Data from the global network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides timely, continuous, and globally well-distributed measurements of ionospheric electron content. We have created a daily automated process called Daily Global Ionospheric Map (Daily-GIM) whose primary purpose is to use global GPS data to provide ionospheric calibration data for the Geosat Follow-On (GFO) ocean altimeter. This process also produces an hourly time-series of global maps of the electron content of the ionosphere. This system is designed to deliver "quick-look" ionospheric calibrations within 24 hours with 90+% reliability and with a root-mean-square accuracy of 2 cm at 13.6 GHz. In addition we produce a second product within 72 hours which takes advantage of additional GPS data which were not available in time for the first process. The diagram shows an example of a comparison between TEC data from the Topographic Experiment (TOPEX) ocean altimeter and Daily-GIM. TEC are displayed in TEC units, TECU, where 5 TECU is 1 cm at 13.6 GHz. Data from a single TOPEX track is shown. Also shown is the Bent climatological model TEC for the track. Although the GFO satellite is not yet in its operational mode, we have been running Daily-GIM reliably (much better than 90%) with better than 2-cm accuracy (based on comparisons against TOPEX) for several months. When timely ephemeris files for the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 (ERS-2) are available, daily ERS-2 altimeter ionospheric calibration files are produced. When GFO ephemeris files are made available to us, we produce GFO ionosphere calibration files. Users of these GFO ionosphere calibration files find they are a great improvement over the alternative International Reference Ionosphere 1995 (IRI-95) climatological model. In addition, the TOPEX orbit

  5. Cold Ion Escape from the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenz, M.; Dubinin, E.; Wei, Y.; Woch, J. G.; Morgan, D. D.; Barabash, S. V.; Lundin, R. N.; Fedorov, A.

    2012-12-01

    It has always been challenging to observe the flux of ions with energies of less than 10eV escaping from the planetary ionospheres. We here report on new measurements of the ionospheric ion flows at Mars by the ASPERA-3 experiment on board Mars Express. We first use support from the MARSIS radar experiment for some orbits with fortunate observation geometry. Here we have observed a transterminator flow of O+ and O2+ ions with a super-sonic velocity of around 5km/s and fluxes of 0.8x10^9/cm^2s. If we assume a symmetric flux around the terminator this corresponds to an ion flow of 3.1x10^25/s half of which is expected to escape from Mars (Fraenz et al, 2010). This escape flux is significantly higher than previously observed on the tailside of Mars, we discuss possible reasons for the difference. Since 2008 the MARSIS radar does nightside local plasma density measurement which often coincide with ASPERA-3 measurements. In a new analysis of the combined nightside datasets (Fig. 1) we show that the main escape channel is along the shadow boundary on the tailside of Mars. At a distance of about 0.5 R_M the flux settles at a constant value (Fig. 2) which indicates that about half of the transterminator ionospheric flow escapes from the planet. Possible mechanism to generate this flux can be the ionospheric pressure gradient between dayside and nightside or momentum transfer from the solar wind via the induced magnetic field since the flow velocity is in the Alfvenic regime.; Median oxygen ion flux reconstructed by combining ion velocity observations of the Mars Express ASPERA-3 IMA sensor and local plasma density observations by the MARSIS radar. Each bin value is the median from observations on about 3000 orbits between May 2007 and July 2011. Horizontal axis is MSO X-axis (Sun towards the left), vertical axis is vertical distance from MSO X-axis. ; Ring median flux of cylindrical ring regions of all bins shown in previous figure. The different colors show median fluxes

  6. Convective cell generation by kinetic Alfven wave turbulence in the auroral ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Yu, M. Y.

    2012-06-15

    Modulation of convective cells by kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence is investigated. The interaction is governed by a nonlinear dispersion relation for the convective cells. It is shown that KAW turbulence is disrupted by excitation of the large-scale convective motion through a resonant instability. Application of the results to the auroral ionosphere shows that cross-scale coupling of the KAW turbulence and convective cells plays an important role in the evolution of ionospheric plasma turbulence.

  7. A Comparison of Ionospheric Model Performance for International Space Station Orbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Huang, C. Y., F. A . Marcos, P. A . Roddy, M . R. Hairston, W. R. Coley, C. Roth, S . Bruinsma, and D. E. Hunton (2009), Broad plasma decreases in the... A COMPARISON OF IONOSPHERIC MODEL PERFORMANCE FOR INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ORBITS THESIS David J. Broadwater, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENP-13- M -04...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-13- M -04 A COMPARISON OF IONOSPHERIC MODEL PERFORMANCE FOR INTERNATIONAL SPACE

  8. Experimental simulation of aerosols evolution in Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatain, A.; Carrasco, N.; Guaitella, O.

