Science.gov

Sample records for ambrosia tenuifolia sprengel

  1. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sülsen, Valeria P; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Anesini, Claudia A; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Freixa, Blanca; Vila, Roser; Muschietti, Liliana V; Martino, Virginia S

    2008-07-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract of Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of two bioactive sesquiterpene lactones with significant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities. By spectroscopic methods ((1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, correlated spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, electron impact-mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy), these compounds were identified as psilostachyin and peruvin. Both compounds showed a marked in vitro trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of less than 2 microg/ml. Psilostachyin exerted a significant in vitro activity against the trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC(50), 0.76 microg/ml) and was selected for in vivo testing. Psilostachyin-treated mice had a survival of 100% and lower parasitemia values than control mice. Both compounds were also tested on Leishmania sp. promastigotes: psilostachyin (IC(50), 0.12 microg/ml) and peruvin (IC(50), 0.39 microg/ml) exerted significant leishmanicidal activities. This is the first time that the trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of these compounds have been reported. The selectivity index (SI) was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of lactones on T lymphocytes. Although the SIs of both compounds were high for T. cruzi epimastigotes, psilostachyin was more selective against trypomastigotes (SI, 33.8) while peruvin showed no specificity for this parasite. Both compounds presented high selectivity for Leishmania spp. The results shown herein suggest that psilostachyin and peruvin could be considered potential candidates for the development of new antiprotozoal agents against Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis.

  2. Trypanocidal and Leishmanicidal Activities of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sülsen, Valeria P.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Cazorla, Silvia I.; Anesini, Claudia A.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Freixa, Blanca; Vila, Roser; Muschietti, Liliana V.; Martino, Virginia S.

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract of Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of two bioactive sesquiterpene lactones with significant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities. By spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, correlated spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, electron impact-mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy), these compounds were identified as psilostachyin and peruvin. Both compounds showed a marked in vitro trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of less than 2 μg/ml. Psilostachyin exerted a significant in vitro activity against the trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC50, 0.76 μg/ml) and was selected for in vivo testing. Psilostachyin-treated mice had a survival of 100% and lower parasitemia values than control mice. Both compounds were also tested on Leishmania sp. promastigotes: psilostachyin (IC50, 0.12 μg/ml) and peruvin (IC50, 0.39 μg/ml) exerted significant leishmanicidal activities. This is the first time that the trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of these compounds have been reported. The selectivity index (SI) was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of lactones on T lymphocytes. Although the SIs of both compounds were high for T. cruzi epimastigotes, psilostachyin was more selective against trypomastigotes (SI, 33.8) while peruvin showed no specificity for this parasite. Both compounds presented high selectivity for Leishmania spp. The results shown herein suggest that psilostachyin and peruvin could be considered potential candidates for the development of new antiprotozoal agents against Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis. PMID:18443111

  3. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Ambrosia tenuifolia

    PubMed Central

    Sülsen, V.; Gutierrez Yappu, D.; Laurella, L.; Anesini, C.; Gimenez Turba, A.; Martino, V.; Muschietti, L.

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Ambrosia tenuifolia organic extract and its isolated sesquiterpene lactones, psilostachyin and peruvin, has been evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum F32 and W2 strains. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was determined on lymphoid cells, and their corresponding selectivity indexes (SIs) were calculated. Peruvin was the most active compound on F32 strain of P. falciparum with a 50% inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 0.3 μg/mL (1.1 μM) whereas psilostachyin showed activity on both strains (IC50 = 0.6 (2.1 μM) and 1.8 μg/mL (6.4 μM)). Fifty percent cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values (48 h) were 6.8 μg/mL (24.3 μM) and 10.0 μg/mL (37.9 μM) for psilostachyin and peruvin, respectively. PMID:21716685

  4. Ambrosia: a new impending disaster for the israeli allergic population.

    PubMed

    Waisel, Yoav; Eshel, Amram; Keynan, Nurit; Langgut, Dafna

    2008-12-01

    The pollen of Ambrosia (ragweed) is one of the major causes of pollen-induced allergy worldwide. This genus of plants has apparently evolved in North America but later spread into Europe and Asia. Flowering of the Ambrosias starts in mid-July and continues throughout the autumn and is a cause of major morbidity to allergic sensitized patients. The invasion of new species of Ambrosia into Israel is still in progress. Plants of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (American short ragweed), Ambrosia trifida (American giant ragweed), Ambrosia confertifolia, Ambrosia grayi and Ambrosia tenuifolia are increasingly found in Israel, mainly in the Hula valley in the eastern Galilee and near the Alexander River in the Sharon plain. From experience it is known that the time it takes to eradicate a new invasive species is limited. Action should be taken immediately or this new invasion will spread and cause a significantly increased burden of morbidity and increased health costs in Israel.

  5. Gallery productivity, emergence, and flight activity of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    M. Lake Maner; James Hanula; S. Kristine Braman

    2013-01-01

    Flight and emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, were monitored from March 2011 through August 2012 using Lindgren funnel traps baited with manuka oil and emergence traps attached over individual beetle galleries on infested redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel) trees. Of the 432 gallery entrances...

  6. [Ambrosia pollinosis].

    PubMed

    Déchamp, C

    2013-04-01

    Pollinosis is now called seasonal allergic rhinitis by the international terminology but pollinosis includes many other symptoms and so we will use the term Ambrosia pollinosis in this article. The characteristics of ragweed pollinosis are: severity, duration from August to September and the presence of asthma and/or tracheitis in about 50% of cases. Ambrosia: phanerogam, dicotyledon, annual plant, monoic. In France, fields in the mid Rhône Valley are covered with Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. but Ambrosia trifida L. is rare. The French Foundation For Ragweed Study (AFEDA) reports here 30years of clinical and epidemiological studies, involving considerable expense, that describe the geographic distribution of this pollinosis in Europe, and applies a predictive model of Ambrosia pollination to an appropriate treatment thanks to a sensitive sensor (Cour pollen trap). The spreading of Ambrosia is partly due to the regulations of the Common Agricultural Policy. There are numerous allergens; recently the major allergen of mugwort has been identified in ragweed. Profilins cause hypersensitivity reactions to certain foods. Genetic predisposition to developing this pollinosis is discussed because sometimes: the disease starts late in life, no personal or family history of atopy is found, immunoglobulin levels are low. Some publications have discussed a genetic predisposition to allergies to Juniperus ashei (United-States) and Cryptomeria japonica (Japan). The clinical efficacy of sublingual specific immunotherapy is well established and well accepted by patients. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Population trends of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): does utilization of small diameter redbay trees allow populations to persist?

    Treesearch

    M. Lake Maner; James Hanula; Scott Horn

    2014-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, vectors laurel wilt, Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, that quickly kills all large diam (> 2.5cm) redbay trees [Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel] in an area but smaller diam trees (

  8. New gSSR and EST-SSR markers reveal high genetic diversity in the invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and can be transferred to other invasive Ambrosia species.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lucie; Causse, Romain; Pernin, Fanny; Scalone, Romain; Bailly, Géraldine; Chauvel, Bruno; Délye, Christophe; Le Corre, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., (common ragweed), is an annual invasive and highly troublesome plant species originating from North America that has become widespread across Europe. New sets of genomic and expressed sequence tag (EST) based simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were developed in this species using three approaches. After validation, 13 genomic SSRs and 13 EST-SSRs were retained and used to characterize the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from the native (North America) and invasive (Europe) ranges of the species. Analysing the mating system based on maternal families did not reveal any departure from complete allogamy and excess homozygosity was mostly due the presence of null alleles. High genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure in Europe suggest two main introduction events followed by secondary colonization events. Cross-species transferability of the newly developed markers to other invasive species of the Ambrosia genus was assessed. Sixty-five percent and 75% of markers, respectively, were transferable from A. artemisiifolia to Ambrosia psilostachya and Ambrosia tenuifolia. 40% were transferable to Ambrosia trifida, this latter species being seemingly more phylogenetically distantly related to A. artemisiifolia than the former two.

  9. New gSSR and EST-SSR markers reveal high genetic diversity in the invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and can be transferred to other invasive Ambrosia species

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Lucie; Causse, Romain; Pernin, Fanny; Scalone, Romain; Bailly, Géraldine; Chauvel, Bruno; Délye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., (common ragweed), is an annual invasive and highly troublesome plant species originating from North America that has become widespread across Europe. New sets of genomic and expressed sequence tag (EST) based simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were developed in this species using three approaches. After validation, 13 genomic SSRs and 13 EST-SSRs were retained and used to characterize the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from the native (North America) and invasive (Europe) ranges of the species. Analysing the mating system based on maternal families did not reveal any departure from complete allogamy and excess homozygosity was mostly due the presence of null alleles. High genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure in Europe suggest two main introduction events followed by secondary colonization events. Cross-species transferability of the newly developed markers to other invasive species of the Ambrosia genus was assessed. Sixty-five percent and 75% of markers, respectively, were transferable from A. artemisiifolia to Ambrosia psilostachya and Ambrosia tenuifolia. 40% were transferable to Ambrosia trifida, this latter species being seemingly more phylogenetically distantly related to A. artemisiifolia than the former two. PMID:28489870

  10. Sprengel deformity: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Dilli, Alper; Ayaz, Umit Yaşar; Damar, Cagrι; Ersan, Onder; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of Sprengel deformity, which is also called congenital high scapula, are malposition and dysplasia of the affected scapula, with possible omovertebral connection. The aim of the present study was mainly to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two pediatric cases of Sprengel deformity. A 7-year-old girl and a 9-year-old boy with deformities in their right shoulder were studied. Plain radiographs were obtained. MRI was performed for both children. The fibrous omovertebral connection is depicted in its longest form in one plane. Omovertebral band is best screened in coronal and axial cross sections. We are introducing a new MRI sign which we named as "Ra's eye" to define the appearance of omovertebral band within the surrounding fat tissue.

  11. Sprengel Deformity: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Two Pediatric Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dilli, Alper; Ayaz, Umit Yaşar; Damar, Çagrι; Ersan, Önder; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of Sprengel deformity, which is also called congenital high scapula, are malposition and dysplasia of the affected scapula, with possible omovertebral connection. The aim of the present study was mainly to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two pediatric cases of Sprengel deformity. A 7-year-old girl and a 9-year-old boy with deformities in their right shoulder were studied. Plain radiographs were obtained. MRI was performed for both children. The fibrous omovertebral connection is depicted in its longest form in one plane. Omovertebral band is best screened in coronal and axial cross sections. We are introducing a new MRI sign which we named as “Ra's eye” to define the appearance of omovertebral band within the surrounding fat tissue. PMID:21977386

  12. Sprengel's Deformity Associated with Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions and Renal Anomalies: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kariminasab, Mohammad Hossein; Shayeste-Azar, Masoud; Sajjadi Saravi, Majid; Taghipour Gorgikolai, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Background. Sprengel's deformity is a rare congenital anomaly of the shoulder girdle. The deformity is due to failure of descent of the scapula in intrauterine life. Case Presentation. We report a case of unilateral Sprengel's deformity associated with several other musculoskeletal and renal disorders consisting of absence of pectoralis major, weakness of trapezius and serratus anterior muscles, one kidney agenesis, and severe hydronephrosis of the other kidney in a 7-year-old boy. Conclusion. Sprengel's deformity can be associated with other musculoskeletal abnormalities and it is much more than a cosmetic problem.

