Science.gov

Sample records for ambiental environmental scanning

  1. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  2. Environmental Scanning, Vancouver Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…

  3. South Carolina Course Alignment Project: Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Improvement Center (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    An "environmental scan" is designed to identify key issues of policy and practice in an area of interest so that action can be taken. By definition, an environmental scan focuses upon areas of concern. However, the results of an environmental scan are not designed to be either an indictment or endorsement of the current way of doing…

  4. Scans Solo: A One-Person Environmental Scanning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    An effective environmental scan will improve the quality of community college planning and decision making by alerting institutional leaders to the challenges and opportunities in the environment. Scanning can be done in three ways: (1) establishing a scanning committee to gather and synthesize information to guide planning; (2) sponsoring a…

  5. Service Area Market Analysis: Environmental Scanning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report presents, in brief, various key indicators: political climate, population demographics, secondary education, postsecondary education, welfare, unemployment, industry, labor, and general conclusions. General conclusions made in this report are as follows: higher education is expected to receive a slight increase…

  6. Environmental Scanning: Assessing Local Business Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Environmental scanning (ES) is a formal process of assessing trends and forecasting events which can influence an institution so that the potential challenges and opportunities can be effectively anticipated during strategic planning activities. The goal of ES is the implementation of proactive, anticipatory policies that will be robust under a…

  7. 2006 Environmental Scan. ACAATO Archive Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario (ACAATO) is pleased to present this report. The 2006 Environmental Scan provides an aggregate synopsis of the key trends which will impact on Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology in the future and will assist colleges in their advocacy and strategic planning…

  8. 2005 Environmental Scan. ACAATO Archive Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario (ACAATO) is pleased to present this report. The 2005 Environmental Scan provides an aggregate synopsis of the key trends which will impact on Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology in the future and will assist colleges in their advocacy and strategic planning…

  9. The need for environmental horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, William J; Woodroof, Harry J

    2009-10-01

    Policymakers and practitioners in most fields, including conservation and the environment, often make decisions based on insufficient evidence. One reason for this is that issues appear unexpectedly, when with hindsight, many of them were foreseeable. A solution to the problem of being insufficiently prepared is routine horizon scanning, which we describe as the systematic search for potential threats and opportunities that are currently poorly recognized. Researchers can then decide which issues might be most worthwhile to study. Practitioners can also use horizon scanning to ensure timely policy development and research procurement. Here, we suggest that horizon scanning is an underused tool that should become a standard element of environmental and conservation practice. We make recommendations for its incorporation into research, policy and practice. We argue that, as an ecological and conservation community, we are failing to provide timely advice owing to a weakness in identifying forthcoming issues. We outline possible horizon-scanning methods, and also make recommendations as to how horizon scanning could have a more central role in environmental and conservation practice.

  10. Environmental scanning electron microscopy in cell biology.

    PubMed

    McGregor, J E; Staniewicz, L T L; Guthrie Neé Kirk, S E; Donald, A M

    2013-01-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (1) is an imaging technique which allows hydrated, insulating samples to be imaged under an electron beam. The resolution afforded by this technique is higher than conventional optical microscopy but lower than conventional scanning electron microscopy (CSEM). The major advantage of the technique is the minimal sample preparation needed, making ESEM quick to use and the images less susceptible to the artifacts that the extensive sample preparation usually required for CSEM may introduce. Careful manipulation of both the humidity in the microscope chamber and the beam energy are nevertheless essential to prevent dehydration and beam damage artifacts. In some circumstances it is possible to image live cells in the ESEM (2).In the following sections we introduce the fundamental principles of ESEM imaging before presenting imaging protocols for plant epidermis, mammalian cells, and bacteria. In the first two cases samples are imaged using the secondary electron (topographic) signal, whereas a transmission technique is employed to image bacteria.

  11. Environmental Scanning Workshop (Lansing, Michigan, June 10-11, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    This publication presents an environmental scanning workshop for administrators in higher education institutions to help them incorporate environmental scanning into their planning and anticipation of future events. In particular, the workshop shows how to establish and sustain a comprehensive environmental scanning system and how to use the…

  12. Environmental Scan for the Colorado Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document addresses an environmental scan done in the Colorado Community College System (CCCS). The goals of an environmental scan include collecting external information, predicting future trends, and analyzing how these trends might affect an organization. The environmental scan completed for the CCCS focused on emerging trends that may…

  13. Atomic force microscope-assisted scanning tunneling spectroscopy under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Vakhshouri, Amin; Hashimoto, Katsushi; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a method of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-assisted scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) under ambient conditions. An AFM function is used for rapid access to a selected position prior to performing STS. The AFM feedback is further used to suppress vertical thermal drift of the tip-sample distance during spectroscopy, enabling flexible and stable spectroscopy measurements at room temperature.

  14. Environmental scan of cystic fibrosis research worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Janice

    2017-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare fatal genetic disease, affecting 70,000 to 100,000 people worldwide [1]. Numerous countries have specific charitable organizations dedicated to CF, with many funding research to find a cure or effective control for the disease. Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the largest charity in Canada dedicated to funding research and care in CF, conducted an environmental scan of these organizations to learn and better understand their research goals and funding process. A set of questions was sent to 25 CF charitable organizations around the world by email. Responses were consolidated to identify common practices and innovative approaches. Among respondents, there were variations in the amount of funds invested in research annually and the number of studies supported. Common themes identified included practicing an open call for research applications, evaluating applications using a peer review process, and placing an increased emphasis on patient engagement. Innovative approaches included funding one larger project; funding a series of sub-projects on a common theme; partially funding a research project; and, indefinitely funding part of a researcher's salary. Among CF charitable organizations, there are numerous approaches to research funding. Both similarities and differences were noted between these organizations, all of which share the common goal of working towards improving quality of life and survival for people with CF. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY APPLIED TO AN AMBIENT URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about the environmental and public health effects of particulate matter (PM) have stimulated interest in analytical techniques capable of measuring the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSE...

  16. EVALUATION OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY APPLIED TO AN AMBIENT URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about the environmental and public health effects of particulate matter (PM) have stimulated interest in analytical techniques capable of measuring the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSE...

  17. Environmental Scan: Literacy Work in Canada. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    During the fall of 2007, Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL) conducted an environmental scan of the Anglophone literacy field in Canada. Data was gathered through the use of key informant interviews (19) and a literature review. A cross-national working group guided the development of the scan. Interviews with key informants for the scan revealed…

  18. Focus on the Future: Environmental Scanning at Columbia Basin College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Judi, Comp.

    As the first step of the process of developing a strategic plan, the Institutional Research Director at Columbia Basin College (Washington) was asked to perform an environmental scan. Environmental scanning is a careful and continuous process of tracking and analyzing trends relevant to an institution's goals. It involves making forecasts of…

  19. [Environmental scanning electron microscopy for biofilm detection in tonsils].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; González-Tallón, Ana Isabel; Gómez, David; Trinidad, Almudena; Ibáñez, Andrés; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Verdaguer, José María; González-García, José Angel; San Román, Julio

    2008-01-01

    To describe an environmental scanning electron microscopic method for the study of biofilms in clinical samples. A comparison with standard scanning electron microscopy is performed. Nine patients with a past history of recurrent tonsillitis underwent tonsillectomy. Samples from each patient were obtained for both conventional and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The tonsils removed from 2 patients with sleep apnoea syndrome were used as controls. Eight of nine tonsils had biofilms on their surface. Scanning electron microscopy showed accumulations of bacteria covered by fibrillar structures resulting from the sample dehydration process. Environmental scanning electron microscopy provided a view of bacteria embedded in a homogeneous, amorphous substance that was preserved during the examination. Environmental scanning electron microscopy permits the imaging of wet systems at different degrees of dehydration. It therefore allows researchers to observe biofilms in their natural hydrated state.

  20. Probing Individual Ice Nucleation Events with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup; Knopf, Daniel; Gilles, Mary; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is one of the processes of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and the applied science and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by particles proceeds where microscopic properties of particle surfaces essentially control nucleation mechanisms. Ice nucleation in the atmosphere on particles governs the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds, which in turn influence the Earth's radiative budget and climate. Heterogeneous ice nucleation is still insufficiently understood and poses significant challenges in predictive understanding of climate change. We present a novel microscopy platform allowing observation of individual ice nucleation events at temperature range of 193-273 K and relative humidity relevant for ice formation in the atmospheric clouds. The approach utilizes a home built novel ice nucleation cell interfaced with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM system). The IN-ESEM system is applied for direct observation of individual ice formation events, determining ice nucleation mechanisms, freezing temperatures, and relative humidity onsets. Reported microanalysis of the ice nucleating particles (INP) include elemental composition detected by the energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (EDX), and advanced speciation of the organic content in particles using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The performance of the IN-ESEM system is validated through a set of experiments with kaolinite particles with known ice nucleation propensity. We demonstrate an application of the IN-ESEM system to identify and characterize individual INP within a complex mixture of ambient particles.

  1. Kinematic analysis of conically scanned environmental properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D. (Inventor); Sanders, Jason A. (Inventor); Andrus, Ionio Q. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for determining the velocity of features such as wind. The method preferably includes producing sensor signals and projecting the sensor signals sequentially along lines lying on the surface of a cone. The sensor signals may be in the form of lidar, radar or sonar for example. As the sensor signals are transmitted, the signals contact objects and are backscattered. The backscattered sensor signals are received to determine the location of objects as they pass through the transmission path. The speed and direction the object is moving may be calculated using the backscattered data. The data may be plotted in a two dimensional array with a scan angle on one axis and a scan time on the other axis. The prominent curves that appear in the plot may be analyzed to determine the speed and direction the object is traveling.

  2. Environmental Scanning on a Shoe-String Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Arthur

    An environmental scan was conducted to assess the demographic and economic conditions in Passaic County (New Jersey) as a way of providing information helpful to Passaic County Community College (PCCC) in its planning activities. The environment scan focused on immigration patterns, job creation and loss trends, business hiring needs, PCCC…

  3. Environmental Scan of BC Post-Secondary Admissions: 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) commissioned an environmental scan on the possible need for system-wide work on institutional admissions processes and practices. This scan is intended to seek system input and to provide guidance on the choice of research projects and other related work in the coming year. This…

  4. A novel approach to scanning electron microscopy at ambient atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Ominami, Yusuke; Kawanishi, Shinsuke; Ushiki, Tatsuo; Ito, Sukehiro

    2015-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for observing samples at ambient atmospheric pressure is introduced in this study. An additional specimen chamber with a small window is inserted in the main specimen chamber, and the window is separated with a thin membrane or diaphragm allowing electron beam propagation. Close proximity of the sample to the membrane enables the detection of back-scattered electrons sufficient for imaging. In addition to the empirical imaging data, a probability analysis of the un-scattered fraction of the incident electron beam further supports the feasibility of atmospheric SEM imaging over a controlled membrane-sample distance.

  5. Design and Application of Variable Temperature Setup for Scanning Electron Microscopy in Gases and Liquids at Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jianbo; Potyrailo, Radislav A; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of nanoscale objects in dry and fully hydrated conditions at different temperatures is of critical importance in revealing details of their interactions with an ambient environment. Currently available WETSEM capsules are equipped with thin electron-transparent membranes and allow imaging of samples at atmospheric pressure, but do not provide temperature control over the sample. Here, we developed and tested a thermoelectric cooling/heating setup for WETSEM capsules to allow ambient pressure in situ SEM studies with a temperature range between -15 and 100°C in gaseous, liquid, and frozen conditions. The design of the setup also allows for correlation of the SEM with optical microscopy and spectroscopy. As a demonstration of the possibilities of the developed approach, we performed real-time in situ microscopy studies of water condensation on a surface of Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly wing scales. We observed that initial water nucleation takes place on top of the scale ridges. These results confirmed earlier discovery of a preexisting polarity gradient of the ridges of Morpho butterflies. Our developed thermoelectric cooling/heating setup for environmental capsules meets the diverse needs for in situ nanocharacterization in material science, catalysis, microelectronics, chemistry, and biology.

  6. 2020 Perfect Vision for the Next Century: An Environmental Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Jan

    Focusing on the future of the Eastern Iowa Community College District (EICCD), this environmental scan examines changes occurring in both local and worldwide populations and workforces; political, societal, and economic environs; and technology. Section I describes the changing population and demographics in the United States, focusing on the…

  7. Information Source Characteristics and Environmental Scanning by Academic Library Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalhavaeji, Fahimeh; Farhadpoor, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines characteristics of the external environment of library and information centres of Islamic Azad University in Iran, focusing on perceived environmental uncertainty and perceived source accessibility and quality, and their impacts on the amount of scanning and the frequency of information source use. Methods: This…

  8. An Environmental Scan of Adventure Therapy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Patrick, Krysten; Corbould, Gordon Marcus; Harper, Nevin J.; Oddson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an environmental scan (ES) of adventure therapy (AT) literature, organizations, and activities in Canada. The ES methodology involved (a) an examination of final reports related to a series of national symposiums on AT in Canada, (b) a review of academic literature related to AT in Canada, and (c) a summary of AT programs and courses…

  9. An Environmental Scan of Adventure Therapy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Patrick, Krysten; Corbould, Gordon Marcus; Harper, Nevin J.; Oddson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an environmental scan (ES) of adventure therapy (AT) literature, organizations, and activities in Canada. The ES methodology involved (a) an examination of final reports related to a series of national symposiums on AT in Canada, (b) a review of academic literature related to AT in Canada, and (c) a summary of AT programs and courses…

  10. Ambient Intelligence Application Based on Environmental Measurements Performed with an Assistant Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile. PMID:24681671

  11. Ambient intelligence application based on environmental measurements performed with an assistant mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-03-27

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile.

  12. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  13. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: AMBIENT AMMONIA MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  15. Environmental scanning electron microscope imaging examples related to particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wight, S A; Zeissler, C J

    1993-08-01

    This work provides examples of some of the imaging capabilities of environmental scanning electron microscopy applied to easily charged samples relevant to particle analysis. Environmental SEM (also referred to as high pressure or low vacuum SEM) can address uncoated samples that are known to be difficult to image. Most of these specimens are difficult to image by conventional SEM even when coated with a conductive layer. Another area where environmental SEM is particularly applicable is for specimens not compatible with high vacuum, such as volatile specimens. Samples from which images were obtained that otherwise may not have been possible by conventional methods included fly ash particles on an oiled plastic membrane impactor substrate, a one micrometer diameter fiber mounted on the end of a wire, uranium oxide particles embedded in oil-bearing cellulose nitrate, teflon and polycarbonate filter materials with collected air particulate matter, polystyrene latex spheres on cellulosic filter paper, polystyrene latex spheres "loosely" sitting on a glass slide, and subsurface tracks in an etched nuclear track-etch detector. Surface charging problems experienced in high vacuum SEMs are virtually eliminated in the low vacuum SEM, extending imaging capabilities to samples previously difficult to use or incompatible with conventional methods.

  16. Ambient Air Issue from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  18. Technical specification for transferring ambient air monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In September 1994, a team was formed to develop, document, and implement technical specifications for transmitting ambient air environmental compliance and monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The approach used to transmit this data is documented in the {open_quotes}Plan for Integrating Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Data into OREIS.{close_quotes} This plan addresses the consolidated data requirements defined by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) and the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) as they pertain to environmental compliance and monitoring data maintained by Energy Systems` Oak Ridge Environmental Management organizations. Ibis document describes. the requirements, responsibilities, criteria, and format for transmitting ambient air compliance and monitoring data to OREIS.

  19. Environmental scanning electron microscopy gold immunolabeling in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Francesco; Papale, Ferdinando; Barbarisi, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Immunogold labeling (IGL) technique has been utilized by many authors in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain the identification/localization of receptors and antigens, both in cells and tissues. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) represents an important tool in biomedical research, since it does not require any severe processing of the sample, lowering the risk of generating artifacts and interfere with the IGL procedure. The absence of metal coating could yield further advantages for our purpose as the labeling detection is based on the atomic number difference between nanogold spheres and the biological material. Using the gaseous secondary electron detector, compositional contrast is easily revealed by the backscattered electron component of the signal. In spite of this fact, only few published papers present a combination of ESEM and IGL. Hereby we present our method, optimized to improve the intensity and the specificity of the labeling signal, in order to obtain a semiquantitative evaluation of the labeling signal.In particular, we used a combination of IGL and ESEM to detect the presence of a protein on the cell surface. To achieve this purpose, we chose as an experimental system 3T3 Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts and galectin-3.

  20. Environmental dust effects on aluminum surfaces in humid air ambient.

    PubMed

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Hassan, Ghassan; Ali, Haider; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2017-04-05

    Environmental dusts settle on surfaces and influence the performance of concentrated solar energy harvesting devices, such as aluminum troughs. The characteristics of environmental dust and the effects of mud formed from the dust particles as a result of water condensing in humid air conditions on an aluminum wafer surface are examined. The dissolution of alkaline and alkaline earth compounds in water condensate form a chemically active mud liquid with pH 8.2. Due to gravity, the mud liquid settles at the interface of the mud and the aluminum surface while forming locally scattered patches of liquid films. Once the mud liquid dries, adhesion work to remove the dry mud increases significantly. The mud liquid gives rise to the formation of pinholes and local pit sites on the aluminum surface. Morphological changes due to pit sites and residues of the dry mud on the aluminum surface lower the surface reflection after the removal of the dry mud from the surface. The characteristics of the aluminum surface can address the dust/mud-related limitations of reflective surfaces and may have implications for the reductions in the efficiencies of solar concentrated power systems.

  1. Environmental dust effects on aluminum surfaces in humid air ambient

    PubMed Central

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Hassan, Ghassan; Ali, Haider; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    Environmental dusts settle on surfaces and influence the performance of concentrated solar energy harvesting devices, such as aluminum troughs. The characteristics of environmental dust and the effects of mud formed from the dust particles as a result of water condensing in humid air conditions on an aluminum wafer surface are examined. The dissolution of alkaline and alkaline earth compounds in water condensate form a chemically active mud liquid with pH 8.2. Due to gravity, the mud liquid settles at the interface of the mud and the aluminum surface while forming locally scattered patches of liquid films. Once the mud liquid dries, adhesion work to remove the dry mud increases significantly. The mud liquid gives rise to the formation of pinholes and local pit sites on the aluminum surface. Morphological changes due to pit sites and residues of the dry mud on the aluminum surface lower the surface reflection after the removal of the dry mud from the surface. The characteristics of the aluminum surface can address the dust/mud-related limitations of reflective surfaces and may have implications for the reductions in the efficiencies of solar concentrated power systems. PMID:28378798

  2. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope Imaging of Vesicle Systems.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Ali, Habib; Kirby, Daniel J; Mohammed, Afzal U R; McNeil, Sarah E; Vangala, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics of liposomes have been widely investigated and there is certainly a strong understanding of their morphological characteristics. Imaging of these systems, using techniques such as freeze-fracturing methods, transmission electron microscopy, and cryo-electron imaging, has allowed us to appreciate their bilayer structures and factors which can influence this. However, there are few methods which all us to study these systems in their natural hydrated state; commonly the liposomes are visualized after drying, staining, and/or fixation of the vesicles. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) offers the ability to image a liposome in its hydrated state without the need for prior sample preparation. Within our studies we were the first to use ESEM to study liposomes and niosomes and we have been able to dynamically follow the hydration of lipid films and changes in liposome suspensions as water condenses on to, or evaporates from, the sample in real time. This provides insight into the resistance of liposomes to coalescence during dehydration, thereby providing an alternative assay of liposome formulation and stability.

  3. An international environmental scan of quality indicators for cardiovascular care.

    PubMed

    Abrahamyan, Lusine; Boom, Nicole; Donovan, Linda R; Tu, Jack V

    2012-01-01

    Quality indicators (QIs) are increasingly being used to measure and improve the quality of cardiac care. We conducted an international environmental scan to identify and critically appraise published QI development initiatives addressing cardiovascular disease (CVD). A review of the peer-reviewed and grey English-language literature was conducted to identify published CVD QI development initiatives. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a modified version of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II QI tool-an instrument originally developed for the assessment of the quality of clinical practice guidelines. An initial literature search identified 2314 potentially relevant abstracts of peer-reviewed articles. After a review of the abstracts, 120 full text articles were retrieved and reviewed. Of these, 20 articles and 1 peer-reviewed monograph were selected for critical appraisal (n = 21). Most of the initiatives were conducted in North America (76%) and were published after 2005 (62%). The majority (5 of 6) of the AGREE II QI domain scores were skewed toward higher values, including the median score for the 'overall quality' rating (83.3%). Of the CVD categories addressed within the 21 initiatives, heart failure was the most common (n = 10 QI indicator sets), followed by acute coronary syndromes (n = 8). Considerable variation was observed in the methods utilized and the degree of scientific rigour applied in the published international CVD QI development initiatives. Adoption of standardized methods could help improve the quality of QI development initiatives.

  4. Preparation of Chemically Etched Tips for Ambient Instructional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccardi, Margot J.; Winkelmann, Kurt; Olson, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    A first-year laboratory experiment that utilizes concepts of electrochemical tip etching for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is described. This experiment can be used in conjunction with any STM experiment. Students electrochemically etch gold STM tips using a time-efficient method, which can then be used in an instructional grade STM that…

  5. EVALUATION OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY APPLIED TO AN AMBIENT URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent interest in monitoring and speciation of particulate matter has led to increased application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) to individual particle analysis. SEM/EDX provides information on the size, shape, co...

  6. Preparation of Chemically Etched Tips for Ambient Instructional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccardi, Margot J.; Winkelmann, Kurt; Olson, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    A first-year laboratory experiment that utilizes concepts of electrochemical tip etching for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is described. This experiment can be used in conjunction with any STM experiment. Students electrochemically etch gold STM tips using a time-efficient method, which can then be used in an instructional grade STM that…

  7. EVALUATION OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY APPLIED TO AN AMBIENT URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent interest in monitoring and speciation of particulate matter has led to increased application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) to individual particle analysis. SEM/EDX provides information on the size, shape, co...

  8. Characterization of humic substances by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Paul S; Lead, Jamie R; Harrison, Roy M; Jones, Ian P; Stoll, Serge

    2005-04-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) is a new technique capable of imaging micron and submicron particles. Here, we have applied it to image and quantify natural aquatic organic matter (standard Suwannee River humic acid, SRHA). Uniquely, we have observed the humic aggregate structures as a function of humidity and pH. Large aggregates of tens of micrometers were observed as the dominant material under all conditions, although much smaller material was also observed. Fractal dimensions (D) were calculated between 1.48 and 1.70, although these values were not statistically different under conditions of low humidity. However, D values calculated at high humidities (85%) during the rehydration phase were significantly lower (1.48+/-0.01) than in the initial dehydration phase (1.69+/-0.01). This hysteresis indicated that full rehydration of the HS was either kinetically slow or irreversible after dehydration. Fractal analysis of ESEM images was also performed to probe the change in aggregate structure as a function of pH. Minimum values were calculated at neutral pHs, rising by 0.1-0.2 at both high and low pHs because of a combination of the physical chemistry of HS and the impacts of the drying regime within the ESEM. Thus, ESEM was an important complementary technique to other analytical methods. At present, ESEM cannot be used to image nonperturbed natural samples. However, the method is an ideal method for probing the changes in colloid structure as function of hydration state and has the potential to perform fully quantitative and nonperturbing analysis of colloidal structure.

  9. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dong; Wu, Shu-Qun; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  10. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao Liu, Lin; Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-10

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  11. Environmental Instability and Degradation of Single- and Few-Layer WTe2 Nanosheets in Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; Lee, Jaesung; Hu, Jin; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang; Feng, Philip X-L

    2016-09-08

    Ambient environmental instability and degradation mechanism of single- and few-layer WTe2 are investigated. Oxidation of W and Te atoms appears to be a main reason for degradation. Single-layer samples' Raman signals disappear within 20 min in air. Few-layer WTe2 exhibits saturating degradation behavior: only the top layer WTe2 is oxidized; the degraded layer can protect inner layers from further degradation.

  12. Establishing an Environmental Scanning/Forecasting System to Augment College and University Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The major benefit of an environmental scanning/forecasting system is in providing critical information for strategic planning. Such a system allows the institution to detect social, technological, economic, and political trends and potential events. The environmental scanning database developed by United Way of America is described. (MLW)

  13. Developing Environmental Scanning/Forecasting Systems To Augment Community College Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Held, William G.

    A description is provided of a conference session that was conducted to explore the structure and function of an environmental scanning/forecasting system that could be used in a community college to facilitate planning. Introductory comments argue that a college that establishes an environmental scanning and forecasting system is able to identify…

  14. Design of a new reactor-like high temperature near ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscope for catalysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Franklin Feng; Nguyen, Luan; Zhang, Shiran

    2013-03-01

    Here, we present the design of a new reactor-like high-temperature near ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscope (HT-NAP-STM) for catalysis studies. This HT-NAP-STM was designed for exploration of structures of catalyst surfaces at atomic scale during catalysis or under reaction conditions. In this HT-NAP-STM, the minimized reactor with a volume of reactant gases of ~10 ml is thermally isolated from the STM room through a shielding dome installed between the reactor and STM room. An aperture on the dome was made to allow tip to approach to or retract from a catalyst surface in the reactor. This dome minimizes thermal diffusion from hot gas of the reactor to the STM room and thus remains STM head at a constant temperature near to room temperature, allowing observation of surface structures at atomic scale under reaction conditions or during catalysis with minimized thermal drift. The integrated quadrupole mass spectrometer can simultaneously measure products during visualization of surface structure of a catalyst. This synergy allows building an intrinsic correlation between surface structure and its catalytic performance. This correlation offers important insights for understanding of catalysis. Tests were done on graphite in ambient environment, Pt(111) in CO, graphene on Ru(0001) in UHV at high temperature and gaseous environment at high temperature. Atom-resolved surface structure of graphene on Ru(0001) at 500 K in a gaseous environment of 25 Torr was identified.

  15. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  16. Effect of ambient humidity on the strength of the adhesion force of single yeast cell inside environmental-SEM.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yajing; Nakajima, Masahiro; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-07-01

    A novel method for measuring an adhesion force of single yeast cell is proposed based on a nanorobotic manipulation system inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The effect of ambient humidity on a single yeast cell adhesion force was studied. Ambient humidity was controlled by adjusting the chamber pressure and temperature inside the ESEM. It has been demonstrated that a thicker water film was formed at a higher humidity condition. The adhesion force between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a tungsten probe which later on known as a substrate was evaluated at various humidity conditions. A micro-puller was fabricated from an AFM cantilever by use of focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The adhesion force of a single yeast cell (W303) to the substrate was measured using the micro-puller at the three humidity conditions: 100%, 70%, and 40%. The results showed that the adhesion force between the single yeast cell and the substrate is much smaller at higher humidity condition. The yeast cells were still alive after being observed and manipulated inside ESEM based on the result obtained from the re-culturing of the single yeast cell. The results from this work would help us to understand the ESEM system better and its potential benefit to the single cell analysis research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Duan, Hejun; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment. PMID:28107477

  18. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Duan, Hejun; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment.

  19. Environmental consequences of impact cratering events as a function of ambient conditions on Earth.

    PubMed

    Kring, David A

    2003-01-01

    The end of the Mesozoic Era is defined by a dramatic floral and faunal turnover that has been linked with the Chicxulub impact event, thus leading to the realization that impact cratering can affect both the geologic and biologic evolution of Earth. However, the environmental consequences of an impact event and any subsequent biological effects rely on several factors, including the ambient environmental conditions and the extant ecosystem structures at the time of impact. Some of the severest environmental perturbations of the Chicxulub impact event would not have been significant in some periods of Earth history. Consequently, the environmental and biological effects of an impact event must be evaluated in the context in which it occurs.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Nanoscale Kinetic Friction in Ambient Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Birahima; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yujuan; Chen, Yunfei

    2015-07-08

    The liquid lubrication, thermolubricity and dynamic lubricity due to mechanical oscillations are investigated with an atomic force microscope in ambient environmental conditions with different relative humidity (RH) levels. Experimental results demonstrate that high humidity at low-temperature regime enhances the liquid lubricity while at high-temperature regime it hinders the effect of the thermolubricity due to the formation of liquid bridges. Friction response to the dynamic lubricity in both high- and low-temperature regimes keeps the same trends, namely the friction force decreases with increasing the amplitude of the applied vibration on the tip regardless of the RH levels. An interesting finding is that for the dynamic lubricity at high temperature, high-humidity condition leads to the friction forces higher than that at low-humidity condition while at low temperature the opposite trend is observed. An extended two-dimensional dynamic model accounting for the RH is proposed to interpret the frictional mechanism in ambient conditions.

  1. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  2. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  3. Environmental Scanning as a Public Health Tool: Kentucky’s Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Project

    PubMed Central

    Wilburn, Amanda; Knight, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Borrowing from business, quality improvement programs, and strategic planning principles, environmental scanning is gaining popularity in public health practice and research and is advocated as an assessment and data collection tool by federal funding agencies and other health-related organizations. Applicable to a range of current and emerging health topics, environmental scans — through various methods — assess multiple facets of an issue by engaging stakeholders who can ask or answer research questions, exploring related policy, critiquing published and gray literature, collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data in both primary and secondary forms, disseminating findings to internal and external stakeholders, and informing subsequent planning and decision making. To illustrate the environmental scanning process in a public health setting and showcase its value to practitioners in the field, we describe a federally funded environmental scan for a human papillomavirus vaccination project in Kentucky. PMID:27536901

  4. The Environmental Scan Component of the Strategic Plan for California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    This paper describes the environmental scan that the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office initiated in preparation for its development of a strategic plan. In this scanning effort, environment is defined as "a search for information about the system's external setting." The trends are roughly grouped into five areas:…

  5. Measurement of neutron ambient dose equivalent in carbon-ion radiotherapy with an active scanned delivery system.

    PubMed

    Yonai, S; Furukawa, T; Inaniwa, T

    2014-10-01

    In ion beam radiotherapy, secondary neutrons contribute to an undesired dose outside the target volume, and consequently the increase of secondary cancer risk is a growing concern. In this study, neutron ambient dose equivalents in carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) with an active beam delivery system were measured with a rem meter, WENDI-II, at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. When the same irradiation target was assumed, the measured neutron dose with an active beam was at most ∼15 % of that with a passive beam. This percentage became smaller as larger distances from the iso-centre. Also, when using an active beam delivery system, the neutron dose per treatment dose in CIRT was comparable with that in proton radiotherapy. Finally, it was experimentally demonstrated that the use of an active scanned beam in CIRT can greatly reduce the secondary neutron dose. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Evolved Gas Analysis at Mars Ambient Conditions Using the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyser (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, D. S.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.; Quadlander, G. A.; Kerry, K. E.; Bode, R. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Ward, M. G.; Pathare, A. V.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    We are conducting DSC/EGA experiments at Mars ambient temperature and pressure using the TEGA engineering model. These tests illustrate the outstanding capabilities of a TEGA-like instrument on the surface of Mars.