    2017-09-01

    Many recent studies on Titan are concerned with aerosols. In particular, questions are asked on how these complex organic molecules are formed and evolve in Titan's atmosphere. Here for the first time we experimentally study how harsh plasma environment simulating Titan ionosphere can affect these aerosols. Titan tholins are placed in a N2-H2 plasma reactor and sample signatures are measured by infrared transmission spectroscopy. First results show an evolution of the absorption bands. Therefore, plasma conditions seem to change tholin chemical structure.

  9. Longitudinal Variations of Low-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities during the 2015 St. Patrick's Day Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, X.; Vergados, P.

    2017-12-01

    GPS data from more than 2000 globally distributed ground-based stations are processed to generate Global Map of Ionospheric Irregularities and Scintillation (GMIIS) at 5-minite cadence for the 2015 St. Patrick's Day Storm. The time sequence of GMIIS provides global snapshots of evolving ionospheric irregularities that are helpful in investigations of small-scale ionospheric perturbations globally. Such data from selected stations at longitudes distributed around the globe are also analyzed to investigate longitudinal variations of low-latitude ionospheric irregularities (LLII) during the storm. Prior to the storm day, The GPS data show typical seasonal (March equinox) activities of LLII during evening hours in different longitude regions, i.e., active in American through Asian longitudes but relatively inactive in the Pacific sector. The data also reveal dramatic changes in LLII during the storm main phase (17 March 2015) and recovery phase (18-19 March 2015). While remaining inactive in the Pacific region, LLII have gone through complicated variations in the longitude regions of high scintillation season. The variations include active, weakened or suppressed, or post-midnight triggering during the storm main phase and recovery phase depending on specific longitude. To understand possible responsible causes of these variations in different longitudes, the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) is used to reproduce ambient ionospheric state and its disturbances. For this storm study, GAIM assimilates GPS data from about 650 globally distributed stations and from spaceborne receivers onboard the COSMIC satellites. The global assimilative modeling enables us to investigate the changes of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) and corresponding ionospheric dynamical processes in the concerned longitudes. This presentation will combine pictures of small- and large-scale ionospheric perturbations and attempt to obtain insight into mechanisms that drive LLII

  10. Ionospheric scintillation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rino, C. L.; Freemouw, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The diffracted field of a monochromatic plane wave was characterized by two complex correlation functions. For a Gaussian complex field, these quantities suffice to completely define the statistics of the field. Thus, one can in principle calculate the statistics of any measurable quantity in terms of the model parameters. The best data fits were achieved for intensity statistics derived under the Gaussian statistics hypothesis. The signal structure that achieved the best fit was nearly invariant with scintillation level and irregularity source (ionosphere or solar wind). It was characterized by the fact that more than 80% of the scattered signal power is in phase quadrature with the undeviated or coherent signal component. Thus, the Gaussian-statistics hypothesis is both convenient and accurate for channel modeling work.

  11. Ionospheric chemistry of NO(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is described of the behavior of NO(+) in the daytime F region, with basic ion concentration measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite. The data set was acquired along select orbits at low latitudes and exhibits substantial variations in the NO(+) concentration, both along and between nearby orbits. An excellent consistency is demonstrated between these observations and current chemical equilibrium theory, in contrast to differences that have been reported for the related N2(+) ion. Large variations in the concurrently observed electron temperature permit a relevant comparison between different laboratory determinations of the dissociative recombination rate coefficient. Contributions to the NO(+) production from several secondary sources are also evaluated. Results strengthen the basis for the current theoretical ionospheric chemistry of NO(+) and establish important constraints on resolution of the difficulties with N2(+).

  12. Advanced Ionospheric Sensing using GROUP-C and LITES aboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Chakrabarti, S.; Finn, S. C.; Cook, T.; Powell, S. P.; O'Hanlon, B.; Bishop, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometer Co-located (GROUP-C) and Limb-imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) experiments are manifested for flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016 as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 payload. The two experiments provide technical development and risk-reduction for future DoD space weather sensors suitable for ionospheric specification, space situational awareness, and data products for global ionosphere assimilative models. In addition, the combined instrument complement of these two experiments offers a unique opportunity to study structures of the nighttime ionosphere. GROUP-C includes an advanced GPS receiver providing ionospheric electron density profiles and scintillation measurements and a high-sensitivity far-ultraviolet photometer measuring horizontal ionospheric gradients. LITES is an imaging spectrograph that spans 60-140 nm and will obtain high-cadence limb profiles of the ionosphere and thermosphere from 150-350 km altitude. In the nighttime ionosphere, recombination of O+ and electrons produces optically thin emissions at 91.1 and 135.6 nm that can be used to tomographically reconstruct the two-dimensional plasma distribution in the orbital plane below ISS altitudes. Ionospheric irregularities, such as plasma bubbles and blobs, are transient features of the low and middle latitude ionosphere with important implications for operational systems. Irregularity structures have been studied primarily using ground-based systems, though some spaced-based remote and in-situ sensing has been performed. An ionospheric observatory aboard the ISS would provide new capability to study low- and mid-latitude ionospheric structures on a global scale. By combining for the first time high-sensitivity in-track photometry, vertical ionospheric airglow spectrographic imagery, and recent advancements in UV tomography, high-fidelity tomographic reconstruction of