  13. SPRENGEL'S DEFORMITY: SURGICAL CORRECTION BY A MODIFIED GREEN PROCEDURE

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Reginaldo, Sandro; de Macedo, Ruy Rocha; de Andrade Amaral, Rogério; Cardoso, André Luiz Passos; Araújo, Helder Rocha Silva; Daher, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cosmetic and functional results of patients submitted to surgical correction of Congenital High Scapula (Sprengel's Deformity) using modified Green's Procedure, as well as patients' satisfaction and complications. Methods: Nine patients submitted to surgical treatment from September 1993 to April 2008 have been assessed. The modification from original technique was: subperiosteal muscle detachment, resection of superomedial scapular portion and fixation of medial portion of scapular spine to contralateral posterior iliac crest instead of skeletal traction, with subcutaneous wire. The mean age was 7 years and 3 months. The mean follow-up time was 3 years and 7 months. Results: The mean improvement in forward elevation was 39o (range 0 to 80o). According to the Cavendish Classification, cosmetic improvement of two degrees was achieved in eight cases, and three degrees in one. All patients were satisfied with results. Conclusions: Surgical correction of Sprengel's Deformity by a modified Green's procedure with contralateral posterior iliac crest fixation instead of skeletal traction, showed both cosmetic and functional improvements; all patients and/or family members were satisfied with the results, and the complications associated to the surgical technique did not interfere on end results. PMID:27004174

  14. Sprengel's deformity and spinal dysraphism: connecting the shoulder and the spine.

    PubMed

    van Aalst, J; Vles, J S H; Cuppen, I; Sival, D A; Niks, E H; Van Rhijn, L W; Van Steensel, M A M; Cornips, E M J

    2013-07-01

    Sprengel's deformity, a rare congenital malformation of the scapula, may be observed in combination with spinal dysraphism. The co-occurrence of these malformations suggests an unknown shared etiology. Therefore, we reviewed the medical records of eight children presenting with both malformations and performed a review of the literature. Databases from four university medical centers were searched for children presenting between 1992 and 2012 with spinal dysraphism and a Sprengel's deformity. The combination of spinal dysraphism and Sprengel's deformity is rare, and is associated with segmentation defects of the spine and ribs. Although the etiology of both spinal dysraphism and Sprengel's deformity remains unclear, all deformities of the spine, ribs, and shoulder might result from a common genetic defect affecting somitogenesis.

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel extract.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Soheil; Mirzaie, Amir; Sadat Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah; Noorbazargan, Hassan; Rahimi, Arian; Yarmohammadi, Sima; Ashrafi, Fatemeh

    2017-02-01

    The present study was to investigate the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel against human gastric carcinoma (AGS) and L929 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of A. marschalliana Sprengel extract showed 22 major components and the most dominant compounds were trans-phytol (29.22%), α-Linolenic acid (13.47%) and n-Hexadecanoic acid (9.28%). In addition, the antioxidant and anticancer activity of A. marschalliana Sprengel extract were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods, respectively. Antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria was also determined. According to the present obtained results, it seems that this plant has potential uses for pharmaceutical industries and further studies of pharmaceutical importance were suggested to be performed on A. marschalliana Sprengel.

  16. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  17. [Ambrosia, Franseria, Xanthium from the Bonaparte Herbarium].

    PubMed

    Déchamp, C; Méon, H

    2003-05-01

    Recently, French Association for Ragweed Study (AFEDA) founders published, in French, a book "Ambrosia, ragweed, biological pollutants". This association was founded in 1982. The authors referred to Bonaparte Herbarium set up in the Université Claude-Bernard Lyon 1. This herbarium is ranking second in France and seventh in the world. There were three aims for this work: to set up, for this herbarium, a complete list of different species of Ambrosia, Franseria and their pollen grains and to study with them Xanthium whose pollen grains look like Ambrosia, to establish a chronological order for Ambrosia that were collected in Europe and in some countries of the New World, to compare some pollen grains of Ambrosia and Xanthium (scanning electronic microscope). Good state plants in spite of about a century of conservation could be selected. They were photographied and some pollens so. The consultation of this herbarium brought a better morphological knowledge of different species of Ambrosia, Franseria and Xanthium, (plants and pollen grains). The authors were able to broadcast this knowledge to scientists and interested public through their book.

  18. Dewatering of Ambrosia Lake Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1982-09-01

    The paper discusses the design of an aquifer depressurisation system using wells at Mt. Taylor Mine, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The concepts discussed should be valid for any shaft of mine in a sandstone aquifer with predominantly matrix permeability. The system uses a number of wells surrounding the mine shaft to reduce the aquifer pressure in the vicinity of the shaft. The effect of various parameters such as number of wells, wellbore diameter, time and well location are considered. It is concluded that, with a properly designed system, the aquifer pressure and water inflow rate to the shaft may be reduced to less than 15% of their potential values in the absence of wells.

  19. Localization and dynamic change of saponin in vegetative organs of Polygala tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hong-Mei; Fang, Min-Feng; Cai, Xia; Hu, Zheng-Hai

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical methods were used to investigate the structure, localization and dynamic changes of total saponin and senegenin of vegetative organs in Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Histochemical localization results showed that saponin accumulated mainly in parenchyma cells of vegetative organs. The phytochemical results also showed that the saponin accumulated in the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia, with higher content in roots and lower content in the aerial parts that included stems and leaves. The saponin content and dry weight of the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia had dynamic variance at the developmental stages and all reached the highest level in the post-fruit period. Hence, the roots and aerial parts should be gathered in August to make full use of the plant. As the root is the main medicinal organ of P. tenuifolia, the content of total saponin and senegenin of different aged and different parts of the root were determined. The content of total saponin and senegenin exhibited a sustained decreasing trend with increasing root age; therefore, the annual roots had high quality. The content of total saponin and senegenin in different parts of the root showed obvious variation. The content in the "skin areas" was much higher than that of xylem. The results offer a theoretical basis for determining the appropriate harvesting stage and a reasonable harvest of P. tenuifolia.

  20. Analysis of Polygala tenuifolia Transcriptome and Description of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hongling; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Fusheng; Wang, Yaoqin; Guo, Shuhong; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    Radix polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Radix polygalae contains various saponins, xanthones, and oligosaccharide esters and these compounds are responsible for several pharmacological properties. To provide basic breeding information, enhance molecular biological analysis, and determine secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of P. tenuifolia, we applied Illumina sequencing technology and de novo assembly. We also applied this technique to gain an overview of P. tenuifolia transcriptome from samples with different years. Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 67.2% of unique sequences were annotated by basic local alignment search tool similarity searches against public sequence databases. We classified the annotated unigenes by using Nr, Nt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases compared with NCBI. We also obtained many candidates CYP450s and UGTs by the analysis of genes in the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including putative terpenoid backbone and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. With this transcriptome sequencing, future genetic and genomics studies related to the molecular mechanisms associated with the chemical composition of P. tenuifolia may be improved. Genes involved in the enrichment of secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related pathways could enhance the potential applications of P. tenuifolia in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26543847

  1. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    PubMed

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative protein profiles of the Ambrosia plants.

    PubMed

    Barton, Janice S; Schomacker, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Ragweed pollen is primarily responsible for the hay fever allergies of sufferers throughout the world. A proteome study of three ragweed plants (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ambrosia trifida, and Ambrosia psilostachya) was undertaken to document and compare their protein profiles. Proteins extracted from the pollen of the three plants were subjected to one dimensional electrophoresis followed by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptide sequence mapping permitted discovery of proteins not previously reported for all three plants and 45% of the identified proteins were shared by all three of them. Application of stringent criteria revealed not only a majority of known allergens for short ragweed but also allergens not previously reported for the other two plants. Additionally, potentially allergy inducing enolases are reported for the three plants. These results suggest that all three ragweed plants could contribute to the allergy malady. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biology, Behavior, and Management of Ambrosia Beetles Attacking Ornamental Nursery Stock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Ambrosia b...

  4. Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

  5. 75 FR 27690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT). Author(s) The primary authors of this notice are the staff members of the Carlsbad Fish...) Flowering plants. * * * * * Family Asteraceae: Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) * * * * *...

  6. Development of Alnus tenuifolia stands on an Alaskan floodplain: patterns of recruitment, disease, and succession

    Treesearch

    Dana R. Nossov; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Roger W. Ruess; Knut. Kielland

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the population dynamics of the keystone symbiotic N-fixing species Alnus tenuifolia (thinleaf alder) and the patterns of primary succession on the Tanana River floodplains of interior Alaska, USA. The goals of this study were to characterize (i) the variation in the population structure of thinleaf alder and its influence on...

  7. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Pei-Ling; Lo, Yi-Chen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%). Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans. This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods.

  8. Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome leading to cervical myelopathy presentation in old age.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Seyyed Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Bidaki, Reza; Boshrabadi, Ahmad Pourrashidi

    2013-06-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the congenital fusion of two of the seventh cervical vertebrae. A 50-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of neck pain and ataxia for 1 year. She had not urinary incontinence. She was referred to a neurosurgeon by a neurologist because of her progressive gait ataxia. Risk for brachial plexus injury because of compression or stretching by the clavicle accelerate with age. Therefore, the surgical approach of adults' patients with Sprengel's deformity can intend suitable surgical conclusions.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sikoparija, B; Skjøth, C A; Celenk, S; Testoni, C; Abramidze, T; Alm Kübler, K; Belmonte, J; Berger, U; Bonini, M; Charalampopoulos, A; Damialis, A; Clot, B; Dahl, Å; de Weger, L A; Gehrig, R; Hendrickx, M; Hoebeke, L; Ianovici, N; Kofol Seliger, A; Magyar, D; Mányoki, G; Milkovska, S; Myszkowska, D; Páldy, A; Pashley, C H; Rasmussen, K; Ritenberga, O; Rodinkova, V; Rybníček, O; Shalaboda, V; Šaulienė, I; Ščevková, J; Stjepanović, B; Thibaudon, M; Verstraeten, C; Vokou, D; Yankova, R; Smith, M

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action FA1203 "SMARTER" aims to make recommendations for the sustainable management of Ambrosia across Europe and for monitoring its efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant. The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. distribution over Europe (39°N-60°N; 2°W-45°E). Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia (August-September) recorded during a 10-year period (2004-2013) were obtained from 242 monitoring sites. The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data. Trends were considered significant at p < 0.05. There were few significant trends in the magnitude and frequency of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen (only 8% for the mean sum of daily average Ambrosia pollen concentrations and 14% for the mean number of days Ambrosia pollen were recorded in the air). The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant.

  10. Potent and Synergistic Extract Combinations from Terminalia Catappa, Terminalia Mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia Against Pathogenic Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Ngouana, Thierry Kammalac; Mbouna, Cedric Derick Jiatsa; Kuipou, Rufin Marie Toghueo; Tchuenmogne, Marthe Aimée Tchuente; Zeuko'o, Elisabeth Menkem; Ngouana, Vincent; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sebastien; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-08-26

    Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations of Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia harvested in Cameroon. Crude ethanolic, hydro-ethanolic and aqueous extracts and bio-guided fractions were screened for antifungal activity against isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and Cr. neoformans and the reference strain C. albicans NR-29450. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a broth micro dilution method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Time kill kinetics of extracts alone and in combination were also evaluated. Extracts from T. mantaly stem bark were the most active with the best MIC values ranging from 0.04 mg/mL to 0.16 mg/mL. Synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia, T. mantaly and T. catappa. Combination of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia and T. mantaly (C36/C12) showed synergistic interaction and fungicidal effect against four out of five tested yeasts. These results support further investigation of medicinal plant extracts alone and in combination as starting points for the development of alternative antifungal therapy.

  11. Changes in acaricidal potency by introducing functional radicals and an acaricidal constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2013-11-27

    The acaricidal potential of an active constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia oil and its structurally related derivatives was evaluated using filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays against house dust and stored food mites. The acaricidal constituent of S. tenuifolia oil was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone by GC-MS, (1)H-, and (13)C NMR spectra. 2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone was a potent acaricide against house dust and stored food mites, based on the LD50 values from the filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays, followed by 4-isopropylcyclohexanone, 2-isopropylidene-5-methylcyclohexanone, 2-methylcyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and benzyl benzoate. Furthermore, 4-isopropylcyclohexanone and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone, which were introduced on the isopropyl (C3H7) functional radical of the cyclohexanone skeleton, had the highest acaricidal potency. These results indicate that S. tenuifolia oil and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone structural analogues could be effective natural acaricides for managing house dust and stored food mites.