  7. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Evolved Gas Analysis at Mars Ambient Conditions Using the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyser (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, D. S.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.; Quadlander, G. A.; Kerry, K. E.; Bode, R. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Ward, M. G.; Pathare, A. V.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    We are conducting DSC/EGA experiments at Mars ambient temperature and pressure using the TEGA engineering model. These tests illustrate the outstanding capabilities of a TEGA-like instrument on the surface of Mars.

  8. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  9. Assessing uncertain human exposure to ambient air pollution using environmental models in the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerharz, L. E.; Pebesma, E.; Denby, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ambient air quality can have significant impact on human health by causing respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. Thereby, the pollutant concentration a person is exposed to can differ considerably between individuals depending on their daily routine and movement patterns. Using a straight forward approach this exposure can be estimated by integration of individual space-time paths and spatio-temporally resolved ambient air quality data. To allow a realistic exposure assessment, it is furthermore important to consider uncertainties due to input and model errors. In this work, we present a generic, web-based approach for estimating individual exposure by integration of uncertain position and air quality information implemented as a web service. Following the Model Web initiative envisioning an infrastructure for deploying, executing and chaining environmental models as services, existing models and data sources for e.g. air quality, can be used to assess exposure. Therefore, the service needs to deal with different formats, resolutions and uncertainty representations provided by model or data services. Potential mismatch can be accounted for by transformation of uncertainties and (dis-)aggregation of data under consideration of changes in the uncertainties using components developed in the UncertWeb project. In UncertWeb, the Model Web vision is extended to an Uncertainty-enabled Model Web, where services can process and communicate uncertainties in the data and models. The propagation of uncertainty to the exposure results is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation by combining different realisations of positions and ambient concentrations. Two case studies were used to evaluate the developed exposure assessment service. In a first study, GPS tracks with a positional uncertainty of a few meters, collected in the urban area of Münster, Germany were used to assess exposure to PM10 (particulate matter smaller 10 µm). Air quality data was provided by an

  10. The Necessity of Environmental Scanning Prior to Long-Range Planning Activities at Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Ty J.

    Formal environmental scanning procedures can provide key administrators of higher education institutions with valuable external information regarding both the probability and impact of external trends and forces. Such information may then be used in various strategic planning stages including scenario development, institutional mission and goals…

  11. An Environmental Scan Update, 1992-93. 2020: Perfect Vision for the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, J. N., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A key component to Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) strategic planning process, called "2020 Vision: A Perfect Vision for the Future," was the publication of the report "An Environmental Scan" in 1989, which summarized major trends occurring in the external environment which may impact the community college,…

  12. Environmental Scan of Weight Bias Exposure in Primary Health Care Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Nutter, Sarah; Alberga, Angela; Jelinski, Susan; Ball, Geoff D. C.; Edwards, Alun; Oddie, Scott; Sharma, Arya M.; Pickering, Barbara; Forhan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes and beliefs about individuals with obesity (also known as weight bias) have negative consequences for physical and mental health for individuals with obesity and impact the quality of care provided by health professionals. A preliminary environmental scan of college and university training programs was conducted consisting of 67…

  13. Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario 2001 Environmental Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Toronto.

    The 2001 Environmental Scan for the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario is designed to assist colleges in their strategic planning processes. It provides information about economy and labor, various trends in education and training, postsecondary enrollment and demographics, transfer payments and operating grants, Ontario's…

  14. Higher Learning and the Labour Market in a Changing World: Environmental Scan for British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy, economic and social well-being depend on the development of human resources, and those with access to education benefit from higher lifetime earnings, lower rates of unemployment and poverty, a greater sense of engagement at work and society, and healthier lifestyles. This environmental scan considers the major…

  15. Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario 2002 Environmental Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Toronto.

    This environmental scan is designed to assist Ontario's colleges in their strategic planning processes. Ontario's colleges have supported a 35% increase in enrollment, with a 40% decrease in funding, over the last ten years, while operating costs have risen. In addition, Ontario eliminated the secondary school Ontario Academic Courses (OACs),…

  16. Looking Beyond School Walls: An Environmental Scan of Minneapolis Public Schools, 2004-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nicola A.; Choi, Wonseok

    2015-01-01

    We provide an expanded environmental scan to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) faced by education communities. Grounded in the literature, we identified 48 indicators and grouped them into 6 broad categories: (1) budget levels, (2) funding patterns, (3) community needs, (4) external economic conditions, (5)…

  17. Higher Learning and the Labour Market in a Changing World: Environmental Scan for British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy, economic and social well-being depend on the development of human resources, and those with access to education benefit from higher lifetime earnings, lower rates of unemployment and poverty, a greater sense of engagement at work and society, and healthier lifestyles. This environmental scan considers the major…

  18. Using GIS Tools and Environmental Scanning to Forecast Industry Workforce Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Elaine; Fleming, Kevin; Marquez, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The Centers of Excellence (COE) provide regional workforce data on high growth, high demand industries and occupations for use by community colleges in program planning and resource enhancement. This article discusses the environmental scanning research methodology and its application to data-driven decision making in community college program…

  19. Variables Associated with Environmental Scanning among Clinicians at Substance Abuse Treatment Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Alison L.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Agius, Elizabeth; Dickson, Marcus W.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables…

  20. Using GIS Tools and Environmental Scanning to Forecast Industry Workforce Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Elaine; Fleming, Kevin; Marquez, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The Centers of Excellence (COE) provide regional workforce data on high growth, high demand industries and occupations for use by community colleges in program planning and resource enhancement. This article discusses the environmental scanning research methodology and its application to data-driven decision making in community college program…

  1. Developing an Environmental Scanning System in an Educational Organization: Lessons Learned. AIR 1990 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Ptaszynski, James G.

    An environmental scanning system was developed by the admissions office of a graduate school of management in a small southeastern university. The school's strategic planning committee felt that it would be beneficial to acquire information concerning issues, trends, and possible events that might impact upon the school in the future and to…

  2. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS CORPORATION SYNCHRONOUS SCANNING LUMINOSCOPE

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Synchronous Scanning Luminoscope (Luminoscope) developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in collaboration with Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC) was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program i...

  3. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS CORPORATION SYNCHRONOUS SCANNING LUMINOSCOPE

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Synchronous Scanning Luminoscope (Luminoscope) developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in collaboration with Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC) was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program i...

  4. Evaluation and environmental correction of ambient CO2 measurements from a low-cost NDIR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Cory R.; Zeng, Ning; Karion, Anna; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ren, Xinrong; Turpie, Bari N.; Weber, Kristy J.

    2017-07-01

    Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors are a low-cost way to observe carbon dioxide concentrations in air, but their specified accuracy and precision are not sufficient for some scientific applications. An initial evaluation of six SenseAir K30 carbon dioxide NDIR sensors in a lab setting showed that without any calibration or correction, the sensors have an individual root mean square error (RMSE) between ˜ 5 and 21 parts per million (ppm) compared to a research-grade greenhouse gas analyzer using cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. Through further evaluation, after correcting for environmental variables with coefficients determined through a multivariate linear regression analysis, the calculated difference between the each of six individual K30 NDIR sensors and the higher-precision instrument had an RMSE of between 1.7 and 4.3 ppm for 1 min data. The median RMSE improved from 9.6 for off-the-shelf sensors to 1.9 ppm after correction and calibration, demonstrating the potential to provide useful information for ambient air monitoring.

  5. Environmental Scanning for Occupational Education. A Facilitator's Guide. A Model for Environmental Scanning to Systematically Assess Future Occupational Education and Training Needs of a Michigan Community College Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, MI.

    This manual is designed to facilitate the planning and implementation of an environmental scanning project in Michigan's community colleges. (Environmental scanning is a systematic process for gathering and analyzing information about the external environment and relating it to an organization's internal environment.) This facilitator's guide is…

  6. Polymer Electrolyte-Based Ambient Temperature Oxygen Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2011-01-01

    An ambient temperature oxygen microsensor, based on a Nafion polymer electrolyte, has been developed and was microfabricated using thin-film technologies. A challenge in the operation of Nafion-based sensor systems is that the conductivity of Nafion film depends on the humidity in the film. Nafion film loses conductivity when the moisture content in the film is too low, which can affect sensor operation. The advancement here is the identification of a method to retain the operation of the Nafion films in lower humidity environments. Certain salts can hold water molecules in the Nafion film structure at room temperature. By mixing salts with the Nafion solution, water molecules can be homogeneously distributed in the Nafion film increasing the film s hydration to prevent Nafion film from being dried out in low-humidity environment. The presence of organics provides extra sites in the Nafion film to promote proton (H+) mobility and thus improving Nafion film conductivity and sensor performance. The fabrication of ambient temperature oxygen microsensors includes depositing basic electrodes using noble metals, and metal oxides layer on one of the electrode as a reference electrode. The use of noble metals for electrodes is due to their strong catalytic properties for oxygen reduction. A conducting polymer Nafion, doped with water-retaining components and extra sites facilitating proton movement, was used as the electrolyte material, making the design adequate for low humidity environment applications. The Nafion solution was coated on the electrodes and air-dried. The sensor operates at room temperature in potentiometric mode, which measures voltage differences between working and reference electrodes in different gases. Repeat able responses to 21-percent oxygen in nitrogen were achieved using nitrogen as a baseline gas. Detection of oxygen from 7 to 21 percent has also been demonstrated. The room-temperature oxygen micro sensor developed has extremely low power

  7. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cristan; Siegle, Jessica S.; Shadie, Alexander M.; Nikolaysen, Stina; Garthwaite, Linda; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Foster, Paul S.; Kumar, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC). We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice

  8. Statistical Characterization of Environmental Error Sources Affecting Electronically Scanned Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Del L.; Walker, Eric L.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Minimization of uncertainty is essential to extend the usable range of the 15-psid Electronically Scanned Pressure [ESP) transducer measurements to the low free-stream static pressures found in hypersonic wind tunnels. Statistical characterization of environmental error sources inducing much of this uncertainty requires a well defined and controlled calibration method. Employing such a controlled calibration system, several studies were conducted that provide quantitative information detailing the required controls needed to minimize environmental and human induced error sources. Results of temperature, environmental pressure, over-pressurization, and set point randomization studies for the 15-psid transducers are presented along with a comparison of two regression methods using data acquired with both 0.36-psid and 15-psid transducers. Together these results provide insight into procedural and environmental controls required for long term high-accuracy pressure measurements near 0.01 psia in the hypersonic testing environment using 15-psid ESP transducers.

  9. Statistical Characterization of Environmental Error Sources Affecting Electronically Scanned Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Del L.; Walker, Eric L.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Minimization of uncertainty is essential to extend the usable range of the 15-psid Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) transducer measurements to the low free-stream static pressures found in hypersonic wind tunnels. Statistical characterization of environmental error sources inducing much of this uncertainty requires a well defined and controlled calibration method. Employing such a controlled calibration system, several studies were conducted that provide quantitative information detailing the required controls needed to minimize environmental and human induced error sources. Results of temperature, environmental pressure, over-pressurization, and set point randomization studies for the 15-psid transducers are presented along with a comparison of two regression methods using data acquired with both 0.36-psid and 15-psid transducers. Together these results provide insight into procedural and environmental controls required for long term high-accuracy pressure measurements near 0.01 psia in the hypersonic testing environment using 15-psid ESP transducers.

  10. Health literacy environmental scans of community-based dental clinics in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Alice M; Maybury, Catherine; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Radice, Sarah D; Wang, Min Qi; Child, Wendy; Rudd, Rima E

    2014-08-01

    We conducted health literacy environmental scans in 26 Maryland community-based dental clinics to identify institutional characteristics and provider practices that affect dental services access and dental caries education. In 2011-2012 we assessed user friendliness of the clinics including accessibility, signage, facility navigation, educational materials, and patient forms. We interviewed patients and surveyed dental providers about their knowledge and use of communication techniques. Of 32 clinics, 26 participated. Implementation of the health literacy environmental scan tools was acceptable to the dental directors and provided clinic directors with information to enhance care and outreach. We found considerable variation among clinic facilities, operations, and content of educational materials. There was less variation in types of insurance accepted, no-show rates, methods of communicating with patients, and electronic health records use. Providers who had taken a communication skills course were more likely than those who had not to use recommended communication techniques. Our findings provide insight into the use of health literacy environmental scan tools to identify clinic and provider characteristics and practices that can be used to make dental environments more user friendly and health literate.

  11. Health Literacy Environmental Scans of Community-Based Dental Clinics in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Maybury, Catherine; Kleinman, Dushanka V.; Radice, Sarah D.; Wang, Min Qi; Child, Wendy; Rudd, Rima E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted health literacy environmental scans in 26 Maryland community-based dental clinics to identify institutional characteristics and provider practices that affect dental services access and dental caries education. Methods. In 2011–2012 we assessed user friendliness of the clinics including accessibility, signage, facility navigation, educational materials, and patient forms. We interviewed patients and surveyed dental providers about their knowledge and use of communication techniques. Results. Of 32 clinics, 26 participated. Implementation of the health literacy environmental scan tools was acceptable to the dental directors and provided clinic directors with information to enhance care and outreach. We found considerable variation among clinic facilities, operations, and content of educational materials. There was less variation in types of insurance accepted, no-show rates, methods of communicating with patients, and electronic health records use. Providers who had taken a communication skills course were more likely than those who had not to use recommended communication techniques. Conclusions. Our findings provide insight into the use of health literacy environmental scan tools to identify clinic and provider characteristics and practices that can be used to make dental environments more user friendly and health literate. PMID:24922128

  12. Step-scan T cell-based differential Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (DFTIR-PAS) for detection of ambient air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixian; Mandelis, Andreas; Huan, Huiting; Melnikov, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    A step-scan differential Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (DFTIR-PAS) using a commercial FTIR spectrometer was developed theoretically and experimentally for air contaminant monitoring. The configuration comprises two identical, small-size and low-resonance-frequency T cells satisfying the conflicting requirements of low chopping frequency and limited space in the sample compartment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) IR absorption spectra were used to demonstrate the capability of the DFTIR-PAS method to detect ambient pollutants. A linear amplitude response to CO2 concentrations from 100 to 10,000 ppmv was observed, leading to a theoretical detection limit of 2 ppmv. The differential mode was able to suppress the coherent noise, thereby imparting the DFTIR-PAS method with a better signal-to-noise ratio and lower theoretical detection limit than the single mode. The results indicate that it is possible to use step-scan DFTIR-PAS with T cells as a quantitative method for high sensitivity analysis of ambient contaminants.

  13. Hacia Una Pedagogia de Solucion de Problemas en La Educacion Ambiental. Serie Educacion Ambiental 15 (Pedagogy of Solutions and Problems in Environmental Education. Environmental Education Series 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This document discusses the teaching of problem solving in environmental education. From an interdisciplinary viewpoint, this study describes some strategies for teaching that can favor the practice of educational activities oriented toward solving the concrete problems of the surrounding environment. The volume is divided into seven chapters. The…

  14. The utility of the environmental scan for public health practice: lessons from an urban program to increase cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Rowel, Randolph; Moore, Natalie Dewberry; Nowrojee, Sia; Memiah, Peter; Bronner, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The environmental scan is a tool that can be utilized to collect data to design health programs uniquely tailored to the needs of communities. However, it remains relatively undefined, unevaluated and underutilized in the field of public health. While individual studies indicate the utility of the environmental scan for public health, it is difficult to find a theoretical framework or guidelines on how to design, implement or evaluate the process within public health practice. The purpose of this study was to elicit lessons learned to maximize the utility of the environmental scan as a tool for public health. This process occurred through the development and implementation of an environmental scan as part of the needs-assessment phase of a project to increase cancer screening among African Americans in Baltimore, MD. Data collection methods for the environmental scan included a review of community stakeholders, cancer incidence and community assets and liabilities in target communities, focus-group sessions and key informant interviews with service providers. The environmental scan was conducted in 2003 and allowed for rapid acquisition and use of information about events, trends and relationships in the neighborhoods targeted for our project and enabled researchers to move forward with implementing the cancer-screening project. The researchers conclude that the environmental scan has considerable potential to be a creative, responsive, cost-effective and mobilizing tool for public health practice. However, further application and critical review are necessary to make it a more effective public health tool and an established research methodology. PMID:15868772

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32-56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general.

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32–56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general. PMID:24022088

  17. Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces. High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhongwei

    2013-12-06

    Surface structure, mobility, and composition of transition metal catalysts were studied by high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at high gas pressures. HP-STM makes it possible to determine the atomic or molecular rearrangement at catalyst surfaces, particularly at the low-coordinated active surface sites. AP-XPS monitors changes in elemental composition and chemical states of catalysts in response to variations in gas environments. Stepped Pt and Cu single crystals, the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100) single crystal, and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size, shape and composition, were employed as the model catalysts for experiments in this thesis.

  18. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  19. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  20. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  1. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to simulate the impact of an ambient heat load on the power requirements of the vehicle's air... each point of a 0.5 meter grid over the entire footprint of the test vehicle at the elevation of one... is measured two feet from nozzle outlet at each point of a one foot grid over the entire...

  2. Electron transparent graphene windows for environmental scanning electron microscopy in liquids and dense gases.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Joshua D; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2012-12-21

    Due to its ultrahigh electron transmissivity in a wide electron energy range, molecular impermeability, high electrical conductivity and excellent mechanical stiffness, suspended graphene membranes appear to be a nearly ideal window material for in situ (in vivo) environmental electron microscopy of nano- and mesoscopic objects (including bio-medical samples) immersed in liquids and/or in dense gaseous media. In this paper, taking advantage of a small modification of the graphene transfer protocol onto metallic and SiN supporting orifices, reusable environmental cells with exchangeable graphene windows have been designed. Using colloidal gold nanoparticles (50 nm) dispersed in water as model objects for scanning electron microscopy in liquids as proof of concept, different conditions for imaging through the graphene membrane were tested. Limiting factors for electron microscopy in liquids, such as electron beam induced water radiolysis and damage of the graphene membrane at high electron doses, are discussed.

  3. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Evolved Gas Analysis at Mars Ambient Conditions Using the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyser (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, D. S.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.; Quadlander, G.; Kerry, K. E.; Bode, R. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Ward, M. G.; Pathare, A. V.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) combined with evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a well developed technique for the analysis of a wide variety of sample types with broad application in material and soil sciences. However, the use of the technique for samples under conditions of pressure and temperature as found on other planets is one of current development and cutting edge research. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), which was designed, built and tested at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Lab (LPL), utilizes DSC/EGA. TEGA, which was sent to Mars on the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander, was to be the first application of DSC/EGA on the surface of Mars as well as the first direct measurement of the volatile-bearing mineralogy in martian soil. Additional information is available in the original extended abstract.

  4. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Evolved Gas Analysis at Mars Ambient Conditions Using the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyser (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, D. S.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.; Quadlander, G.; Kerry, K. E.; Bode, R. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Ward, M. G.; Pathare, A. V.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) combined with evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a well developed technique for the analysis of a wide variety of sample types with broad application in material and soil sciences. However, the use of the technique for samples under conditions of pressure and temperature as found on other planets is one of current development and cutting edge research. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), which was designed, built and tested at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Lab (LPL), utilizes DSC/EGA. TEGA, which was sent to Mars on the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander, was to be the first application of DSC/EGA on the surface of Mars as well as the first direct measurement of the volatile-bearing mineralogy in martian soil. Additional information is available in the original extended abstract.

  5. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Evolved Gas Analysis at Mars Ambient Conditions Using the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, D. S.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, Douglas W.; Quadlander, G.; Kerry, K. E.; Bode, R. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Ward, M. G.; Pathare, A. V.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) combined with evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a well developed technique for the analysis of a wide variety of sample types with broad application in material and soil sciences. However, the use of the technique for samples under conditions of pressure and temperature as found on other planets is one of current C development and cutting edge research. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (MGA), which was designed, built and tested at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Lab (LPL), utilizes DSC/EGA. TEGA, which was sent to Mars on the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander, was to be the first application of DSC/EGA on the surface of Mars as well as the first direct measurement of the volatile-bearing mineralogy in martian soil.

  6. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-14 super rapid scan operations to prepare for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Timothy J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Rabin, Robert M.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Cintineo, John L.; Velden, Christopher S.; Scott Bachmeier, A.; Lindstrom, Scott S.; Schmidt, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-14 imager was operated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in an experimental rapid scan 1-min mode that emulates the high-temporal resolution sampling of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the next generation GOES-R series. Imagery with a refresh rate of 1 min of many phenomena were acquired, including clouds, convection, fires, smoke, and hurricanes, including 6 days of Hurricane Sandy through landfall. NOAA had never before operated a GOES in a nearly continuous 1-min mode for such an extended period of time, thereby making these unique datasets to explore the future capabilities possible with GOES-R. The next generation GOES-R imager will be able to routinely take mesoscale (1000 km×1000 km) images every 30 s (or two separate locations every minute). These images can be acquired even while scanning continental United States and full disk images. These high time-resolution images from the GOES-14 imager are being used to prepare for the GOES-R era and its advanced imager. This includes both the imagery and quantitative derived products such as cloud-top cooling. Several animations are included to showcase the rapid change of the many phenomena observed during super rapid scan operations for GOES-R (SRSOR).

  7. Photoperiod and ambient temperature as environmental cues for seasonal thermogenic adaptation in the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmaier, G.; Steinlechner, S.; Rafael, J.; Latteier, B.

    1982-12-01

    For their seasonal control of thermogenesis Djungarian hamsters rely on environmental cueing by both photoperiod and ambient temperature. Their total potential for adaptive improvements of nonshivering thermogenesis is constant in summer and winter. The shortening of photoperiod in fall is used to anticipate about half of the total improvement in thermogenesis, in advance of any experience of cold, as can be concluded from the photoperiodic control of thermogenesis, cold resistance, and the protein content, cyctochrome oxidase activity and content of mitochondria in brown adipose tissue. The remainder of the seasonal thermogenic adaptation is due to stimulatory responses to chronic exposure to cold.

  8. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  9. Environmental Scanning Activities in Higher Education as Reported at the 1986 Annual Meetings of AAHE, AIR, and SCUP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    Environmental scanning activities in higher education were described in forums at the 1986 annual meetings of the American Association for Higher Education (AAHE), the Association for Institutional Research (AIR), and the Society of College and University Planning (SCUP). The forums were held to determine the extent of environmental scanning…

  10. Ontario primary care reform and quality improvement activities: an environmental scan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality improvement is attracting the attention of the primary health care system as a means by which to achieve higher quality patient care. Ontario, Canada has demonstrated leadership in terms of its improvement in healthcare, but the province lacks a structured framework by which it can consistently evaluate its quality improvement initiatives specific to the primary healthcare system. The intent of this research was to complete an environmental scan and capacity map of quality improvement activities being built in and by the primary healthcare sector (QI-PHC) in Ontario as a first step to developing a coordinated and sustainable framework of primary healthcare for the province. Methods Data were collected between January and July 2011 in collaboration with an advisory group of stakeholder representatives and quality improvement leaders in primary health care. Twenty participants were interviewed by telephone, followed by review of relevant websites and documents identified in the interviews. Data were systematically examined using Framework Analysis augmented by Prior’s approach to document analysis in an iterative process. Results The environmental scan identified many activities (n = 43) designed to strategically build QI-PHC capacity, identify promising QI-PHC practices and outcomes, scale up quality improvement-informed primary healthcare practice changes, and make quality improvement a core organizational strategy in health care delivery, which were grouped into clusters. Cluster 1 was composed of initiatives in the form of on-going programs that deliberately incorporated long-term quality improvement capacity building through province-wide reach. Cluster 2 represented activities that were time-limited (research, pilot, or demonstration projects) with the primary aim of research production. The activities of most primary health care practitioners, managers, stakeholder organizations and researchers involved in this scan demonstrated a

  11. Carbon Nanotubes Produced from Ambient Carbon Dioxide for Environmentally Sustainable Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Licht, Stuart; Douglas, Anna; Ren, Jiawen; Carter, Rachel; Lefler, Matthew; Pint, Cary L

    2016-03-23

    The cost and practicality of greenhouse gas removal processes, which are critical for environmental sustainability, pivot on high-value secondary applications derived from carbon capture and conversion techniques. Using the solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP), ambient CO2 captured in molten lithiated carbonates leads to the production of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high yield through electrolysis using inexpensive steel electrodes. These low-cost CO2-derived CNTs and CNFs are demonstrated as high performance energy storage materials in both lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Owing to synthetic control of sp(3) content in the synthesized nanostructures, optimized storage capacities are measured over 370 mAh g(-1) (lithium) and 130 mAh g(-1) (sodium) with no capacity fade under durability tests up to 200 and 600 cycles, respectively. This work demonstrates that ambient CO2, considered as an environmental pollutant, can be attributed economic value in grid-scale and portable energy storage systems with STEP scale-up practicality in the context of combined cycle natural gas electric power generation.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes Produced from Ambient Carbon Dioxide for Environmentally Sustainable Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The cost and practicality of greenhouse gas removal processes, which are critical for environmental sustainability, pivot on high-value secondary applications derived from carbon capture and conversion techniques. Using the solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP), ambient CO2 captured in molten lithiated carbonates leads to the production of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high yield through electrolysis using inexpensive steel electrodes. These low-cost CO2-derived CNTs and CNFs are demonstrated as high performance energy storage materials in both lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Owing to synthetic control of sp3 content in the synthesized nanostructures, optimized storage capacities are measured over 370 mAh g–1 (lithium) and 130 mAh g–1 (sodium) with no capacity fade under durability tests up to 200 and 600 cycles, respectively. This work demonstrates that ambient CO2, considered as an environmental pollutant, can be attributed economic value in grid-scale and portable energy storage systems with STEP scale-up practicality in the context of combined cycle natural gas electric power generation. PMID:27163042

  13. Advance care planning, culture and religion: an environmental scan of Australian-based online resources.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; Boyd, Leanne M

    2017-04-20

    Objectives Culture and religion are important in advance care planning (ACP), yet it is not well understood how this is represented in ACP online resources. The aim of the present study was to identify the availability of Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets containing cultural and religious information.Methods An environmental scanning framework was used with a Google search conducted from 30 June 2015 to 5 July 2015. Eligible Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets were reviewed by two analysts (APS & PM) for information pertaining to at least one culture or religion. Common characteristics were agreed upon and tabulated with narrative description.Results Seven Australian-based ACP websites were identified with varying degrees of cultural and religious information. Seven Australian-based ACP informational booklets were identified addressing culture or religion, namely of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (n=5), Sikh (n=1) and Italian (n=1) communities. Twenty-one other online resources with cultural and religious information were identified, developed within the context of health and palliative care.Conclusions There is no comprehensive Australian-based ACP website or informational booklet supporting ACP across several cultural and religious contexts. Considering Australia's multicultural and multifaith population, such a resource may be beneficial in increasing awareness and uptake of ACP.What is known about the topic? Health professionals and consumers frequently use the Internet to find information. Non-regulation has resulted in the proliferation of ACP online resources (i.e. ACP websites and online informational booklets). Although this has contributed to raising awareness of ACP, the availability of Australian-based ACP online resources with cultural and religious information is not well known.What does this paper add? This paper is the first to use an environmental scanning methodology to identify

  14. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  15. The low-temperature method for study of coniferous tissues in the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Hřib, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The use of non-standard low-temperature conditions in environmental scanning electron microscopy might be promising for the observation of coniferous tissues in their native state. This study is aimed to analyse and evaluate the method based on the principle of low-temperature sample stabilization. We demonstrate that the upper mucous layer is sublimed and a microstructure of the sample surface can be observed with higher resolution at lower gas pressure conditions, thanks to a low-temperature method. An influence of the low-temperature method on sample stability was also studied. The results indicate that high-moisture conditions are not suitable for this method and often cause the collapse of samples. The potential improvement of stability to beam damage has been demonstrated by long-time observation at different operation parameters. We finally show high applicability of the low-temperature method on different types of conifers and Oxalis acetosella. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Determination of the coalescence temperature of latexes by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Edurne; Tollan, Christopher; Chuvilin, Andrey; Barandiaran, Maria J; Paulis, Maria

    2012-08-01

    A new methodology for quantitative characterization of the coalescence process of waterborne polymer dispersion (latex) particles by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) is proposed. The experimental setup has been developed to provide reproducible latex monolayer depositions, optimized contrast of the latex particles, and a reliable readout of the sample temperature. Quantification of the coalescence process under dry conditions has been performed by image processing based on evaluation of the image autocorrelation function. As a proof of concept the coalescence of two latexes with known and differing glass transition temperatures has been measured. It has been shown that a reproducibility of better than 1.5 °C can be obtained for the measurement of the coalescence temperature.

  17. Preliminary report: laboratory-induced stain removal as assessed by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Habib, C M; Kugel, G; Marcus, A

    1998-01-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was employed to observe stain removal during brushing with Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Crest Regular Toothpaste. ESEM allows serial examinations of the same sample, and does not require a destructive preparative process. Three extracted molars were cleaned, placed into a 96-hour broth culture of Streptococcus mutans, and stain was produced with undiluted chlorhexidine rinse, concentrated coffee and tea for a period of 23 days. After staining, the teeth were examined by ESEM, then brushed using a toothbrushing machine. Imaging was repeated after 5, 10, 15 and 30 seconds of brushing. As seen with ESEM, the Arm & Hammer product had different effects than those from the distilled water control, suggesting something other than that expected from abrasive and mechanical forces alone. There were also differences from the Crest dentifrice removal on this single sample, suggesting a possible difference between the two products. Further studies are needed to confirm and explain these effects.

  18. Gold nanoparticle uptake in whole cells in liquid examined by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    The size of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can influence various aspects of their cellular uptake. Light microscopy is not capable of resolving most AuNPs, while electron microscopy (EM) is not practically capable of acquiring the necessary statistical data from many cells and the results may suffer from various artifacts. Here, we demonstrate the use of a fast EM method for obtaining high-resolution data from a much larger population of cells than is usually feasible with conventional EM. A549 (human lung carcinoma) cells were subjected to uptake protocols with 10, 15, or 30 nm diameter AuNPs with adsorbed serum proteins. After 20 min, 24 h, or 45 h, the cells were fixed and imaged in whole in a thin layer of liquid water with environmental scanning electron microscopy equipped with a scanning transmission electron microscopy detector. The fast preparation and imaging of 145 whole cells in liquid allowed collection of nanoscale data within an exceptionally small amount of time of ~80 h. Analysis of 1,041 AuNP-filled vesicles showed that the long-term AuNP storing lysosomes increased their average size by 80 nm when AuNPs with 30 nm diameter were uptaken, compared to lysosomes of cells incubated with AuNPs of 10 and 15 nm diameter.