  13. Recent Advances in Ionospheric Modeling Using the USU GAIM Data Assimilation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherliess, L.; Thompson, D. C.; Schunk, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    The ionospheric plasma distribution at low and mid latitudes has been shown to display both a background state (climatology) and a disturbed state (weather). Ionospheric climatology has been successfully modeled, but ionospheric weather has been much more difficult to model because the ionosphere can vary significantly on an hour-by-hour basis. Unfortunately, ionospheric weather can have detrimental effects on several human activities and systems, including high-frequency communications, over-the-horizon radars, and survey and navigation systems using Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. As shown by meteorologists and oceanographers, the most reliable weather models are physics-based, data-driven models that use Kalman filter or other data assimilation techniques. Since the state of a medium (ocean, lower atmosphere, ionosphere) is driven by complex and frequently nonlinear internal and external processes, it is not possible to accurately specify all of the drivers and initial conditions of the medium. Therefore physics-based models alone cannot provide reliable specifications and forecasts. In an effort to better understand the ionosphere and to mitigate its adverse effects on military and civilian operations, specification and forecast models are being developed that use state-of-the-art data assimilation techniques. Over the past decade, Utah State University (USU) has developed two data assimilation models for the ionosphere as part of the USU Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) program and one of these models has been implemented at the Air Force Weather Agency for operational use. The USU-GAIM models are also being used for scientific studies, and this should lead to a dramatic advance in our understanding of ionospheric physics; similar to what occurred in meteorology and oceanography after the introduction of data assimilation models in those fields. Both USU-GAIM models are capable of assimilating data from a variety of data

  14. Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling from Dynamics Explorer to Swarm and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Clemmons, J. H.; Collinson, G.; Gershman, D. J.; Khazanov, G. V.; Kistler, L. M.; Knudsen, D. J.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Pollock, C. J.; Rowland, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric plasmas have thermal speeds much smaller than orbital (escape) velocities, so they appear to orbiting spacecraft as a relatively narrow beam from the ram direction. But one of the very interesting things about ionospheric plasmas is that they are heated strongly in the auroral zones, and accelerated such that their thermal or directed speeds exceed orbital or escape velocity. Then they do just that: orbit or escape the Earth into the magnetosphere and beyond at velocities spread over a large range of angles and magnitudes. This has created a dichotomy between the observation of cold, rammed plasmas in the ionosphere proper and the observation of hot plasmas with a large range of velocities in both direction and magnitude, well above the ionosphere proper. The former are usually observed from attitude-stabilized, ram-pointed spacecraft, while the latter are usually observed from spinning spacecraft. We review measurements that illuminate the way forward, particularly from the Swarm mission, and propose a new sciencecraft configuration that overcomes the divergent requirements to facilitate direct observations of processes that heat and accelerate ionospheric plasmas across this transition from gravitationally bound to unbound and escaping into space.

  15. Nonlinear Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we saw a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  16. Development of a Double Hemispherical Probe for Improved Space Plasma Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Samaniego, J. I.; Hsu, H.-W.; Horányi, M.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Ergun, R. E.; Bering, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    Langmuir probes have been widely used for space plasma measurements for decades. However, there are still challenges in the interpretation of their measurements. Due to the interaction of the ambient plasma with a spacecraft and an onboard probe itself, the local plasma conditions around the probe could be very different from the true ambient plasma of interest. These local plasma conditions are often anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous. Most of the Langmuir probes that are made of a single electrode have difficulties to remove these local plasma effects, introducing errors in the derived plasma characteristics. Directional probes are able to characterize anisotropic and inhomogeneous plasmas. The split Langmuir probe and the Segmented Langmuir Probe have been developed to characterize the plasma flow in the Earth's ionosphere. Here we introduce a new type of a directional Langmuir probe, the Double Hemispherical Probe (DHP), to improve the space plasma measurements in a broad range of scenarios: (a) low-density plasmas, (b) high surface-emission (photo and/or secondary electron emission) environments, (c) flowing plasmas, and (d) dust-rich plasma environments. The DHP consists of two identical hemispheres that are electrically insulated and swept with the same voltages simultaneously. The difference currents between the two hemispheres are used to characterize the anisotropic/inhomogeneous plasma conditions created around the probe, which will be then removed or minimized on the interpretation of their current-voltage curves. This paper describes the basic concept and design of the DHP sensor, as well as its initial results tested in the laboratory plasma environments.