  12. Disease-mediated declines in N-fixation inputs by Alnus tenuifolia to early-successional floodplains in interior and south-central Alaska

    Treesearch

    R.W. Ruess; J.M. McFarland; L.M. Trummer; J.K. Rohrs-Richey

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixation by Alnus tenuifolia can account for up to 70 percent of the N accumulated during vegetation development along river flood plains in interior Alaska. We assessed disease incidence and related mortality of a recent outbreak or fungal stem cankers on A. tenuifolia across three regions in Alaska...

  13. Phytochemical Composition and Antitumor Activities of New Salad Greens: Rucola (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) and Corn Salad (Valerianella locusta).

    PubMed

    Ramos-Bueno, R P; Rincón-Cervera, M A; González-Fernández, M J; Guil-Guerrero, J L

    2016-06-01

    D. tenuifolia and V. locusta, two greens, were analyzed for active compounds and antitumor actions on colorectal cancer cells. Phenolics were determined by UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS; carotenoids and glucosinolates by HPLC-MS; and sterols and fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). For antitumor effects, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) tests were run on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, and in CCD-18 untransformed enterocyte cells. Six main carotenoids were identified in both vegetables, while total carotenoids accounted for 3520 and 2970 μg · g(-1) dry weight in D. tenuifolia and V. locusta, respectively. Six phenolics were detected in D. tenuifolia (68,600 μg · g(-1) dry weight) and five in V. locusta (139,000 μg · g(-1) dry weight). Three glucosinolates (GSL) were found in D. tenuifolia (1960 μg · g(-1) dry wt. total). Low-polarity extracts from V. locusta and D. tenuifolia showed IC50 ~ 150 and ~200 μg · mL(-1) on HT-29 cells, while both plants lacked actions on CCD-18 cells. V. locusta inhibited HT-29 cancer cells viability more efficiently than D. tenuiofolia, but induced less cytotoxicity. This work highlights the importance of functional foods for colorectal cancer prevention.

  14. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  15. Omovertebral bone associated with Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome leading to cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Füllbier, Lars; Tanner, Philipp; Henkes, Hans; Hopf, Nikolai J

    2010-08-01

    The unusual association of an omovertebral bone with Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome is a complex bone anomaly of unknown incidence and etiology. However, several cases of this rare disease pattern have been reported in the literature. In this paper, the authors present the case of a 34-year-old woman with a 5-month history of progressive gait ataxia and intermittent urinary incontinence, which was found to be caused by aberrant bone growth into the spinal canal from an omovertebral bone that extended from the left scapula pressing into the C-6 vertebral arch and subsequently causing cervical myelopathy. The patient underwent isolated resection of the omovertebral bone and decompression of the spinal canal, and her functional and neurological outcome was favorable.

  16. Ipsilateral omovertebral bones in the levator scapulae muscle and the rhomboid muscle in a Sprengel deformity: case report.

    PubMed

    Baulot, E; Trouilloud, P; Giroux, E A; Grammont, P M

    1998-03-01

    Our interest was stimulated by the uncommon case of a 4-year-old girl who presented a Sprengel deformity associated with two omovertebral bones on the same side. The first omovertebral bone was situated in the levator scapulae muscle and the second omovertebral bone was lying in the rhomboid muscle. The removal of these two bones was combined with a Woodward procedure to obtain a good correction.

  17. Time lag between Ambrosia sensitisation and Ambrosia allergy: a 20-year study (1989-2008) in Legnano, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Anna; Wüthrich, Brunello; Bonini, Maira; Pietragalla-Köhler, Barbara

    2011-10-09

    Ambrosia is spreading invasively in many European countries. Therefore, surveys showing the long-term consequences regarding the prevalence of sensitisation and allergy rates are needed. The aim of this study was to analyse the development of Ambrosia sensitisation and clinical symptoms over a period of 20 years among the patients of the allergy unit in Legnano in relation to the measured pollen concentrations. Legnano is situated near Milan in a region in northern Italy, known for its high Ambrosia pollen loads. The sensitisation of patients to Ambrosia and other aeroallergens was tested by a skin prick test. The patients were interviewed about their clinical symptoms and the time of incidence of the symptoms. On average, 1100 patients per year were included in this study in the years 1989-2008. The daily pollen concentration was measured with volumetric Hirst type pollen traps. The sensitisation rate to Ambrosia increased from 24% to over 70% among the patients whose skin prick tests were positive to pollen. In 1989, about 45% of the Ambrosia sensitised patients suffered from respiratory symptoms (rhinitis and/or asthma) in late summer. After 5 years, this percentage increased to 70% and finally reached 90%. The prevalence of asthma was initially 30% among the Ambrosia sensitised patients and increased slightly to 40%. The extent of the consequences of high Ambrosia pollen concentrations is not ascertainable over the short term. Sensitisation rates have constantly increased over a period of more than 15 years, and moreover the incidence of allergy is delayed during the first years.

  18. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

  19. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  20. New sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Usuga, Nora Del Socorro; Malafronte, Nicola; Cotugno, Roberta; De Leo, Marinella; Osorio, Edison; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-09-01

    Eleven sesquiterpene lactones, including three new natural products (1-3), were isolated from the n-butanolic extract of Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth. aerial parts. The structure of all isolated compounds was elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. All compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity on HeLa, Jurkat, and U937 cell lines. Compound 3, 2,3-dehydropsilostachyn C, showed cytotoxic activity with different potency in all cell lines. By means of flow cytometric studies, compound 3 was demonstrated to induce in Jurkat cells a G2/M cell cycle block, while in U937 elicited both cytostatic and cytotoxic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenbing; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Zhongshi; Li, Youzhi

    2015-03-10

    A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5. The new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods to be 3β-acetoxy-4β-hydroxy-1α,7α, 10β,11αH-pseudoguaia-12,8β-olide (1), 1β,7β,9β,10β,13αH-guaia-4(5)-en-12,6β-olide 9-O-β-d-glucoside (2) and 4β-hydroxy-1α,5α,7α,9αH-guaia-10(14),11(13)-dien-12-acid 9-O-β-d-glucoside (3). The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive.

  2. Monoterpenes influence response of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to attractant-baited traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wood-boring ambrosia beetles have become increasingly problematic in nursery-grown ornamentals. Reports from Ohio have documented ambrosia beetle attacks on deciduous trees, while anecdotal evidence suggests attacks are not occurring on coniferous evergreens. Since colonization by ambrosia beetles...

  3. Predicting the Potential Distribution of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. under Climate Change in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Yao; Pei, Lin; Zhao, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    Global warming has created opportunities and challenges for the survival and development of species. Determining how climate change may impact multiple ecosystem levels and lead to various species adaptations is necessary for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable biological resource utilization. In this study, we employed Maxent to predict changes in the habitat range and altitude of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. under current and future climate scenarios in China. Four representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5) were modeled for two time periods (2050 and 2070). The model inputs included 732 presence points and nine sets of environmental variables under the current conditions and the four RCPs in 2050 and 2070. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate model performance. All of the AUCs were greater than 0.80, thereby placing these models in the “very good” category. Using a jackknife analysis, the precipitation in the warmest quarter, annual mean temperature, and altitude were found to be the top three variables that affect the range of P. tenuifolia. Additionally, we found that the predicted highly suitable habitat was in reasonable agreement with its actual distribution. Furthermore, the highly suitable habitat area was slowly reduced over time. PMID:27661983

  4. Sprengel anomaly in deletion 22q11.2 (DiGeorge/Velo-Cardio-Facial) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Radio, Francesca Clementina; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Capolino, Rossella; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Unolt, Marta; Alesi, Viola; Novelli, Antonio; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Sprengel anomaly (SA) is a rare skeletal defect characterized by uni- or bi-lateral elevation of the scapula. This anomaly is often isolated, although it can occur in association with other defects, including cervical spine malformations, cleft palate, and facial anomalies. Neural crest migration anomalies have been involved in the etiology of SA. Since the same embryological pathway accounts for some of the clinical features of deletion 22q11.2 syndrome (del22q11.2; DiGeorge/Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome), we investigated the occurrence of SA in a consecutive series of 235 del22q11.2 patients aged more than 2 years, undergoing a complete clinical and orthopedic assessment of the dorsal and thoracic skeleton. In the present series, two patients were diagnosed with true SA. Present results and published reports suggest that scapular involvement including SA occurs in 1-2% of del22q11.2 individuals. Accordingly, this anomaly should be investigated as one of the possible skeletal findings of del22q11.2 syndrome, while this diagnosis should be excluded in patients presenting with SA associated with other defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Toxic effects of the administration of Mikania glomerata Sprengel during the gestational period of hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Fulanetti, F.B.; Camargo, G.G.R.; Ferro, M.C.; Randazzo-Moura, P.

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is an ancient practice that has been gaining acceptance of the medical class through scientific studies that prove its effectiveness. However, its use should still be cautious. Medicinal plants have potential toxic effects not yet discovered, and may have unproven interactions with other medications. The use of drugs during pregnancy is still very dangerous and vigorously studied; however, there are few studies of herbal medicines in pregnant women. Existing studies prioritize on teratogenic or abortifacient effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effects of Mikania glomerata Sprengel administration, popularly known as “guaco” during the gestational period of hypertensive rats. For this experimental groups consisting of pregnant Wistar rats received treatments with guaco extract (1 to 2 mL). In order to analyze the possible toxic effects of guaco during pregnancy, weight gain of rats was assessed during pregnancy; reproductive performance of rats, morphological parameters, and fetal placental histology were compared. Although some parameters presented significant differences, we can conclude that changes prioritized by literature, such as toxicity, vasodilation and hypotension, have not been caused by guaco. The only fetal changes observed were due to the maternal hypertension. Some studies have reported vasodilator and hypotensive effects of guaco. However, only a few studies exist, and its actual effects remain unknown. Specific studies should be developed with higher doses of guaco for a definitive conclusion of its toxic and non-toxic effects. PMID:26894037

  6. Toxic effects of the administration of Mikania glomerata Sprengel during the gestational period of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Fulanetti, F B; Camargo, G G R; Ferro, M C; Randazzo-Moura, P

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is an ancient practice that has been gaining acceptance of the medical class through scientific studies that prove its effectiveness. However, its use should still be cautious. Medicinal plants have potential toxic effects not yet discovered, and may have unproven interactions with other medications. The use of drugs during pregnancy is still very dangerous and vigorously studied; however, there are few studies of herbal medicines in pregnant women. Existing studies prioritize on teratogenic or abortifacient effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effects of Mikania glomerata Sprengel administration, popularly known as "guaco" during the gestational period of hypertensive rats. For this experimental groups consisting of pregnant Wistar rats received treatments with guaco extract (1 to 2 mL). In order to analyze the possible toxic effects of guaco during pregnancy, weight gain of rats was assessed during pregnancy; reproductive performance of rats, morphological parameters, and fetal placental histology were compared. Although some parameters presented significant differences, we can conclude that changes prioritized by literature, such as toxicity, vasodilation and hypotension, have not been caused by guaco. The only fetal changes observed were due to the maternal hypertension. Some studies have reported vasodilator and hypotensive effects of guaco. However, only a few studies exist, and its actual effects remain unknown. Specific studies should be developed with higher doses of guaco for a definitive conclusion of its toxic and non-toxic effects.