  19. Copper thick film sintering studies in an environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Link, L F; Gerristead, W R; Tamhankar, S

    1993-08-01

    The significance of the ElectroScan environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) as a processing tool for studying dynamic morphological changes under controlled temperature/atmosphere conditions was evaluated. The ability to observe dynamic processes in situ, which cannot be achieved by other means, is critical to understanding microstructural formation. Processing of printed copper thick films on ceramics was used as a test case, wherein morphological changes associated with the steps of organic binder removal and sintering of copper particles were observed/examined in real time. Good agreement was seen between microstructures obtained in the ESM and those achieved in a belt furnace when similar process variables were used. When processed in atmospheres which were proven to induce sintering in a conventional belt furnace, sintering was evident in both cases, and the microstructural changes were documented on video-tapes in real time. Determination of critical event temperatures was achieved--that is, binder burnout occurring between 270 degrees and 350 degrees C, onset of oxidation at 520 degrees C, and sintering starting at 770 degrees C. It was thus verified that the microstructural changes during the copper thick film sintering process can be observed in situ using an ESEM.

  20. Microfluidic device for a rapid immobilization of zebrafish larvae in environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Skommer, Joanna; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Philip S; Cialkowski, Michal; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-03-01

    Small vertebrate model organisms have recently gained popularity as attractive experimental models that enhance our understanding of human tissue and organ development. Despite a large body of evidence using optical spectroscopy for the characterization of small model organism on chip-based devices, no attempts have been so far made to interface microfabricated technologies with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Conventional scanning electron microscopy requires high vacuum environments and biological samples must be, therefore, submitted to many preparative procedures to dehydrate, fix, and subsequently stain the sample with gold-palladium deposition. This process is inherently low-throughput and can introduce many analytical artifacts. This work describes a proof-of-concept microfluidic chip-based system for immobilizing zebrafish larvae for ESEM imaging that is performed in a gaseous atmosphere, under low vacuum mode and without any need for sample staining protocols. The microfabricated technology provides a user-friendly and simple interface to perform ESEM imaging on zebrafish larvae. Presented lab-on-a-chip device was fabricated using a high-speed infrared laser micromachining in a biocompatible poly(methyl methacrylate) thermoplastic. It consisted of a reservoir with multiple semispherical microwells designed to hold the yolk of dechorionated zebrafish larvae. Immobilization of the larvae was achieved by a gentle suction generated during blotting of the medium. Trapping region allowed for multiple specimens to be conveniently positioned on the chip-based device within few minutes for ESEM imaging.

  1. In-Situ Imaging of Langmuir Films using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Aline

    2002-03-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) has been applied to image the organization of spread films at the air-water interface directly. This recent extension of conventional scanning electron microscopy permits the resolution of electron microscopy to be applied to insulated and hydrated samples maintained in their natural state. We demonstrate the great potential of this technique by in-situ imaging of both synthetic and natural polymer spread films at the air-water interface. A brief synopsis of the background to ESEM will be given followed by a discussion of the pertinent experimental conditions for the study of Langmuir layers. Experimental results for two systems will be presented. Firstly results for a nylon 6 6 polymer film will be given and discussed in relation to external reflection FTIR studies and those using the more conventional analytical techniques of surface pressure isotherms and optical microscopy. Secondly the kinetics of the interaction of a cationic intercalator amphiphile with double stranded DNA at the air-water interface will be presented and the structure of the densely packed two-dimensional arrays formed will be discussed.

  2. Ergonomics and design for sustainability in healthcare: ambient assisted living and the social-environmental impact of patients lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Arslan, Pelin; Costa, Fiammetta; Muschiato, Sabrina; Romero, Maximiliano

    2012-01-01

    This work presents considerations on Ergonomics and Design for Sustainability in the healthcare field based on research experiences of the Technology and Design for Healthcare (TeDH) research group of INDACO (Industrial design, communication, arts and fashion) department of Politecnico di Milano. In order to develop a multidisciplinary approach to design able to answer to specific user needs such as elderly in an environmental sustainable way (1) this paper shows the results we achieved concerning ergonomics and environmental impact in product development (2), the extension of this approach to interior and home design and the advantage of the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT can help people with special needs to make their everyday life easier and more safe, at the same time, ICT can make social-environmental impact of everyday behavior evident and can be applied to manage sustainability. The specific theme is thus to integrate ergonomics and sustainability competences in the development of Ambient Assisted Living through a Product- Service System approach. The concept of product service system has the potential to improve product performances and services, establish new relations and networks with different actors in order to satisfy user needs and apply a systems approach considering environmental, social and economic factors in the users' environment.

  3. Step-Scan T-Cell Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) for Monitoring Environmental Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixian; Mandelis, Andreas; Melnikov, Alexander; Michaelian, Kirk; Huan, Huiting; Haisch, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Air pollutants have adverse effects on the Earth's climate system. There is an urgent need for cost-effective devices capable of recognizing and detecting various ambient pollutants. An FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) method based on a commercial FTIR spectrometer developed for air contamination monitoring will be presented. A resonant T-cell was determined to be the most appropriate resonator in view of the low-frequency requirement and space limitations in the sample compartment. Step-scan FTIR-PAS theory for regular cylinder resonator has been described as a reference for prediction of T-cell vibration principles. Both simulated amplitude and phase responses of the T-cell show good agreement with measurement data Carbon dioxide IR absorption spectra were used to demonstrate the capacity of the FTIR-PAS method to detect ambient pollutants. The theoretical detection limit for carbon dioxide was found to be 4 ppmv. A linear response to carbon dioxide concentration was found in the range from 2500 ppmv to 5000 ppmv. The results indicate that it is possible to use step-scan FTIR-PAS with a T-cell as a quantitative method for analysis of ambient contaminants.

  4. Environmental scanning electron microscopy analysis of Proteus mirabilis biofilms grown on chitin and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Duque, Zoilabet; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, María A; Alciaturi, Carlos

    Proteus mirabilis is a human pathogen able to form biofilms on the surface of urinary catheters. Little is known about P. mirabilis biofilms on natural or industrial surfaces and the potential consequences for these settings. The main aim of this work was to assess and compare the adhesion and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains from different origins on chitin and stainless steel surfaces within 4 to 96 h. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the biofilms of a clinical strain grown on chitin at 4 h showed greater adhesion, aggregation, thickness, and extracellular matrix production than those grown on stainless steel, whereas biofilms of an environmental strain had less aggregation on both surfaces. Biofilms of both P. mirabilis strains developed different structures on chitin, such as pillars, mushrooms, channels, and crystalline-like precipitates between 24 and 96 h, in contrast with flat-layer biofilms produced on stainless steel. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the frequency of pillars and channels. Images of transmission electron microscopy demonstrated abundant fimbriae in 100 % of cells from both strains, which could be related to surface adherence and biofilm formation. This represents the first study of P. mirabilis showing adhesion, biofilm formation, and development of different structures on surfaces found outside the human host.

  5. Toward quantitative electrochemical measurements on the nanoscale by scanning probe microscopy: environmental and current spreading effects.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Thomas M; Kumar, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Veith, Gabriel M; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-09-24

    The application of electric bias across tip-surface junctions in scanning probe microscopy can readily induce surface and bulk electrochemical processes that can be further detected though changes in surface topography, Faradaic or conductive currents, or electromechanical strain responses. However, the basic factors controlling tip-induced electrochemical processes, including the relationship between applied tip bias and the thermodynamics of local processes, remains largely unexplored. Using the model Li-ion reduction reaction on the surface in Li-ion conducting glass ceramic, we explore the factors controlling Li-metal formation and find surprisingly strong effects of atmosphere and back electrode composition on the process. We find that reaction processes are highly dependent on the nature of the counter electrode and environmental conditions. Using a nondepleting Li counter electrode, Li particles could grow significantly larger and faster than a depleting counter electrode. Significant Li ion depletion leads to the inability for further Li reduction. Time studies suggest that Li diffusion replenishes the vacant sites after ∼12 h. These studies suggest the feasibility of SPM-based quantitative electrochemical studies under proper environmental controls, extending the concepts of ultramicroelectrodes to the single-digit nanometer scale.

  6. A study of the O/Ag(111) system with scanning tunneling microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at ambient pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Christian; Eren, Baran; Lechner, Barbara A. J.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of O2 with the Ag(111) surface was studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the pressure range from 10- 9 Torr to 1 atm at room temperature and with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) up to 0.3 Torr O2 in the temperature range from RT to 413 K. STM images show that the Ag(111) surface topography is little affected in regions with large flat terraces, except for the appearance of mobile features due to oxygen atoms at pressures above 0.01 Torr. In regions where the step density is high, the surface became rough under 0.01 Torr of O2, due to the local oxidation of Ag. Various chemical states of oxygen due to chemisorbed, oxide and subsurface species were identified by XPS as a function of pressure and temperature. The findings from the STM images and XPS measurements indicate that formation of an oxide phase, the thermodynamically stable form at room temperature under ambient O2 pressure, is kinetically hindered in the flat terrace areas but proceeds readily in regions with high-step density.

  7. Environmental scanning as a moderator of strategy-performance relationships: an empirical analysis of physical therapy facilities.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Miles, Grant; McDowell, William C

    2008-05-01

    To date, strategic management research in health care is largely confined to the acute care sector of the industry. This research examines the linkages among environmental scanning, competitive strategy and performance in physical therapy facilities. Nontrivial differences between acute and subacute care firms suggest the role of environmental scanning may change in non-acute care settings. Consistent with previous research, these results indicate that the frequency of internal and external scanning is related to the strategic orientation of physical therapy facilities. Contrary to the expectations, broader scope of scanning is positively related to an increasing market-focused and increasing efficiency strategic orientation. A key objective of the research is to test the impact of strategy/scanning alignment on facility performance. These findings support predictions on the moderating role of scanning activities in the strategy-performance relationship. However, a paradoxical pattern of results has possible implications for clinician managers in subacute care settings as well as the interpretation of scanning activities.

  8. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... based on “blower in box” technology as an acceptable simulation of environmental air flow cooling for... of cell air circulation or if fan operational mechanics make the 0 mph air flow requirement impractical, air flow of 2 mph or less will be allowed at 0 mph vehicle speed. (3) The fan air flow...

  9. The surface topography of the choroid plexus. Environmental, low and high vacuum scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Pedro; Pütz, Norbert; Garcia Gómez de Las Heras, Soledad; García Poblete, Eduardo; Morguet, Andrea; Laue, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) allows the examination of hydrated and dried specimens without a conductive metal coating which could be advantageous in the imaging of biological and medical objects. The aim of this study was to assess the performance and benefits of wet-mode and low vacuum ESEM in comparison to high vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the choroid plexus of chicken embryos as a model, an organ of the brain involved in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid in vertebrates. Specimens were fixed with or without heavy metals and examined directly or after critical point drying with or without metal coating. For wet mode ESEM freshly excised specimens without any pre-treatment were also examined. Conventional high vacuum SEM revealed the characteristic morphology of the choroid plexus cells at a high resolution and served as reference. With low vacuum ESEM of dried but uncoated samples the structure appeared well preserved but charging was a problem. It could be reduced by a short beam dwell time and averaging of images or by using the backscattered electron detector instead of the gaseous secondary electron detector. However, resolution was lower than with conventional SEM. Wet mode imaging was only possible with tissue that had been stabilized by fixation. Not all surface details (e.g. microvilli) could be visualized and other structures, like the cilia, were deformed. In summary, ESEM is an additional option for the imaging of bio-medical samples but it is problematic with regard to resolution and sample stability during imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical demands of firefighter search and rescue in ambient environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Richmond, V L; Rayson, M P; Wilkinson, D M; Carter, J M; Blacker, S D

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the physiological responses and limitations to a simulated search and rescue scenario in a high-rise building under ambient conditions. Sixteen firefighters performed the scenario under four conditions: standard duration breathing apparatus (SDBA) and 45 mm hose; extended duration breathing apparatus (EDBA) and 45 mm hose; SDBA and 70 mm hose; EDBA and 70 mm hose. Core temperature, skin temperature and heart rate were monitored. In four of 32 trials the casualty was rescued; the remainder of the trials were terminated for safety, high core temperature or shortage of air. Final core temperature and heart rate were higher in the EDBA (39.1 degrees C; 72% heart rate reserve (HRR)) than SDBA conditions (38.6 degrees C; 67%HRR). No differences were observed between hose sizes. The scenario proved too onerous to complete successfully in the majority of cases. Replacing SDBA with EDBA eliminates air supply as a limiting factor, but brings with it challenges of managing thermal strain.

  11. Environmental scanning electron microscopy study of the interaction of carbon nanotubes with fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maria Pia

    The behavior of fluids at the nanoscale is currently of interest, as nanotechnology promises tools for the precise delivery and analysis of minute volumes of liquids. Because of their reported properties, ease of manipulation and hollow cavity, carbon nanotubes have attracted attention for fluidic delivery. Thus far, experimental studies on wetting of carbon nanotubes have been limited, and other work revolves around theoretical modeling. Consequently, there is a considerable lack of experimental data on the subject. In this work, environmental scanning electron microscopy was employed for visualization of the interaction of carbon nanotubes with fluids such as water, liquid crystals, and biological solutions. Carbon nanotubes of diverse surface structure and chemistry were evaluated, and hydrophobic and hydrophilic behavior was observed. Nanotubes made by catalytic chemical vapor deposition showed highly hydrophobic behavior by the formation of spherical water droplets on nanotube agglomerates. This behavior was caused by roughness of the agglomerates as well as pinning of the droplets on defects and functional groups along the walls of the nanotubes. On highly graphitic carbon nanotube agglomerates, no droplet formation was observed due to the lack of defects and terminations on the surface. Formation of "barrel" and "clam-shell" shaped droplets on individual nanotubes was also observed. Capillary condensation inside carbon nanotubes made by non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition was also observed in the environmental scanning electron microscope. Condensation was marked by the formation of a thin film of water on the inner walls of the nanotubes, followed by growth of a meniscus of low contact angle, indicating the hydrophilic nature of the nanotubes. Spontaneous elastic deformation of the nanotubes was observed upon the formation of the film due to surface tension effects. By annealing, the carbon nanotubes were graphitized, and highly hydrophobic behavior was

  12. Shape of allied health: an environmental scan of 27 allied health professions in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Young, Gretchen; O'Callaghan, Katy; Jenkins, Mathew; Philip, Kathleen; Barlow, Kegan

    2016-08-11

    Objective In 2015, the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services commissioned the Victorian Allied Health Workforce Research Program to provide data on allied health professions in the Victorian public, private and not-for-profit sectors. Herein we present a snapshot of the demographic profiles and distribution of these professions in Victoria and discuss the workforce implications.Methods The program commenced with an environmental scan of 27 allied health professions in Victoria. This substantial scoping exercise identified existing data, resources and contexts for each profession to guide future data collection and research. Each environmental scan reviewed existing data relating to the 27 professions, augmented by an online questionnaire sent to the professional bodies representing each discipline.Results Workforce data were patchy but, based on the evidence available, the allied health professions in Victoria vary greatly in size (ranging from just 17 child life therapists to 6288 psychologists), are predominantly female (83% of professions are more than 50% female) and half the professions report that 30% of their workforce is aged under 30 years. New training programs have increased workforce inflows to many professions, but there is little understanding of attrition rates. Professions reported a lack of senior positions in the public sector and a concomitant lack of senior specialised staff available to support more junior staff. Increasing numbers of allied health graduates are being employed directly in private practice because of a lack of growth in new positions in the public sector and changing funding models. Smaller professions reported that their members are more likely to be professionally isolated within an allied health team or larger organisations. Uneven rural-urban workforce distribution was evident across most professions.Conclusions Workforce planning for allied health is extremely complex because of the lack of data, fragmented

  13. Structure and characteristics of community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario: an environmental scan.

    PubMed

    Abrahamyan, Lusine; Wong, Josephine; Pham, Ba'; Trubiani, Gina; Carcone, Steven; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Rosen, Laura; Rac, Valeria E; Krahn, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team approach is an essential component of evidence-based wound management in the community. The objective of this study was to identify and describe community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. For the study, a working definition of a multidisciplinary wound care team was developed, and a two-phase field evaluation was conducted. In phase I, a systematic survey with three search strategies (environmental scan) was conducted to identify all multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. In phase II, the team leads were surveyed about the service models of the teams. We identified 49 wound care teams in Ontario. The highest ratio of Ontario seniors to wound team within each Ontario health planning region was 82,358:1; the lowest ratio was 14,151:1. Forty-four teams (90%) participated in the survey. The majority of teams existed for at least 5 years, were established as hospital outpatient clinics, and served patients with chronic wounds. Teams were heterogeneous in on-site capacity of specialized diagnostic testing and wound treatment, team size, and patient volume. Seventy-seven percent of teams had members from three or more disciplines. Several teams lacked essential disciplines. More research is needed to identify optimal service models leading to improved patient outcomes. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Contact angle analysis on polymethylmethacrylate and commercial wax by using an environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Brugnara, Marco; Della Volpe, Claudio; Siboni, Stefano; Zeni, Dario

    2006-01-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) represents one of the most exciting breakthroughs in electron microscopy since the invention of the electron microscope. Its ability to observe uncoated and hydrated samples enhances the possibility for investigating the wettability of surfaces at a microscopic level; by varying the relative vapour pressure or the temperature inside the chamber, it is possible to condense water drops on a micron scale. A large problem in measuring contact angles by ESEM is that the observation angle is not parallel or perpendicular to the surface; thus, the study of the droplets profile using the common algorithms such as spherical approximation or axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) is not possible, because only a spherical cap shape is commonly observed. In this paper we provide a useful mathematical model to calculate the real contact angle from the initial images. Initially, some simulated spherical caps with different contact and observation angles were created by an appropriate graphic package in order to test the mathematical model. Some real drops obtained by ESEM on wax and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were then studied and the results compared with contact angles measured by common methods on the same materials.

  15. An environmental scan of policies in support of chronic disease self-management in Canada.

    PubMed

    Liddy, C; Mill, K

    2014-02-01

    The evidence supporting chronic disease self-management warrants further attention. Our aim was to identify existing policies, strategies and frameworks that support self-management initiatives. This descriptive study was conducted as an environmental scan, consisting of an Internet search of government and other publicly available websites, and interviews with jurisdictional representatives identified through the Health Council of Canada and academic networking. We interviewed 16 representatives from all provinces and territories in Canada and found 30 publicly available and relevant provincial and national documents. Most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management. Alberta and British Columbia have the most detailed policies. Both feature primary care prominently and are not disease specific. Both also have provincial level implementation of chronic disease self-management programming. Canada's northern territories all lacked specific policies supporting chronic disease self-management despite a significant burden of disease. Engaging patients in self-management of their chronic diseases is important and effective. Although most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management, they were often embedded within other initiatives and/or policy documents framed around specific diseases or populations. This approach could limit the potential reach and effect of self-management.

  16. In situ study of single-walled carbon nanotube growth in an environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Mehedi, H-A; Ravaux, J; Tahir, S; Podor, R; Jourdain, V

    2016-12-16

    Monitoring individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) during their growth is a highly sought-after goal in view of understanding the processes involved in the nucleation, elongation and termination which ultimately control the diameter and chiral selectivity. Here, we report on the first truly in situ observations of SWCNT growth in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The CNT growth from lithographically patterned catalysts was investigated as a function of the catalyst type (Fe, Co or Ni), temperature, type of precursor (ethanol or acetylene), gas phase composition and pressure, and pretreatment conditions, and we report on the most appropriate conditions for SWCNT growth in ESEM conditions. We show that this approach allows the observation at the submicron scale of the different steps of the nanotube synthesis including the catalyst reduction, the growth and percolation of the nanotube network, and the deposition of individual nanotubes grown in the gas phase on the substrate. Despite these obvious advantages, we identified a few limitations which will need to be tackled for fully taking advantage of the approach, for instance for monitoring the growth of individual SWCNTs by ESEM, including the short lifetime of the catalyst nanoparticles, the preference for kite growth (by opposition to surface growth) and the influence of the electron beam on the nanotube growth.

  17. Swelling-shrinkage measurements of bentonite using coupled environmental scanning electron microscopy and digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Montes-H, G

    2005-04-01

    The swelling clays have been proposed as engineered barriers in geological disposal systems for waste because these materials are assumed to build a better impermeable zone around wastes by swelling. However, the swelling potential of soils is also considered a prevalent cause of damage to buildings and constructions. For these reasons, it is fundamental to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical behavior of swelling clays. In the current study, the swelling-shrinkage potential (aggregates scale) was estimated using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) coupled with a digital image analysis (DIA) program (Visilog). In fact, the isolated aggregates of raw and cation-exchanged bentonite were directly observed at different relative humidities in an ESEM chamber. Then the "Visilog" software was used to estimate the percent augmentation of the aggregate surface as a function of time and as a function of relative humidity. This estimation allows for the calculation of the swelling-shrinkage potential (%) of bentonite. Finally, a kinetic model of first order was tested to fit the kinetic experimental data of swelling-shrinkage potential. The results show that ESEM-DIA coupling can be a powerful method of estimating the swelling-shrinkage potential of expansive clays. In addition, the exponential models fit well with the kinetic experimental data.

  18. An optimized methodology to analyze biopolymer capsules by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Conforto, Egle; Joguet, Nicolas; Buisson, Pierre; Vendeville, Jean-Eudes; Chaigneau, Carine; Maugard, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an optimized methodology to study the surface characteristics and internal structure of biopolymer capsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in environmental mode. The main advantage of this methodology is that no preparation is required and, significantly, no metallic coverage is deposited on the surface of the specimen, thus preserving the original capsule shape and its surface morphology. This avoids introducing preparation artefacts which could modify the capsule surface and mask information concerning important feature like porosities or roughness. Using this method gelatin and mainly fatty coatings, difficult to be analyzed by standard SEM technique, unambiguously show fine details of their surface morphology without damage. Furthermore, chemical contrast is preserved in backscattered electron images of unprepared samples, allowing visualizing the internal organization of the capsule, the quality of the envelope, etc... This study provides pointers on how to obtain optimal conditions for the analysis of biological or sensitive material, as this is not always studied using appropriate techniques. A reliable evaluation of the parameters used in capsule elaboration for research and industrial applications, as well as that of capsule functionality is provided by this methodology, which is essential for the technological progress in this domain.

  19. In situ study of single-walled carbon nanotube growth in an environmental scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi, H.-A.; Ravaux, J.; Tahir, S.; Podor, R.; Jourdain, V.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) during their growth is a highly sought-after goal in view of understanding the processes involved in the nucleation, elongation and termination which ultimately control the diameter and chiral selectivity. Here, we report on the first truly in situ observations of SWCNT growth in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The CNT growth from lithographically patterned catalysts was investigated as a function of the catalyst type (Fe, Co or Ni), temperature, type of precursor (ethanol or acetylene), gas phase composition and pressure, and pretreatment conditions, and we report on the most appropriate conditions for SWCNT growth in ESEM conditions. We show that this approach allows the observation at the submicron scale of the different steps of the nanotube synthesis including the catalyst reduction, the growth and percolation of the nanotube network, and the deposition of individual nanotubes grown in the gas phase on the substrate. Despite these obvious advantages, we identified a few limitations which will need to be tackled for fully taking advantage of the approach, for instance for monitoring the growth of individual SWCNTs by ESEM, including the short lifetime of the catalyst nanoparticles, the preference for kite growth (by opposition to surface growth) and the influence of the electron beam on the nanotube growth.

  20. Experimental evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopes at high chamber pressure.

    PubMed

    Fitzek, H; Schroettner, H; Wagner, J; Hofer, F; Rattenberger, J

    2015-11-01

    In environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) high pressure applications have become increasingly important. Wet or biological samples can be investigated without time-consuming sample preparation and potential artefacts from this preparation can be neglected. Unfortunately, the signal-to-noise ratio strongly decreases with increasing chamber pressure. To evaluate the high pressure performance of ESEM and to compare different electron microscopes, information about spatial resolution and detector type is not enough. On the one hand, the scattering of the primary electron beam increases, which vanishes the contrast in images; and on the other hand, the secondary electrons (SE) signal amplification decreases. The stagnation gas thickness (effective distance the beam has to travel through the imaging gas) as well as the SE detection system depend on the microscope and for a complete and serious evaluation of an ESEM or low vacuum SEM it is necessary to specify these two parameters. A method is presented to determine the fraction of scattered and unscattered electrons and to calculate the stagnation gas thickness (θ). To evaluate the high pressure performance of the SE detection system, a method is presented that allows for an analysis of a single image and the calculation of the signal-to-noise ratio of this image. All investigations are performed on an FEI ESEM Quanta 600 (field emission gun) and an FEI ESEM Quanta 200 (thermionic gun). These methods and measurements should represent opportunities for evaluating the high pressure performance of an ESEM.

  1. Engineering and Characterization of Collagen Networks Using Wet Atomic Force Microscopy and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Jenna; Coffey, Tonya; Conrad, Brad; Burris, Jennifer; Hester, Brooke

    2014-03-01

    Collagen is an abundant protein and its monomers covalently crosslink to form fibrils which form fibers which contribute to forming macrostructures like tendon or bone. While the contribution is well understood at the macroscopic level, it is not well known at the fibril level. We wish to study the mechanical properties of collagen for networks of collagen fibers that vary in size and density. We present here a method to synthesize collagen networks from monomers and that allows us to vary the density of the networks. By using biotynilated collagen and a surface that is functionalized with avidin, we generate two-dimensional collagen networks across the surface of a silicon wafer. During network synthesis, the incubation time is varied from 30 minutes to 3 hours or temperature is varied from 25°C to 45°C. The two-dimensional collagen network created in the process is characterized using environmental atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The network density is measured by the number of strands in one frame using SPIP software. We expect that at body temperature (37°C) and with longer incubation times, the network density should increase.

  2. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy to determine the hygroscopic properties of agricultural aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Brooks, Sarah D.; Auvermann, Brent W.; Littleton, Rick

    A field study at a cattle feedlot in the Texas Panhandle was conducted to characterize the hygroscopic, morphological, and chemical properties of agricultural aerosols and to identify possible correlations between these properties. To explore the hygroscopic nature of the agricultural particles, we have collected size-resolved aerosol samples using a cascade impactor system and have used an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to determine the water uptake by individual particles in those samples as a function of relative humidity (RH). In addition, complementary determination of the elemental composition of single particles was performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Our results indicate that most of the agricultural particles do not take up significant amounts of water when exposed to up to 96% RH. However, a small fraction of particles in the coarse mode deliquesced at approximately 75% RH and reached twice their original sizes by 96% RH. The observed changes in particle size with increased RH may significantly impact total aerosol extinction, visibility, and human health.

  3. The current state of electronic consultation and electronic referral systems in Canada: an environmental scan.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Hogel, Matthew; Blazkho, Valerie; Keely, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Access to specialist care is a point of concern for patients, primary care providers, and specialists in Canada. Innovative e-health platforms such as electronic consultation (eConsultation) and referral (eReferral) can improve access to specialist care. These systems allow physicians to communicate asynchronously and could reduce the number of unnecessary referrals that clog wait lists, provide a record of the patient's journey through the referral system, and lead to more efficient visits. Little is known about the current state of eConsultation and eReferral in Canada. The purpose of this work was to identify current systems and gain insight into the design and implementation process of existing systems. An environmental scan approach was used, consisting of a systematic and grey literature review, and targeted semi-structured key informant interviews. Only three eConsultation/eReferral systems are currently in operation in Canada. Four themes emerged from the interviews: eReferral is an end goal for those provinces without an active eReferral system, re-organization of the referral process is a necessity prior to automation, engaging the end-user is essential, and technological incompatibilities are major impediments to progress. Despite the acknowledged need to improve the referral system and increase government spending on health information technology, eConsultation and eReferral systems remain scarce as Canada lags behind the rest of the developed world.

  4. Impact of ambient lighting intensity and duration on the signal-to-noise ratio of images from photostimulable phosphor plates processed using DenOptix and ScanX systems.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, R; Canning, C F; Scheetz, J P; Farman, A G

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the impact on photostimulable phosphor (PSP) image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of pre-scanning ambient lighting exposures. PSP imaging plates (IPs) were exposed to different radiation exposures to achieve flat field images. The exposed IPs were subjected variously to visible light of different intensities (300, 150 or 20 lux) for durations ranging from < 10 s to 120 s. They were processed using laser scanners from two systems for further comparison (DenOptix versus ScanX). Histogram analysis was performed in each case and mean pixel value and its standard deviation were used as surrogates to assess SNR. Statistical methods applied included analysis of variance with Tukey honestly significant difference test for pair wise comparisons. The a priori alpha was set at P < or = 0.05. SNR decreased with increased duration and intensity of pre-scanning light exposure. Lower X-ray exposures resulted in decreased signal resulting in reduced SNR, and increased the need to reduce ambient lighting. No statistically significant differences were found comparing ScanX and DenOptix digital imaging systems in terms of SNR. Reduced ambient lighting is preferred for handling IPs prior to processing in the laser scanner.

  5. Metrology for Trending Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Before and After Ambient Environmental Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Berrier, Joshua; Gum, Jeff; Hayden, Joseph; Khreishi, Manal; Mclean, Kyle; Redman, Kevin; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Greg; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASAs James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SIs). Prior to integration with the spacecraft, the JWST optical assembly is put through rigorous launch condition environmental testing. This work reports on the metrology operations conducted to determine any changes in subassembly alignment, including primary mirror segments with respect to each other, the secondary mirror to its support structure, the tertiary mirror assembly to the backplane of the telescope and ultimately to the ISIM.

  6. Metrology for Trending Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Before and After Ambient Environmental Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Berrier, Joshua; Gum, Jeffery; Hayden, Joseph; Khreishi, Manal; McLean, Kyle; Redman, Kevin; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Greg; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SIs). Prior to integration with the spacecraft, theJWST optical assembly is put through rigorous launch condition environmental testing. This work reports on the metrology operations conducted to determine any changes in subassembly alignment, including primary mirror segments with respect to each other, the secondary mirror to its support structure, the tertiary mirror assembly to the backplane of the telescope and ultimately to the ISIM.