  17. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  18. Broad Plasma Decreases in the Equatorial Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-06

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-01-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to...currently valid OMB control number PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-08-2009 2. REPORT TYPE REPRINT...June solstices; during (2) solar minimum years); (3) in the vicinity of the SAA. Neutral densities were examined during periods when BPDs were

  19. Ionospheric Multi-Point Measurements Using Tethered Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, B. E.; Heelis, R. A.; Raitt, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Many scientific questions concerning the distribution of electromagnetic fields and plasma structures in the ionosphere require measurements over relatively small temporal and spatial scales with as little ambiguity as possible. It is also often necessary to differentiate several geophysical parameters between horizontal and vertical gradients unambiguously. The availability of multiple tethered satellites or sensors, so-called "pearls-on-a-string," may make the necessary measurements practical. In this report we provide two examples of scientific questions which could benefit from such measurements (1) high-latitude magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling; and, (2) plasma structure impact on large and small-scale electrodynamics. Space tether state-of-the-art and special technical considerations addressing mission lifetime, sensor pointing, and multi-stream telemetry are reviewed.

  20. Ionospheric Outflow in the Magnetosphere: Circulation and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Including ionospheric outflow in global magnetohydrodynamic models of near-Earth outer space has become an important step towards understanding the role of this plasma source in the magnetosphere. Such simulations have revealed the importance of outflow in populating the plasma sheet and inner magnetosphere as a function of outflow source characteristics. More importantly, these experiments have shown how outflow can control global dynamics, including tail dynamics and dayside reconnection rate. The broad impact of light and heavy ion outflow can create non-linear feedback loops between outflow and the magnetosphere. This paper reviews some of the most important revelations from global magnetospheric modeling that includes ionospheric outflow of light and heavy ions. It also introduces new advances in outflow modeling and coupling outflow to the magnetosphere.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Ionospheric Monitoring Using Broadband Sferic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, J. C.; Cohen, M. B.; Gross, N. C.; Said, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    The D region of the ionosphere (60-90 km altitude) is highly variable on timescales from fractions of a second to many hours, and on spatial scales up to many hundreds of kilometers. Very low frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) (3-30 kHz and 30-300 kHz) radio waves are guided to global distances by reflections from the ground and the D region. Therefore, information about its current state is encoded in received VLF/LF signals. VLF transmitters have been used in the past for D region studies, with ionospheric disturbances manifesting as perturbations in amplitude and/or phase. The return stroke of lightning is an impulsive VLF radiator, but unlike VLF transmitters, lightning events are distributed broadly in space allowing for much greater spatial coverage of the D region compared to VLF transmitter-based remote sensing in addition to the broadband spectral advantage over the narrowband transmitters. The challenge is that individual lightning-generated waveforms, or "sferics," vary due to the lightning current parameters and uncertainty in the time/location information, in addition to D region ionospheric variability. These factors make it difficult to utilize the VLF/LF emissions from lightning in a straightforward manner. We describe a technique to recover the time domain and amplitude/phase spectra for both Bϕ and Br with high fidelity and consider the utility of our technique with ambient and varied ionospheric conditions. We demonstrate a technique to simulate sferics and infer a parameterized ionosphere with the Wait and Spies parameters (h' and β) offering all of the tools needed for a global measurement.

  2. A plasma generator utilizing the high intensity ASTROMAG magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, James D.; Post, R. S.; Lane, B. G.; Tarrh, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The magnet configuration for the proposed particle astrophysics magnet facility (ASTROMAG) on the space station includes a cusp magnetic field with an intensity of a few tesla. With these large magnets (or others) located in the outer ionosphere, many quite interesting and unique plasma physics experiments become possible. First there are studies utilizing the magnet alone to examine the supersonic, sub-Alfvenic interaction with the ambient medium; the scale length for the magnet perturbation is approx. 20 m. The magnetic field geometry when combined with the Earth's and their relative motion will give rise to a host of plasma phenomena: ring nulls, x-points, ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid shocks, electron heating (possible shuttle glow without a surface) launching of Alfvenwaves, etc. Second, active experiments are possible for a controlled study of fundamental plasma phenomena. A controlled variable species plasma can be made by using an RF ion source; use of two soft iron rings placed about the line cusp would give an adequate resonance zone (ECH or ICH) and a confining volume suitable for gas efficiency. The emanating plasma can be used to study free expansion of plasma along and across field lines (polar wind), plasma flows around the space platform, turbulent mixing in the wake region, long wavelength spectrum of convecting modes, plasma-dust interactions, etc.