  7. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Multigene phylogeny of filamentous ambrosia fungi associated with ambrosia and bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Massoumi Alamouti, Sepideh; Tsui, Clement K M; Breuil, Colette

    2009-08-01

    Most 'ambrosia' fungi are members of a heterogeneous group of ophiostomatoids that includes the anamorph genera Ambrosiella, Raffaelea and Dryadomyces. The taxonomy of these fungi based on morphological features has been complicated by these features being poorly descriptive and having evolved convergently. In this work we report maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a multigene dataset (nSSU rDNA, nLSU rDNA and beta-tubulin gene) from sixty-seven taxa that include members of genera Ambrosiella, Raffaelea and Dryadomyces and a diverse set of ophiostomatoid relatives. We discuss the phylogenetic status of genus Ambrosiella and its relationships with representatives of Ophiostomatales teleomorph and anamorph genera. Our analysis shows that ten of the thirteen species that had been assigned to the genus Ambrosiella are related to the teleomorph genera Grosmannia or Ophiostoma, within the Ophiostomatales. The multigene analysis and expanded taxon samplings provide a higher resolution for the species phylogeny and clarify detailed relationships between Ambrosiella associates of ambrosia and bark beetles and the closely related species of genera Raffaelea and Dryadomyces. We discuss difficulties in using the morphology of conidiophores and the mode of conidiogenesis to re-define the phylogenetic classification of Ambrosiella species. Finally, we report a correlation between the molecular classification of Ophiostomatales-related species of Ambrosiella and Raffaelea and their ecological niches.

  9. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Pei-Ling; Lo, Yi-Chen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans. Principal Findings The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%). Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans. Conclusions This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods. PMID:27275864

  10. Sesquiterpenes and diterpenes from Ambrosia arborescens.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Marinella; Saltos, Mariela Beatriz Vera; Puente, Blanca Fabiola Naranjo; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra

    2010-05-01

    Six compounds, eudesm-11(13)-en-4beta,9beta-diol, 15R,16-dihydroxy-3-oxoisopimar-9(11)-ene, 15S,16-dihydroxy-3-oxoisopimar-9(11)-ene, 1alpha-hydroxy-7-oxo-iso-anhydrooplopanone, 10alpha-hydroxy-11,13-dihydro-5-epi-psilostachyin, and 4beta-hydroxypseudoguaian-12,6-olide 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, together with 12 known sesquiterpenes, were isolated from the leaves of Ambrosia arborescens. Structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy including 1D-TOCSY, DQF-COSY, 2D-ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, as well as by ESI mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the 15,16-diol moiety in 15R,16-dihydroxy-3-oxoisopimar-9(11)-ene and 15S,16-dihydroxy-3-oxoisopimar-9(11)-ene was determined using Snatzke's method. All compounds were evaluated for antiproliferative activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Retranslocation of tagged carbon in Ambrosia dumosa

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Cha, J.W.; Mueller, R.T.; Romney, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) Payne cuttings grown in solution culture were exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to measure the distribution of labeled photosynthate among leaves, stems, and roots after 4, 24, and 48 h. For all sampling periods, the highest levels of /sup 14/C were found in leaves and the lowest in roots; however, considerable /sup 14/C had moved to roots in 48 h. In a 12-week study of A. dumosa in solution culture, plants increased in size more than 17 times and flowered and produced seeds. The plants had received /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in photosynthesis at the start. The gradual loss of /sup 14/C from the plants in the 12 weeks averaged 3.5 percent per week (coefficient of variation = 58 percent). This represents an average respiration rate of 0.21 mg C g dry weight/sup -1/ h/sup -1/. This compares favorably with other means for determining respiration rate. The percentage of /sup 14/C in the root portion of the plant varied little over 6 sampling periods, indicating that essentially none of the initially fixed /sup 14/C left the roots during the 12 weeks of test. The /sup 14/C entering fruits and seeds came from leaves only. The biomass of fruit parts resulted more from new photosynthate than from retranslocation from leaves. In a study in which A. dumosa plants were defoliated, little /sup 14/C moved from roots to new shoot growth.

  12. Biosynthesis of polyacetylenes in Ambrosia maritima hairy roots.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh; Orihara, Yutaka

    2007-10-01

    Thiophene A and thiophene A diol are the major polyacetylenes isolated from the hairy roots of Ambrosia maritima (Asteraceae) cultured under continuous light irradiation. The biosynthesis of thiophene A was studied using [1-(13)C]-, [2-(13)C]-, [1,2-(13)C]-acetates. The biosynthesis of thiarubrine A, produced by hairy roots cultured in the dark, was studied using [1,2-(13)C]-acetates and [18-(13)C]-linoleic acid. Our results suggest a catabolic pathway for polyacetylenes biosynthesis from linoleic acid in hairy roots of Ambrosia maritima.

  13. The influence of forest stand and site characteristics on the composition of exotic dominated ambrosia beetle communities (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Muzika, R M

    2010-10-01

    Economic and biological consequences are associated with exotic ambrosia beetles and their fungal associates. Despite this, knowledge of ambrosia beetles and their ecological interactions remain poorly understood, especially in the oak-hickory forest region. We examined how forest stand and site characteristics influenced ambrosia beetle habitat use as evaluated by species richness and abundance of ambrosia beetles, both the native component and individual exotic species. We documented the species composition of the ambrosia beetle community, flight activity, and habitat use over a 2-yr period by placing flight traps in regenerating clearcuts and older oak-hickory forest stands differing in topographic aspect. The ambrosia beetle community consisted of 20 species with exotic ambrosia beetle species dominating the community. Similar percentages of exotic ambrosia beetles occurred among the four forest habitats despite differences in stand age and aspect. Stand characteristics, such as stand age and forest structure, influenced ambrosia beetle richness and the abundances of a few exotic ambrosia beetle species and the native ambrosia beetle component. Topographic aspect had little influence on ambrosia beetle abundance or species richness. Older forests typically have more host material than younger forests and our results may be related to the amount of dead wood present. Different forms of forest management may not alter the percent contribution of exotic ambrosia beetles to the ambrosia beetle community.

  14. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  15. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  16. Chemical ecology of sudden oak death/ambrosia beetle interactions

    Treesearch

    Frances S. Ockels; Pierluigi Bonello; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    Coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, infected with Phytophthora ramorum in California produce a characteristic sequence of symptoms and signs. Ambrosia beetles consistently tunnel into the bark of bleeding cankers in naturally infected trees. In field monitoring conducted since 2000, every bleeding coast live oak that subsequently...

  17. Chemical ecology of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U.S. in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. Females of X. glabratus vector a newly-described fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae...

  18. Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    J.L. Hanula; Albert E. Mayfield

    2014-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrl, Fraedrich & Aghgayeva are exotic species, recently invasive to the United States. Together, they cause a vascular wilt disease that is highly destructive to some species in the Lauraceae (Fraedrich et al., 2008). Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the...

  19. Research on ambrosia beetles informs prevention and management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ambrosia beetles are increasingly prominent pests of trees in the U.S. Most species, particularly native, are harmless, but some exotic species are detrimental to nurseries, forest, and stored timber. Managing them remains challenging. However, it is not all doom and gloom. The increasing resear...

  20. Redbay ambrosia beetle: basic and applied chemical ecology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U.S. in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. Females of X. glabratus vector a fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Over...

  1. Identification of new flavonoid glycosides and flavonoid profiles to characterize rocket leafy salads (Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis tenuifolia).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanchez, Ascensión; Llorach, Rafael; Gil, María I; Ferreres, Federico

    2007-02-21

    "Rocket" is a collective name used to term some species within the Eruca and Diplotaxis genera, whose leaves are characterized by a more or less pungent taste. Different approaches have been carried out to differentiate both genera that have similar leaf morphologies. Following our research in flavonoid profiling of the Brassicaceae family using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectroemtry, we have investigated Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis tenuifolia leaf samples as new ingredients of fresh salads. The MS/MS study allowed the identification of new naturally occurring quercetin mono- and diacyl-tri-O-glucosides and the elucidation of the flavonoid glycosylation and acylation patterns. Important differences between flavonoid profiles of E. vesicaria and D. tenuifolia were observed. E. vesicaria contained kaempferol derivatives as principal compounds whereas D. tenuifolia instead accumulated quercetin derivatives. The exhaustive study of the profiling of these species could help further studies concerning the bioavailability of these flavonoids for epidemiological or clinical intervention studies because these species have considerable potential as healthy leafy salads because of the bioactive phytochemicals.

  2. The Pannonian plain as a source of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šikoparija, B.; Smith, M.; Skjøth, C. A.; Radišić, P.; Milkovska, S.; Šimić, S.; Brandt, J.

    2009-05-01

    This study aims to find likely sources of Ambrosia pollen recorded during 2007 at five pollen-monitoring sites in central Europe: Novi Sad, Ruma, Negotin and Nis (Serbia) and Skopje (Macedonia). Ambrosia plants start flowering early in the morning and so Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the day are likely to be from a local source. Conversely, Ambrosia pollen grains recorded at night or very early in the morning may have arrived via long-range transport. Ambrosia pollen counts were analysed in an attempt to find possible sources of the pollen and to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. Diurnal variations and the magnitude of Ambrosia pollen counts during the 2007 Ambrosia pollen season showed that Novi Sad and Ruma (Pannonian Plain) and to a lesser degree Negotin (Balkans) were located near to sources of Ambrosia pollen. Mean bi-hourly Ambrosia pollen concentrations peaked during the middle of the day, and concentrations at these sites were notably higher than at Nis and Skopje. Three episodes were selected for further analysis using back-trajectory analysis. Back-trajectories showed that air masses brought Ambrosia pollen from the north to Nis and, on one occasion, to Skopje (Balkans) during the night and early morning after passing to the east of Novi Sad and Ruma during the previous day. The results of this study identified the southern part of the Pannonian Plain around Novi Sad and Ruma as being a potential source region for Ambrosia pollen recorded at Nis and Skopje in the Balkans.

  3. The Pannonian plain as a source of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Sikoparija, B; Smith, M; Skjøth, C A; Radisić, P; Milkovska, S; Simić, S; Brandt, J

    2009-05-01

    This study aims to find likely sources of Ambrosia pollen recorded during 2007 at five pollen-monitoring sites in central Europe: Novi Sad, Ruma, Negotin and Nis (Serbia) and Skopje (Macedonia). Ambrosia plants start flowering early in the morning and so Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the day are likely to be from a local source. Conversely, Ambrosia pollen grains recorded at night or very early in the morning may have arrived via long-range transport. Ambrosia pollen counts were analysed in an attempt to find possible sources of the pollen and to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. Diurnal variations and the magnitude of Ambrosia pollen counts during the 2007 Ambrosia pollen season showed that Novi Sad and Ruma (Pannonian Plain) and to a lesser degree Negotin (Balkans) were located near to sources of Ambrosia pollen. Mean bi-hourly Ambrosia pollen concentrations peaked during the middle of the day, and concentrations at these sites were notably higher than at Nis and Skopje. Three episodes were selected for further analysis using back-trajectory analysis. Back-trajectories showed that air masses brought Ambrosia pollen from the north to Nis and, on one occasion, to Skopje (Balkans) during the night and early morning after passing to the east of Novi Sad and Ruma during the previous day. The results of this study identified the southern part of the Pannonian Plain around Novi Sad and Ruma as being a potential source region for Ambrosia pollen recorded at Nis and Skopje in the Balkans.

  4. Sensitisation to Ambrosia in Switzerland: a public health threat on the wait.

    PubMed

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Schindler, C; Frei, P; Probst-Hensch, N M; Imboden, M; Gemperli, A; Rochat, T; Schmid-Grendemeier, P; Bircher, A J

    2009-02-07

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia (short name = Ambrosia common ragweed) pollen is a potent allergen and has recently been found in Switzerland, spreading from the southwest of the country. The aim of this study is to describe Ambrosia sensitisation rates in the population-based SAPALDIA cohort (Swiss Study on Air Pollution And Lung Diseases In Adults) and to test whether an increase in these rates could be observed. Among the 6345 participants from 8 areas who provided blood samples in 1991 and 2002, 5823 had valid results for specific IgE against common inhalant allergens tested with Phadiatop. In 2002 Ambrosia sensitisation was measured and positive tests were analysed for Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort). Blood samples taken in 1991 in Ticino and Geneva were also tested for Ambrosia. Sensitisation rate (Phadiatop) did not increase significantly between the two surveys and sensitisation was found in 30% of the participants. A proportion of 7.9% showed specific IgE to Ambrosia pollen. The sensitisation rate in Lugano and Geneva had not changed substantially since 1991. Among those sensitised to Ambrosia 82% also showed specific IgE against Artemisia, suggesting a high rate of cross-reactivity. Only 1.3% were sensitized to Ambrosia alone. The incidence of asthma or hay fever in participants with specific IgE to Ambrosia pollen was not higher than in the general study population. Currently Ambrosia pollen does not appear to be an important cause of inhalant allergies in Switzerland. Sensitisation rates are low and have not increased since 1991. Due to cross-reactivity Ambrosia sensitisation may be a consequence of primary sensitisation to Artemisia. Elimination of Ambrosia plants is nevertheless mandatory to avoid a future increase.