  7. Intelligent Agent Appropriation in the Tracking Phase of an Environmental Scanning Process: A Case Study of a French Trade Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafaye, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The rapid growth of the Internet has modified the boundaries of information acquisition (tracking) in environmental scanning. Despite the numerous advantages of this new medium, information overload is an enormous problem for Internet scanners. In order to help them, intelligent agents (i.e., autonomous, automated software agents…

  8. From Reactionary to Responsive: Applying the Internal Environmental Scan Protocol to Lifelong Learning Strategic Planning and Operational Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes and implements a necessary preliminary strategic planning procedure, the Internal Environmental Scanning (IES), and discusses its relevance to strategic planning and university-sponsored lifelong learning program model selection. Employing a qualitative research methodology, a proposed lifelong learning-centric IES process…

  9. An environmental scan of advance care planning decision AIDS for patients undergoing major surgery: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Aslakson, Rebecca A; Schuster, Anne L R; Miller, Judith; Weiss, Matthew; Volandes, Angelo E; Bridges, John F P

    2014-01-01

    Patients who undergo major surgery are at risk for perioperative morbidity and mortality. It would be appropriate to initiate advance care planning with patients prior to surgery, but surgeons may experience difficulty initiating such conversations. Rather than focus on changing clinician behavior, advance care planning decision aids can be an innovative vehicle to motivate advance care planning among surgical patients and their families. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study protocol for conducting an environmental scan concerning advance care planning decision aids that may be relevant to patients undergoing high-risk surgery. This study will gather information from written or verbal data sources that incorporate professional and lay perspectives: a systematic review, a grey literature review, key informant interviews, and patient and family engagement. It is envisioned that this study will generate three outcomes: a synthesis of current evidence, a summary of gaps in knowledge, and a taxonomy of existing advance care planning decision aids. This environmental scan will demonstrate principles of patient-centered outcomes research, and it will exemplify a pioneering approach for reviewing complex interventions. Anticipated limitations are that information will be gathered from a small sample of patients and families, and that potentially relevant information could also be missing from the environmental scan due to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Outcomes from the environmental scan will inform future patient-centered research to develop and evaluate a new decision aid.

  10. From Reactionary to Responsive: Applying the Internal Environmental Scan Protocol to Lifelong Learning Strategic Planning and Operational Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes and implements a necessary preliminary strategic planning procedure, the Internal Environmental Scanning (IES), and discusses its relevance to strategic planning and university-sponsored lifelong learning program model selection. Employing a qualitative research methodology, a proposed lifelong learning-centric IES process…

  11. Immunotoxicological Analysis of the Immune Adjuvant Effects of Source Specific Diesel and Environmental Ambient Particulate Matter in a Murine Sensitization And Challenge Model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Acute exposure to ambient particulate matter (APM) provokes oxidative and inflammatory lung activation in vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that environmental diesel exhaust particles (eDEP), emission source-specific DEP (cDEP) and APM differentially provoke an allerg...

  12. Immunotoxicological Analysis of the Immune Adjuvant Effects of Source Specific Diesel and Environmental Ambient Particulate Matter in a Murine Sensitization And Challenge Model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Acute exposure to ambient particulate matter (APM) provokes oxidative and inflammatory lung activation in vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that environmental diesel exhaust particles (eDEP), emission source-specific DEP (cDEP) and APM differentially provoke an allerg...

  13. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.L.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22-29, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  14. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22-29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase II Sampling and Analysis activities as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  15. Use of environmental scanning electron microscopy to evaluate dental stain removal.

    PubMed

    Zammitti, S; Habib, C; Kugel, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to evaluate stain removal from extracted teeth. The ESEM differs from conventional SEM in that no sample preparation is needed, eliminating artifactual changes. Furthermore, the same sample can be viewed on multiple occasions, allowing "before" and "after" pictures of the same tooth. As a model stain removal device, we tested the Sonicare sonic toothbrush, which has previously been shown to remove dental stain in vivo. Twelve freshly extracted teeth with extrinsic coffee, tea or tobacco stain were obtained for the study. Nine of these had heavy stain (stain covering more than one-third buccal or lingual surface) and were used without further modification. Three teeth were treated in vitro with chlorhexidine and a mixture of coffee and tea to enhance staining. All teeth were examined by ESEM at three times: prior to brushing, after 15-30 seconds of brushing, and after 60-80 seconds of brushing. Light microscopy and 35 mm photography was also done to correlate the ultrastructural changes with those visible at low magnification. Water, mouthwash and 30% slurry of toothpaste were used as fluid vehicles during brushing, but little difference in stain removal was noted among these three fluids. Approximately half the stain was removed within 15-30 seconds, and most visible stain was removed in 60-80 seconds of brushing. Pits and crevices of tooth enamel that were smaller than the bristle diameter, and thus would be inaccessible to abrasive cleaning by direct bristle contact, were generally found to be stain-free. These findings confirm previous reports of the stain removal effectiveness of the Sonicare, and demonstrate the usefulness of ESEM for stain removal studies.

  16. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option.

  17. Specialized multi-disciplinary heart failure clinics in Ontario, Canada: an environmental scan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-disciplinary heart failure (HF) clinics have been shown to improve outcomes for HF patients in randomized clinical trials. However, it is unclear how widely available specialized HF clinics are in Ontario. Also, the service models of current clinics have not been described. It is therefore uncertain whether the efficacy of HF clinics in trials is generalizable to the HF clinics currently operating in the province. Methods As part of a comprehensive evaluation of HF clinics in Ontario, we performed an environmental scan to identify all HF clinics operating in 2010. A semi-structured interview was conducted to understand the scope of practice. The intensity and complexity of care offered were quantified through the use of a validated instrument, and clinics were categorized as high, medium or low intensity clinics. Results We identified 34 clinics with 143 HF physicians. We found substantial regional disparity in access to care across the province. The majority of HF physicians were cardiologists (81%), with 81% of the clinics physically based in hospitals, of which 26% were academic centers. There was a substantial range in the complexity of services offered, most notably in the intensity of education and medication management services offered. All the clinics focused on ambulatory care, with only one having an in-patient focus. None of the HF clinics had a home-based component to care. Conclusions Multiple HF clinics are currently operating in Ontario with a wide spectrum of care models. Further work is necessary to understand which components lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:22863276

  18. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.

  19. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of April 14-21, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 4.3, Poplar Creek Mile 5.1, and Poplar Creek Mile 6.0 on April 13, 15, and 18. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to daphnids in undiluted samples; however, toxicity to fathead minnows (significantly reduced survival) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Daphnid reproduction was significantly less than controls in 50 percent dilutions of samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0, while no toxicity to fathead minnows was shown in diluted (50 percent) samples.

  20. Correlation between Charge State of Insulating NaCl Surfaces and Ionic Mobility Induced by Water Adsorption: A Combined Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Verdaguer, Albert; Jose Segura, Juan; Fraxedas, Jordi; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-09-03

    In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) and scanning force microscopy were used to characterize the surface discharge induced by water layers grown on (001) surfaces of sodium chloride single crystals. The APPES studies show that both kinetic energy (KE) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Na 2s and Cl 2p core level peaks, monitored as a function of relative humidity (RH), mimic surface conductivity curves measured using scanning force microscopy. The KE position and FWHM of the core level peaks therefore are directly related to the solvation and diffusion of ions at the NaCl(100) surface upon adsorption of water.

  1. National, State, and Local Trends: Environmental Scan of Trends and Key Issues Affecting Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Jon; Budros, Kathleen; Yoshioka, Joyce

    This document is a collection of one-page summaries, or "Trends Newsletters" (Numbers 50, 54-7, 59-60, 67-71, and 73-91), that analyze the national, state, and local trends affecting planning for the San Jose/Evergreen Community College District in California. The document is divided into two sections: External Scan and Internal Scan.…

  2. Horizon scanning for environmental foresight: a review of issues and approaches

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource management organizations carry out a range of activities to examine possible future conditions and trends as part of their planning process, but the distinct approach of formal horizon scanning is often a missing component of strategic thinking and strategy development in these organizations. Horizon scanning is a process for finding and interpreting...

  3. The Vapor Pressure of Environmentally Significant Organic Chemicals: A Review of Methods and Data at Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Delle Site, A.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental techniques and the prediction procedures for the determination or evaluation of the vapor pressure of environmentally relevant organic compounds are described; with 259 references examined. For each of them the characteristics of precision and accuracy are given, when available from the literature. The experimental methods are classified as {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect.{close_quotes} The first class includes all those which can measure directly the vapor pressure, while the second concerns those which need {open_quotes}known{close_quotes} vapor pressures of reference compounds for the calibration. Prediction methods are based on the application of the Clapeyron{endash}Clausius equation or on the quantitative structure-property relationships. Also correlation methods require a suitable calibration. The vapor pressures at ambient temperature for several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, selected pesticides, and some reference compounds are tabulated together with the vapor pressure equations and the enthalpy values in the temperature range of measurement. A critical comparison, based on a statistical analysis of the data obtained with different methods and derived from 152 references, is also carried out. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society.}{ital Key words:} chlorinated biphenyls; chlorinated dioxins; critically reviewed data; critically reviewed methods; pesticides; polynuclear aromatics; vapor pressure. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society}

  4. The Vapor Pressure of Environmentally Significant Organic Chemicals: A Review of Methods and Data at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Site, Alessandro

    1997-01-01

    The experimental techniques and the prediction procedures for the determination or evaluation of the vapor pressure of environmentally relevant organic compounds are described; with 259 references examined. For each of them the characteristics of precision and accuracy are given, when available from the literature. The experimental methods are classified as "direct" and "indirect." The first class includes all those which can measure directly the vapor pressure, while the second concerns those which need "known" vapor pressures of reference compounds for the calibration. Prediction methods are based on the application of the Clapeyron-Clausius equation or on the quantitative structure-property relationships. Also correlation methods require a suitable calibration. The vapor pressures at ambient temperature for several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, selected pesticides, and some reference compounds are tabulated together with the vapor pressure equations and the enthalpy values in the temperature range of measurement. A critical comparison, based on a statistical analysis of the data obtained with different methods and derived from 152 references, is also carried out.

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. Summarizing Environmental Security Monthly Scanning. July 2008 - June 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    16 A Preventing or repairing military damage to the environment B Preventing or responding to environmentally caused conflicts C Protecting...to implement current legal agreements and make new more-powerful legal instruments are being strengthened. As a result, environmental damages that... damage to the environment, • preventing or responding to environmentally caused conflicts, and • protecting the environment due to its inherent moral

  6. Focusing on Environmental Biofilms With Variable-Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, L.; Wolfaardt, G. M.; Du Plessis, K.

    2006-12-01

    Since the term biofilm has been coined almost 30 years ago, visualization has formed an integral part of investigations on microbial attachment. Electron microscopic (EM) biofilm studies, however, have been limited by the hydrated extracellular matrix which loses structural integrity with conventional preparative techniques, and under required high-vacuum conditions, resulting in a loss of information on spatial relationships and distribution of biofilm microbes. Recent advances in EM technology enable the application of Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP SEM) to biofilms, allowing low vacuum and hydrated chamber atmosphere during visualization. Environmental biofilm samples can be viewed in situ, unfixed and fully hydrated, with application of gold-sputter-coating only, to increase image resolution. As the impact of microbial biofilms can be both hazardous and beneficial to man and his environment, recognition of biofilms as a natural form of microbial existence is needed to fully assess the potential role of microbial communities on technology. The integration of multiple techniques to elucidate biofilm processes has become imperative for unraveling complex phenotypic adaptations of this microbial lifestyle. We applied VP SEM as integrative technique with traditional and novel analytical techniques to (1)localize lignocellulosic microbial consortia applied for producing alternative bio-energy sources in the mining wastewater industry, (2) characterize and visualize wetland microbial communities in the treatment of winery wastewater, and (3)determine the impact of recombinant technology on yeast biofilm behavior. Visualization of microbial attachment to a lignocellulose substrate, and degradation of exposed plant tissue, gave insight into fiber degradation and volatile fatty acid production for biological sulphate removal from mining wastewater. Also, the 3D-architecture of complex biofilms developing in constructed wetlands was correlated with

  7. Elemental line scanning of an increment core using EDXRF: from fundamental research to environmental forensics applications

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensics seeks to determine the responsible parties for contamination from leaks or spills of petroleum or other toxic products. Dendrochemistry contributes to environmental forensics at the intersection of analytical chemistry, tree biology, and environmental responsibility. To be useful, dendrochemistry requires the rigorous application of analytical...

  8. An environmental scan of an aged care workplace using the PARiHS model: assessing preparedness for change.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heather

    2013-03-01

    The environmental scan aimed to deepen our understanding of the aged care work culture and to ascertain the readiness of the workers to advance towards team-based quality care provision. The workplace context was a high-care unit within a large residential aged care facility. We used the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework to assess workplace readiness via interviews, individual surveys and observation of practice. A profile of current culture emerged as mutually supportive and task focused, but at the same time lacking corporate team features of shared decision-making and feedback for practice improvement. However, latent within the frontline leaders and personal care staff, there was evidence of some embedded knowledge and capacity for corporate team performance. This study has validated an evidence-based method for conducting environmental scanning in aged care, recommended before any major change is introduced. Environmental scanning helps gauge workforce capacity and limitations; this information can enable managers to capitalize on identified cultural strengths to fortify change and avoid pitfalls of personal and collective vulnerabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Improving three-tier environmental assessment model by using a 3D scanning FLS-AM series hyperspectral lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samberg, Andre; Babichenko, Sergei; Poryvkina, Larisa

    2005-05-01

    Delay between the time when natural disaster, for example, oil accident in coastal water, occurred and the time when environmental protection actions, for example, water and shoreline clean-up, started is of significant importance. Mostly remote sensing techniques are considered as (near) real-time and suitable for multiple tasks. These techniques in combination with rapid environmental assessment methodologies would form multi-tier environmental assessment model, which allows creating (near) real-time datasets and optimizing sampling scenarios. This paper presents the idea of three-tier environmental assessment model. Here all three tiers are briefly described to show the linkages between them, with a particular focus on the first tier. Furthermore, it is described how large-scale environmental assessment can be improved by using an airborne 3-D scanning FLS-AM series hyperspectral lidar. This new aircraft-based sensor is typically applied for oil mapping on sea/ground surface and extracting optical features of subjects. In general, a sampling network, which is based on three-tier environmental assessment model, can include ship(s) and aircraft(s). The airborne 3-D scanning FLS-AM series hyperspectral lidar helps to speed up the whole process of assessing of area of natural disaster significantly, because this is a real-time remote sensing mean. For instance, it can deliver such information as georeferenced oil spill position in WGS-84, the estimated size of the whole oil spill, and the estimated amount of oil in seawater or on ground. All information is produced in digital form and, thus, can be directly transferred into a customer"s GIS (Geographical Information System) system.

  10. Early- to Mid-Holocene environmental and climate changes in the southern Baltic lowland using XRF scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjallingii, Rik; Ott, Florian; Dräger, Nadine; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Slowinski, Michal; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The ICLEA project includes several annually laminated (varved) lake records from the southern Baltic lowlands for detailed climatic and environmental reconstructions. Continuous geochemical records have been obtained by XRF scanning and reveal the dominant depositional processes of the German lake Tiefer See and the Polish lakes Głęboczek, Czechowskie and Jelonek. Each lake record has been independently dated by means of varve counting, AMS 14C dating and tephrochronology. The unprecedented age control allows accurate age correlation of individual lake records even over large distances. The detailed stratigraphy is used in combination with micro-XRF core scanning records to link depositional variability with past environmental and climatic changes. However, in each lake the major sedimentological transitions are reflected by different geochemical elements due to the different depositional conditions. Here we present a statistical concept for XRF core scanning data to evaluate the timing and frequency of the most prominent sedimentological transitions of the Early to Mid Holocene. Preliminary results reveal that depositional conditions prevail over relatively long periods (102-103 yrs) between the Younger Dryas and ~6000 yrs. The sedimentological transitions during this period are associated to regional climatic changes in the southern Baltic lowlands during this period. After ~6000 yrs BP, depositional conditions vary at a much higher frequency (10-102 yrs), which are associated with a stronger local and lake internal environmental variability. Ongoing research focuses on a multi-proxy approach to further constrain possible links between depositional changes recorded in these varved lacustrine sediments with Early- to Mid-Holocene climatic and environmental variations. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA - of the Helmholtz Association.

  11. Identification of outliers in a genomic scan for selection along environmental gradients in the bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiao-Jing; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Identification of loci under divergent selection is a key step in understanding the evolutionary process because those loci are responsible for the genetic variations that affect fitness in different environments. Understanding how environmental forces give rise to adaptive genetic variation is a challenge in pest control. Here, we performed an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genome scan in populations of the bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu, to search for candidate loci that are influenced by selection along an environmental gradient in southern China. In outlier locus detection, loci that demonstrate significantly higher or lower among-population genetic differentiation than expected under neutrality are identified as outliers. We used several outlier detection methods to study the features of C. kiangsu, including method DFDIST, BayeScan, and logistic regression. A total of 97 outlier loci were detected in the C. kiangsu genome with very high statistical supports. Moreover, the results suggested that divergent selection arising from environmental variation has been driven by differences in temperature, precipitation, humidity and sunshine. These findings illustrate that divergent selection and potential local adaptation are prevalent in locusts despite seemingly high levels of gene flow. Thus, we propose that native environments in each population may induce divergent natural selection. PMID:26333424

  12. Visualisation of natural aquatic colloids and particles -- a comparison of conventional high vacuum and environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Frederic J; Lead, Jamie R; Maguire, Leanne; Achterberg, Eric P; Millward, Geoff E

    2005-02-01

    The applicability of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM; imaging of hydrated samples) and conventional high vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM; imaging of dried samples at high vacuum) for the observation of natural aquatic colloids and particles was explored and compared. Specific attention was given to the advantages and limitations of these two techniques when used to assess the sizes and morphologies of complex and heterogeneous environmental systems. The observation of specimens using SEM involved drying and coating, whereas ESEM permitted their examination in hydrated form without prior sample preparation or conductive coating. The two techniques provided significantly different micrographs of the same sample. SEM provided sharper images, lower resolution limits (10 nm or lower), but more densely packed particles, suggesting aggregation, and different morphological features than ESEM, suggesting artefacts due to drying. ESEM produced less easily visualised materials, more complex interpretation, slightly higher resolution limits (30-50 nm), but these limitations were more than compensated for by the fact that ESEM samples retained, at least to some extent, their morphological integrity. The results in this paper show that SEM and ESEM should be regarded as complementary techniques for the study of aquatic colloids and particles and that ESEM should be more widely applied to aquatic environmental systems than hitherto.

  13. Organizations as Information Processing Systems. Environmental Characteristics, Company Performance, and Chief Executive Scanning: An Empirical Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    perhaps more than any other factor, affects organizatlonal structure, internal processes, and managerial decision making (Duncan, 1972; Ptetfer and...company, call. an immediate subordinate, or read an internal report or professional journal. Top management scanning tends to be irregular rather than...Mode is derived from Aguilar’s (19b7) designation of information sources as personal, impersonal, internal or external.. Scanni ngj fretncy. Research

  14. The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study methodology.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Hahn, Intaek; Fortune, Christopher R; Rodes, Charles E; Portzer, Jeffrey W; Lee, Sangdon; Wiener, Russell W; Smith, Luther A; Wheeler, Michael; Seagraves, Jeremy; Stein, Mark; Eisner, Alfred D; Brixey, Laurie A; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Brouwer, Lydia H; Ellenson, William D; Baldauf, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study examined indoor and outdoor exposure to traffic-generated air pollution by studying the individual processes of generation of traffic emissions, transport and dispersion of air contaminants along a roadway, and infiltration of the contaminants into a residence. Real-time instrumentation was used to obtain highly resolved time-series concentration profiles for a number of air pollutants. The B-TRAPPED field study was conducted in the residential Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, USA, in May 2005. The neighborhood contained the Gowanus Expressway (Interstate 278), a major arterial road (4(th) Avenue), and residential side streets running perpendicular to the Gowanus Expressway and 4(th) Avenue. Synchronized measurements were obtained inside a test house, just outside the test house façade, and along the urban residential street canyon on which the house was located. A trailer containing Federal Reference Method (FRM) and real-time monitors was located next to the Gowanus Expressway to assess the source. Ultrafine particulate matter (PM), PM(2.5), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction were monitored. Different sampling schemes were devised to focus on dispersion along the street canyon or infiltration into the test house. Results were obtained for ultrafine PM, PM(2.5), criteria gases, and wind conditions from sampling schemes focused on street canyon dispersion and infiltration. For comparison, the ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) results were compared with an existing data set from the Los Angeles area, and the criteria gas data were compared with measurements from a Vancouver epidemiologic study. Measured ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) concentration levels along the residential urban street canyon and at the test house façade in Sunset Park

  15. Visible infrared spin-scan radiometers (VISSR) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) B and C application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Two visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) instruments provided for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite B and C (GOES B and C) spacecrafts are described. The instruments are identical to those supplied previously are summarized. A significant number of changes primarily involving corrections of drawing errors and omissions were also performed. All electrical changes were breadboarded (where complexity required this), were incorporated into the test module, and subjected to verification of proper operation throughout fall instrument temperature range. Evaluation of the changes also included design operating safety margins to account for component variations and life.

  16. Observation of a brine layer on an ice surface with an environmental scanning electron microscope at higher pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Krausko, Ján; Runštuk, Jiří; Neděla, Vilém; Klán, Petr; Heger, Dominik

    2014-05-20

    Observation of a uranyl-salt brine layer on an ice surface using backscattered electron detection and ice surface morphology using secondary-electron detection under equilibrium conditions was facilitated using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) at temperatures above 250 K and pressures of hundreds of Pa. The micrographs of a brine layer over ice grains prepared by either slow or shock freezing provided a complementary picture of the contaminated ice grain boundaries. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the uranyl ions in the brine layer confirmed that the species exists predominately in the solvated state under experimental conditions of ESEM.

  17. Quality improvement of environmental secondary electron detector signal using helium gas in variable pressure scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Oho, Eisaku; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Yamazaki, Sadao

    2007-01-01

    The quality of the image signal obtained from the environmental secondary electron detector (ESED) employed in a variable pressure (VP) SEM can be dramatically improved by using helium gas. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases gradually in the range of the pressures that can be used in our modified SEM. This method is especially useful in low-voltage VP SEM as well as in a variety of SEM operating conditions, because helium gas can more or less maintain the amount of unscattered primary electrons. In order to measure the SNR precisely, a digital scan generator system for obtaining two images with identical views is employed as a precondition.

  18. Environmental contaminant mixtures at ambient concentrations invoke a metabolic stress response in goldfish not predicted from exposure to individual compounds alone.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Julia; Zare, Ava; Jackson, Leland J; Habibi, Hamid R; Weljie, Aalim M

    2012-02-03

    Environmental contaminants from wastewater and industrial or agricultural areas are known to have adverse effects on development, reproduction, and metabolism. However, reliable assessment of environmental contaminant impact at low (i.e., ambient) concentrations using genomics and transcriptomics approaches has proven challenging. A goldfish model was used to investigate the effects of aquatic pollutant exposure in vivo by means of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in multiple organs to elucidate a system-wide response. Animals were exposed to 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (Bisphenol-A, BPA), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), and nonylphenol (NP). Metabolite-specific spectral analysis combined with pathway-driven bioinformatics indicated changes in energy and lipid metabolism in liver following exposure to individual contaminants and a tertiary mixture. A dissimilar response in testis exposed to DEHP and mixture indicates disrupted AMPK and cAMP signaling. Uniquely, our observations (1) suggest that exposure to a contaminant mixture is characterized by a stress response not predicted from exposure to individual contaminants, even in the absence of other phenotypic features and (2) demonstrate the sensitivity of metabolomics in risk-assessment of environmental toxicant mixtures at ambient concentrations by detecting early stage metabolic dysregulation. These findings have general applicability in the assessment of "benign" compound mixtures in environmental and pharmaceutical development.

  19. Study of environmental biodegradation of LDPE films in soil using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Tabassum; Khan, M R; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2010-07-01

    An outdoor soil burial test was carried out to evaluate the degradation of commercially available LDPE carrier bags in natural soil for up to 2 years. Biodegradability of low density polyethylene films in soil was monitored using both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 7-9 months of soil exposure, microbial colonization was evident on the film surface. Exposed LDPE samples exhibit progressive changes towards degradation after 17-22 months. SEM images reveal signs of degradation such as exfoliation and formation of cracks on film leading to disintegration. The possible degradation mode and consequences on the use and disposal of LDPE films is discussed.

  20. On the Horizon. The Environmental Scanning Newsletter for Leaders in Education, 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This compilation of five newsletter issues focuses on potential developments and critical trends in higher education. It reports news from the social, technological, economic, environmental, and political sectors. It also includes a regular column titled "The Situation Room," a column on instructional tools, a column about Internet, and…

  1. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Vlašínová, Helena; Neděla, Vilem; Đorđević, Biljana; Havel, Ladislav

    2016-10-25

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media. The media on which the highest number of early-precotyledonary/cotyledonary somatic embryos was formed was supplemented with 121 μM abscisic acid (ABA) and with 6 % maltose. In the end of maturation experiments, different abnormalities in formation of somatic embryos were observed. For visualization and identification of abnormalities in meristem development during proliferation and maturation processes, the environmental scanning electron microscope was used. In comparison to the classical light microscope, the non-commercial environmental scanning electron microscope AQUASEM II has been found as a very useful tool for the quick recognition of apical meristem disruption and abnormal development. To our knowledge, this is the first report discussing somatic embryogenesis in bog pine. Based on this observation, the cultivation procedure could be enhanced and the method for SE of bog pine optimized.

  2. Under-ice ambient noise in Eastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic, and its relation to environmental forcing.

    PubMed

    Kinda, G Bazile; Simard, Yvan; Gervaise, Cédric; Mars, Jérome I; Fortier, Louis

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyzes an 8-month time series (November 2005 to June 2006) of underwater noise recorded at the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf in the marginal ice zone of the western Canadian Arctic when the area was >90% ice covered. The time-series of the ambient noise component was computed using an algorithm that filtered out transient acoustic events from 7-min hourly recordings of total ocean noise over a [0-4.1] kHz frequency band. Under-ice ambient noise did not respond to thermal changes, but showed consistent correlations with large-scale regional ice drift, wind speed, and measured currents in upper water column. The correlation of ambient noise with ice drift peaked for locations at ranges of ~300 km off the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf. These locations are within the multi-year ice plume that extends westerly along the coast in the Eastern Beaufort Sea due to the large Beaufort Gyre circulation. These results reveal that ambient noise in Eastern Beaufort Sea in winter is mainly controlled by the same meteorological and oceanographic forcing processes that drive the ice drift and the large-scale circulation in this part of the Arctic Ocean.

  3. The Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe and its Applications in Biology and Environmental Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Zsofia

    2007-11-26

    Nuclear microscopy is one of the most powerful tools which are able to determine quantitative trace element distributions in complex samples on a microscopic scale. The advantage of nuclear microprobes are that different ion beam analytical techniques, like PIXE, RBS, STIM and NRA can be applied at the same time allowing the determination of the sample structure, major, minor and trace element distribution simultaneously.In this paper a nuclear microprobe setup developed for the microanalysis of thin complex samples of organic matrix at the Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility is presented. The application of nuclear microscopy in life sciences is shown through an example, the study of penetration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of bodycare cosmetics in skin layers.

  4. Miniature environmental chamber enabling in situ scanning probe microscopy within reactive environments.

    PubMed

    Nonnenmann, Stephen S; Bonnell, Dawn A

    2013-07-01

    Developments in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) continue to be one of the most intensely studied areas involving energy-producing systems, in an attempt to partially alleviate rapidly growing energy concerns. Direct, experimental observation of the governing electrochemical processes have remained largely elusive, due to high operating temperatures in the range of 400 °C-1000 °C. Here we outline the design and development of a miniature environmental chamber that enables a standard atomic force microscopes access to realistic SOFC operating conditions (T = 600 °C) for direct interrogation of electrochemical phenomena within SOFC cross-sections.

  5. Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS).

    PubMed

    Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Landrot, Gautier; Fischel, Jason S; Sparks, Donald L

    2009-09-22

    Quantification of the initial rates of environmental reactions at the mineral/water interface is a fundamental prerequisite to determining reaction mechanisms and contaminant transport modeling and predicting environmental risk. Until recently, experimental techniques with adequate time resolution and elemental sensitivity to measure initial rates of the wide variety of environmental reactions were quite limited. Techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies suffer from limited elemental specificity and poor sensitivity to inorganic elements, respectively. Ex situ analysis of batch and stirred-flow systems provides high elemental sensitivity; however, their time resolution is inadequate to characterize rapid environmental reactions. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time-scales, to measure the initial oxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) by hydrous manganese(IV) oxide. Using Q-XAS, As(III) and As(V) concentrations were determined every 0.98 s in batch reactions. The initial apparent As(III) depletion rate constants (t < 30 s) measured with Q-XAS are nearly twice as large as rate constants measured with traditional analytical techniques. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing analytical techniques capable of analyzing environmental reactions on the same time scale as they occur. Given the high sensitivity, elemental specificity, and time resolution of Q-XAS, it has many potential applications. They could include measuring not only redox reactions but also dissolution/precipitation reactions, such as the formation and/or reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, solid-phase transformations (i.e., formation of layered-double hydroxide minerals), or almost any other reaction occurring in aqueous media that can be measured using x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Nanogold In Situ Hybridization for Phylogenetic Identification in Geologic Samples Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, C.; Haymon, R.; Sievert, S.; Holden, P.

    2006-12-01

    Collecting phylogenetic information simultaneously with mineral textures and associations for geomicrobiological studies has always been a challenge. Recently a new type of nucleotide reporter system has been developed that utilizes small particles of nanogold (1.4 nm) covalently attached to oligonucelotide probes. Due to the small size and electron density of these nanogold reporter molecules, this in situ hybridization technique allows for the phylogenetic identification of microbial targets with a scanning electron microscope. Here we present new applications of the nanogold hybridization technique for pure cultures and natural microbial communities in a range of geologic samples including sand grains, basalt chips incubated on deep sea hydrothermal vents, and gypsum crusts sampled from a saline lake. While we do observe nonspecific binding of nanogold probes to minerals and organic compounds in geologic matrices, this can be distinguished from positive hybridization events with a spatial variety analysis. To assess the potential of nanogold hybridizations for quantitative assessments of microbial communities, fluorescent in situ hybridizations (FISH) were performed on all samples and compared to cell counts generated from nanogold hybridizations.