  3. Analysis of the backscatter spectrum in an ionospheric modification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.; Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    Predictions of the backscatter spectrum, including effects of ionospheric inhomogeneity, are compared with experimental observations of incoherent backscatter from an artificially heated region. Our calculations show that the strongest backscatter echo received is not from the reflection level, but from a region some distance below. Certain asymmetrical features are explained of the up-shifted and down-shifted plasma lines in the backscatter spectrum, and the several satellite peaks accompanying them.

  4. High-Resolution Structural Monitoring of Ionospheric Absorption Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    ionospheric plasma conductivity 5 . This results in enhanced absorption of the cosmic high frequency (HF; typically 10 – 60 MHz) radio background ...7 riometry. Incorporation of an outrigger site, to enable treatment of the unknown structure of the celestial background and the effects of...riometry. Incorporation of an outrigger site, to enable treatment of the unknown structure of the celestial background and the effects of confusion

  5. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  6. Using Remote Sensing as a Plasma Diagnostic: A Discussion of Techniques Being Used to Probe the Ionosphere in Order to Determine the Energy and Spectral Characteristics of Precipitating Electrons and Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J.; Parks, G.; Brittnacher, M.; Germany, G.; Mende, S.; Frey, H.; Chenette, D.; Schulz, M.; Petrinec, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spectrally resolved global images of the Earth from recent (and planned) missions are being (and will be) used to probe the ionosphere in order to determine the energy characteristics of precipitating electrons and protons. We describe the techniques that are being used, discuss the extent to which they are successful, and envision the approach that future space experiments should take in order to improve on current techniques.

  7. The effect of longitudinal conductance variations on the ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R.; Spiro, R.; Fejer, B.

    Ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields of magnetospheric origin, together with the atmospheric disturbance dynamo, represent the most important parameters controlling the storm-time dynamics of the low and mid-latitude ionosphere. These prompt penetration fields result from the disruption of region-2 field-aligned shielding currents during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Penetration electric fields con- trol, to a large extent, the generation and development of equatorial spread-F plasma instabilities as well as other dynamic space weather phenomena in the ionosphere equatorward of the auroral zone. While modeling studies typically agree with average patterns of prompt penetration fields, experimental results suggest that longitudinal variations of the ionospheric con- ductivities play a non-negligible role in controlling spread-F phenomena, an effect that has not previously been modeled. We present first results of modeling prompt pene- tration electric fields using a version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that allows for longitudinal variations in the ionospheric conductance tensor. The RCM is a first- principles numerical ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling model that solves for the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle distributions in the ionosphere and inner/middle magnetosphere. We compare these new theoretical results with electric field observations.

  8. Profiles of Ionospheric Storm-enhanced Density during the 17 March 2015 Great Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, W.; Burns, A. G.; Yue, X.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric F2 region peak densities (NmF2) are expected to show a positive phase correlation with total electron content (TEC), and electron density is expected to have an anti-correlation with electron temperature near the ionospheric F2 peak. However, we show that, during the 17 March 2015 great storm, TEC and F2 region electron density peak height (hmF2) over Millstone Hill increased, but the F2 region electron density peak (NmF2) decreased significantly during the storm-enhanced density (SED) phase of the storm compared with the quiet-time ionosphere. This SED occurred where there was a negative ionospheric storm near the F2 peak and below it. The weak ionosphere below the F2 peak resulted in much reduced downward heat conduction for the electrons, trapping the heat in the topside. This, in turn, increased the topside scale height, so that, even though electron densities at the F2 peak were depleted, TEC increased in the SED. The depletion in NmF2 was probably caused by an increase in the density of the molecular neutrals, resulting in enhanced recombination. In addition, the storm-time topside ionospheric electron density profile was much closer to diffusive equilibrium than non-storm time profile because of less daytime plasma flow from the ionosphere to the plasmasphere.

  9. Large ionospheric disturbances produced by the HAARP HF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Briczinski, Stanley J.; McCarrick, Mike; Michell, Robert G.