  5. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Northwest Turkey: investigation of possible source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celenk, Sevcan; Malyer, Hulusi

    2017-08-01

    Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport (LDT) and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains. The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between 2010 and 2015 by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey. A volumetric trap was used for collecting the pollen samples, and the back-trajectory model was used to identify a potential source of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen. The days when pollen levels exceeded 30 P m-3 were computed, and clusters were shown on the figures. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Bursa were not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions around the Azov Sea in Russia and Ukraine, Black Sea region of Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria. Note that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen exceeded the clinical threshold during 28 days during the investigation period. Taking into consideration the high allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen, the present findings suggest that the number of ragweed-sensitized individuals might increase in the near future in the region.

  6. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  7. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Northwest Turkey: investigation of possible source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celenk, Sevcan; Malyer, Hulusi

    2017-02-01

    Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport (LDT) and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains. The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between 2010 and 2015 by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey. A volumetric trap was used for collecting the pollen samples, and the back-trajectory model was used to identify a potential source of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen. The days when pollen levels exceeded 30 P m-3 were computed, and clusters were shown on the figures. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Bursa were not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions around the Azov Sea in Russia and Ukraine, Black Sea region of Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria. Note that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen exceeded the clinical threshold during 28 days during the investigation period. Taking into consideration the high allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen, the present findings suggest that the number of ragweed-sensitized individuals might increase in the near future in the region.

  8. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Northwest Turkey: investigation of possible source regions.

    PubMed

    Celenk, Sevcan; Malyer, Hulusi

    2017-02-28

    Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport (LDT) and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains. The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between 2010 and 2015 by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey. A volumetric trap was used for collecting the pollen samples, and the back-trajectory model was used to identify a potential source of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen. The days when pollen levels exceeded 30 P m(-3) were computed, and clusters were shown on the figures. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Bursa were not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions around the Azov Sea in Russia and Ukraine, Black Sea region of Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria. Note that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen exceeded the clinical threshold during 28 days during the investigation period. Taking into consideration the high allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen, the present findings suggest that the number of ragweed-sensitized individuals might increase in the near future in the region.

  9. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  10. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    PubMed

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  11. Root extracts of Polygala tenuifolia for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sang Hui; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Park, Yohan; Kim, Jinwoong; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2014-08-01

    Traditional medicinal plants possess diverse active constituents for exerting their biological activities. Recently, the innovative applications of plant extracts have revealed their promise as 'green' reducing agents for the reduction of metal ions during the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Herein, we report the use of 70% ethanol extracts from Polygala tenuifolia roots as a 'green' reducing agent for the production of gold nanoparticles by reducing gold(III) chloride trihydrate. Gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The gold nanoparticles had characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 535 nm. HR-TEM and AFM images revealed major spherical-shaped nanoparticles. The average diameter was measured to be 9.77±3.09 nm using HR-TEM images. The crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed through lattice fringes and circular spots within the selected area electron diffraction in the HR-TEM images along with the XRD peaks. The gold nanoparticles exhibited enhanced anticoagulant activity, as assessed by activated partial thromboplastin time. The current method is a straightforward, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive method for the production of gold nanoparticles using extracts from traditional medicinal plants.

  12. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Glossogyne tenuifolia in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Lin, Wan-Teng; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2016-05-01

    Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) Cassini is a special herbal tea in the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, and has a long history of being used as an antipyretic, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory remedy in folk medicine among local residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from GT on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in animals. Five- to 6-week-old male Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 14) for different treatments, that is: control group (C), high-fat/cholesterol (HF) group, HF diet containing 0.5% (GT0.5) and 1.5% (GT1.5) GT extracts for 4 weeks. Hamsters fed with 0.5% GT powder as well as 1.5% GT powder exhibited reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), conjugated diene of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased serum antioxidant capacity, but 1.5% GT powder was more potent at lowering serum LDL cholesterol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations than 0.5% GT. GT extracts significantly lowered liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration by diminishing activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). In addition, fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids were increased in GT extract groups. In conclusion, GT extracts increase the antioxidative capacity, decrease serum TC, inhibit the activities of FAS and G-6-PDH, and further reduce liver TG accumulation in hamster fed on atherogenic diets.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis and Metal-chelation Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Moin, Mohammad Reza; Razavizadeh, Masoud; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a dichloromethane fraction from which three known compounds β-sitosterol (compound1), 5-hydroxy, 4',6,7– trimethoxy flavone (salvigenin compound 2), and methyl-gallate (compound 3) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods. Applying the molar-ratio method, the complexation of salvigenin with Fe (III), Cu(II) and Zn(II), the most abundant type of metal ions in the body, were then evaluated. It was determined that stoichiometric ratio of salvigenin with these cations were as Fe(Salvigenin)2 (H2O)2 and Cu(Salvigenin)2(H2O)2 in methanolic solution without pH control, while zinc ions didn`t form significant complexes. The results were confirmed more, by computational molecular modeling of the structure of proposed ligand-complexes by semi-imperical PM3 calculations, which determined negative heat of formation for the complexes Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions as -689.7 and -573.5, respectively and proposed chelating affinity of salvigenin in the following order: Fe(III) > Cu(II) >> Zn(II). PMID:24250440

  14. Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2014-11-28

    Phthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in probable absorption and accumulation by medicinal and dietary plants. As a matter of fact, although the toxicity of phthalate derivatives in human is well-known, food crops and medicinal plants have been exposing to phthalates that can be detected in their extracts and essential oils. Achillea tenuifolia (Compositea) is one of these herbaceous plants with traditional applications which widely growing in Iran. The plant root was subjected to hydro-distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain its essential oil before and after acid treatment. Both of the hydro-distilled essential oils were analysed by GC-MS method resulted in recognition of their constituent. Phthalate contamination as (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester (5.4%) and phthalic acid (4.5%), were identified in the first and second extracted oils, respectively. As a warning, due to the potential role of phthalates to cause reproductive toxicity, disturb of endocrine system and causing cancers, medicinal plants have to be considered through quality control for detection of these compounds.

  15. Expansion and aerobiology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hrabovský, Michal; Ščevková, Jana; Mičieta, Karol; Lafférsová, Janka; Dušička, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia cause environmental, agronomical and medical problems in many regions of the world, including Slovakia. The purpose of this study was to survey the spread and distribution of this species in Slovakia and to analyse its airborne pollen pattern. To evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of Ambrosia invasion in the territory of Slovakia, herbarium specimens, published databases and field investigations were considered. Aerobiological sampling was based on the analysis of pollen records at five aerobiological stations in Slovakia. For Bratislava and Banská Bystrica Monitoring stations, trends in Ambrosia pollen seasons were determined using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. Since the first record of A. artemisiifolia in Slovakia, the number of its colonies and its spread rate has increased considerably, and the colonisation of this species has been successful mainly in the south-western part of the country. Highest airborne pollen counts were recorded in Nitra, Trnava and Bratislava Monitoring Stations situated in the areas most infested by A. artemisiifolia in Slovakia. However, high pollen counts were also noted in Banská Bystrica and Košice Monitoring Stations situated in areas where the source species was less abundant. During the study period, the number of days on which the pollen concentration exceeded the threshold of sensitivity increased significantly (+1.33 days/year) in Banská Bystrica, whereas the peak value decreased significantly (-13.37 pollen/year) in Bratislava. The number of the populations of A. artemisiifolia has increased considerably in recent years. Besides the most infested areas, high airborne pollen counts were also recorded in territories where the plant species was less abundant. During the study period, the intensity of Ambrosia pollen seasons decreased in Bratislava, probably due to changes in land-use practices, while the increasing trend in the pollen seasons intensity in

  16. High specialisation in the pollination system of Mandevilla tenuifolia (J.C. Mikan) Woodson (Apocynaceae) drives the effectiveness of butterflies as pollinators.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, L D A; Quirino, Z G M; Machado, I C

    2014-09-01

    Butterfly pollination in the tropics is considered somewhat effective or solely effective in a few plant species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Mandevilla tenuifolia (Apocynaceae), which has floral attributes associated with psychophily, has strategies adapted to pollination by butterflies, restricting other floral visitors and making these insects act as efficient pollinators. We analysed the floral and reproductive biology of M. tenuifolia, as well as the frequency and efficiency of its flower visitors. M. tenuifolia is an herb whose flowers have strong herkogamy and secondary pollen presentation on the style head, which corresponds to 60.4% of pollen on the anthers. Flower longevity and the long period of receptivity of the stigmatic region associated with the large amount of pollen removed in the first visits suggest that flowers remain functionally female during part of anthesis. Butterflies, mainly of the families Nymphalidae and Pieridae, are the only pollinators of M. tenuifolia. Despite being self-compatible, M. tenuifolia depends on biotic vectors for fruit production. A non-significant difference in fruit set between controlled treatments and natural conditions suggests that the pollinators are efficient. The inclination resulting from the landing of butterflies on flowers, together with flower morphology, guiding the insect proboscis inside the floral tube, as well as the frequency and efficiency of butterfly visits, are evidence of the close relationship between butterflies and M. tenuifolia, and also of the efficiency of these insects as pollinators. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. A skeletal disorder in a dog resembling the Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel's Deformity in humans.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2015-03-01

    A five-year-old intact male golden retriever dog was evaluated for cervical pain and right hemiparesis. Clinical and computed tomography features suggested a caudal cervical instability and myelopathy due to a cervicoscapular malformation resembling the human Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity, a rare complex congenital disorder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of MEOX1, PAX1 and FGFR3 genes were performed in this dog to investigate a possible underlying genetic predisposition, but no mutations were detected in the coding regions of the three target genes evaluated. Other genes can be involved in this condition in dogs and require further investigation. This report describes a cervical vertebral fusion and complex scapular anomaly in a dog. The presence of an omovertebral bone should be considered in the setting of signs characteristic of myelopathy in dogs with or without obvious skeletal deformity.

  18. Severe Sprengel deformity associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome and a complex vascular abnormality that determined the corrective surgery technique.

    PubMed

    Fontecha, Cesar G; Navarro Cano, Ester; Soldado, Francisco; Barber, Ignasi

    2014-11-01

    Sprengel deformity (SD), a congenital condition characterized by elevation of the scapula, is a cause of functional and aesthetic defects that can be improved by surgical correction. Many cases of SD are associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), in which there may be abnormalities of the supra-aortic vessels. We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with severe SD and KFS. The left vertebral artery arose from the subclavian artery in a very high cervical location, which made surgical descent of the scapula unfeasible. The patient was treated using a Mears procedure, with osteotomy of the scapula and tenotomy of the long head of the triceps. The appearance and range of motion of the shoulders improved considerably, and there were no vascular complications. A morphologic vascular assessment is essential in children with SD and concomitant KFS to avoid potentially serious iatrogenic vascular injury when performing a scapular-descending surgical technique.

  19. Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), and Euwallacea fornicatus, the tea shot hole borer (TSHB). Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d...

  20. Approaches to control diseases vectored by ambrosia beetles in avocado and other American Lauraceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive ambrosia beetles and the plant pathogenic fungi they vector represent a significant challenge to North American agriculture, native and landscape trees. Ambrosia beetles encompass a range of insect species and they vector a diverse set of plant pathogenic fungi. Our lab has taken several bi...

  1. Development of microsatellites for population genetic analyses of the granulate ambrosia beetle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited male dispersal and local mating in ambrosia beetles are expected to result in extreme inbreeding and highly structured populations. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) for use in future studies into pop...