  7. Effect of environmental shear, sea-surface temperature, and ambient moisture on the formation and predictability of tropical cyclones: An ensemble-mean perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Dandan; Zhang, Fuqing

    2014-06-01

    The formation and predictability of sheared tropical cyclones (TCs) are explored through a series of convection-permitting ensemble simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with different environmental vertical wind shear, sea-surface temperature (SST), and ambient moisture conditions. Small-amplitude random moisture perturbations are introduced in the lower troposphere as the initial-condition uncertainties to generate the ensembles under different environmental conditions; the composites of each ensemble are analyzed in this study to examine the mean dynamics of sheared TCs. It is found that the environmental shear can significantly affect the timing of tropical cyclone formation by influencing the spatial distribution of convection and subsequently changing the positive feedback between diabatic heating and the TC vortex primary circulation. Except for the initial spin-up periods, the larger the vertical wind shear, the farther and weaker the convection from the TC center, which leads to a weakening TC vortex circulation and more time is needed to start the onset of rapid intensification (RI). The simulated tropical cyclones cannot start rapid intensification during a 9 day simulation if the shear exceeds 7.5 m/s for a constant SST of 27°C. Increasing SST to 29°C reduces the tilt magnitude and thus shortens the RI onset time because of the increased diabatic heating closer to the TC center. Reduction in the environmental moisture content will eventually lead to weakened convection and delayed or failed precession in the latter stages if the TC forms at all. In summary, the development of tropical cyclones is largely depending on the magnitude of vertical wind shear and diabatic heating, which can be further altered by other environmental conditions, such as the sea-surface temperature and ambient moisture content.

  8. Comprehensive characterisation of flame retardants in textile furnishings by ambient high resolution mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and environmental forensic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ballesteros Gómez, Ana; Uchida, Natsuyo; Suzuki, Go; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takata, Kyoko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Leonards, Pim E G; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    The presence and levels of flame retardants (FRs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), was determined in textile home furnishings, such as carpets and curtains from stores in Belgium. A comprehensive characterisation of FRs in textile was done by ambient high resolution mass spectrometry (qualitative screening), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (quantitation), and environmental forensic microscopy (surface distribution). Ambient ionisation coupled to a time-of-flight (TOF) high resolution mass spectrometer (direct probe-TOF-MS) was investigated for the rapid screening of FRs. Direct probe-TOF-MS proved to be useful for a first screening step of textiles to detect FRs below the levels required to impart flame retardancy and to reduce, in this way, the number of samples for further quantitative analysis. Samples were analysed by GC-MS to confirm the results obtained by ambient mass spectrometry and to obtain quantitative information. The levels of PBDEs and PFRs were typically too low to impart flame retardancy. Only high levels of BDE-209 (11-18% by weight) were discovered and investigated in localised hotspots by employing forensic microscopy techniques. Most of the samples were made of polymeric materials known to be inherently flame retarded to some extent, so it is likely that other alternative and halogen-free FR treatments/solutions are preferred for the textiles on the Belgian market.

  9. Characterization of self-healing glassy composites by high-temperature environmental scanning electron microscopy (HT-ESEM).

    PubMed

    Coillot, Daniel; Podor, Renaud; Méar, François O; Montagne, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    In situ high-temperature healing of cracks in composites made of glass and vanadium boride (VB) particles was observed using an environmental scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-temperature chamber (HT-ESEM). HT-ESEM is an adequate tool for studying the self-healing property of these materials. The change in crack length as a function of redox atmospheric conditions is reported. No self-healing behaviour was observed under reducing conditions, while a complete and rapid healing of the cracks was measured under oxidizing conditions. HT-ESEM image analyses enabled the monitoring of the healing effect. The self-healing mechanism was identified as a consequence of the VB active particles oxidation and subsequent pouring of fluid oxides into the cracks. These innovative composites offer an interesting potential in the domain of solid oxide fuel cell sealants.

  10. Comparative analysis of Trichuris muris surface using conventional, low vacuum, environmental and field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare

    2013-09-23

    The whipworm of the genus Trichuris Roederer, 1791, is a nematode of worldwide distribution and comprises species that parasitize humans and other mammals. Infections caused by Trichuris spp. in mammals can lead to various intestinal diseases of human and veterinary interest. The morphology of Trichuris spp. and other helminths has been mostly studied using conventional scanning electron microscopy of chemically fixed, dried and metal-coated specimens, although this kind of preparation has been shown to introduce a variety of artifacts such as sample shrinking, loss of secreted products and/or hiding of small structures due to sample coating. Low vacuum (LVSEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) have been applied to a variety of insulator samples, also used in the visualization of hydrated and/or live specimens in their native state. In the present work, we used LVSEM and ESEM to analyze the surface of T. muris and analyze its interaction with the host tissue using freshly fixed or unfixed hydrated samples. Analysis of hydrated samples showed a set of new features on the surface of the parasite and the host tissue, including the presence of the secretory products of the bacillary glands on the surface of the parasite, and the presence of mucous material and eggs on the intestinal surface. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was also applied to reveal the detailed structure of the glandular chambers in fixed, dried and metal coated samples. Taken together, the results show that analysis of hydrated samples may provide new insights in the structural organization of the surface of helminth parasites and its interaction with the infected tissue, suggesting that the application of alternative SEM techniques may open new perspectives for analysis in taxonomy, morphology and host-parasite interaction fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-market drug evaluation research training capacity in Canada: an environmental scan of Canadian educational institutions.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew O; Soon, Judith A; MacLeod, Stuart M; Sharma, Sunaina; Patel, Anik

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing efforts by Health Canada intended to modernize the legislation and regulation of pharmaceuticals will help improve the safety and effectiveness of drug products. It will be imperative to ensure that comprehensive and specialized training sites are available to train researchers to support the regulation of therapeutic products. The objective of this educational institution inventory was to conduct an environmental scan of educational institutions in Canada able to train students in areas of post-market drug evaluation research. A systematic web-based environmental scan of Canadian institutions was conducted. The website of each university was examined for potential academic programs. Six core programmatic areas were determined a priori as necessary to train competent post-market drug evaluation researchers. These included biostatistics, epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology, health economics or pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics and patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Twenty-three academic institutions were identified that had the potential to train students in post-market drug evaluation research. Overall, 23 institutions taught courses in epidemiology, 22 in biostatistics, 17 in health economics/pharmacoeconomics, 5 in pharmacoepidemiology, 5 in pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, and 3 in patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Of the 23 institutions, only the University of Ottawa offered six core courses. Two institutions offered five, seven offered four and the remaining 14 offered three or fewer. It is clear that some institutions may offer programs not entirely reflected in the nomenclature used for this review. As Heath Canada moves towards a more progressive licensing framework, augmented training to increase research capacity and expertise in drug safety and effectiveness is timely and necessary.

  12. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). Methods and analysis For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. Trial registration number This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). PMID:26173718

  13. The Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation in Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Whole Cells in Liquid.

    PubMed

    Hermannsdörfer, Justus; Tinnemann, Verena; Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2016-06-01

    Whole cells can be studied in their native liquid environment using electron microscopy, and unique information about the locations and stoichiometry of individual membrane proteins can be obtained from many cells thus taking cell heterogeneity into account. Of key importance for the further development of this microscopy technology is knowledge about the effect of electron beam radiation on the samples under investigation. We used environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detection to examine the effect of radiation for whole fixed COS7 fibroblasts in liquid. The main observation was the localization of nanoparticle labels attached to epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). It was found that the relative distances between the labels remained mostly unchanged (<1.5%) for electron doses ranging from the undamaged native state at 10 e-/Å2 toward 103 e-/Å2. This dose range was sufficient to determine the EGFR locations with nanometer resolution and to distinguish between monomers and dimers. Various different forms of radiation damage became visible at higher doses, including severe dislocation, and the dissolution of labels.

  14. Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

    2014-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation.

  15. Immobilization of zebrafish larvae on a chip-based device for environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Jin; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    Small vertebrate model organisms have recently gained popularity as attractive experimental models that enhance our understanding of human tissue and organ development. Laser microsurgery on zebrafish larvae combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging can in particular provide accelerated insights into the tissue regeneration phenomena. Conventional SEM exposes, however, specimens to high vacuum environments, and often requires laborintensive and time-consuming pretreatments and manual positioning. Moreover, there are virtually no technologies available that can quickly immobilize the zebrafish larvae for high definition SEM imaging. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of a microfluidic chip-based system for immobilizing zebrafish larvae and it's interfacing with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) imaging. The Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) device was fabricated using a high-speed infrared laser micromachining and consists of a reservoir with multiple semispherical microwells, which hold the yolk of zebrafish larvae, and drain channels that allow removing excess of medium during SEM imaging. Paper filter is used to actuate the chip and immobilization of the larvae by gentle suction that occurs during water drainage. The trapping region allows multiple specimens to be positioned on the chip. The device is then inserted directly inside the ESEM and imaged in a near 100% humidity atmosphere. This facilitates ESEM imaging of untreated biological samples.

  16. Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters

    PubMed Central

    Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. PMID:24786314

  17. Non-templated ambient nanoperforation of graphene: a novel scalable process and its exploitation for energy and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajharia, Suman Kumari; Selvaraj, Kaliaperumal

    2015-11-01

    Nano-perforation of 2D graphene sheets is a recent and strategically significant means to exploit such materials in modern applications such as energy production and storage. However, current options for the synthesis of holey graphene (hG) through nano-perforation of graphene involve industrially undesirable steps viz., usage of expensive/noble metal or silica nanoparticle templates and/or hazardous chemicals. This severely hampers its scope for large scale production and further exploitation. Herein, we report for the first time a scalable non-templated route to produce hG at ambient conditions. Nano-perforation is achieved with tunable pore size via the simple few layer co-assembly of silicate-surfactant admicelles along the surface of graphene oxide. A gentle alkali treatment and a reduction at optimized conditions readily yielded holey graphene with a remarkable capacitance (~250 F g-1) and interesting adsorption abilities for pollutants. Density functional theory based computational studies reveal interesting insights on the template free nano-perforation at a molecular level. This simple rapid process not only excludes the need for expensive templates and harmful chemicals to yield hG at attractively ambient, chemically placid and industrially safer conditions, but also creates no hurdles in terms of scaling up.Nano-perforation of 2D graphene sheets is a recent and strategically significant means to exploit such materials in modern applications such as energy production and storage. However, current options for the synthesis of holey graphene (hG) through nano-perforation of graphene involve industrially undesirable steps viz., usage of expensive/noble metal or silica nanoparticle templates and/or hazardous chemicals. This severely hampers its scope for large scale production and further exploitation. Herein, we report for the first time a scalable non-templated route to produce hG at ambient conditions. Nano-perforation is achieved with tunable pore size

  18. Educacion Ambiental en las Escuelas: Creando una Programa que Funcione! (Environmental Education in the Schools: Creating a Program That Works!).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy A.; Wood, David

    This book is a manual that enables teachers to formulate an effective program of environmental education across multiple grade levels and cultural settings. A section provides tips for using the book, followed by nine chapters dealing with different aspects of developing and implementing an environmental education program. Chapter 1 presents a…

  19. Hydrogen-enhanced cracking revealed by in situ micro-cantilever bending test inside environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun; Hajilou, Tarlan; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2017-07-28

    To evaluate the hydrogen (H)-induced embrittlement in iron aluminium intermetallics, especially the one with stoichiometric composition of 50 at.% Al, a novel in situ micro-cantilever bending test was applied within an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), which provides both a full process monitoring and a clean, in situ H-charging condition. Two sets of cantilevers were analysed in this work: one set of un-notched cantilevers, and the other set with focused ion beam-milled notch laying on two crystallographic planes: (010) and (110). The cantilevers were tested under two environmental conditions: vacuum (approximately 5 × 10(-4) Pa) and ESEM (450 Pa water vapour). Crack initiation at stress-concentrated locations and propagation to cause catastrophic failure were observed when cantilevers were tested in the presence of H; while no cracking occurred when tested in vacuum. Both the bending strength for un-notched beams and the fracture toughness for notched beams were reduced under H exposure. The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility was found to be orientation dependent: the (010) crystallographic plane was more fragile to HE than the (110) plane.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Hydrogen-enhanced cracking revealed by in situ micro-cantilever bending test inside environmental scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yun; Hajilou, Tarlan; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the hydrogen (H)-induced embrittlement in iron aluminium intermetallics, especially the one with stoichiometric composition of 50 at.% Al, a novel in situ micro-cantilever bending test was applied within an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), which provides both a full process monitoring and a clean, in situ H-charging condition. Two sets of cantilevers were analysed in this work: one set of un-notched cantilevers, and the other set with focused ion beam-milled notch laying on two crystallographic planes: (010) and (110). The cantilevers were tested under two environmental conditions: vacuum (approximately 5 × 10-4 Pa) and ESEM (450 Pa water vapour). Crack initiation at stress-concentrated locations and propagation to cause catastrophic failure were observed when cantilevers were tested in the presence of H; while no cracking occurred when tested in vacuum. Both the bending strength for un-notched beams and the fracture toughness for notched beams were reduced under H exposure. The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility was found to be orientation dependent: the (010) crystallographic plane was more fragile to HE than the (110) plane. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  1. Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility: part 1: radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Pourcelot, Laurent; Boulet, Béatrice; Cagnat, Xavier; Videau, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding its impact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inspection of anode and field wires for the COMPASS drift chamber, DC5, with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyuzuzo, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses a secondary pion beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN to explore the spin structure of nucleons. A new drift chamber, DC5, will be integrated into the COMPASS spectrometer to replace an aging straw tube detector. DC5 will detect muon pairs from Drell-Yan scattering of a pion-beam off a transversely polarized proton target. This data will be used to determine the correlation between transverse proton spin and the intrinsic transverse momentum of up-quarks inside the proton, the Sivers effect. DC5 is a large area planar drift chamber with 8 layers of anode-frames made of G10 fiberglass-epoxy. The G10 frames support printed circuit boards for soldering 20 μm diameter anode and 100 μm diameter field wires. The anode planes are sandwiched by 13 graphite coated Mylar cathode planes. To ensure a well-functioning of DC5, the wires were carefully tested. An optical inspection and a spectral analysis was performed with an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to verify the composition and dimensions and the integrity of the gold plating on the surface of these wires. The spectra of the wires were studied at 10 and 30 keV. The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses a secondary pion beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN to explore the spin structure of nucleons. A new drift chamber, DC5, will be integrated into the COMPASS spectrometer to replace an aging straw tube detector. DC5 will detect muon pairs from Drell-Yan scattering of a pion-beam off a transversely polarized proton target. This data will be used to determine the correlation between transverse proton spin and the intrinsic transverse momentum of up-quarks inside the proton, the Sivers effect. DC5 is a large area planar drift chamber with 8 layers of anode-frames made of G10 fiberglass-epoxy. The G10 frames support printed circuit boards for soldering 20 μm diameter anode and 100 μm diameter field wires. The anode planes are sandwiched by 13

  3. CSSP Environmental Scan 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    human cases and 377 fatalities according to the World Health Organization (WHO) [52]. Another particularly deadly strain of influenza ( H7N9 ) appeared...EN_GIP_20130705CumulativeNum berH5N1cases_2.pdf. [53] World Health Organization, “Human Infection with Avian Influenza A ( H7N9 ) Virus – Update,” 20 July 2013

  4. Effect of Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia on behavior and physiologic responses of calves during high ambient environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Theurer, M E; Anderson, D E; White, B J; Miesner, M D; Mosier, D A; Coetzee, J F; Lakritz, J; Amrine, D E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pneumonia during conditions of high (maximum ≥ 32°C) ambient temperatures on physiological and behavioral responses of calves. Eighteen black beef heifers averaging 240 kg were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 1) pneumonia induced by bronchoselective endoscopic inoculation with Mannheimia haemolytica (MH; n = 10) and 2) noninoculated controls (CN; n = 8). Nasal passage and rectal temperatures were measured every 2 h for 24 h after challenge and then twice daily for 9 d. Accelerometers, pedometers, and positioning devices monitored cattle behavior within the pen for 9 d after challenge. Blood samples were collected on trial d 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7, and 9 and were analyzed to determine the concentration of substance P, cortisol, haptoglobin, and metalloproteinase. All calves in the MH group were euthanized and necropsied on trial d 9. All MH calves became clinically ill postchallenge. A treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) was evident for nasal and rectal temperatures, behavior, weight, and blood analysis. Rectal temperatures in MH were higher (P < 0.01) than CN during the period from 6 to 24 h after challenge. Conversely, nasal passage temperatures were less in MH calves compared with CN at 12 to 22 h after challenge. Calves in MH spent less time at the grain bunk, less time at the hay feeder, and more time lying down during the early pneumonia period compared with CN calves. Also, MH calves had significantly greater concentrations of blood biomarkers of pain (substance P) on d 0.5 (P < 0.01); stress (cortisol) on d 0.5 and 1 (P < 0.01); haptoglobin on d 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7 (P < 0.01); and metalloproteinase on d 1, 2, and 3 (P < 0.01) compared with CN calves. At necropsy, all MH calves had right cranioventral bronchopneumonia (median lung lesions = 6.8%). Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia caused significantly more changes in behavior and increased biomarkers during high (maximum

  5. Comparison of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy in Low Vacuum or wet mode for the investigation of cell biomaterial interactions.

    PubMed

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Manfredi, Edoardo; Lorenzi, Andrea; Smerieri, Arianna; Di Blasio, Alberto; Macaluso, Guido; Lumetti, Simone; Galli, Carlo

    2016-05-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), in low vacuum mode (LV-ESEM) and in wet mode (wet-ESEM) in the assessment of cell-material interactions. Mouse calvaria MC3T3 cells (ATCC) were seeded on commercially pure machined titanium discs of 10 mm diameter in Dulbecco modified MEM, 10% Fetal Bovine Serum, 1% Penicillin and Streptomycin and 1% Glutamine. Samples were then processed for microscope observation by rinse in Phosphate Buffer saline and fixation in 4.5% Glutaraldehyde. Samples were then rinsed in Sodium Cacodylate buffer and observed or dehydrated in alcohol prior to LV-ESEM observation. Fresh samples in 0.9% NaCl solution were observed in wet- ESEM. No significant loss of detail was observed when dehydrated or non dehydrated samples were analysed at LV-ESEM.The observation of fresh samples in wet-ESEM however proved difficult for the need to eliminate water which forms a layer covering the sample, thus hiding cell surface details. When reducing the vapor pressure in the chamber, the layer evaporated and NaCl immediately started to precipitate and cells collapsed, thus no further investigation was possible. The use of low vacuum-ESEM after cell fixation, but without dehydration or gold sputter coating proved a viable alternative to traditional high vacuum SEM observation.

  6. An environmental scan of emergency response systems and services in remote First Nations communities in Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Mew, E. J.; Ritchie, S. D.; VanderBurgh, D.; Beardy, J. L.; Gordon, J.; Fortune, M.; Mamakwa, S.; Orkin, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 24,000 Ontarians live in remote Indigenous communities with no road access. These communities are a subset of Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN), a political grouping of 49 First Nations communities in Northern Ontario, Canada. Limited information is available regarding the status of emergency care in these communities. Objective: We aimed to understand emergency response systems, services, and training in remote NAN communities. Design: We used an environmental scan approach to compile information from multiple sources including community-based participatory research. This included the analysis of data collected from key informant interviews (n=10) with First Nations community health leaders and a multi-stakeholder roundtable meeting (n=33) in October 2013. Results: Qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed four issues related to emergency response systems and training: (1) inequity in response capacity and services, (2) lack of formalised dispatch systems, (3) turnover and burnout in volunteer emergency services, and (4) challenges related to first aid training. Roundtable stakeholders supported the development of a community-based emergency care system to address gaps. Conclusions: Existing first response, paramedical, and ambulance service models do not meet the unique geographical, epidemiological and cultural needs in most NAN communities. Sustainable, context-appropriate, and culturally relevant emergency care systems are needed. PMID:28494638

  7. Monitoring the osmotic response of single yeast cells through force measurement in the environmental scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Anna; Nafari, Alexandra; Hedfalk, Kristina; Olsson, Eva; Svensson, Krister; Sanz-Velasco, Anke

    2014-02-01

    We present a measurement system that combines an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). This combination enables studies of static and dynamic mechanical properties of hydrated specimens, such as individual living cells. The integrated AFM sensor provides direct and continuous force measurement based on piezoresistive force transduction, allowing the recording of events in the millisecond range. The in situ ESEM-AFM setup was used to study Pichia pastoris wild-type yeast cells. For the first time, a quantified measure of the osmotic response of an individual yeast cell inside an ESEM is presented. With this technique, cell size changes due to humidity variations can be monitored with nanometre accuracy. In addition, mechanical properties were extracted from load-displacement curves. A Young's modulus of 13-15 MPa was obtained for the P. pastoris yeast cells. The developed method is highly interesting as a complementary tool for the screening of drugs directed towards cellular water transport activity and provides new possibilities of studying mechanosensitive regulation of aquaporins.

  8. Fiber-optic Based Spectral Cathodoluminescence: Simple and Economic Option for Use in Conventional and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Griffin; Browne

    2000-01-01

    A fiber-optic based spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) system has been successfully installed on a variable pressure "environmental" scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The fine size of the fiber (50 µm) has been found to require careful alignment. To provide this alignment, a simple X-Y translator has been used. The aligned fiber exhibits high efficiency and the system has recorded spectra at up to 3 million "counts" per sec on strongly cathodoluminescent doped yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) samples, at 30 kV and approximately 3 nA. A resolution of 3 nm [full width half maximum (FWHM)] at 621 nm has been measured from a red laser diode spectrum, on the ESEM column. A range of uncoated materials has been measured to characterize the CL system; these materials ranged from strongly luminescent YAG to weakly luminescent polymers. Well-characterized doped zircons have also been investigated. These data suggest that the previously reported intrinsic peak from zircon is a consequence of high-beam currents.

  9. The hygroscopic behaviour of individual aerosol particles in nickel refineries as investigated by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Inerle-Hof, Marion; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ebert, Martin; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2007-04-01

    The hygroscopic properties of individual aerosol particles (1-35 microm equivalent projected area diameter) from the Roasting, Anode Casting and Electrorefining Departments of two Ni refineries were studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) at a relative humidity of 96-98% (at a temperature of 5 degrees C). In the Roasting and Anode Casting Departments, most particles (60-85% by number) showed no visible change in size or surface morphology when exposed to high relative humidity. Approximately 15-30% of the particles developed a thin water film (growth factors between 1.006 and 1.06) indicating the presence of thin surface coatings of sulfates. About 10% of the particles in the Roasting Department formed droplets (growth factors between 1.1 and 2.6) which always contained a large portion of insoluble material. In the Electrorefining Department, most particles (approximately 60%) were residues from the electrolysis bath solution. At a relative humidity of 96-98% these particles formed a solution which contained only small insoluble inclusions. About 30% of the particles in the Electrorefining Department developed thin water films. As only a small fraction of the particles increased substantially in size when exposed to high relative humidity, the deposition pattern of the total aerosol mass fraction will not be changed substantially by hygroscopic growth. The frequent occurrence of thin surface coatings of soluble material on insoluble Ni compounds has to be considered for health assessment purposes.

  10. A tensometer to study strain deformation and failure behavior of hydrated systems via in situ environmental scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzieri, R.; Baker, F. S.; Donald, A. M.

    2003-10-01

    Large strain deformation and failure behavior of the mixed biopolymer gels have been investigated via in situ Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). ESEM has been employed to explore the changes in the structure of the material, while allowing the sample to stay hydrated as it was subjected to tensile strain. The "dog-bone" shaped samples were placed in a specially designed tensometer that fitted inside the ESEM specimen chamber. It was possible, therefore, to measure for the first time not only the mechanical properties of the hydrated material, but also to observe any morphological changes occurring as it was being stretched. By using a tensometer capable of keeping a sample moist over large strains, it was possible to observe hitherto unreported structural changes in gelatin-based systems subjected to uniaxial stretching. It was shown that bands were formed in the direction of the applied strain and that particles of maltodextrin included in the gelatin underwent deformation and fracture. Such observations have led to the conclusion that previous models were sometime inadequate due to the lack of in situ observation and novel approaches are required to describe these phenomena.

  11. Critical Trends and Events Affecting the Future of Texas Higher Education. Proceedings of the Texas Association for Institutional Research (TAIR) Preconference Workshop on Environmental Scanning (1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    This proceedings report describes exercises used in a workshop on environmental scanning, designed to assist institutional research officers to develop competency in establishing and maintaining an external analysis capability on their campuses. The workshop offered an opportunity for participants to experience several techniques used in…

  12. Implementation of HPV vaccination guidelines in a diverse population in Los Angeles: Results from an environmental scan of local HPV resources and needs.

    PubMed

    Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lienemann, Brianna A; Robles, Marisela; Johnson, Ethel; Sanchez, Kathleen; Singhal, Rita; Steinberg, Jane; Jaque, Jenny M; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gruber, Stephen

    2017-09-05

    Research shows that vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most effective methods for reducing risk for cervical cancer; it also protects against other HPV-related cancers. Controversies exist regarding HPV vaccination in several communities; which may in part explain why although rates of HPV vaccination are increasing nationwide, Los Angeles County (LAC) data show that many adolescents are still not vaccinated. These adolescents remain at high-risk for infection. Using community-based participatory principles, we conducted an environmental scan that included a literature review, the development of a community advisory board, community feedback from HPV community meetings, and interviews with stakeholders to understand attitudes toward HPV vaccination and their impact in follow through with HPV vaccines. Twenty-eight key stakeholders participated in our coalition comprised of community organizations and clinics with strong ties to the local community. This is the only coalition dedicated exclusively to improving HPV vaccine uptake in LAC. Of these, twenty-one participated in an environmental scan via qualitative interviews about HPV vaccination programs, service delivery priorities, and proposed steps to increase HPV vaccination uptake in LAC. The environmental scan revealed targets for future efforts, barriers to HPV uptake, and next steps for improving local HPV vaccination uptake rates. The environmental scan also identified local HPV vaccination interventions and resources. Although LAC has developed important efforts for vaccination, some interventions are no longer being implemented due to lack of funds; others have not been evaluated with sufficient outcome data. The risk for cervical and other HPV-related cancers could be greatly reduced in LAC if a multilevel, multicultural, and multilingual approach is taken to better understand rates of HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and LGBTQ youth

  13. The INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente-(Environment and Childhood) project: More than 10 years contributing to environmental and neuropsychological research.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Guxens, Mònica; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Fano, Eduardo; Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández, Mariana F; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-06-01

    In 2003 the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project, a Spanish national network of birth cohorts including more than 3500 participants, was set up with the aim to assess the health impacts of pre- and postnatal environmental exposures on children. The project has published more than 60 papers on maternal and environmental factors related to neuropsychological development in children, one of the main research interests within the project. With the present review, we evaluate the evidence provided by the INMA project on this topic and discuss how the data can contribute to cover the challenges that children's environmental health research will face in the coming years. The INMA project has contributed to provide increasing evidence of the association between prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and child neuropsychological development, but it has also shown, using innovative methodologies, that postnatal exposure to these compounds does not play a role in this association. The project has also contributed to show the detrimental influence of certain air pollutants on child neuropsychological development, as well as how a balanced maternal fish intake can protect from the potential adverse effects of prenatal exposure to mercury. Also, the project has contributed to the understanding of impacts of nutritional factors including supplement intake and vitamin D levels during pregnancy and the role of breastfeeding on the neuropsychological benefits. INMA findings underscore the importance of continued research on the delineation of the sensitive windows of exposure both during pregnancy and postnatally and on the combined effects of environmental exposures, denoted the exposome. In terms of health policy, INMA findings have important implications for the development of public health policies to advance the health and development of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Recycling stainless steel orthodontic brackets with Er:YAG laser - An environmental scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength study.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Prince K; Kodoth, Jithesh; John, Jacob; Kumar, Kishore

    2013-07-01

    TO DETERMINE THE EFFICIENCY OF ERBIUM: Yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and shear bond strength analysis as a method of recycling stainless steel orthodontic brackets and compare with other methods of recycling. Eighty samples of extracted premolar teeth bonded to SS brackets were tested for rebonded shear bond strength after recycling by four methods and compared with a control group of 20 samples. These 80 samples were randomized into four groups which were recycled by four methods, namely, sandblasting, thermal method, adhesive grinding by tungsten carbide bur, and Er: YAG laser method. After recycling, ESEM and shear bond strength analysis were used to analyze the efficiency of the recycling methods. ER: YAG laser group was found to be having the greatest bond strength among the recycled brackets (8.33±2.51 followed by the sandblasting at 6.12±1.12 MPa, thermal and electropolishing at 4.44±0.95 MPa, and lastly the adhesive grinding method at 3.08±1.07 MPa. The shear bond strength of Er: YAG laser group was found to be having no statistically significant difference with that of the control group (P>0.05 and had statistical signifance with sandblasting, thermal and electropolishing and adhesive grinding groups at P>0.001. ESEM analysis showed complete removal of adhesive from the brackets recycled with Er: YAG laser which mimicked that of the control group. ER: YAG laser (2940 nm) was found to be the most efficient method for recycling, followed by the sandblasting, thermal, and the tungsten carbide methods, which had the least shear bond strength value and is not fit for clinical usage.

  15. Visualizing the Cu/Cu2O Interface Transition in Nanoparticles with Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    LaGrow, Alec P; Ward, Michael R; Lloyd, David C; Gai, Pratibha L; Boyes, Edward D

    2017-01-11

    Understanding the oxidation and reduction mechanisms of catalytically active transition metal nanoparticles is important to improve their application in a variety of chemical processes. In nanocatalysis the nanoparticles can undergo oxidation or reduction in situ, and thus the redox species are not what are observed before and after reactions. We have used the novel environmental scanning transmission electron microscope (ESTEM) with 0.1 nm resolution in systematic studies of complex dynamic oxidation and reduction mechanisms of copper nanoparticles. The oxidation of copper has previously been reported to be dependent on its crystallography and its interaction with the substrate. By following the dynamic oxidation process in situ in real time with high-angle annular dark-field imaging in the ESTEM, we use conditions ideal to track the oxidation front as it progresses across a copper nanoparticle by following the changes in the atomic number (Z) contrast with time. The oxidation occurs via the nucleation of the oxide phase (Cu2O) from one area of the nanoparticle which then progresses unidirectionally across the particle, with the Cu-to-Cu2O interface having a relationship of Cu{111}//Cu2O{111}. The oxidation kinetics are related to the temperature and oxygen pressure. When the process is reversed in hydrogen, the reduction process is observed to be similar to the oxidation, with the same crystallographic relationship between the two phases. The dynamic observations provide unique insights into redox mechanisms which are important to understanding and controlling the oxidation and reduction of copper-based nanoparticles.