    2016-07-01

    The enormous transmitter power, fully programmable antenna array, and agile frequency generation of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska have allowed the production of unprecedented disturbances in the ionosphere. Using both pencil beams and conical (or twisted) beam transmissions, artificial ionization clouds have been generated near the second, third, fourth, and sixth harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The conical beam has been used to sustain these clouds for up to 5 h as opposed to less than 30 min durations produced using pencil beams. The largest density plasma clouds have been produced at the highest harmonic transmissions. Satellite radio transmissions at 253 MHz from the National Research Laboratory TACSat4 communications experiment have been severely disturbed by propagating through artificial plasma regions. The scintillation levels for UHF waves passing through artificial ionization clouds from HAARP are typically 16 dB. This is much larger than previously reported scintillations at other HF facilities which have been limited to 3 dB or less. The goals of future HAARP experiments should be to build on these discoveries to sustain plasma densities larger than that of the background ionosphere for use as ionospheric reflectors of radio signals.

  10. Variable pixel size ionospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dunyong; Zheng, Hongwei; Wang, Yanjun; Nie, Wenfeng; Li, Chaokui; Ao, Minsi; Hu, Wusheng; Zhou, Wei

    2017-06-01

    A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel size was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density (IED) distribution. In variable pixel size computerized ionospheric tomography (VPSCIT) model, the IED distribution is parameterized by a decomposition of the lower and upper ionosphere with different pixel sizes. Thus, the lower and upper IED distribution may be very differently determined by the available data. The variable pixel size ionospheric tomography and constant pixel size tomography are similar in most other aspects. There are some differences between two kinds of models with constant and variable pixel size respectively, one is that the segments of GPS signal pay should be assigned to the different kinds of pixel in inversion; the other is smoothness constraint factor need to make the appropriate modified where the pixel change in size. For a real dataset, the variable pixel size method distinguishes different electron density distribution zones better than the constant pixel size method. Furthermore, it can be non-chided that when the effort is spent to identify the regions in a model with best data coverage. The variable pixel size method can not only greatly improve the efficiency of inversion, but also produce IED images with high fidelity which are the same as a used uniform pixel size method. In addition, variable pixel size tomography can reduce the underdetermined problem in an ill-posed inverse problem when the data coverage is irregular or less by adjusting quantitative proportion of pixels with different sizes. In comparison with constant pixel size tomography models, the variable pixel size ionospheric tomography technique achieved relatively good results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of variable pixel size ionospheric tomography was performed. Finally, according to the results of the statistical analysis and quantitative comparison, the

  11. Observations of weak ionosphere disturbances on the Kharkov incoherent scatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Lysenko, Valery; Cherniak, Iurii

    The ionosphere plasma characteristics are responding on variations of solar and magnetic activity, high-power processes in the Earth atmosphere and lithosphere. The research of an ionosphere structure and dynamics is important as for understanding physics of processes and radiophysical problems solution. The method of incoherent scatter (IS) of radiowaves allows determining experimentally as regular variations of electronic concentration Ne and concomitant ionosphere parameters, and their behaviour during natural and antropogeneous origin disturbances. The equipment and measurement technique, developed by authors, are allows obtaining reliable data about an ionosphere behaviour during various origin and intensity perturbations. Oservations results of main parameters IS signal and ionosphere plasma during weak magnetic storm, solar eclipse, ionosphere disturbances caused by start of the high-power rocket are presented. Experimentally obtained on the Kharkov IS radar altitude-temporary dependences of disturbed ionosphere plasma parameters during weak intensity magnetic storm 04-06 April 2006 (Kp = 5, Dst = -100 nTl) were adduced. During a main storm phase the positive perturbation was observed (Ne is increased in 1.3 times), April 5, at maximum Dst - negative perturbation (Ne is decreased in 1.6 times), April 6 - positive perturbation (the second positive storm phase - Ne was increased at 1.33 times). During negative ionosphere storm the height of a F2 layer maximum was increased on 30-40 km, ionic temperature in the day is increased on 150K, electronic temperature is increased on 600K. For date 29.03.2006, when take place partial Sun eclipse (disk shadow factor 73 During launch heavy class rocket "Proton-K" december 25, 2006 from Baikonur cosmodrome (distance up to a view point of 2500 km) the perturbations in close space were observed. By measurements results of ionosphere plasma cross-section two disturbed areas were registered. First was observed through 8 mines

  12. Infrasonic waves in the ionosphere generated by a weak earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. M.; Drobzheva, Ya. V.; Chum, J.