  2. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  3. Vegetation response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the Larrea-Ambrosia and Coleogyne shrublands

    Treesearch

    Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    Vegetation response to various types of disturbances was quantitatively investigated in the Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa (creosote bush-white bursage) and Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush) shrublands of southern Nevada. Between the two control (undisturbed) habitats, the Larrea-Ambrosia vegetation zone had a greater plant species richness, but had a lower percent...

  4. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  5. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  6. Antimicrobial efficacy of the combinations of Acacia nilotica,Murrayakoenigii (Linn.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus, and Psidiumguajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chandra Shekar, Byalakere Rudraiah; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Suma, S; Thakur, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    The rise in disease incidence, increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria to currently used antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals, and financial considerations in developing countries necessitates alternate preventive and treatment strategies for oral diseases. The objective of the study is to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of triple and quadruple combinations of Acacia nilotica (AN), Murraya koenigii (Linn.) (MKL) Sprengel, Eucalyptus (Euca), and Psidium guajava (PS) on primary plaque colonizers. The phytochemicals in four plants were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. The dried extracts were diluted with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to prepare stock solutions (100 mg/ml) of each plant. The triple and quadruple combinations were prepared after mixing equal quantities of stock solutions from each plant extracts. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius using agar well diffusion method. Chlorhexidine of 0.2% composition and DMSO were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mean diameter of inhibition zone between different categories was compared using one-way analysis of variance. The combination of AN + MKL Sprengel + Euca + PS produced the highest mean diameter of inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.17 mm) against S. mutans. The combination of AN + MKL Sprengel + Euca produced the maximum antimicrobial efficacy against S. sanguis (19.83 ± 1.33). All the triple and quadruple combinations of the plant extracts offered antimicrobial benefits either superior or comparable to 0.2% chlorhexidine against S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius.

  7. Examining Ambrosia pollen episodes at Poznań (Poland) using back-trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Skjøth, C. A.; Brandt, J.

    2007-03-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens in parts of southern and central Europe. Back-trajectories have been analysed with the aim of finding the likely sources of Ambrosia pollen grains that arrived at Poznań (Poland). Temporal variations in Ambrosia pollen at Poznań from 1995-2005 were examined in order to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. The trajectories were calculated using the transport model within the Lagrangian air pollution model, ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). Analysis identified two separate populations in Ambrosia pollen episodes, those that peaked in the early morning between 4 a.m. and 8 a.m., and those that peaked in the afternoon between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m.. Six Ambrosia pollen episodes between 2001 and 2005 were examined using back-trajectory analysis. The results showed that Ambrosia pollen episodes that peaked in the early morning usually arrived at Poznań from a southerly direction after passing over southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, whereas air masses that brought Ambrosia pollen to Poznań during the afternoon arrived from a more easterly direction and predominantly stayed within the borders of Poland. Back-trajectory analysis has shown that there is a possibility that long-range transport brings Ambrosia pollen to Poznań from southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. There is also a likelihood that Ambrosia is present in Poland, as shown by the arrival of pollen during the afternoon that originated primarily from within the country.

  8. Examining Ambrosia pollen episodes at Poznań (Poland) using back-trajectory analysis.

    PubMed

    Stach, A; Smith, M; Skjøth, C A; Brandt, J

    2007-03-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens in parts of southern and central Europe. Back-trajectories have been analysed with the aim of finding the likely sources of Ambrosia pollen grains that arrived at Poznań (Poland). Temporal variations in Ambrosia pollen at Poznań from 1995-2005 were examined in order to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. The trajectories were calculated using the transport model within the Lagrangian air pollution model, ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). Analysis identified two separate populations in Ambrosia pollen episodes, those that peaked in the early morning between 4 a.m. and 8 a.m., and those that peaked in the afternoon between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m.. Six Ambrosia pollen episodes between 2001 and 2005 were examined using back-trajectory analysis. The results showed that Ambrosia pollen episodes that peaked in the early morning usually arrived at Poznań from a southerly direction after passing over southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, whereas air masses that brought Ambrosia pollen to Poznań during the afternoon arrived from a more easterly direction and predominantly stayed within the borders of Poland. Back-trajectory analysis has shown that there is a possibility that long-range transport brings Ambrosia pollen to Poznań from southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. There is also a likelihood that Ambrosia is present in Poland, as shown by the arrival of pollen during the afternoon that originated primarily from within the country.

  9. Factors influencing tissue nitrate concentration in field-grown wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) in southern England.

    PubMed

    Weightman, R M; Huckle, A J; Roques, S E; Ginsburg, D; Dyer, C J

    2012-01-01

    Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) is a leafy vegetable known for its high tissue nitrate concentration (TNC) which can exceed the limits set in the relevant European legislation designed to protect human health. The aim of this work was to understand the factors influencing TNC and to develop best practice guidelines to growers. Commercial crops of field-grown wild rocket were studied over two seasons. In 2010, ten separate crops were sampled representing a range of soil types and time periods during the summer. Two fields sampled using a 'W'- or 'X'-shaped sampling pattern demonstrated that 10 incremental samples bulked to make 1 kg of fresh material could be used to provide an adequate sample for determination of TNC in the wild rocket crop, as is the case for other leafy vegetables. Of eight commercial crops sampled in 2010 with an average nitrogen (N) fertiliser application of 104 kg N ha(-1), two exceeded the limit of 6000 mg NO3(-) kg(-1) set in the legislation. In 2011, six N response experiments were carried out, and only two sites showed a significant yield response to N fertiliser. The reason for the lack of response at the other sites was principally due to high levels of soil mineral N prior to drilling, meaning the crops' requirement for N was satisfied without additional fertiliser N. In the experimental situation at an N fertiliser application rate of 120 kg N ha(-1), 50% of crops would have exceeded the 6000 mg NO3(-) kg(-1) limit. In both seasons, low radiation levels in the 5 days prior to harvest were shown to increase TNC, although the relationship was also influenced by N supply. Strategies for optimising N nutrition of field-grown wild rocket are discussed.

  10. A new Metaculus species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Diplotaxis tenuifolia (Brassicaceae) from Serbia: a combined description using morphology and DNA barcode data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Metaculus diplotaxi n.sp. inhabiting Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC., has been described from Serbia. To investigate interspecific variability between Metaculus spp., on three different host plants of Brassicaceae we analyzed phenotypic variability of morphological t...

  11. Preclinical Safety of the Root Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow in Sprague-Dawley Rats and Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ki Young; Won, Beom Young; Ha, Hyun Jee; Yun, Yeo Sang; Lee, Hyung Gun

    2014-01-01

    The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow has been used for the treatment of insomnia, depression, and amnesia. However, the toxicological properties of the herb have been overlooked, because it has been used for a long time for various purposes. In this study, we evaluated the preclinical safety of the root extract in rats and beagle dogs. First, the acute oral toxicity was tested in both rats and dogs. In the rats, only one female of 2 g/kg died, but no treatment-related death or clinical and gross findings were observed after the administration. No toxicological changes or mortalities related to the test substance were also observed after the administration in the dogs. Although vomiting, discoloration, or hemorrhage was found in some dogs, there were no serious abnormalities. Second, the subchronic toxicity was investigated in the rats. Two animals were found dead in the female group of 1,000 mg/kg/day, but there were no abnormal findings associated with the test substance. There also were no adverse effects on the clinical signs, body weight, and hematological and biochemical findings. Therefore, our results showed that the acute or subchronic toxicity of the root extract of Polygala tenuifolia might not be toxic to rats and dogs. PMID:25431613

  12. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and P<0.01 at 400 mg/kg) while serum alkaline phosphatase increased non-significantly (P>0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe. PMID:25182437

  13. Mycangia of ambrosia beetles host communities of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hulcr, J; Rountree, N R; Diamond, S E; Stelinski, L L; Fierer, N; Dunn, R R

    2012-10-01

    The research field of animal and plant symbioses is advancing from studying interactions between two species to whole communities of associates. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities supports multiplexed sampling for statistically robust tests of hypotheses about symbiotic associations. We focus on ambrosia beetles, the increasingly damaging insects primarily associated with fungal symbionts, which have also been reported to support bacteria. To analyze the diversity, composition, and specificity of the beetles' prokaryotic associates, we combine global sampling, insect anatomy, 454 sequencing of bacterial rDNA, and multivariate statistics to analyze prokaryotic communities in ambrosia beetle mycangia, organs mostly known for transporting symbiotic fungi. We analyze six beetle species that represent three types of mycangia and include several globally distributed species, some with major economic importance (Dendroctonus frontalis, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus-ferrugineus, Xyleborus glabratus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus). Ninety-six beetle mycangia yielded 1,546 bacterial phylotypes. Several phylotypes appear to form the core microbiome of the mycangium. Three Mycoplasma (originally thought restricted to vertebrates), two Burkholderiales, and two Pseudomonadales are repeatedly present worldwide in multiple beetle species. However, no bacterial phylotypes were universally present, suggesting that ambrosia beetles are not obligately dependent on bacterial symbionts. The composition of bacterial communities is structured by the host beetle species more than by the locality of origin, which suggests that more bacteria are vertically transmitted than acquired from the environment. The invasive X. glabratus and the globally distributed X. crassiusculus have unique sets of bacteria, different from species native to North America. We conclude that the mycangium hosts in multiple vertically transmitted bacteria such as

  14. Modeling of environmental and genetic interactions with AMBROSIA, an information-theoretic model synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Chanda, P; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M

    2011-10-01

    To develop a model synthesis method for parsimoniously modeling gene-environmental interactions (GEI) associated with clinical outcomes and phenotypes. The AMBROSIA model synthesis approach utilizes the k-way interaction information (KWII), an information-theoretic metric capable of identifying variable combinations associated with GEI. For model synthesis, AMBROSIA considers relevance of combinations to the phenotype, it precludes entry of combinations with redundant information, and penalizes for unjustifiable complexity; each step is KWII based. The performance and power of AMBROSIA were evaluated with simulations and Genetic Association Workshop 15 (GAW15) data sets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AMBROSIA identified parsimonious models in data sets containing multiple interactions with linkage disequilibrium present. For the GAW15 data set containing 9187 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the parsimonious AMBROSIA model identified nine RA-associated combinations with power >90%. AMBROSIA was compared with multifactor dimensionality reduction across several diverse models and had satisfactory power. Software source code is available from http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/DBGROUP/bioinformatics/resources.html. AMBROSIA is a promising method for GEI model synthesis.

  15. Modeling of environmental and genetic interactions with AMBROSIA, an information-theoretic model synthesis method

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, P; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M

    2011-01-01

    To develop a model synthesis method for parsimoniously modeling gene–environmental interactions (GEI) associated with clinical outcomes and phenotypes. The AMBROSIA model synthesis approach utilizes the k-way interaction information (KWII), an information-theoretic metric capable of identifying variable combinations associated with GEI. For model synthesis, AMBROSIA considers relevance of combinations to the phenotype, it precludes entry of combinations with redundant information, and penalizes for unjustifiable complexity; each step is KWII based. The performance and power of AMBROSIA were evaluated with simulations and Genetic Association Workshop 15 (GAW15) data sets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AMBROSIA identified parsimonious models in data sets containing multiple interactions with linkage disequilibrium present. For the GAW15 data set containing 9187 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the parsimonious AMBROSIA model identified nine RA-associated combinations with power >90%. AMBROSIA was compared with multifactor dimensionality reduction across several diverse models and had satisfactory power. Software source code is available from http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/DBGROUP/bioinformatics/resources.html. AMBROSIA is a promising method for GEI model synthesis. PMID:21427755

  16. Toxicity and mutagenicity of the molluscicidal plant Ambrosia maritima L.

    PubMed

    Alard, F; Stievenart, C; Vanparys, P; Thilemans, L; Geerts, S

    1991-01-01

    The acute and subchronic toxicity of the molluscicidal plant, Ambrosia maritima L., has been tested on rats. No toxic signs could be detected neither after oral administration of 5 g/kg of dried leaves of the plant as a powder or as a methanolic extract, nor after the incorporation of 50,000 ppm powdered leaves in the feed during 4 weeks. Using an aqueous extract of the plant material of A. maritima or using ambrosin, one of the active molluscicidal components of the plant, no mutagenic activity could be detected in the S. typhimurium strains TA97, TA 98, TA1538, TA100 and TA1535.