  16. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) Study, ambient water toxicity. Final report, October 21, 1993--October 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21-28, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. A split sample test using daphnids only will be scheduled during 1994 as a substitute for this study period. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA.

  17. Model System Study of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Formation in a Semiconducting Polymer Modified Copper Clay System at Ambient Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G.; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Youm, Sang Gil; Roy, Amitava; dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Nesterov, Evgueni E.; Dellinger, Barry; Cook, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper systematically investigates how environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are formed in a phenol contaminated model soil. Poly-p-phenylene (PPP) modified and copper-loaded montmorillonite (MMT) clays were developed and used as models of soil organic matter and the clay mineral component, respectively, with phenol being employed as a precursor pollutant. The polymer modification of the clays was carried out via surface-confined Kumada catalyst-transfer chain-growth polymerization. The presence and location of the polymer were confirmed by a combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction data. EPFRs were formed by the Cu(II)-clay (Cu(II)CaMMT) and poly-p-phenylene-Cu(II)clay (PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT) composite systems under environmentally relevant conditions. The g-factor and concentration of EPFRs formed by the Cu(II)CaMMT and PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT systems were found to be 2.0034 and 1.22 × 1017 spins/g and 2.0033 and 1.58 × 1017spins/g, respectively. These g-factors are consistent with the formation of phenoxyl radicals. Extended X-Ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis shows that there are distinct differences in the local stuctures of the phenoxyl radicals associated with only the Cu(II) redox centers and those formed in the presences of the PPP polymer. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) results provided evidence for the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) in the EPFR forming process. The 1/e lifetimes of the formed EPFRs revealed a decay time of ~20 h for the Cu(II)CaMMT system and a two-step decay pattern for the PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT system with decay times of ~13.5 h and ~55.6 h. Finally, the generation of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radical; •OH) by these clay systems was also investigated, with higher concentrations of •OH detected for the phenol-dosed Cu(II)CaMMT and PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT systems, compared to the non-EPFR containing undosed PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT system. PMID:28670444

  18. The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO"4-H"2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous

  19. The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1 MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO4-H2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous sulfates

  20. Controlled oxidation of organic sulfides to sulfoxides under ambient conditions by a series of titanium isopropoxide complexes using environmentally benign H2O2 as an oxidant.

    PubMed

    Panda, Manas K; Shaikh, Mobin M; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2010-03-07

    Controlled oxidation of organic sulfides to sulfoxides under ambient conditions has been achieved by a series of titanium isopropoxide complexes that use environmentally benign H(2)O(2) as a primary oxidant. Specifically, the [N,N'-bis(2-oxo-3-R(1)-5-R(2)-phenylmethyl)-N,N'-bis(methylene-R(3))-ethylenediamine]Ti(O(i)Pr)(2) [R(1) = t-Bu, R(2) = Me, R(3) = C(7)H(5)O(2) (1b); R(1) = R(2) = t-Bu, R(3) = C(7)H(5)O(2) (2b); R(1) = R(2) = Cl, R(3) = C(7)H(5)O(2) (3b) and R(1) = R(2) = Cl, R(3) = C(6)H(5) (4b)] complexes efficiently catalyzed the sulfoxidation reactions of organic sulfides to sulfoxides at room temperature within 30 min of the reaction time using aqueous H(2)O(2) as an oxidant. A mechanistic pathway, modeled using density functional theory for a representative thioanisole substrate catalyzed by 4b, suggested that the reaction proceeds via a titanium peroxo intermediate 4c', which displays an activation barrier of 22.5 kcal mol(-1) (DeltaG(++)) for the overall catalytic cycle in undergoing an attack by the S atom of the thioanisole substrate at its sigma*-orbital of the peroxo moiety. The formation of the titanium peroxo intermediate was experimentally corroborated by a mild ionization atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometric technique.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry for quick detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in environmental water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chengjun; Jiang, Fenghua; Gao, Wei; Li, Xiaoyun; Yu, Yanzhen; Yin, Xiaofei; Wang, Yong; Ding, Haibing

    2017-01-01

    Detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria has largely been dependent on targeted gene sequencing technology or traditional cell cultivation, which usually takes from days to months to carry out. This clearly does not meet the requirements of analysis for time-sensitive samples and/or complicated environmental samples. Since energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) can be used to simultaneously detect multiple elements in a sample, including sulfur, with minimal sample treatment, this technology was applied to detect sulfur-oxidizing bacteria using their high sulfur content within the cell. This article describes the application of scanning electron microscopy imaging coupled with EDS mapping for quick detection of sulfur oxidizers in contaminated environmental water samples, with minimal sample handling. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the existence of dense granules within the bacterial cells, while EDS identified large amounts of sulfur within them. EDS mapping localized the sulfur to these granules. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacteria detected in our samples belonged to the genus Chromatium, which are sulfur oxidizers. Thus, EDS mapping made it possible to identify sulfur oxidizers in environmental samples based on localized sulfur within their cells, within a short time (within 24 h of sampling). This technique has wide ranging applications for detection of sulfur bacteria in environmental water samples.

  2. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  3. Monitoring the environmental impact of aerosol loading and dispersion from distinct industrial sources in Cubatao, Brazil, using a scanning lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Renata F.; Marques, Márcia Talita Amorim; Lopes, Daniel Silveira; Guardani, Maria Lucia Goncalves; Macedo, Fernanda d. M.; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the results of campaigns carried out with a scanning lidar system in an industrial area for monitoring the spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of the study was to verify the possibility of applying a lidar system to identify fixed sources of aerosol emission, as well as to monitor the dispersion of the emitted plume, and the ability of the system to evaluate pertinent properties of the suspended particles, such as particle number concentration and representative particle size. The data collection was carried out with a scanning backscatter lidar system in the biaxial mode with a three-wavelength light source, based on a commercial Nd:YAG laser, operating at 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm. The campaigns were carried out in an industrial site close to the city of Cubatao, Brazil, 23° 53' S and 46° 25' W, one of the largest industrial sites of the Country, comprising a steel plant, two fertilizer complexes, a cement plant and a petrochemical complex. Backscattered light intensity plots were made from the primary data collected via 360-degree scans at 15 degree elevation. The collected data correspond to distances ranging from 200 m to 1500 m from the measurement location. The results indicate that the technique can provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol concentration in the area, which therefore can represent a valuable tool in source apportionment and to validate plume dispersion models.

  4. Environmental scanning electron microscopy study of the fine structure of the triple line and cassie-wenzel wetting transition for sessile drops deposited on rough polymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward; Bormashenko, Yelena; Stein, Tamir; Whyman, Gene; Pogreb, Roman; Barkay, Zahava

    2007-04-10

    The wetting of rough honeycomb micrometrically scaled polymer substrates was studied. A very strong dependence of the apparent contact angle on the drop volume has been established experimentally. The environmental scanning electron microscopy study of the fine structure of the triple line is reported first. The triple line is not smooth and prefers grasping the polymer matrix over air holes. The precursor rim surrounding the drop has been observed. The revealed dependence of the apparent contact angle on the drop volume is explained by the transition between the pure Cassie and combined Wenzel-Cassie wetting regimes, which is induced by capillarity penetration of water into the holes of relief.

  5. Visualising reacting single atoms under controlled conditions: Advances in atomic resolution in situ Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, Edward D.; Gai, Pratibha L.

    2014-02-01

    Advances in atomic resolution Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM) for probing gas-solid catalyst reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions of gas environment and temperature are described. The recent development of the ESTEM extends the capability of the ETEM by providing the direct visualisation of single atoms and the atomic structure of selected solid state heterogeneous catalysts in their working states in real-time. Atomic resolution E(S)TEM provides a deeper understanding of the dynamic atomic processes at the surface of solids and their mechanisms of operation. The benefits of atomic resolution-E(S)TEM to science and technology include new knowledge leading to improved technological processes with substantial economic benefits, improved healthcare, reductions in energy needs and the management of environmental waste generation. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  7. Quick Detection of Sulfur Bacteria in Environmental Water Sample with SEM(scanning electron microscopy) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Ding, H.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, F.; Li, X.; Gao, W.; Yin, X.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria play important roles in global sulfur cycle. Sulfur bacteria detection has been largely dependent on targeted gene sequencing technology or traditional cell cultivation which usually takes from days to months to finish. This cannot meet the requirements of some time-sensitive samples and/or complicated environmental samples. Since Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) can be used to simultaneously detect multiple elements including sulfur in a sample with minimal sample treatment, the technology was applied to detect sulfur bacteria through the high sulfur content in the bacteria cell. We report the application of SEM (scanning electron microscopy) imaging coupled with EDS mapping for direct and quick detection of sulfur oxidizer in contaminated environmental water samples. The presence of sulfur bacteria can be confirmed within 24 hours after sampling. Subsequent 16S RNA gene sequencing results found the bacteria detected had over 99% similarity to Chromatium Okenii, confirming the bacterium was a sulfur oxidizer. The developed technique made it possible to quickly detect sulfur oxidizer in environmental sample and could have wide applications in sulfur bacteria detection in environmental water samples.

  8. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (<500 m) from the highway. Objectives of the study included (1) characterizing the temporal and spatial PM concentration fluctuation and distribution patterns in the urban street canyon; (2) investigating the effects of urban structures such as a tall building or an intersection on the transport and dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of

  9. Genome scan to assess the respective role of host-plant and environmental constraints on the adaptation of a widespread insect.

    PubMed

    Manel, Stéphanie; Conord, Cyrille; Després, Laurence

    2009-12-10

    The evolutionary success of phytophagous insects could result from their adaptation to different host-plants. Alternatively, the diversification of widespread species might be driven by adaptation along environmental gradients. To disentangle the respective roles of host-plant versus abiotic environmental variables acting on the genome of an oligophagous insect, we performed a genome scan using 83 unlinked AFLP markers on larvae of the large pine weevil collected on two host-plants (pine and spruce) in four forestry regions across Europe. At this large geographic scale, the global genetic differentiation was low and there was no isolation by distance pattern, suggesting that migration is overwhelming genetic drift in this species. In this context, the widely used frequentist methods to detect outliers (e.g. Dfdist), which assume migration - drift equilibrium are not the most appropriate approach. The implementation of a recently developed Bayesian approach, conceived to detect outliers even in non-equilibrium situations, consistently detected 9 out of 83 loci as outliers. Eight of these were validated as outliers by multiple logistic regressions: six correlated with environmental variables, one with host-plant and one with the interaction between environmental variables and host-plant. These results suggest a relatively greater importance of abiotic environmental variables, as opposed to factors linked with the host-plant, in shaping genetic differentiation across the genome in this species. Logistic regression allows the nature of factors involved in locus-specific selection to be precisely identified and represents another step forward in the process of identifying adaptive loci.

  10. Ambient Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Light, Conventional and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Trichomes of Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. styriaca and Histochemistry of Glandular Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    KOLB, DAGMAR; MÜLLER, MARIA

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the present study, the differences between glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the secretory process and the method of secretion were studied. Previous studies on leaves of Styrian oil pumpkin (Cucurbia pepo var. styriaca) plants have shown that four morphologically and ontogenetically independent glandular and non-glandular trichome types and one bristle hair type can be distinguished. The four types of trichomes can be categorized into three glandular trichome types: type I, a short-stalked trichome with four head cells including a ‘middle-cell’, two stalk cells and one basal cell; type II, a long-stalked trichome with two head cells, a ‘neck-cell’ region and a long stalk area; type IV, a ‘stipitate-capitate’ trichome with a mesophyll cell basement, a short stalk and a multicellular head; type III, a non-glandular ‘columnar-digit’ trichome, which consists of two head cells continuous with three-celled stalk, and the basal cell. • Methods The histochemical studies (the main classes of metabolite in secreted material of glandular trichomes) were conducted in fresh and fixed hand sections, using the following tests: Sudan black B, Nile blue A, osmium tetroxide, neutral red, Naturstoffreagent A, FSA (fuchsin–safranin–astra blue), NADI (naphthol + dimethylparaphenylenediamine) and ruthenium red. Each suggested differences in the intercalations during the ontogenetical development of each trichome during the development stage. • Key Results The histochemical reactions revealed the main components of the materials secreted by all types of trichomes, which include lipids, flavones and terpenes and the different cell wall compositions. Glandular secretions were observed during environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and the trichomes compared with those seen by conventional scanning electron microscopy (CSEM). • Conclusions Scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analysis demonstrated that each of

  13. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-01

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  14. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  15. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient conditions. 1033.505 Section 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.505 Ambient conditions. This...

  20. Net ammonium and nitrate fluxes in wheat roots under different environmental conditions as assessed by scanning ion-selective electrode technique.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yangquanwei; Yan, Weiming; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2014-11-27

    Wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world, its availability affects global food security. In this study, we investigated variations in NH4(+) and NO3(-) fluxes in the fine roots of wheat using a scanning ion-selective electrode technique in the presence of different nitrogen (N) forms, N concentrations, and pH levels as well as under water stress. Our results show that the fine roots of wheat demonstrated maximum NH4(+) and NO3(-) influxes at 20 mm and 25 mm from the root tip, respectively. The maximal net NH4(+) and NO3(-) influxes were observed at pH 6.2 in the presence of a 1/4 N solution. We observed N efflux in two different cultivars following the exposure of roots to a 10% PEG-6000 solution. Furthermore, the drought-tolerant cultivar generally performed better than the drought-intolerant cultivar. Net NH4(+) and NO3(-) fluxes may be determined by plant growth status, but environmental conditions can also affect the magnitude and direction of N flux. Interestingly, we found that NO3(-) was more sensitive to environmental changes than NH4(+). Our results may be used to guide future hydroponic experiments in wheat as well as to aid in the development of effective fertilisation protocols for this crop.

  1. Net ammonium and nitrate fluxes in wheat roots under different environmental conditions as assessed by scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yangquanwei; Yan, Weiming; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world, its availability affects global food security. In this study, we investigated variations in NH4+ and NO3- fluxes in the fine roots of wheat using a scanning ion-selective electrode technique in the presence of different nitrogen (N) forms, N concentrations, and pH levels as well as under water stress. Our results show that the fine roots of wheat demonstrated maximum NH4+ and NO3− influxes at 20 mm and 25 mm from the root tip, respectively. The maximal net NH4+ and NO3− influxes were observed at pH 6.2 in the presence of a 1/4 N solution. We observed N efflux in two different cultivars following the exposure of roots to a 10% PEG-6000 solution. Furthermore, the drought-tolerant cultivar generally performed better than the drought-intolerant cultivar. Net NH4+ and NO3− fluxes may be determined by plant growth status, but environmental conditions can also affect the magnitude and direction of N flux. Interestingly, we found that NO3− was more sensitive to environmental changes than NH4+. Our results may be used to guide future hydroponic experiments in wheat as well as to aid in the development of effective fertilisation protocols for this crop. PMID:25428199

  2. High-quality imaging in environmental scanning electron microscopy--optimizing the pressure limiting system and the secondary electron detection of a commercially available ESEM.

    PubMed

    Fitzek, H; Schroettner, H; Wagner, J; Hofer, F; Rattenberger, J

    2016-04-01

    In environmental scanning electron microscopy applications in the kPa regime are of increasing interest for the investigation of wet and biological samples, because neither sample preparation nor extensive cooling are necessary. Unfortunately, the applications are limited by poor image quality. In this work the image quality at high pressures of a FEI Quanta 600 (field emission gun) and a FEI Quanta 200 (thermionic gun) is greatly improved by optimizing the pressure limiting system and the secondary electron (SE) detection system. The scattering of the primary electron beam strongly increases with pressure and thus the image quality vanishes. The key to high-image quality at high pressures is to reduce scattering as far as possible while maintaining ideal operation conditions for the SE-detector. The amount of scattering is reduced by reducing both the additional stagnation gas thickness (aSGT) and the environmental distance (ED). A new aperture holder is presented that significantly reduces the aSGT while maintaining the same field-of-view (FOV) as the original design. With this aperture holder it is also possible to make the aSGT even smaller at the expense of a smaller FOV. A new blade-shaped SE-detector is presented yielding better image quality than usual flat SE-detectors. The electrode of the new SE detector is positioned on the sample table, which allows the SE-detector to operate at ideal conditions regardless of pressure and ED.

  3. Individual Cell Based Traits Obtained by Scanning Flow-Cytometry Show Selection by Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors during a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom

    PubMed Central

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  4. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  5. Serious Choices: A Protocol for an Environmental Scan of Patient Decision Aids for Seriously Ill People at Risk of Death Facing Choices about Life-Sustaining Treatments.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Catherine H; Elwyn, Glyn; Kirkland, Kathryn; Durand, Marie-Anne

    2017-08-20

    Seriously ill people at high risk of death face difficult decisions, especially concerning the extent of medical intervention. Given the inherent difficulty and complexity of these decisions, the care they receive often does not align with their preferences. Patient decision aids that educate individuals about options and help them construct preferences about life-sustaining care may reduce the mismatch between the care people say they want and the care they receive. The quantity and quality of patient decision aids for those at high risk of death, however, are unknown. This protocol describes an approach for conducting an environmental scan of life-sustaining treatment patient decision aids for seriously ill patients, identified online and through informant analysis. We intend for the outcome to be an inventory of all life-sustaining treatment patient decision aids for seriously ill patients currently available (either publicly or proprietarily) along with information about their content, quality, and known use. We will identify patient decision aids in a three-step approach (1) mining previously published systematic reviews; (2) systematically searching online and in two popular app stores; and (3) undertaking a key informant survey. We will screen and assess the quality of each patient decision aid identified using the latest published draft of the U.S. National Quality Forum National Standards for the Certification of Patient Decision Aids. Additionally, we will evaluate readability via readable.io and content via inductive content analysis. We will also use natural language processing to assess the content of the decision aids. Researchers increasingly recognize the environmental scan as an optimal method for studying real-world interventions, such as patient decision aids. This study will advance our understanding of the availability, quality, and use of decision aids for life-sustaining interventions targeted at seriously ill patients. We also aim to provide

  6. The Scanning Process: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning the external environment will become more essential to colleges in the coming decade. Developing an environmental scanning system can identify important emerging issues that may constitute either threats or opportunities. The organizational features of a mature scanning process are described. (MLW)

  7. Morphology, Spatial Distribution, and Concentration of Flame Retardants in Consumer Products and Environmental Dusts using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman Micro-spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    WAGNER, JEFF; GHOSAL, SUTAPA; WHITEHEAD, TODD; METAYER, CATHERINE

    2013-01-01

    We characterized flame retardant (FR) morphologies and spatial distributions in 7 consumer products and 7 environmental dusts to determine their implications for transfer mechanisms, human exposure, and the reproducibility of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) dust measurements. We characterized individual particles using scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS). Samples were screened for the presence of 3 FR constituents (bromine, phosphorous, non-salt chlorine) and 2 metal synergists (antimony and bismuth). Subsequent analyses of select samples by RMS enabled molecular identification of the FR compounds and matrix materials. The consumer products and dust samples possessed FR elemental weight percents of up to 36% and 31%, respectively. We identified 24 FR-containing particles in the dust samples and classified them into 9 types based on morphology and composition. We observed a broad range of morphologies for these FR-containing particles, suggesting FR transfer to dust via multiple mechanisms. We developed an equation to describe the heterogeneity of FR-containing particles in environmental dust samples. The number of individual FR-containing particles expected in a 1-mg dust sample with a FR concentration of 100 ppm ranged from <1 to >1000 particles. The presence of rare, high-concentration bromine particles was correlated with decabromodiphenyl ether concentrations obtained via GC-MS. When FRs are distributed heterogeneously in highly concentrated dust particles, human exposure to FRs may be characterized by high transient exposures interspersed by periods of low exposure, and GC-MS FR concentrations may exhibit large variability in replicate subsamples. Current limitations of this SEM/EDS technique include potential false negatives for volatile and chlorinated FRs and greater quantitation uncertainty for brominated FR in aluminum-rich matrices. PMID:23739093

  8. The Effect of Fluctuations in Photoperiod and Ambient Temperature on the Timing of Flowering: Time to Move on Natural Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Hun

    2016-01-01

    Plants have become physiologically adapted to a seasonally shifting environment by evolving many sensory mechanisms. Seasonal flowering is a good example of adaptation to local environmental demands and is crucial for maximizing reproductive fitness. Photoperiod and temperature are major environmental stimuli that control flowering through expression of a floral inducer, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein. Recent discoveries made using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that the functions of photoreceptors are essential for the timing of FT gene induction, via modulation of the transcriptional activator CONSTANS (CO) at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in response to seasonal variations. The activation of FT transcription by the fine-tuned CO protein enables plants to switch from vegetative growth to flowering under inductive environmental conditions. The present review briefly summarizes our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the information of environmental stimuli is sensed and transduced to trigger FT induction in leaves. PMID:27788575

  9. Large-scale and environmentally friendly synthesis of pH-responsive oil-repellent polymer brush surfaces under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; Urata, Chihiro; Miranda, Daniel F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2014-08-13

    Contrary to conventional ATRP, aqueous A(R)GET-ATRP at ambient temperature without deoxygenating reaction solutions is an extremely facile method to create polymer brushes. Using these techniques, extremely thick poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] polymer brushes can be prepared (∼700 nm), or reaction solutions can be low chemical-content, consisting of 99% v/v water. Based on these techniques, we have also developed an easy and inexpensive method, referred to as "paint on"-ATRP, that directly pastes reaction solutions onto various large-scale real-life substrates open to the air. The resulting brush surfaces possess excellent oil-repellent properties, which can be activated or deactivated in response to solution pH.

  10. Scanning SQUID microscopy of a ferromanganese crust from the northwestern Pacific: Submillimeter scale magnetostratigraphy as a new tool for age determination and mapping of environmental magnetic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, A.; Oda, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Usui, A.; Sato, M.; Kawai, J.

    2017-06-01

    Ferromanganese crusts record long-term deep-sea environmental changes. Thus, providing their reliable high-resolution age models is important. We applied a magnetostratigraphic technique to estimate the growth rate of a ferromanganese crust using scanning SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) microscope (SSM). SSM is designed to map the magnetic field across thin sections with submillimeter resolution. The crust sample was taken from the Takuyo-Daigo Seamount, northwestern Pacific, and recorded a limited supply of dust and sediment from continents. After drift correction and removal of spike noises, the magnetic field values were stacked within the areas of high signal-to-noise ratios. By correlating the obtained profiles with a standard geomagnetic polarity timescale, we obtained an average growth rate of 3.37 ± 0.06 mm/Ma, which is consistent with that obtained by 10Be/9Be geochronology (2.93 ± 0.15 mm/Ma). S ratio mapping shows low values after 3 Ma, associated with voids between columnar structures.

  11. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy characterization of the adhesion of conidia from Penicillium expansum to cedar wood substrata at different pH values.

    PubMed

    El Abed, Soumya; Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi; Latrache, Hassan; Meftah, Hasna; Tahri, Nezha Joutey; Hamadi, Fatima

    2012-04-01

    Initial microbial adhesion to surfaces is a complicated process that is affected by a number of factors. An important property of a solution that may influence adhesion is pH. The surface properties of the cedar wood were characterized by the sessile drop technique. Moreover, the interfacial free energy of surface adhesion to the cedar wood was determined under pH values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11). The results showed that cedar wood examined at different pH levels could be considered hydrophobic ranged from Giwi = -13.1 mJ/m(2) to Giwi = -75 mJ/m(2). We noted that the electron-donor character of cedar wood was important at both basic and limit acidic conditions (pH 11 and pH 3) and it decreased at intermediate pH (pH 5). The cedar wood substratum presents a weak electron acceptor under various pH's. In addition, the adhesion of conidia from Penicilllium expansum to the cedar wood surfaces at different pH values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11) was investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy and image analysis was assessed with the Mathlab(®) program. The data analysis showed that the conidia from P. expansum were strongly influenced by the pH. The maximum adhesion occurs in the pH 11 and pH 3 and decreased to 24% at pH 5.

  12. New insight in understanding oxygen reduction and evolution in solid-state lithium-oxygen batteries using an in situ environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Xiao, Dongdong; Li, Xing; Liu, Yali; Wu, Yang; Wang, Jiaping; Jiang, Kaili; Chen, Chun; Gu, Lin; Wei, Xianlong; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Qing; Li, Hong

    2014-08-13

    Via designing a facile microscale all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery system constructed in an environmental scanning electron microscope, direct visualization of discharge and charge processes of the lithium-oxygen battery is achieved. Different morphologies of the discharge product are observed, including a sphere, conformal film, and red-blood-cell-like shape, with a particle size up to 1.5 μm; whereas upon charge, the decomposition initiates at their surface and continues along a certain direction, instead of from the contact point at the electrode. These new findings indicate that the electron and lithium ion conductivities of Li2O2 could support the growth and decomposition of the discharge product in our system. In addition, our results indicate that various morphologies of Li2O2 arise from the different current density and surface chemistry of CNT, and the growth and decomposition of the particle are related to the uneven distribution of the ionic and electronic conductivities of Li2O2.

  13. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures.

  14. Macrophages and dendritic cells in the rat meninges and choroid plexus: three-dimensional localisation by environmental scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Paul G; Wealthall, Rosamund J; Deverall, Marie; Cooper, Stephanie J; Griffin, Brendan

    2003-09-01

    The present investigation provides novel information on the topographical distribution of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in normal meninges and choroid plexus of the rat central nervous system (CNS). Whole-mounts of meninges and choroid plexus of Lewis rats were incubated with various anti-leucocyte monoclonal antibodies and either visualised with gold-conjugated secondary antibody followed by silver enhancement and subsequent examination by environmental scanning electron microscopy or by the use of fluorochromes and confocal microscopy. Large numbers of MHC class II(+) putative DCs were identified on the internal or subarachnoid aspect of dural whole-mounts, on the surface of the cortex (pia/arachnoid) and on the surface of the choroid plexus. Occupation of these sites would allow DCs access to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and therefore allow antigens into the subarachnoid space and ventricles. By contrast, macrophages were less evident at sites exposed to CSF and were more frequently located within the connective tissue of the dura/arachnoid and choroid plexus stroma and also in a sub-pial location. The present data suggest that DC may be strategically located within the CNS to sample CSF-borne antigens. Furthermore, the data suggest that CNS tissue samples collected without careful removal of the meninges may inadvertently be contaminated by DCs and meningeal macrophages.

  15. Environmental scan of infection prevention and control practices for containment of hospital-acquired infectious disease outbreaks in acute care hospital settings across Canada.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Wrechelle; Geransar, Rose; Clayden, Nancy; Jones, Jessica; de Grood, Jill; Joffe, Mark; Taylor, Geoffrey; Missaghi, Bayan; Pearce, Craig; Ghali, William; Conly, John

    2017-07-18

    Ward closure is a method of controlling hospital-acquired infectious diseases outbreaks and is often coupled with other practices. However, the value and efficacy of ward closures remains uncertain. To understand the current practices and perceptions with respect to ward closure for hospital-acquired infectious disease outbreaks in acute care hospital settings across Canada. A Web-based environmental scan survey was developed by a team of infection prevention and control (IPC) experts and distributed to 235 IPC professionals at acute care sites across Canada. Data were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach of descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. A total of 110 completed responses showed that 70% of sites reported at least 1 outbreak during 2013, 44% of these sites reported the use of ward closure. Ward closure was considered an "appropriate," "sometimes appropriate," or "not appropriate" strategy to control outbreaks by 50%, 45%, and 5% of participants, respectively. System capacity issues and overall risk assessment were main factors influencing the decision to close hospital wards following an outbreak. Results suggest the use of ward closure for containment of hospital-acquired infectious disease outbreaks in Canadian acute care health settings is mixed, with outbreak control methods varying. The successful implementation of ward closure was dependent on overall support for the IPC team within hospital administration. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as fine particulate matter and arsenic in drinking water. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental Qualit...

  17. Overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as fine particulate matter and arsenic in drinking water. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental Qualit...

  18. Effect of daily fluctuations in ambient temperature on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily ranges and maximum ambient temperatures, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. Daily ambient temperatures were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average daily temperature ranges (ADT) and the average daily maximum temperatures (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower ranges of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their temperature management strategies.

  19. Report on the CEPA activities [Consorcio Educativo para la Proteccion Ambiental/Educational Consortium for Environmental Preservation] [Final report of activities from 1998 to 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Miriam

    2003-02-01

    This report compiles the instances of scientific, educational, and institutional cooperation on environmental issues and other activities in which CEPA was engaged during the past five years, and includes several annual reports and meeting summaries. CEPA is a collaborative international consortium that brings together higher education institutions with governmental agencies, research laboratories, and private sector entities. CEPA's mission is to strengthen the technical, professional, and educational environmental infrastructure in the United States and Latin America. The CEPA program includes curriculum development, student exchange, faculty development, and creation of educational materials, joint research, and other cooperative activities. CEPA's goals are accomplished by actively working with Hispanic-serving institutions of higher education in the United States, in collaboration with institutions of higher education in Latin America and other Consortium members to deliver competitive environmental programs.

  20. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  1. Overall environmental quality and incidence of childhood cancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as hazardous air pollutants and pesticides. However, the role of cumulative ambient environmental exposures is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental...

  2. Overall environmental quality and incidence of childhood cancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as hazardous air pollutants and pesticides. However, the role of cumulative ambient environmental exposures is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental...

  3. Renal scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urinate often to help remove the radioactive material from the body. How to Prepare for the Test Tell your health care provider if you take ... drink additional fluids before the scan. How the Test will ... into the vein. However, you will not feel the radioactive material. The scanning table may be hard and cold. ...

  4. Environmental factors controlling the distribution of rhodoliths: An integrated study based on seafloor sampling, ROV and side scan sonar data, offshore the W-Pontine Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañé, E.; Chiocci, F. L.; Basso, D.; Martorelli, E.