    2011-08-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate the generation of infrasonic waves (frequencies considered ≤80 Hz) by a weak earthquake (magnitude ˜3.6), their propagation through the atmosphere and their effects in the ionosphere. We provide estimates of the perturbations in the ionosphere at the height (˜160 km) where waves at the sounding frequency (3.59 MHz) of a continuous Doppler radar reflect. We have found that the pressure perturbation is 5.79×10-7 Pa (0.26% of the ambient value), the temperature perturbation is 0.088 K (0.015% of the ambient value) and the electron density perturbation is 2×108 m-3 (0.12% of the ambient value). The characteristic perturbation is found to be a bipolar pulse lasting ˜25 s, and the maximum Doppler shift is found to be ˜0.08 Hz, which is too small to be detected by the Doppler radar at the time of the earthquake.

  13. Lunar ionosphere exploration method using auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Takamasa; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The evidence of a lunar ionosphere provided by radio occultation experiments performed by the Soviet spacecraft Luna 19 and 22 has been controversial for the past three decades because the observed large density is difficult to explain theoretically without magnetic shielding from the solar wind. The KAGUYA mission provided an opportunity to investigate the lunar ionosphere with another method. The natural plasma wave receiver (NPW) and waveform capture (WFC) instruments, which are subsystems of the lunar radar sounder (LRS) on board the lunar orbiter KAGUYA, frequently observe auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) propagating from the Earth. The dynamic spectra of the AKR sometimes exhibit a clear interference pattern that is caused by phase differences between direct waves and waves reflected on a lunar surface or a lunar ionosphere if it exists. It was hypothesized that the electron density profiles above the lunar surface could be evaluated by comparing the observed interference pattern with the theoretical interference patterns constructed from the profiles with ray tracing. This method provides a new approach to examining the lunar ionosphere that does not involve the conventional radio occultation technique.

  14. Development and Implementation of an Empirical Ionosphere Variability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joesph I.; Almond, Deborah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft designers and operations support personnel involved in space environment analysis for low Earth orbit missions require ionospheric specification and forecast models that provide not only average ionospheric plasma parameters for a given set of geophysical conditions but the statistical variations about the mean as well. This presentation describes the development of a prototype empirical model intended for use with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to provide ionospheric Ne and Te variability. We first describe the database of on-orbit observations from a variety of spacecraft and ground based radars over a wide range of latitudes and altitudes used to obtain estimates of the environment variability. Next, comparison of the observations with the IRI model provide estimates of the deviations from the average model as well as the range of possible values that may correspond to a given IRI output. Options for implementation of the statistical variations in software that can be run with the IRI model are described. Finally, we provide example applications including thrust estimates for tethered satellites and specification of sunrise Ne, Te conditions required to support spacecraft charging issues for satellites with high voltage solar arrays.

  15. Vlasov Simulations of Ionospheric Heating Near Upper Hybrid Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A. C.; Eliasson, B. E.; Shao, X.; Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    It is well-known that high-frequency (HF) heating of the ionosphere can excite field- aligned density striations (FAS) in the ionospheric plasma. Furthermore, in the neighborhood of various resonances, the pump wave can undergo parametric instabilities to produce a variety of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves. We have used a Vlasov simulation with 1-spatial dimension, 2-velocity dimensions, and 2-components of fields, to study the effects of ionospheric heating when the pump frequency is in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance, employing parameters currently available at ionospheric heaters such as HAARP. We have found that by seeding theplasma with a FAS of width ~20% of the simulation domain, ~10% depletion, and by applying a spatially uniform HF dipole pump electric field, the pump wave gives rise to a broad spectrum of density fluctuations as well as to upper hybrid and lower hybrid oscillating electric fields. We also observe collisionless bulk-heating of the electrons that varies non-linearly with the amplitude of the pump field.

  16. Bottomside Ionospheric Electron Density Specification using Passive High Frequency Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaeppler, S. R.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Mackay, C.; Varney, R. H.; Kendall, E. A.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical bottomside electron density profile is influenced by a variety of natural sources, most especially traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). These disturbances cause plasma to be moved up or down along the local geomagnetic field and can strongly impact the propagation of high frequency radio waves. While the basic physics of these perturbations has been well studied, practical bottomside models are not well developed. We present initial results from an assimilative bottomside ionosphere model. This model uses empirical orthogonal functions based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to develop a vertical electron density profile, and features a builtin HF ray tracing function. This parameterized model is then perturbed to model electron density perturbations associated with TIDs or ionospheric gradients. Using the ray tracing feature, the model assimilates angle of arrival measurements from passive HF transmitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the model using angle of arrival data. Modeling results of bottomside electron density specification are compared against suitable ancillary observations to quantify accuracy of our model.

  17. Modelling ionospheric scintillation under the crest of the equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, L.; Wernik, A. W.; Materassi, M.; Spogli, L.