  17. [Comprehensive assessment on control measures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao; Peng, Zhao-Pu; Luo, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Yong

    2008-09-01

    Three control measures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, including biological control, chemical control, and CK without any treatment, were evaluated by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Corresponding contributions of the three control measures to comprehensive profit (CP) and comprehensive cost (CC) were calculated and ranked, which were regarded as the assessment criteria of the control measures. The results showed that among the three control measures, biological control had the highest CP and the lowest CC, CK was in adverse; and chemical control was in intervenient. Biological control had the highest ratio of profit to cost, and suggesting that this control measure is an optimal and recommendable measure in controlling A. artemisiifolia.

  18. Does soil nitrogen influence growth, water transport and survival of snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel.) under CO enrichment?

    PubMed

    Atwell, Brian J; Henery, Martin L; Ball, Marilyn C

    2009-05-01

    Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel. (snow gum) was grown under ambient (370 microL L(-1)) and elevated (700 microL L(-1)) atmospheric [CO2] in open-top chambers (OTCs) in the field and temperature-controlled glasshouses. Nitrogen applications to the soil ranged from 0.1 to 2.75 g N per plant. Trees in the field at high N levels grew rapidly during summer, particularly in CO2-enriched atmosphere, but suffered high mortality during summer heatwaves. Generally, wider and more numerous secondary xylem vessels at the root-shoot junction in CO2-enriched trees conferred fourfold higher below-ground hydraulic conductance. Enhanced hydraulic capacity was typical of plants at elevated [CO2] (in which root and shoot growth was accelerated), but did not result from high N supply. However, because high rates of N application consistently made trees prone to dehydration during heatwaves, glasshouse studies were required to identify the effect of N nutrition on root development and hydraulics. While the effects of elevated [CO2] were again predominantly on hydraulic conductivity, N nutrition acted specifically by constraining deep root penetration into soil. Specifically, 15-40% shallower root systems supported marginally larger shoot canopies. Independent changes to hydraulics and root penetration have implications for survival of fertilized trees under elevated atmospheric [CO2], particularly during water stress.

  19. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field t...

  20. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  1. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory constituents from the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia on LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tian-Xing; Wang, Shu; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-11-01

    Five new phenolic glycosides, tenuisides A-E (1-5), and a new megastigmane glycoside, tenuiside F (6), along with seventeen known compounds (7-23) were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Their structures were established by detailed analysis of NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of compounds 5 and 6 were determined by CD spectra and in-NMR-tube Mosher's method. The inhibitory effects of these compounds were evaluated on NO production in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia cells. Compound 17 showed the strongest activity, with an IC50 value of 7.4μM, while compounds 1, 8, 14, and 18 showed the moderate activities, with IC50 values of 16.2-38.5μM. And their primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of NO inhibitory effects were also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. Objective: The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. Conclusion: All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents. PMID:26015668

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents.

  5. Antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-β toxicity of methanol extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2014-11-05

    There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-β toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human Aβ. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2″-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2″-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  8. The weeding of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and sanitary risks.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a potentially allergenic annual herbaceous plant coming from North America and widespread in Italy, where it can be easily seen since May-April. Its pollination is mainly windborne and each plant is able to produce billions of pollen grains. The pollen peaks are in the hottest days in the absence of rain and wind. In susceptible individuals, the great amount of pollen produced by this species may cause rhinitis and severe asthma attacks. Some allergic subjects can manifest disorders already at a concentration of a few granules per cubic metre. Chemical control is often practiced on a large scale and uses herbicides. A major risk is the result of the unprofessional use of chemicals by the population, especially in residential or very busy areas (eg railways, urban areas). In this paper we propose preventive measures of chemical hazards that may be resulting from the excessive use of plant protection products.

  9. Identification and quantification of glucosinolates in sprouts derived from seeds of wild Eruca sativa L. (salad rocket) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. (wild rocket) from diverse geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard N; Carvalho, Rosa; Mellon, Fred A; Eagles, John; Rosa, Eduardo A S

    2007-01-10

    The Brassicaceae rocket species Eruca sativa L. (salad rocket) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. (wild rocket) are consumed throughout the world in salads, predominantly the leaves but also the flowers and more recently the sprouts (seedlings). Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates and flavonoids in plants derived from commercial seed of these species has previously been done, but no studies have been conducted to determine how geographical origin affects glucosinolate composition in rocket species. Seeds from wild E. sativa L. and D. tenuifolia L. from diverse regions of the world were obtained from gene banks and grown under controlled conditions. Sprouts were harvested when they would normally be harvested for consumption, and glucosinolates were extracted and profiled in these accessions. All of the sprouts from Italian E. sativa L. had consistently high total glucosinolate content, with only a few exceptions, and also the highest percentage contents of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. In contrast, sprouts produced from Central and Eastern European seeds had a much higher percentage of 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. With a single exception, Tunisia, all sprouts produced from North African seeds had very high 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate contents. The single sample from China had a high total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate profile that was very similar to the accessions from Uzbekistan and Pakistan. All of the D. tenuifolia L. sprouts had consistently high total glucosinolate contents, and a high percentage of this was 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. This glucosinolate variation in levels and profiles of the rockets can be used for genetic studies, selected breeding, and human intervention studies.

  10. Hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant and hepatoprotective effects of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Sprengel: a potential agent for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salgado, J C; Ortiz-Andrade, R R; Aguirre-Crespo, F; Vergara-Galicia, J; León-Rivera, I; Montes, S; Villalobos-Molina, R; Estrada-Soto, S

    2007-02-12

    Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Sprengel is a Mexican medicinal plant that is used in the folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, hepatitis and related diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the pharmacological properties of different extracts from Cochlospermum vitifolium bark as potential agent for the treatment of some factors related with metabolic syndrome (MS), a complex disease produced for several pathophysiological factors such as visceral fat obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and liver steatosis. Hexane (HECv), dichloromethane (DECv) and methanol (MECv) extracts were subjected to some pharmacological assays to determine their vasorelaxant and hypoglycemic activity. On the other hand, MECv was also evaluated to determine its hepatoprotective effect on sub-chronic experimental assay. HECv showed a significant endothelium-independent relaxation on rat aorta rings (intact endothelium: IC(50)=14.42+/-5.90 microg/mL, E(max)=92.71+/-8.9%; denuded endothelium: IC(50)=27.94+/-4.0 microg/mL, E(max)=78.68+/-4.6%) and MECv produced an endothelium-dependent relaxation (IC(50)=21.94+/-6.87 microg/mL, E(max)=79.12+/-7.80%) on this tissue. Furthermore, HECv (at a dose of 120 mg/kg) also showed a significant decrease of blood glucose levels (p<0.05) on normoglycemic rats. Moreover, MECv (at a dose of 100 mg/kg) also was administered to bile duct-obstructed rats to determine its hepatoprotective activity, showing a statistically significant decrease of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (PGT, 45%) and alkaline phosphatase (APh, 15%) (p<0.05). Finally, we obtained a crystalline polyphenolic compound from MECv by spontaneous precipitation. Those crystals were identified as (+/-)-naringenin by X-ray diffraction, NMR, IR and GC-MS techniques. Results suggest that Cochlospermum vitifolium could be used as a potential agent against MS since it shows hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant and hepatoprotective properties.

  11. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  12. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  13. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  14. Ethanol and (-)-alpha-Pinene: attractant kairomones for bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern US.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel R; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    In 2002-2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (-)-alpha-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with ethanol lures (release rate, about 0.6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to ten species of ambrosia beetles (Ambrosiodmus tachygraphus, Anisandrus sayi, Dryoxylon onoharaensum, Monarthrum mali, Xyleborinus saxesenii, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus ferrugineus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus) and two species of bark beetles (Cryptocarenus heveae and Hypothenemus sp.). Traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene lures (release rate, 2-6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to five bark beetle species (Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylastes porculus, Hylastes salebrosus, Hylastes tenuis, and Ips grandicollis) and one platypodid ambrosia beetle species (Myoplatypus flavicornis). Ethanol enhanced responses of some species (Xyleborus pubescens, H. porculus, H. salebrosus, H. tenuis, and Pityophthorus cariniceps) to traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene in some locations. (-)-alpha-Pinene interrupted the response of some ambrosia beetle species to traps baited with ethanol, but only the response of D. onoharaensum was interrupted consistently at most locations. Of 23 species of ambrosia beetles captured in our field trials, nine were exotic and accounted for 70-97% of total catches of ambrosia beetles. Our results provide support for the continued use of separate traps baited with ethanol alone and ethanol with (-)-alpha-pinene to detect and monitor common bark and ambrosia beetles from the southeastern region of the US.

  15. First report of a sexual state in an ambrosia fungus: Ambrosiella cleistominuta sp. nov. associated with the ambrosia beetle Anisandrus maiche

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genera of ambrosia beetles in the tribe Xyleborini with large, mesonotal mycangia host unique fungal symbionts in the genus Ambrosiella. The symbiont of a recent invasive to the USA from Asia, Anisandrus maiche, had not been previously characterized. We consistently isolated a novel fungus, Ambrosie...

  16. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

    Treesearch

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Philip G. Cannon; Steve Oak; Scott Horn; Jaesoon Hwang; Paul E. Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S.A.Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont could be transported to the western U....

  17. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    Albert E. Mayfield; James L. Hanula

    2012-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps...

  18. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (U.S.). Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont cou...

  19. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  20. Ethanol-injection induces attacks by ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on a variety of tree species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles have become serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Injecting Magnolia virginiana L. with ethanol has reliably induced attacks by exotic ambrosia beetles to facilitate research on their biology and management. In the current study, ethanol-injection was tested on a vari...

  1. Fungal symbionts in three exotic ambrosia beetles, Xylosandrus amputatus, Xyleborinus andrewesi, and Dryoxylon onoharaense (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...

  2. Risk of exposure to airborne Ambrosia pollen from local and distant sources in Europe - an example from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Janne; Smith, Matt; Šikoparija, Branko; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Myszkowska, Dorota; Grewling, Łukasz; Skjøth, Carsten A

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is a noxious invasive alien species in Europe. It is an important aeroallergen and millions of people are exposed to its pollen. The main aim of this study is to show that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen recorded in Denmark can be derived from local or more distant sources. This was achieved by using a combination of pollen measurements, air mass trajectory calculations using the HYPLIT model and mapping all known Ambrosia locations in Denmark and relating them to land cover types. The annual pollen index recorded in Copenhagen during a 15-year period varied from a few pollen grains to more than 100. Since 2005, small quantities of Ambrosia pollen has been observed in the air every year. We have demonstrated, through a combination of Lagrangian back-trajectory calculations and atmospheric pollen measurements, that pollen arrived in Denmark via long-distance transport from centres of Ambrosia infection, such as the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. Combining observations with results from a local scale dispersion model show that it is possible that Ambrosia pollen could be derived from local sources identified within Denmark. The high allergenic capacity of Ambrosia pollen means that only small amounts of pollen are relevant for allergy sufferers, and just a few plants will be sufficient to produce enough pollen to affect pollen allergy sufferers within a short distance from the source. It is necessary to adopt control measures to restrict Ambrosia numbers. Recommendations for the removal of all Ambrosia plants can effectively reduce the amount of local pollen, as long as the population of Ambrosia plants is small.