    2016-10-01

    The effects of different environmental factors controlling the distribution of different morphologies, sizes and growth forms of rhodoliths in the western Pontine Archipelago have been studied. The analysis of 231 grab samples has been integrated with 68 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) videos (22 h) and a high resolution (<1 m) side scan sonar mosaic of the seafloor surrounding the Archipelago, covering an area of approximately 460 km2. Living rhodoliths were collected in approximately 10% of the grab samples and observed in approximately 30% of the ROV dives. The combination of sediment sampling, video surveys and acoustic facies mapping suggested that the presence of rhodoliths can be associated to the dishomogeneous high backscatter sonar facies and high backscatter facies. Both pralines and unattached branches were found to be the most abundant morphological groups (50% and 41% of samples, respectively), whereas boxwork rhodoliths were less common, accounting only for less than 10% of the total number of samples. Pralines and boxwork rhodoliths were almost equally distributed among large (28%), medium (36%) and small sizes (36%). Pralines generally presented a fruticose growth form (49% of pralines) even if pralines with encrusting-warty (36% of pralines) or lumpy (15% of pralines) growth forms were also present. Morphologies, sizes and growth forms vary mainly along the depth gradient. Large rhodoliths with a boxwork morphology are abundant at depth, whereas unattached branches and, in general, rhodoliths with a high protuberance degree are abundant in shallow waters. The exposure to storm waves and bottom currents related to geostrofic circulation could explain the absence of rhodoliths off the eastern side of the three islands forming the Archipelago.

  5. Recycling stainless steel orthodontic brackets with Er:YAG laser – An environmental scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength study

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Prince K; Kodoth, Jithesh; John, Jacob; Kumar, Kishore

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficiency of erbium: Yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and shear bond strength analysis as a method of recycling stainless steel orthodontic brackets and compare with other methods of recycling. Materials and Methods: Eighty samples of extracted premolar teeth bonded to SS brackets were tested for rebonded shear bond strength after recycling by four methods and compared with a control group of 20 samples. These 80 samples were randomized into four groups which were recycled by four methods, namely, sandblasting, thermal method, adhesive grinding by tungsten carbide bur, and Er: YAG laser method. After recycling, ESEM and shear bond strength analysis were used to analyze the efficiency of the recycling methods Results: Er: YAG laser group was found to be having the greatest bond strength among the recycled brackets (8.33±2.51 followed by the sandblasting at 6.12±1.12 MPa, thermal and electropolishing at 4.44±0.95 MPa, and lastly the adhesive grinding method at 3.08±1.07 MPa. The shear bond strength of Er: YAG laser group was found to be having no statistically significant difference with that of the control group (P>0.05 and had statistical signifance with sandblasting, thermal and electropolishing and adhesive grinding groups at P>0.001. ESEM analysis showed complete removal of adhesive from the brackets recycled with Er: YAG laser which mimicked that of the control group. Conclusion: Er: YAG laser (2940 nm) was found to be the most efficient method for recycling, followed by the sandblasting, thermal, and the tungsten carbide methods, which had the least shear bond strength value and is not fit for clinical usage. PMID:24987647

  6. Group 13 allergens as environmental and immunological markers for grass pollen allergy: studies by immunogold field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Grote, Monika; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2005-04-01

    Polygalacturonases were recently identified as important grass pollen allergens and designated group 13 allergens. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of group 13 grass pollen allergens in different grass species, their release and ultrastructural location in dry and hydrated grass pollen. Nitrocellulose-blotted allergen extracts from 12 wild and cultivated grass genera were probed with a rabbit antiserum raised against purified recombinant timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 13. The release kinetics of Phl p 13 from timothy grass pollen hydrated for 0.5 min to 3 h were analyzed by immunoblotting. Phl p 13 was localized in dry and hydrated grass pollen grains by immunogold field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Group 13 allergens were detected in all 12 wild and cultivated grass genera representing the major subfamilies of the Poaceae. Ultrastructurally, the allergen was located in the wall and in the cytoplasm of timothy grass pollen grains. In the cytoplasm, Phl p 13 was associated with polysaccharide particles and as yet undescribed stacks of microtubule-like structures. After hydration in rain water, pollen grains expel cytoplasmic particles of respirable size containing Phl p 13, which becomes detectable in aqueous supernatants already after 0.5 min. Group 13 allergens represent one set of marker allergens which specifically occur in pollen of the major grass subfamilies and are rapidly released in association with respirable particles after pollen hydration. They may be considered as environmental markers for grass pollen exposure and group 13-specific IgE antibodies as immunological markers for genuine grass pollen sensitization. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Ambient insect pressure and recipient genotypes determine fecundity of transgenic crop-weed rice hybrid progeny: Implications for environmental biosafety assessment.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Xia, Hanbing; Xu, Kai; Cai, Xingxing; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Transgene introgression into crop weedy/wild relatives can provide natural selective advantages, probably causing undesirable environmental impact. The advantages are likely associated with factors such as transgenes, selective pressure, and genetic background of transgene recipients. To explore the role of the environment and background of transgene recipients in affecting the advantages, we estimated the fitness of crop-weed hybrid lineages derived from crosses between marker-free insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI) rice with five weedy rice populations under varied insect pressure. Multiway anova indicated the significant effect of both transgenes and weedy rice genotypes on the performance of crop-weed hybrid lineages in the high-insect environment. Increased fecundity was detected in most transgene-present F1 and F2 hybrid lineages under high-insect pressure, but varied among crop-weed hybrid lineages with different weedy rice parents. Increased fecundity of transgenic crop-weed hybrid lineages was associated with the environmental insect pressure and genotypes of their weedy rice parents. The findings suggest that the fitness effects of an insect-resistant transgene introgressed into weedy populations are not uniform across different environments and genotypes of the recipient plants that have acquired the transgene. Therefore, these factors should be considered when assessing the environmental impact of transgene flow to weedy or wild rice relatives.

  8. The geology of ambient aerosols: characterising urban and rural/coastal silicate PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 using high-volume cascade collection and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Teresa; Gibbons, Wes; Jones, Tim; Richards, Roy

    Atmospheric PM 10-2.5 (coarse) and PM 2.5 (fine) samples were obtained, using a high-volume impaction collector, from two very different sites in the UK: rural/coastal (Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall) and urban/road traffic (Central London). Samples were characterized directly on the collecting substrate using SEM (2000 analyses: 500 from each coarse and fine sample). The London PM 10-2.5 mostly comprises iron, carbon, nitrate, and silicate particles, with minor amounts of sulphate and chloride. The Lizard PM 10-2.5 is predictably much richer in silicates and chlorides, and relatively low in iron and carbon. The London PM 2.5 fraction is dominated by fine/ultrafine carbon from road traffic, followed by nitrate and sulphate particles (both in similar numbers to PM 10-2.5), but is depleted in iron and, especially, in silicate and chloride. The Lizard PM 2.5 is also dominated by carbon, sulphate and nitrate, and has much lower amounts of silicate and chloride. The silicate particles in the coarse London PM fraction include many more felsic (mostly quartz and clay minerals) than mafic (Fe-Mg-rich) particles, whereas the reverse is true for the Lizard where the most common silicate PM 10-2.5 is Mg-rich and derived from the local geology. Silicate PM 2.5 is virtually absent from the London sample but occurs in appreciable amounts in the Lizard (mostly felsic, especially Al-rich clay minerals) indicating that such silicates in the fine, more deeply inhalable, fraction arise mainly from natural rather than technogenic sources. The distinctive silicate particle chemistry of the Lizard samples provides an excellent example of how local geology will be recorded in the composition of ambient aerosols, and contrasts with the London site which lies in an entirely different geological setting and is extremely contaminated by anthropogenic aerosols.

  9. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... rays given off by the radioactive material. A computer displays images of the thyroid gland. Other scans ... It is an even gray color on the computer image without darker or lighter areas. What Abnormal ...

  10. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  11. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... cirrhosis or hepatitis ) Superior vena cava obstruction Splenic infarction (tissue death) Tumors Risks Radiation from any scan ... Hepatitis Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Splenic infarction SVC obstruction Review Date 1/18/2015 Updated ...

  12. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21--28, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  13. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22--29, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  14. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22--29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis activities. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Reference toxicant test information; and Personnel training documentation.

  15. 3D Micro-topography of Transferred Laboratory and Natural Ice Crystal Surfaces Imaged by Cryo and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, N. B.; Boaggio, K.; Bancroft, L.; Bandamede, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted micro-scale roughness on the surfaces of ice crystals grown and imaged in-situ within the chambers of environmental scanning electron microscopes (ESEM). These observations appear to align with theoretical and satellite observations that suggest a prevalence of rough ice in cirrus clouds. However, the atmospheric application of the lab observations are indeterminate because the observations have been based only on crystals grown on substrates and in pure-water vapor environments. In this work, we present details and results from the development of a transfer technique which allows natural and lab-grown ice and snow crystals to be captured, preserved, and transferred into the ESEM for 3D imaging. Ice crystals were gathered from 1) natural snow, 2) a balloon-borne cirrus particle capture device, and 3) lab-grown ice crystals from a diffusion chamber. Ice crystals were captured in a pre-conditioned small-volume (~1 cm3) cryo-containment cell. The cell was then sealed closed and transferred to a specially-designed cryogenic dewer (filled with liquid nitrogen or crushed dry ice) for transport to a new Hitachi Field Emission, Variable Pressure SEM (SU-5000). The cryo-cell was then removed from the dewer and quickly placed onto the pre-conditioned cryo transfer stage attached to the ESEM (Quorum 3010T). Quantitative 3D topographical digital elevation models of ice surfaces are reported from SEM for the first time, including a variety of objective measures of statistical surface roughness. The surfaces of the transported crystals clearly exhibit signatures of mesoscopic roughening that are similar to examples of roughness seen in ESEM-grown crystals. For most transported crystals, the habits and crystal edges are more intricate that those observed for ice grown directly on substrates within the ESEM chamber. Portions of some crystals do appear smooth even at magnification greater than 1000x, a rare observation in our ESEM-grown crystals. The

  16. The future is 'ambient'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  17. Spatial Resolution in Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Without a Specimen Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kayla X.; Holtz, Megan E.; Richmond-Decker, Justin; Muller, David A.

    2016-07-25

    Abstract

    A long-standing goal of electron microscopy has been the high-resolution characterization of specimens in their native environment. However, electron optics require high vacuum to maintain an unscattered and focused probe, a challenge for specimens requiring atmospheric or liquid environments. Here, we use an electron-transparent window at the base of a scanning electron microscope’s objective lens to separate column vacuum from the specimen, enabling imaging under ambient conditions, without a specimen vacuum chamber. We demonstrate in-air imaging of specimens at nanoscale resolution using backscattered scanning electron microscopy (airSEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We explore resolution and contrast using Monte Carlo simulations and analytical models. We find that nanometer-scale resolution can be obtained at gas path lengths up to 400μm, although contrast drops with increasing gas path length. As the electron-transparent window scatters considerably more than gas at our operating conditions, we observe that the densities and thicknesses of the electron-transparent window are the dominant limiting factors for image contrast at lower operating voltages. By enabling a variety of detector configurations, the airSEM is applicable to a wide range of environmental experiments including the imaging of hydrated biological specimens andin situchemical and electrochemical processes.

  18. Spatial Resolution in Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Without a Specimen Vacuum Chamber.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kayla X; Holtz, Megan E; Richmond-Decker, Justin; Muller, David A

    2016-08-01

    A long-standing goal of electron microscopy has been the high-resolution characterization of specimens in their native environment. However, electron optics require high vacuum to maintain an unscattered and focused probe, a challenge for specimens requiring atmospheric or liquid environments. Here, we use an electron-transparent window at the base of a scanning electron microscope's objective lens to separate column vacuum from the specimen, enabling imaging under ambient conditions, without a specimen vacuum chamber. We demonstrate in-air imaging of specimens at nanoscale resolution using backscattered scanning electron microscopy (airSEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We explore resolution and contrast using Monte Carlo simulations and analytical models. We find that nanometer-scale resolution can be obtained at gas path lengths up to 400 μm, although contrast drops with increasing gas path length. As the electron-transparent window scatters considerably more than gas at our operating conditions, we observe that the densities and thicknesses of the electron-transparent window are the dominant limiting factors for image contrast at lower operating voltages. By enabling a variety of detector configurations, the airSEM is applicable to a wide range of environmental experiments including the imaging of hydrated biological specimens and in situ chemical and electrochemical processes.

  19. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25--February 1, 1994. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Meter calibrations; and Reference toxicant test information.

  20. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary pollutants during a 2001 summer study in Pittsburgh using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Lucas, Leonard J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K; Eatough, Delbert J

    2006-09-01

    Apportionment of primary and secondary pollutants during the summer 2001 Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is reported. Several sites were included in PAQS, with the main site (the supersite) adjacent to the Carnegie Mellon University campus in Schenley Park. One of the additional sampling sites was located at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, located approximately 18 km southeast of downtown Pittsburgh. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass, gas-phase volatile organic material (VOM), particulate semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material (NVOM), and ammonium sulfate were apportioned at the two sites into their primary and secondary contributions using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX 2.3 multivariate receptor modeling and analysis software. A portion of each of these species was identified as originating from gasoline and diesel primary mobile sources. Some of the organic material was formed from local secondary transformation processes, whereas the great majority of the secondary sulfate was associated with regional transformation contributions. The results indicated that the diurnal patterns of secondary gas-phase VOM and particulate semivolatile and NVOM were not correlated with secondary ammonium sulfate contributions but were associated with separate formation pathways. These findings are consistent with the bulk of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport and, thus, decoupled from local activity involving organic pollutants in the metropolitan area.

  1. Multifactorial Effects of Ambient Temperature, Precipitation, Farm Management, and Environmental Factors Determine the Level of Generic Escherichia coli Contamination on Preharvested Spinach

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only. PMID:25636850

  2. Multifactorial effects of ambient temperature, precipitation, farm management, and environmental factors determine the level of generic Escherichia coli contamination on preharvested spinach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-04-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only.

  3. Ambient Tropospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

  4. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  5. Ambient Tropospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

  6. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... proposed rule ``Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State... proposed rulemaking proposes to implement the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards...

  7. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed rule...

  8. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  9. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  10. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  11. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  13. 77 FR 64244 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 RIN 2060-AR59 Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements AGENCY... deadlines established in the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) for...

  14. Ambient Temperature and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Douglas R.; Smith, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Homeotherms maintain an optimal body temperature that is most often above their environment or ambient temperature. As ambient temperature decreases, energy expenditure (and energy intake) must increase to maintain thermal homeostasis. With the wide spread adoption of climate control, humans in modern society are buffered from temperature extremes and spend an increasing amount of time in a thermally comfortable state where energetic demands are minimized. This is hypothesized to contribute to the contemporary increase in obesity rates. Studies reporting exposures of animals and humans to different ambient temperatures are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the potentially altered metabolic and physiologic responses in obese versus lean subjects at a given temperature. The data suggest that ambient temperature is a significant contributor to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and that this variable should be more thoroughly explored in future studies as a potential contributor to obesity susceptibility. PMID:24707450

  15. Ambient taxes when polluters have multiple choices

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Abler, D.G.

    1998-09-01

    Economic research on environmental policy design has largely been concerned with the merits of emissions-based economic incentives (e.g., emissions charges, emissions reduction subsidies, transferable discharge permits). Ambient-based tax-subsidy schemes have drawn considerable interest in nonpoint pollution literature as alternatives to emissions-based instruments. Expanding especially on Segerson`s seminal article, this article examines the optimal design and budget-balancing properties of ambient tax-subsidy schemes under more realistic assumptions about the dimensions of firms` choice sets than prior research.

  16. Ambient noise analysis of underwater acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Mark A.; Orlin, Pete; Schulte, Annette; Newcomb, Joal

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summers of 2001 and 2002. The buoys recorded frequencies up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days in 2001 and for 72 days in 2002. The acoustic signals recorded include sperm whale vocalizations, seismic airguns, and shipping traffic. The variability of the ambient noise is analyzed using spectrograms, time series, and statistical measurements. Variations in ambient noise before, during, and after tropical storm/hurricane passage are also investigated.

  17. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  18. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  19. Differential and Dose-Dependent Inflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Respirable Instillation of Environmental Diesel, Emission-Source Diesel , Emmission-Source Diesel and Ambient Air Pollution Particles In Vivo.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previously, we found that ambient particulate matter (APM) activates pulmonary dendritic cells in vitro. We hypothesized that single acute exposures to PM would promote inflammatory activation of the lung in vivo and provide information on early immunological events of...

  20. Differential and Dose-Dependent Inflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Respirable Instillation of Environmental Diesel, Emission-Source Diesel , Emmission-Source Diesel and Ambient Air Pollution Particles In Vivo.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previously, we found that ambient particulate matter (APM) activates pulmonary dendritic cells in vitro. We hypothesized that single acute exposures to PM would promote inflammatory activation of the lung in vivo and provide information on early immunological events of...

  1. Absolute distance measurement system with micron-grade measurement uncertainty and 24 m range using frequency scanning interferometry with compensation of environmental vibration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Gan, Yu

    2016-12-26

    We establish a theoretical model of the Doppler effect in absolute distance measurements using frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and propose a novel FSI absolute distance measurement system. This system incorporates a basic FSI system and a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The LDV results are used to correct for the Doppler effect in the absolute distance measurement signal obtained by the basic FSI system. In the measurement of a target located at 16 m, a measurement resolution of 65.5 μm is obtained, which is close to the theoretical resolution, and a standard deviation of 3.15 μm is obtained. The theoretical measurement uncertainty is 8.6 μm + 0.16 μm/m Rm (k = 2) within a distance range of 1 m to 24 m neglecting the influence of air refractive index, which has been verified with experiments.

  2. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  3. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... monitoring agencies under the requirements of 40 CFR part 58, Ambient Air Quality Surveillance. For such..., Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B-08-003, December, 2008. Provisions...

  4. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 58 and 81 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Final Rule and... Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... promulgating initial area designations for the ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) that...

  5. Comparison of data from the Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) with data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for terrestrial environmental monitoring - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Giddings, L.; Justice, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison between the microwave polarized difference temperature (MPDT) derived from 37 GHz band data and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from near-infrared and red bands, from several empirical investigations are summarized. These indicate the complementary character of the two measures in environmental monitoring. Overall the NDVI is more sensitive to green leaf activity, whereas the MPDT appears also to be related to other elements of the above-ground biomass. Monitoring of hydrological phenomena is carried out much more effectively by the MPDT. Further work is needed to explain spectral and temporal variation in MPDT both through modelling and field experiments.

  6. Comparison of data from the Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) with data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for terrestrial environmental monitoring - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Giddings, L.; Justice, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison between the microwave polarized difference temperature (MPDT) derived from 37 GHz band data and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from near-infrared and red bands, from several empirical investigations are summarized. These indicate the complementary character of the two measures in environmental monitoring. Overall the NDVI is more sensitive to green leaf activity, whereas the MPDT appears also to be related to other elements of the above-ground biomass. Monitoring of hydrological phenomena is carried out much more effectively by the MPDT. Further work is needed to explain spectral and temporal variation in MPDT both through modelling and field experiments.

  7. Correlated Raman micro-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses of flame retardants in environmental samples: a micro-analytical tool for probing chemical composition, origin and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Wagner, Jeff

    2013-07-07

    We present correlated application of two micro-analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for the non-invasive characterization and molecular identification of flame retardants (FRs) in environmental dusts and consumer products. The SEM/EDS-RMS technique offers correlated, morphological, molecular, spatial distribution and semi-quantitative elemental concentration information at the individual particle level with micrometer spatial resolution and minimal sample preparation. The presented methodology uses SEM/EDS analyses for rapid detection of particles containing FR specific elements as potential indicators of FR presence in a sample followed by correlated RMS analyses of the same particles for characterization of the FR sub-regions and surrounding matrices. The spatially resolved characterization enabled by this approach provides insights into the distributional heterogeneity as well as potential transfer and exposure mechanisms for FRs in the environment that is typically not available through traditional FR analysis. We have used this methodology to reveal a heterogeneous distribution of highly concentrated deca-BDE particles in environmental dust, sometimes in association with identifiable consumer materials. The observed coexistence of deca-BDE with consumer material in dust is strongly indicative of its release into the environment via weathering/abrasion of consumer products. Ingestion of such enriched FR particles in dust represents a potential for instantaneous exposure to high FR concentrations. Therefore, correlated SEM/RMS analysis offers a novel investigative tool for addressing an area of important environmental concern.

  8. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique. Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2012-11-08

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  9. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  10. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  11. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  12. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... your provider should weigh this risk against the benefits of getting a correct diagnosis for a medical ...

  13. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  14. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  15. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  16. Ambient temperature recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature data recorder, designated the Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR-4), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to meet particular requirements for space life sciences experiments. The small, self-contained, four-channel, battery-powered device records 32 kilobytes of temperature data over a range of -40 to +60 C at four sampling intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. Data is stored in its internal electronic memory for later readout by a personal computer.

  17. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and childhood cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as hazardous air pollutants and pesticides. However, the role of cumulative ambient environmental exposures is not well-understood. An Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for 2000-2005 was construct...

  18. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and childhood cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as hazardous air pollutants and pesticides. However, the role of cumulative ambient environmental exposures is not well-understood. An Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for 2000-2005 was construct...

  19. Ambient Oxygen Promotes Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Starost, Matthew F.; Lago, Cory U.; Lim, Philip K.; Sack, Michael N.; Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Wang, Ping-yuan; Hwang, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53−/− mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53−/− mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo. PMID:21589870

  20. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    DOE PAGES

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; ...

    2016-06-13

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  1. Influence of ambient pressure on the ablation hole in femtosecond laser drilling Cu.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinxin; Chen, Anmin; Li, Suyu; Qi, Hongxia; Qi, Ying; Hu, Zhan; Jin, Mingxing

    2015-09-20

    The holes were drilled by femtosecond laser pulse (800 nm, 100 fs) on Cu sheets at different ambient pressures. The pressure range was from 1 Pa to atmospheric pressure. The number of pulses to drill through the target, the stable photodiode signal, and the hole diameter were obtained as functions of ambient pressure. The morphology of the hole was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result showed that the ambient pressure had significant influence on the morphology of the hole.

  2. Imaging with ambient noise

    SciTech Connect

    Snieder, Roel; Wapenaar, Kees

    2010-09-15

    Recent developments in seismology, ultrasonics, and underwater acoustics have led to a radical change in the way scientists think about ambient noise--the diffuse waves generated by pressure fluctuations in the atmosphere, the scattering of water waves in the ocean, and any number of other sources that pervade our world. Because diffuse waves consist of the superposition of waves propagating in all directions, they appear to be chaotic and random. That appearance notwithstanding, diffuse waves carry information about the medium through which they propagate.

  3. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... It will then flow with bile into the gallbladder and then the duodenum or small intestine. For ...

  4. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  5. Ambient seismic wave field.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    The ambient seismic wave field, also known as ambient noise, is excited by oceanic gravity waves primarily. This can be categorized as seismic hum (1-20 mHz), primary microseisms (0.02-0.1 Hz), and secondary microseisms (0.1-1 Hz). Below 20 mHz, pressure fluctuations of ocean infragravity waves reach the abyssal floor. Topographic coupling between seismic waves and ocean infragravity waves at the abyssal floor can explain the observed shear traction sources. Below 5 mHz, atmospheric disturbances may also contribute to this excitation. Excitation of primary microseisms can be attributed to topographic coupling between ocean swell and seismic waves on subtle undulation of continental shelves. Excitation of secondary microseisms can be attributed to non-linear forcing by standing ocean swell at the sea surface in both pelagic and coastal regions. Recent developments in source location based on body-wave microseisms enable us to estimate forcing quantitatively. For a comprehensive understanding, we must consider the solid Earth, the ocean, and the atmosphere as a coupled system.

  6. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  7. SETAC launches global horizon scanning/research prioritization project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SETAC World Council is pleased to announce the initiation of a Global Horizon Scanning and Prioritization Project aimed at identifying geographically specific research needs to address stressor impacts on environmental quality. In recent years, horizon scanning and research ...

  8. SETAC launches global horizon scanning/research prioritization project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SETAC World Council is pleased to announce the initiation of a Global Horizon Scanning and Prioritization Project aimed at identifying geographically specific research needs to address stressor impacts on environmental quality. In recent years, horizon scanning and research ...

  9. Five domains of environmental quality and infant mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental media. In order to account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data representin...

  10. Five domains of environmental quality and infant mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental media. In order to account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data representin...

  11. Environmental quality and infant mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental media. In order to account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI)for use in health research. We used u.s. county level data repre...

  12. Environmental quality and infant mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental media. In order to account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI)for use in health research. We used u.s. county level data repre...

  13. An Environmental Scan of Northern Alameda County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloro, Nicholas

    A study was conducted to provide an overview of the demographic and economic characteristics of the geographical area served by the Peralta Community College District and to provide population and economic projections up to the year 2000. Historical data from the Alameda County Planning Commission, census data, and projections from the Association…

  14. Ambient Construction, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ambient Construction, LLC (the Company) is located in Tallahassee, Florida. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Tallahassee, Florida.

  15. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  16. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  17. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  18. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  19. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  20. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  1. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  2. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  3. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  4. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  5. Adolescents' Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences When Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English (Concientización de los adolescentes sobre el cuidado ambiental: experiencias al escribir textos descriptivos cortos en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo Urrutia, Lorena; Medina Gutiérrez, Ana Stella

    2011-01-01

    Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an action-research and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of…

  6. Ambient Air Definition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Interpretation of Ambient Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this workshop is to exchange information on available scientific bases for environmental regulatory decision making to senior Chinese decision-makers in a readily understandable format in order to expedite appropriate control measures in China. The Pol...

  9. AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this workshop is to exchange information on available scientific bases for environmental regulatory decision making to senior Chinese decision-makers in a readily understandable format in order to expedite appropriate control measures in China. The Pol...

  10. Complejidad en Educacion Ambiental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudiano, Edgar Gonzalez

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the complexity of our knowledge of environmental issues and their relationship with educational processes from an anti-essentialist point of view. The concept of complexity has several uses in everyday language where it is occasionally used to refer to something complicated or difficult. (Author/SAH)

  11. Complejidad en Educacion Ambiental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudiano, Edgar Gonzalez

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the complexity of our knowledge of environmental issues and their relationship with educational processes from an anti-essentialist point of view. The concept of complexity has several uses in everyday language where it is occasionally used to refer to something complicated or difficult. (Author/SAH)

  12. Scanning the periphery.

    PubMed

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  13. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  14. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  15. Estuarine ambient toxicity assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, S.I.; Dawson, C.E.; Jordahl, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    This study was to determine if sediment and water column ambient toxicity bioassay results correlate with fish community IBI assessments in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay watersheds that are impacted by industrial, urban and agricultural land use patterns. A battery of water column and sediment toxicity tests were conducted monthly in coordination with fish community sampling in four sub estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Fish were sampled with seines and bottom trawls. An association was found between dissolved oxygen and species richness in the trawls. Water column bioassays indicated mild toxicological contamination in industrial watershed estuaries. Results varied by month and species. Water quality in the rural and agricultural watershed estuaries was generally good. Sediment bioassays demonstrated significant toxicity in the industrialized area. Effects were seen in the urbanized estuary, but to a lesser extent. Fish egg survival effects were observed in the agricultural watershed estuary. The rural estuary sediment produced variable, but non-significant results. The industrial and urban sites were contaminated with heavy metals and organics.

  16. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical...

  17. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical...

  18. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical...

  19. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical...

  20. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical...

  1. Ambient ozone and pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Tighe, Robert M.; Castillo, Christian; Hollingsworth, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ozone is a criteria air pollutant that impacts both human morbidity and mortality. The effect of ozone inhalation includes both toxicity to lung tissue and alteration of the host immunologic response. The innate immune system facilitates immediate recognition of both foreign pathogens and tissue damage. Emerging evidence supports that ozone can modify the host innate immune response and that this response to inhaled ozone is dependent on genes of innate immunity. Improved understanding of the complex interaction between environmental ozone and host innate immunity will provide fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory airways disease. We review the current evidence supporting that environmental ozone inhalation: (1) modifies cell types required for intact innate immunity, (2) is partially dependent on genes of innate immunity, (3) primes pulmonary innate immune responses to LPS, and (4) contributes to innate-adaptive immune system cross-talk. PMID:21132467

  2. Comparison of cellular toxicity caused by ambient ultrafine particles and engineered metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Senlin; Zhang, Wenchao; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Pinwei; Wang, Qiangxiang; Shang, Yu; Wu, Minghong; Donaldson, Ken; Wang, Qingyue

    2015-03-19

    The development of nanotechnology has spurred concerns about the health effects of exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) and ultrafine particles (UFPs). Toxicological data on NPs and UFPs may provide evidence to support the development of regulations to reduce the risk of particle exposure. We tried to provide fundamental data to determine differences in cytotoxicity induced by ambient UFPs and engineered metal oxide NPs (ZnO, NiO, and CeO2). UFPs were sampled by using of a nano micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor. Physicochemical characterization of the UFPs and nano metal oxide particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Cellular toxicity induced by the different particles was assessed by using of comprehensive approaches and compared after A549 cells were exposured to the particles. All of the measured particles could damage A549 cells at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 μg/mL. The lowest survival ratio and the highest lactate dehydrogenase level were caused by nano-ZnO particles, but the highest levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and percentages of apoptosis were observed in cells treated with the soluble fraction of ambient fine particles (PM1.8) at 200 μg/mL. Relatively high concentrations of anthropogenic metals, including Zn, Ni, Fe, and Cu, may be responsible for the higher toxicity of fine ambient particles compared with the ambient coarse particles and UFPs. The selected heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Fe, and Cu) were found to be located in the perinuclear and cytoplasmic areas of A549 cells. The distribution pattern of metals from ambient particles showed that distributions of the metals in A549 cells were not uniform and followed the pattern Cu>Zn>Fe>Ni, suggesting that Cu was absorbed by A549 cells more easily than the other metals. Metal nanoparticles oxides and UFPs at low concentration could damage to cells, but the manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles are not highly toxic to lung

  3. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  4. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  6. Scanning mirror arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, N.B.

    1982-08-31

    An image forming scanning mechanism without obturation in its optical path comprises first and second reflectors that are pivotally actuated about respective orthogonal axes. The scanning reflectors are positioned so that radiant energy in a first optical path from an object field impinges upon a vertical-scan reflector where it is directed to a horizontal-scan reflector and whereupon it is directed back onto the vertical-scan reflector from whence it is reflected along a second optical path in a different plane from the first optical path. The pivotal axes of the vertical-scan reflector and the horizontal-scan reflector are perpendicular to path of radiant energy reflected therefrom. A detector is positioned to receive radiant energy from elemental areas of an object field. The orthogonal disposition of the first and second pivotal axes provides a distortion free image signal from the detector that is comparable with the x-y scan pattern of conventional television display circuits.