    2017-10-01

    WAM is realized making use of the plasma density data collected via the retarding potential analyser on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft, capable to model the scintillation climatology over the northern hemisphere high latitude ionosphere. More recently, WAM has been tuned to model the ionospheric scintillations also over the equatorial latitudes. The effort has been done to support the CIGALA (Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America) project in the assessment of the scintillations climatology over Latin America. The concept of the new release of WAM is the same already adopted for the high latitudes: the in situ measurements, supplemented with an ionospheric model and with the irregularity anisotropy model, are treated to describe the morphology of scintillation, provided a suitable propagation model is used. Significant differences have been included in the low latitudes release to account for the anisotropy of the irregularities and for strong scattering regime. The paper describes the new WAM formulation and presents comparisons of the model predictions with the actual measurements collected in Brazil.

  18. Preface: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) at equatorial latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research includes papers that report and discuss improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is the international standard for the representation of the plasma in Earth's ionosphere and recognized as such by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). As requested, particularly by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model relying on most of the available and reliable ground and space observations of the ionosphere. As new data become available and as older data sources are fully exploited the IRI model undergoes improvement cycles to stay as close to the existing data record as possible. The latest episode of this process is documented in the papers included in this issue using data from the worldwide network of ionosondes, from a few of the incoherent scatter radars, from the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, and from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The focus of this issue is on the equatorial and low latitude region that is of special importance for ionospheric physics because it includes the largest densities and steep density gradients in the double hump latitudinal structure, the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which is characteristic for this region.

  19. Probability of occurrence of planetary ionosphere storms associated with the magnetosphere disturbance storm time events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Stanislawska, I.

    2014-11-01

    The ionospheric W index allows to distinguish state of the ionosphere and plasmasphere from quiet conditions (W = 0 or ±1) to intense storm (W = ±4) ranging the plasma density enhancements (positive phase) or plasma density depletions (negative phase) regarding the quiet ionosphere. The global W index maps are produced for a period 1999-2014 from Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, designed by Jet Propulson Laboratory, converted from geographic frame (-87.5:2.5:87.5° in latitude, -180:5:180° in longitude) to geomagnetic frame (-85:5:85° in magnetic latitude, -180:5:180° in magnetic longitude). The probability of occurrence of planetary ionosphere storm during the magnetic disturbance storm time, Dst, event is evaluated with the superposed epoch analysis for 77 intense storms (Dst ≤ -100 nT) and 230 moderate storms (-100 < Dst ≤ -50 nT) with start time, t0, defined at Dst storm main phase onset. It is found that the intensity of negative storm, iW-, exceeds the intensity of positive storm, iW+, by 1.5-2 times. An empirical formula of iW+ and iW- in terms of peak Dst is deduced exhibiting an opposite trends of relation of intensity of ionosphere-plasmasphere storm with regard to intensity of Dst storm.

  20. Quasi-thermal noise and shot noise spectroscopy using a CubeSat in Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, R.; Cairns, I.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the practicality of using quasi-thermal noise (QTN) and shot noisespectroscopy on a CubeSat in the Earth's ionosphere and constrain the satellite antennalength for optimal detection of these signals. The voltage spectra predicted for thermalLangmuir waves (QTN) and particle "shot noise" are modeled, and it is shown that thesignals detected can provide two very good, independent, passive, in situ methods ofmeasuring the plasma density and temperature in the ionosphere. The impact of theantenna potential φ is also discussed, and we show that the negative potential calculatedfor the ionosphere due to natural current flows has a significant impact on the voltagepower level of the shot noise spectrum. The antenna configuration is also shown to playan important role in the shot noise, with a monopole configuration enhancing thespectrum significantly compared with a dipole. Antenna lengths on the order of 20-40cm are found to be ideal for ionospheric plasma conditions, nicely matching CubeSatsizes and producing detectable thermal Langmuir waves and shot noise at the microvoltlevel. Further, with a continuous stream of data points at different latitudes andlongitudes an orbiting CubeSat can produce a global picture for the ionospheric plasmadensity and temperature using QTN and shot noise signals. If implemented, especiallyin a constellation, these data would be more frequent and cover a much greater domainthan current ground-based or single-satellite methods. This could lead to improvedionospheric models, such as the empirically based International Reference Ionosphere.

  1. Observations of subauroral ionospheric dynamics during SED plume passage at Millstone Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Erickson, P. J.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Storm enhanced density (SED) is a characteristic ionospheric storm time structure, with a significant plasma density enhancement in a narrow zone. SED structures often (but not always) span the continental US with a base in the US northeast at the afternoon and dusk sector, extending wes