  7. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone density scan measures the density of bone in a person. The lower the density of a bone the ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and ...

  8. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  9. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  10. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  11. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  12. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  13. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  14. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  15. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour average...

  16. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour average...

  17. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter...

  18. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference method...

  19. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference method...

  20. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  1. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under...

  2. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards...

  3. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  4. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  5. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  6. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  7. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  9. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  10. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  11. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  12. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  13. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  14. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  15. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  16. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  17. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  18. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  19. Guia de Educacion Ambiental para Maestros del Nivel Primario. Los Recursos Naturales en la Ensenanza Primaria. Segunda Edicion. (Environmental Education Guide for Teachers of Primary Level. Natural Resources in Primary Instruction. Second Edition.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morillo, Alfredo; Del Valle, Ramona

    This guide contains six elementary grade units which focus on environmental concepts considered of major importance by the agricultural personnel of the Dominican Republic. Each of the units shows a cumulative and sequential building of these concepts. Unit 1 (grade 1) focuses on the basics of plant and animal differentiation and on the properties…

  20. Guia de Educacion Ambiental para Maestros del Nivel Primario. Los Recursos Naturales en la Ensenanza Primaria. Segunda Edicion. (Environmental Education Guide for Teachers of Primary Level. Natural Resources in Primary Instruction. Second Edition.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morillo, Alfredo; Del Valle, Ramona

    This guide contains six elementary grade units which focus on environmental concepts considered of major importance by the agricultural personnel of the Dominican Republic. Each of the units shows a cumulative and sequential building of these concepts. Unit 1 (grade 1) focuses on the basics of plant and animal differentiation and on the properties…

  1. Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site contains information on ambient air quality monitoring programs, monitoring methods, quality assurance and control procedures, and federal regulations related to ambient air quality monitoring.

  2. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  3. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  4. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  5. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  6. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  7. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  8. Scanning the Front Range Environment: A Statistical Snapshot of the Front Range Community College Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report from Front Range Community College (FRCC) in Colorado examines trends in population, demographics, income, and education in the college's service area. The report begins with Kathleen Cain's essay, "Environmental Scanning," indicating that the four major objectives of environmental scanning are to…

  9. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  10. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  11. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11956 - What are my compliance requirements for ambient monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for ambient monitoring? 63.11956 Section 63.11956 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions...

  13. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  14. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  15. Cryogenic Pressure Calibrator for Wide Temperature Electronically Scanned (ESP) Pressure Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulcon, Nettie D.

    2001-01-01

    Electronically scanned pressure (ESP) modules have been developed that can operate in ambient and in cryogenic environments, particularly Langley's National Transonic Facility (NTF). Because they can operate directly in a cryogenic environment, their use eliminates many of the operational problems associated with using conventional modules at low temperatures. To ensure the accuracy of these new instruments, calibration was conducted in a laboratory simulating the environmental conditions of NTF. This paper discusses the calibration process by means of the simulation laboratory, the system inputs and outputs and the analysis of the calibration data. Calibration results of module M4, a wide temperature ESP module with 16 ports and a pressure range of +/- 4 psid are given.

  16. Entrainment of circadian rhythm by ambient temperature cycles in mice.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    Much is known about how environmental light-dark cycles synchronize circadian rhythms in animals. The ability of environmental cycles of ambient temperature to synchronize circadian rhythms has also been investigated extensively but mostly in ectotherms. In the present study, the synchronization of the circadian rhythm of running-wheel activity by environmental cycles of ambient temperature was studied in laboratory mice. Although all mice were successfully entrained by a light-dark cycle, only 60% to 80% of the mice were entrained by temperature cycles (24-32 degrees C or 24-12 degrees C), and attainment of stable entrainment seemed to take longer under temperature cycles than under a light-dark cycle. This suggests that ambient temperature cycles are weaker zeitgebers than light-dark cycles, which is consistent with the results of the few previous studies using mammalian species. Whereas 80% of the mice were entrained by 24-h temperature cycles, only 60% were entrained by 23-h cycles, and none was entrained by 25-h cycles. The results did not clarify whether entrainment by temperature cycles is caused directly by temperature or indirectly through a temperature effect on locomotor activity, but it is clear that the rhythm of running-wheel activity in mice can be entrained by ambient temperature cycles in the nonnoxious range.

  17. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging under ambient light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinxin; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Hong, Weili; Huang, Kai-Chih; Yang, Huaidong; Jin, Guofan; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate an ambient light coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope that allows CARS imaging to be operated under environmental light for field use. The CARS signal is modulated at megahertz frequency and detected by a photodiode equipped with a lab-built resonant amplifier, then extracted through a lock-in amplifier. The filters in both the spectral domain and the frequency domain effectively blocked the room light contamination of the CARS image. In situ hyperspectral CARS imaging of tumor tissue under ambient light is demonstrated.

  18. Detecting Ambient Tectonic Tremor in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. R.; Hough, S. E.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    In every tectonic setting where it is observed, tremor proves difficult to detect due to its long durations and low amplitudes close to the noise band. This is particularly true in southern California where cultural noise sources are both spatially and temporally pervasive. Ambient tectonic tremor in circum-Pacific subduction zones was shown to consist of repeating low-frequency earthquakes and locates at the deep extent of the primary seismogenic zone in a region downdip of historical M 8+ earthquakes. The signals were also shown to have a distinct spectral shape (typically around 1-8 Hz) whose higher frequency falloff differs from that of local noise and ordinary earthquakes. In the strike-slip setting, families of deep ambient tremors near the Parkfield-Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault were considered proxies for deep fault slip. Whether ambient tremor occurs in a similar fashion- or even at all- in southern California remains unclear. We employ a combination of running autocorrelation and matched-filter techniques successfully used in both subduction and strike slip settings to detect and locate tremor/low-frequency earthquakes in southern California. In our case, however, detections are accepted or rejected by calculating their spectral shapes to assure the signals are distinct from local noise sources and earthquakes. We scan continuous seismic recordings of the Southern California Seismic Network near the San Jacinto fault from 2008-2012 to detect tremor-like signals, distinguish their spectral shape from other sources, and subsequently locate it. We target this area on account of the abundance of seismic stations including borehole stations. Also, since tremor (2-8 Hz) was triggered by the passing surface waves of the 2002 M 7.9 Denali earthquake in vicinity of the San Jacinto fault we expect an ambient signal to occur in the same area with a similar spectral shape. The application of a spectral discriminator is particularly needed in this region

  19. Environmental scanning electron microscopy connected with energy dispersive x-ray analysis and Raman techniques to study ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium silicate cements in wet conditions and in real time.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Prati, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium silicate cements are able to set in a moist environment. The aim of the study was to examine the surface structure and composition of a cement paste under wet conditions and in real time during setting by environmental scanning electron microscopy connected with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (ESEM-EDX) and micro-Raman techniques. White ProRoot MTA and experimental white tetrasilicate cement (wTC) and wTC containing bismuth oxide (wTC-Bi) were studied. Cement disks were analyzed 10 minutes after powder-liquid mixing (freshly prepared samples) and after immersion in Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C for 24 hours (24-hour-aged samples). Freshly prepared wet cements at ESEM-EDX exposed an irregular surface (displaying calcium, silicon, aluminum, chlorine reflexes, and bismuth traces in MTA and wTC-Bi) with needle-like and cubic-hexagonal shaped crystals. Aggregates of spheroidal Ca-P-rich crystals (spherulites) appeared on the surface of 24-hour-aged samples. The starting unhydrated powders displayed the typical Raman bands of Portland cement components: alite, belite, and calcium sulfate (only as anhydrite in MTA and as both anhydrite and gypsum in wTC and wTC-Bi). MTA powder showed higher amount of calcium carbonate and lower quantities of anhydrite and higher crystallinity of the silicate component, leading to a slower hydration reaction. Products/markers of hydration reactions were present on fresh samples; ettringite formed on the surface of all the cements; calcium hydroxide (portlandite) was detected only on the surface of wTC, but no conclusion can be drawn on wTC-Bi and MTA because of the interference of bismuth oxide. Calcium phosphate and calcite/aragonite bands were detected on all 24-hour-aged cements; portlandite was no longer detected on wTC. ESEM and micro-Raman are powerful and suitable techniques to investigate endodontic calcium silicate hydrated cements in real time and in

  20. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  1. FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING AMBIENT WATER ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Currently, Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for aquatic life protection are derived according to the Guidelines for Derivation of Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life and Their Uses, published in 1985. To ensure that AWQC are derived from the best available science, Office of Water assessed the need to update the Guidelines and identified issues that should be addressed in the revisions. In December 2002, EPA's Science Advisory Board concurred with EPA's assessment of the need to update the Guidelines as well as with the issues EPA identified to address. Updating the Guidelines is a Priority Strategic Action included in OST's Strategy for Water Quality Standards and Criteria (Next Priority Strategic Action #1). To revise existing methodology for deriving ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life.

  2. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedures, or treatments, as they can interfere with test results: Gallium (Ga) scan within the past month Hemodialysis ... Not feeling well (malaise) Pain Often, other imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan may be done first. Normal Results Normal findings would show no abnormal gathering of ...

  3. Urban-rural status affects associations between overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by urbanicity. To estimate ambient environmental conditions, an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for 2000-2005 was constructed by the Environmental Protection Agency using county-level data representing fi...

  4. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and adverse birth outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental domain and urbanicity. To account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data rep...

  5. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and adverse birth outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental domain and urbanicity. To account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data rep...

  6. Urban-rural status affects associations between overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by urbanicity. To estimate ambient environmental conditions, an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for 2000-2005 was constructed by the Environmental Protection Agency using county-level data representing fi...

  7. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  8. PET scan for breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. ... A PET scan is most often used when other tests, such as MRI scan or CT scan, DO NOT provide enough information. A breast PET scan is used only after a woman has ...

  9. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies. Its component data sets have been collected over the years from approximately 10,000 monitoring sites, of which approximately 5,000 are currently active. OAR's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) and other internal and external users, rely on this data to assess air quality, assist in Attainment/Non-Attainment designations, evaluate State Implementation Plans for Non-Attainment Areas, perform modeling for permit review analysis, and other air quality management functions. Air quality information is also used to prepare reports for Congress as mandated by the Clean Air Act. This data covers air quality data collected after 1980, when the Clean Air Act requirements for monitoring were significantly modified. Air quality data from the Agency's early years (1970s) remains available (see OAR PRIMARY DATA ASSET: Ambient Air Quality Data -- Historical), but because of technical and definitional differences the two data assets are not directly comparable. The Clean Air Act of 1970 provided initial authority for monitoring air quality for Conventional Air Pollutants (CAPs) for which EPA has promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Requirements for monitoring visibility-related parameters were added in 1977. Requiremen

  10. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  11. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  12. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Gregory H.; Chu, Lauren; Zhou, Yu Meng; Cohen, Brooklin; Panossian, Lara; Green, Jacklyn R.; Moreland, Scott; Backes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The planetary science decadal survey for 2013-2022 (Vision and Voyages, NRC 2011) has promoted mission concepts for sample acquisition from small solar system bodies. Numerous comet-sampling tools are in development to meet this standard. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants (MPASS) materials provide an opportunity to simulate variable features at ambient temperatures and pressures to appropriately test potential sample acquisition systems for comets, asteroids, and planetary surfaces. The original "flavor" of MPASS materials is known as Manufactured Porous Ambient Comet Simulants (MPACS), which was developed in parallel with the development of the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review). The current suite of MPACS materials was developed through research of the physical and mechanical properties of comets from past comet missions results and modeling efforts, coordination with the science community at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and testing of a wide range of materials and formulations. These simulants were required to represent the physical and mechanical properties of cometary nuclei, based on the current understanding of the science community. Working with cryogenic simulants can be tedious and costly; thus MPACS is a suite of ambient simulants that yields a brittle failure mode similar to that of cryogenic icy materials. Here we describe our suite of comet simulants known as MPACS that will be used to test and validate the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review).

  13. Resonant scanning mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

    2014-10-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 μrad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

  14. Low ambient oxygen prevents atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Sung, Ho Joong; Amar, Marcelo J; Pryor, Milton; Remaley, Alan T; Allen, Michele D; Noguchi, Audrey C; Springer, Danielle A; Kwon, Jaeyul; Chen, Jichun; Park, Ji-hoon; Wang, Ping-yuan; Hwang, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Large population studies have shown that living at higher altitudes, which lowers ambient oxygen exposure, is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease mortality. However, hypoxia has also been reported to promote atherosclerosis by worsening lipid metabolism and inflammation. We sought to address these disparate reports by reducing the ambient oxygen exposure of ApoE-/- mice. We observed that long-term adaptation to 10% O2 (equivalent to oxygen content at ∼5000 m), compared to 21% O2 (room air at sea level), resulted in a marked decrease in aortic atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. This effect was associated with increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), known to be anti-atherogenic and regulated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α). Supporting these observations, ApoE-/- mice that were deficient in IL-10 (IL10-/- ApoE-/- double knockout) failed to show reduced atherosclerosis in 10% oxygen. Our study reveals a specific mechanism that can help explain the decreased prevalence of ischemic heart disease in populations living at high altitudes and identifies ambient oxygen exposure as a potential factor that could be modulated to alter pathogenesis. Key messages: Chronic low ambient oxygen exposure decreases atherosclerosis in mice. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels are increased by low ambient O2. This is consistent with the established role of HIF-1α in IL10 transactivation. Absence of IL-10 results in the loss of the anti-atherosclerosis effect of low O2. This mechanism may contribute to decreased atherosclerosis at high altitudes.

  15. Cardiac CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate. Before the test, a contrast dye, often iodine, may be injected into a vein in your ... should not receive more CT scans than the number that clinical guidelines recommend. Another risk is that ...

  16. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  17. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  18. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  19. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  20. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  1. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  2. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  3. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  4. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  5. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology ... complete. A coronary calcium scan uses a special scanner such as an electron beam CT or a multidetector CT (MDCT) machine. ...

  6. Multiple Reflector Scanning Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing

    Narrow beamwidth antenna systems are important to remote sensing applications and point-to-point communication systems. In many applications the main beam of the antenna radiation pattern must be scannable over a region of space. Scanning by mechanically skewing the entire antenna assembly is difficult and in many situations is unacceptable. Performance during scan is, of course, also very important. Traditional reflector systems employing the well-focused paraboloidal -shaped main reflector accomplish scan by motion of a few feeds, or by phase steering a focal plane feed array. Such scanning systems can experience significant gain loss. Traditional reflecting systems with a spherical main reflector have low aperture efficiency and poor side lobe and cross polarization performance. This dissertation introduces a new approach to the design of scanning spherical reflector systems, in which the performance weaknesses of high cross polarization and high side lobe levels are avoided. Moreover, the low aperture utilization common in spherical reflectors is overcome. As an improvement to this new spherical main reflector configuration, a flat mirror reflector is introduced to minimize the mechanical difficulties to scan the main beam. In addition to the reflector system design, reflector antenna performance evaluation is also important. The temperature resolution issue important for earth observation radiometer antennas is studied, and a new method to evaluate and optimize such temperature resolution is introduced.

  7. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  8. Comments on: Chari, R.; Burke, T.A.; White, R.H.; Fox, M.A. Integrating Susceptibility into environmental policy: an analysis of the national ambient air quality standard for lead. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1077-1096.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Deirdre L; Patel, Molini; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa

    2013-02-08

    In their recent article [1], Chari et al. call attention to the important subject of setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to provide requisite protection for public health, including the health of sensitive groups, as specified under the Clean Air Act (73 FR 66965) [2]. The authors focus on consideration of susceptibility to inform policy choices, using lead (Pb)-related neurocognitive effects and children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families in the context of alternative Pb standard levels. Our comments focus on the authors' analysis of the scientific evidence and not on policy. We agree with the authors that the health effects evidence for Pb indicates a role (or roles) for SES-related factors in influencing childhood Pb exposure and associated health effects. We disagree, however, with the authors' interpretation of the literature on SES influence on the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) relationship between children's blood Pb and IQ (e.g., steepness of the slope). We further address aspects of the scientific evidence that are important to the consideration of sensitive populations in the context of the Pb NAAQS, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered this evidence in setting the Pb NAAQS in 2008.

  9. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  10. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Ebru; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (∼4,000–130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold–graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions. PMID:27350035

  11. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  12. The Third Ambient Aspirin Polymorph

    DOE PAGES

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G.; Hu, Chunhua T.; Zhu, Qiang; ...

    2017-05-17

    Polymorphism in aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), one of the most widely consumed medications, was equivocal until the structure of a second polymorph II, similar in structure to the original form I, was reported in 2005. Here, the third ambient polymorph of aspirin is described. Lastly, it was crystallized from the melt and its structure was determined using a combination of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and crystal structure prediction algorithms.

  13. Development of Quality Control Parameters and Electronic Data Recording for an Ambient Air Particle Inhalation Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air particle concentrating systems were installed by the US EPA in RTP, NC. These systems, designed by Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (Boston, MA), concentrated ambient fine and ultra-fine mode particulate matter (P...

  14. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone,'' which was... the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html for the...

  15. 75 FR 80420 - Reasonable Further Progress Requirements for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). Specifically, EPA is proposing that... nitrogen oxides (NO X )] that contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations. B. What should I consider...

  16. Development of Quality Control Parameters and Electronic Data Recording for an Ambient Air Particle Inhalation Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air particle concentrating systems were installed by the US EPA in RTP, NC. These systems, designed by Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (Boston, MA), concentrated ambient fine and ultra-fine mode particulate matter (P...

  17. 40 CFR 53.55 - Test for effect of variations in power line voltage and ambient temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... line voltage and ambient temperature. 53.55 Section 53.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power line voltage and ambient temperature. (a) Overview. (1) This test procedure is a combined... temperature. Tests shall be conducted in a temperature-controlled environment over four 6-hour time periods...

  18. 40 CFR 53.55 - Test for effect of variations in power line voltage and ambient temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... line voltage and ambient temperature. 53.55 Section 53.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power line voltage and ambient temperature. (a) Overview. (1) This test procedure is a combined... temperature. Tests shall be conducted in a temperature-controlled environment over four 6-hour time periods...

  19. 40 CFR 53.55 - Test for effect of variations in power line voltage and ambient temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... line voltage and ambient temperature. 53.55 Section 53.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power line voltage and ambient temperature. (a) Overview. (1) This test procedure is a combined... temperature. Tests shall be conducted in a temperature-controlled environment over four 6-hour time periods...

  20. 40 CFR 53.55 - Test for effect of variations in power line voltage and ambient temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... line voltage and ambient temperature. 53.55 Section 53.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power line voltage and ambient temperature. (a) Overview. (1) This test procedure is a combined... temperature. Tests shall be conducted in a temperature-controlled environment over four 6-hour time periods...

  1. 40 CFR 53.55 - Test for effect of variations in power line voltage and ambient temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... line voltage and ambient temperature. 53.55 Section 53.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power line voltage and ambient temperature. (a) Overview. (1) This test procedure is a combined... temperature. Tests shall be conducted in a temperature-controlled environment over four 6-hour time periods...

  2. 75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General Aviation Airport AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Data..., 2009) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS...

  4. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was... ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should...

  5. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  6. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  7. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  8. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  9. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Christopher

    passive acoustic monitoring will still be effective at ranges greater than the typical range at which killer whales can detect the turbines. These results of these two detection studies will inform the design of post-installation monitoring plans to quantify noise production by operating turbines and the associated environmental changes. This dissertation provides a comprehensive analysis of ambient noise measurements in an energetic coastal environment and advances the understanding of noise sources unique to these environments, such as sediment-generated noise and flow-noise. The improved understanding of these noise sources will aid in the interpretation of acoustic measurements in other energetic environments. Furthermore, as uncertainties in sound produced by tidal turbines and marine animal behavioral responses to this sound are reduced, the foundation laid by this research will allow the acoustic impacts of tidal hydrokinetic power projects to be quantified.

  10. Ambient intelligence systems for personalized sport training.

    PubMed

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project "Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles", which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes' mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes' training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  11. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    PubMed Central

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J.; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J.; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P.; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably. PMID:22294931

  12. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  13. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably.

  14. Beam scanning binary logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideo; Mukai, Seiji; Watanabe, Masanobu; Mori, Masahiko; Yajima, Hiroyoshi

    1990-07-01

    A beam-scanning laser diode (BSLD) is presently applied to a novel optoelectronic logic operation, designated 'beam-scanning binary logic' (BSBL), that covers the implementation of both the basic logic gates and a spatial code encoder for photodetection, while allowing a greater reduction of the number of active devices than ordinary binary logic operations. BSBL executes multifunctional logic operations simultaneously. The data connections between logic gates in BSLD are flexible, due to the ability to electrically control both output power and laser-beam direction.

  15. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  16. Warmer ambient temperatures depress liver function in a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Kurnath, Patrice; Dearing, M Denise

    2013-10-23

    Diet selection in mammalian herbivores is thought to be mainly influenced by intrinsic factors such as nutrients and plant secondary compounds, yet extrinsic factors like ambient temperature may also play a role. In particular, warmer ambient temperatures could enhance the toxicity of plant defence compounds through decreased liver metabolism of herbivores. Temperature-dependent toxicity has been documented in pharmacology and agriculture science but not in wild mammalian herbivores. Here, we investigated how ambient temperature affects liver metabolism in the desert woodrat, Neotoma lepida. Woodrats (n = 21) were acclimated for 30 days to two ambient temperatures (cool = 21°C, warm = 29°C). In a second experiment, the temperature exposure was reduced to 3.5 h. After temperature treatments, animals were given a hypnotic agent and clearance time of the agent was estimated from the duration of the hypnotic state. The average clearance time of the agent in the long acclimation experiment was 45% longer for animals acclimated to 29°C compared with 21°C. Similarly, after the short exposure experiment, woodrats at 29°C had clearance times 26% longer compared with 21°C. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that liver function is reduced at warmer environmental temperatures and may provide a physiological mechanism through which climate change affects herbivorous mammals.

  17. Warmer ambient temperatures depress liver function in a mammalian herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kurnath, Patrice; Dearing, M. Denise

    2013-01-01

    Diet selection in mammalian herbivores is thought to be mainly influenced by intrinsic factors such as nutrients and plant secondary compounds, yet extrinsic factors like ambient temperature may also play a role. In particular, warmer ambient temperatures could enhance the toxicity of plant defence compounds through decreased liver metabolism of herbivores. Temperature-dependent toxicity has been documented in pharmacology and agriculture science but not in wild mammalian herbivores. Here, we investigated how ambient temperature affects liver metabolism in the desert woodrat, Neotoma lepida. Woodrats (n = 21) were acclimated for 30 days to two ambient temperatures (cool = 21°C, warm = 29°C). In a second experiment, the temperature exposure was reduced to 3.5 h. After temperature treatments, animals were given a hypnotic agent and clearance time of the agent was estimated from the duration of the hypnotic state. The average clearance time of the agent in the long acclimation experiment was 45% longer for animals acclimated to 29°C compared with 21°C. Similarly, after the short exposure experiment, woodrats at 29°C had clearance times 26% longer compared with 21°C. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that liver function is reduced at warmer environmental temperatures and may provide a physiological mechanism through which climate change affects herbivorous mammals. PMID:24046878

  18. [The health status of children from industrial towns due ambient air pollution].

    PubMed

    Meĭbaliev, M T

    2008-01-01

    The author's observations suggest that hygienic monitoring in an industrial city should be made in two areas: 1) ambient air quality and 2) human health. Ambient air quality should be monitored in each town in accordance with an individual program, by taking into account the volume and nature of hazardous substances from the stationary stations, as well as weather conditions, the planning system of residential areas, and the layout of an industrial zone. Monitoring of the population's health in the industrial town should be adapted to the forms and conditions of ambient air quality monitoring in order to reveal environmental pollution-induced changes.

  19. Nonlinear Elasticity in a Deforming Ambient Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavari, Arash; Ozakin, Arkadas; Sadik, Souhayl

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we formulate a nonlinear elasticity theory in which the ambient space is evolving. For a continuum moving in an evolving ambient space, we model time dependency of the metric by a time-dependent embedding of the ambient space in a larger manifold with a fixed background metric. We derive both the tangential and the normal governing equations. We then reduce the standard energy balance written in the larger ambient space to that in the evolving ambient space. We consider quasi-static deformations of the ambient space and show that a quasi-static deformation of the ambient space results in stresses, in general. We linearize the nonlinear theory about a reference motion and show that variation of the spatial metric corresponds to an effective field of body forces.

  20. Probing the sources of ambient seismic noise near the coasts of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Dublanko, Curtis; Lerner-Lam, Arthur; Brzak, Keith; Steckler, Michael

    2007-11-01

    In this study we probe the source of ambient noise in the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc by cross-correlating two months of ambient seismic noise records collected during the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Collision-Acretion Network (CAT/SCAN) project. Significant Rayleigh wave energy is observed on the vertical component of the noise correlation stacks and reveals multiple sources of ambient noise in southern Italy. The most dominant noise sources are found along (1) the Tyrrhenian coast of northern Calabria-southern Campania and (2) the Adriatic Sea near the Gargano Promontory. Enhanced ocean currents evident from buoy records during the study period could be responsible for the observed microseisms. We validate the source locations using earthquake records and the consistency between noise and earthquake correlation functions supports the observed dominant directions of ambient seismic noise.

  1. Variable Temperature Setup for Scanning Electron Microscopy in Liquids and Atmospheric Pressure Gaseous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jianbo; Denault, Lauraine; Potyrailo, Radislav; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-03-01

    A thermoelectric cooling / heating setup for commercial Quantomix QX WETSEM scanning electron microscopy environmental cells was designed and tested. This addition allows extending ambient pressure in situ studies to be conducted in a wide temperature range both in liquid and gaseous environments. Instead of cooling/heating the entire body of QX-WETCELL, ultrathin polyimide electron transparent membrane window supported by metal mesh on the top of the cell has been used as an agent for heat transfer to/ from the Pelltier element. A butterfly wing of Morph sulkowskyi has been used as a model object in the QX-WETCELL's chamber due to its unique micro/nanostructure and peculiar wettability behavior. The dynamics of the water desorption, condensation and freezing processes were observed complementary using both optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy in vivo. The observations revel that the initial droplet formation were most likely taking place on the top of the wing ridges due to the waxy component of its surface. In addition, The SEM observation showed that the high intensity electron beam can heat the butterfly wing locally delaying the water condensation and freezing processes.

  2. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyse...

  3. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyse...

  4. Planning for the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative (SECCS): An Environmental Scan of Opportunities and Readiness for Building Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Uyeda, Kimberly; Inkelas, Moira; Kumar, Vani; Tullis, Ericka; Rice, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the national and state environmental context for the SECCS Initiative in supporting MCH strategic planning in early childhood systems building. This strategic context has implications for roles, relationships, and activities within a planning process and ultimately an implementation process. It summarizes the opportunities and…

  5. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  6. CT Scans - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tomography) Scan - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section CT ( ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section CT ( ...

  7. The Organizational Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Jackson, Stephanie D.

    1997-01-01

    Performance technologists like quick, cheap analysis that is rigorous and comprehensive. This article presents the organization scan model which makes successful compromises between the technologist's obligation to be rigorous and comprehensive and the sponsor's obligation to save money and time. Includes "Societal Bottom Line: Measurable…

  8. ICV Echo Ultrasound Scan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    View of Integrated Cardiovascular (ICV) Echo Ultrasound Scan,in the Columbus module. ICV aims to quantify the extent,time course and clinical significance of cardiac atrophy (decrease in the size of the heart muscle) in space. Photo was taken during Expedition 34.

  9. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  10. SCANS: The Missing Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Machado, Donna

    Three specific classroom techniques for teaching vocational English as a Second Language to adults are discussed. They are three items on the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) list of "easy things" to do to integrate workplace basics into the classroom, designed to encourage a student-focused classroom. They…

  11. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  12. Ambient Noise in the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Ocean ....... ................. 4-11 4-7 Ambient noise spectra within and below a surface duct . . . . 4-13 5-1 Geometry of a simple model for... suspension system and the barge at the 100-ft hydrophone. The noise gradient tends to be greater at low frequencies than at high. We note from Figure...reflection). Expressing r, k and dr in terms of h and e, we 5-1 "-- -- ’dA / / I0 h I , ŕ"(L•)v ŕŔCOSvn{ PF Figure 5-1. Geometry of a simple model

  13. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    AD-AI O297 EIC LA BS INC NEWTON MA F/6 10/3 AMB IENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERAU AG(MARHMU)L TI ARI AK IC07 UNCLASSIFIED C-655DEE TB6...036FL -T Research and Development Technical Report -N DELET-TR-81-0378-F AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY K. M. Abraham D. L. Natwig...WORDS (Cenimne an revee filf Of ~"#amp Pu l41"lfr bg’ 61WA amober) Rechargeable lithium battery, CrO.5VO.5S2 positive electrode, 2Me-THF/LiAsF6, cell

  14. County-level environmental quality and associations with cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer has been associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as PM2.5 and arsenic. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. A novel county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) was developed for all U.S. counties (n=3,141)...

  15. County-level environmental quality and associations with cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer has been associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as PM2.5 and arsenic. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. A novel county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) was developed for all U.S. counties (n=3,141)...

  16. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Joshua Allen

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Control System provides a controlled air purge to Orion and SLS. The ECS performs this function by processing 100% ambient air while simultaneously controlling temperature, pressure, humidity, cleanliness and purge distribution.

  17. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. )

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  18. Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-27

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  19. Alterations in MAST suit pressure with changes in ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; Meislin, H W; Daub, E

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that change in ambient air temperature has an effect on MAST suit pressure according to the ideal gas law. Two different MAST suits were tested on Resusci-Annie dummies. The MAST suits were applied in a cold room at 4.4 degrees C and warmed to 44 degrees C. Positive linear correlations were found in nine trials, but the two suits differed in their rate of increase in pressure. Three trials using humans were conducted showing increased pressure with temperature but at a lesser rate than with dummies. A correlation of 0.5 to 1.0 mm Hg increase in MAST suit pressure for each 1.0 degrees C increase in ambient temperature was found. Implications are discussed for the use of the MAST suit in environmental conditions where the temperature changes.

  20. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Suh, Helen H; Pinto, Jayant M

    2016-11-01

    Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution-related olfactory impacts on the general population using measured