  3. Ambrosia fungi in the insect-fungi symbiosis in relation to cork oak decline.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Joana; Inácio, Maria Lurdes; Sousa, Edmundo

    2006-09-01

    Ambrosia fungi live associated with beetles (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) in host trees and act as a food source for the insects. The symbiotic relation is important to the colonizing strategies of host trees by beetles. Ambrosia fungi are dimorphic: they grow as ambrosial form and as mycelium. The fungi are highly specialized, adapted to a specific beetle and to the biotope where they both live. In addition other fungi have been found such as tree pathogenic fungi that may play a role in insects host colonization success. Saprophytic fungi are also present in insects galleries. These may decompose cellulose and/or be antagonistic to other less beneficial fungi. This paper summarizes the importance of ambrosia fungi and the interaction with insects and hosts. The possibility of the transport of pathogenic fungi by Platypus cylindrus to cork oak thus contributing for its decline is discussed.

  4. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2-4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter

  5. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of −31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus

  6. Gene expression analysis of rocket salad under pre-harvest and postharvest stresses: A transcriptomic resource for Diplotaxis tenuifolia

    PubMed Central

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Spadafora, Natasha Damiana; Müller, Carsten T.; Rogers, Hilary J.

    2017-01-01

    Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. is of important economic value in the fresh-cut industry for its nutraceutical and sensorial properties. However, information on the molecular mechanisms conferring tolerance of harvested leaves to pre- and postharvest stresses during processing and shelf-life have never been investigated. Here, we provide the first transcriptomic resource of rocket by de novo RNA sequencing assembly, functional annotation and stress-induced expression analysis of 33874 transcripts. Transcriptomic changes in leaves subjected to commercially-relevant pre-harvest (salinity, heat and nitrogen starvation) and postharvest stresses (cold, dehydration, dark, wounding) known to affect quality and shelf-life were analysed 24h after stress treatment, a timing relevant to subsequent processing of salad leaves. Transcription factors and genes involved in plant growth regulator signaling, autophagy, senescence and glucosinolate metabolism were the most affected by the stresses. Hundreds of genes with unknown function but uniquely expressed under stress were identified, providing candidates to investigate stress responses in rocket. Dehydration and wounding had the greatest effect on the transcriptome and different stresses elicited changes in the expression of genes related to overlapping groups of hormones. These data will allow development of approaches targeted at improving stress tolerance, quality and shelf-life of rocket with direct applications in the fresh-cut industries. PMID:28558066

  7. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and temperature abuse on flavor related volatile compounds of rocket leaves (Diplotaxis tenuifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, Leonarda; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Pati, Sandra; Colelli, Giancarlo

    2017-07-01

    The effect of storage conditions on flavor-related volatile composition of wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) was investigated on Modified Atmosphere packed (MAP) leaves stored under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. In a first experiment the effect of MAP was compared to the storage in air at 5 °C; a second experiment aimed to study the effect of non isothermal conditions, with two temperature abuses (at 13 °C for 24 h) during a 5 °C. Twenty-four volatiles were detected, including C6, C5, isothiocyanate, lipid-derived and sulfur compounds. In the first experiment, MAP-stored rocket showed a slower loss of typical flavour volatiles (thiocyanates and isothiocyanates) and a slower production of off-flavors until 6 days of storage, compared to leaves stored in air. After this time, dimethyl sulfide and acetaldehyde dramatically increased in MAP-stored rocket samples. In the second experiment, samples stored under non-isothermal conditions showed lower O2 and higher CO2 concentrations than samples stored under isothermal conditions. Rocket leaves stored under non-isothermal conditions showed an increased production of volatiles responsible of off-flavors (acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide) following temperature abuse comparing to storage in isothermal condition. Thus, dimethyl sulfide and acetaldehyde could be effective markers for tracking the effect of temperature fluctuations on rocket during storage.

  8. FLC expression is down-regulated by cold treatment in Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket), but flowering time is unaffected.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jemma L; Massiah, Andrea; Kennedy, Sue; Hong, Yiguo; Jackson, Stephen D

    2017-07-01

    Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) has become a very popular salad leaf due to its peppery taste. It is part of the Brassicaceae family and thus has a high level of homology at the DNA level to other Brassica species including Arabidopsis thaliana. The vernalization and photoperiodic requirements of wild rocket have not been reported to date. Photoperiodic experiments described here demonstrate that rocket is a facultative long day plant. To investigate the vernalization requirement, both seed and young plants were given vernalization treatments at 4°C for different lengths of time. A rocket homologue of FLOWERING LOCUS C (DtFLC) was isolated and shown to functionally complement the Arabidopsis FRI(+)flc3 null mutant. Whilst the expression of DtFLC was significantly reduced after just one week of cold treatment, cold treatments of two to eight weeks had no significant effect on bolting time of wild rocket indicating that rocket does not have a vernalization requirement. These findings illustrate that important fundamental differences can exist between model and crop plant species, such as in this case where down-regulation of DtFLC expression does not enable earlier flowering in wild rocket as it does in Arabidopsis and many other Brassica species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression analysis of rocket salad under pre-harvest and postharvest stresses: A transcriptomic resource for Diplotaxis tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Spadafora, Natasha Damiana; Müller, Carsten T; Rogers, Hilary J; Ferrante, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. is of important economic value in the fresh-cut industry for its nutraceutical and sensorial properties. However, information on the molecular mechanisms conferring tolerance of harvested leaves to pre- and postharvest stresses during processing and shelf-life have never been investigated. Here, we provide the first transcriptomic resource of rocket by de novo RNA sequencing assembly, functional annotation and stress-induced expression analysis of 33874 transcripts. Transcriptomic changes in leaves subjected to commercially-relevant pre-harvest (salinity, heat and nitrogen starvation) and postharvest stresses (cold, dehydration, dark, wounding) known to affect quality and shelf-life were analysed 24h after stress treatment, a timing relevant to subsequent processing of salad leaves. Transcription factors and genes involved in plant growth regulator signaling, autophagy, senescence and glucosinolate metabolism were the most affected by the stresses. Hundreds of genes with unknown function but uniquely expressed under stress were identified, providing candidates to investigate stress responses in rocket. Dehydration and wounding had the greatest effect on the transcriptome and different stresses elicited changes in the expression of genes related to overlapping groups of hormones. These data will allow development of approaches targeted at improving stress tolerance, quality and shelf-life of rocket with direct applications in the fresh-cut industries.

  10. Antidepressant effects of the extract YZ-50 from Polygala tenuifolia in chronic mild stress treated rats and its possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Guo, Dai-Hong; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Dong-Xiao; Xie, Ting-Ting

    2010-07-01

    YZ-50 is an active fraction obtained from the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (Polygalaceae) extract and it has been reported previously to exert beneficial effects on mental health in depressed sufferers, however, its mechanism of action remains unresolved. This study utilized the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression in Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the effects of YZ-50 on depressive behaviors. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the capacity of YZ-50 to reverse the harmful effects of CMS is relative to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Repeated administration of YZ-50 for 28 days at the doses of 140 and 280 mg/kg in CMS, YZ-50 reversed the CMS-induced changes in sucrose consumption, plasma corticosterone levels and open field activity. In addition, CMS significantly decreased hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels. However, YZ-50 counteracted a decrease in hippocampal BDNF mRNA caused by CMS. In conclusion, YZ-50 reversed the harmful effects of CMS on mood and behaviors in rats and it possesses an antidepressant property that is at least in part mediated by the neuroendocrine and neuropropective systems, and it is likely that the HPA system plays an important role in this process.

  11. A water-soluble polysaccharide from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia suppresses ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hua; Cui, Ping; Xu, Dan; Liu, Yunduo; Tian, Qinghua; Zhang, Fubin

    2017-09-15

    PTP, one polysaccharide extracted from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia, has displayed anti-cancer activity in several types of ovarian cancer cells. This study aims to elucidate the structure of PTP and investigate its anticancer effects against SKOV3 xenograft tumor growth in BALB/c mice, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. GC-MS and NMR data indicate that PTP has a backbone composed of 1,4,6-linked-β-Galp, 1,4-linked-β-Galp and 1,4-linked-β-Glcp, with non-reducing terminal 1-linked-α-Glcp attached to O-6 of 1,4,6-linked-β-Galp. The tumor growth was suppressed in mice following two week's PTP administration (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) due to the induction of apoptosis, as detected by TUNEL assay. Moreover, lower serum VEGF and EGFR levels were observed in BALB/c mice treated with different doses of PTP when compared with that in untreated mice. Also, EGFR, VEGF, and CD34 were decreased in both transcript and protein levels in the tumor-bearing mice upon PTP treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that PTP appears to be a powerful chemopreventive agent for the patients with ovarian cancer, especially at advanced stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    PubMed

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A; Rabaglia, Robert J; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  13. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  14. High Outcrossing in the Annual Colonizing Species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jannice; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Variation in mating patterns may be particularly evident in colonizing species because they commonly experience wide variation in plant density. Here, the role of density for the mating system of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed), a wind-pollinated annual colonizing species previously reported as self-compatible, is explored. Methods The effect of population density on the proportion of self- and cross-fertilized seeds was examined using allozyme markers and experimental arrays conducted over two seasons in the field. Also the reproductive success of isolated plants located in diverse habitats was measured. The potential occurrence of a physiological mechanism preventing self-fertilization, i.e. self-incompatibility, following controlled self- and cross-pollinations in the glasshouse was examined. Key Results Outcrossing rates estimated using allozyme markers were uniformly high, regardless of the spacing between plants. However, when single plants were isolated from congeners they set few seeds. Observations of pollen-tube growth and seed set following controlled pollinations demonstrated that plants of A. artemisiifolia possess a strong self-incompatibility mechanism, contrary to earlier reports and assumptions. Conclusions The maintenance of high outcrossing rates in colonizing populations of A. artemisiifolia is likely to be facilitated by the prodigious production of wind-borne pollen, high seed production and extended seed dormancy. PMID:18387973

  15. High outcrossing in the annual colonizing species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jannice; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2008-06-01

    Variation in mating patterns may be particularly evident in colonizing species because they commonly experience wide variation in plant density. Here, the role of density for the mating system of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed), a wind-pollinated annual colonizing species previously reported as self-compatible, is explored. The effect of population density on the proportion of self- and cross-fertilized seeds was examined using allozyme markers and experimental arrays conducted over two seasons in the field. Also the reproductive success of isolated plants located in diverse habitats was measured. The potential occurrence of a physiological mechanism preventing self-fertilization, i.e. self-incompatibility, following controlled self- and cross-pollinations in the glasshouse was examined. Outcrossing rates estimated using allozyme markers were uniformly high, regardless of the spacing between plants. However, when single plants were isolated from congeners they set few seeds. Observations of pollen-tube growth and seed set following controlled pollinations demonstrated that plants of A. artemisiifolia possess a strong self-incompatibility mechanism, contrary to earlier reports and assumptions. The maintenance of high outcrossing rates in colonizing populations of A. artemisiifolia is likely to be facilitated by the prodigious production of wind-borne pollen, high seed production and extended seed dormancy.

  16. Anomalous orebody within the Ambrosia Lake trend at Sandstone Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.F.; Quintanar, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Sandstone Mine contains an anomalous orebody that lacks the characteristic coloring and high gamma-ray expression typically associated with uranium ore in the Ambrosia Lake district. The orebody occurs at the downdip edge of a tongue of hematitic sand in the basal sand unit of the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The orebody ranges from white to light gray in color. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of uranophane (Ca(UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/(OH)/sub 2/.5H/sub 2/O), evidently altered from coffinite, which is the predominant uranium mineral in the district. Equivalent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicates that this orebody is relatively recent. Oxidizing meteoric water, which formed a geochemical cell, remobilized uranium minerals in preexisting trend orebodies and deposited the uranium downdip of the furthest extent of this cell. Post-Dakota deformation influenced the course of the migrating meteoric water and the extent of the redox interface controlling the orebody. As sampling and mining lower grades of uranium becomes increasingly more economical, the potential for unknown reserves adjacent to the redox interface should not be overlooked.

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of the combinations of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thaku, Roopesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for innovative strategies to combat the two most common dental diseases of mankind namely dental caries and periodontitis. Objective: The aim was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the double combinations of Acacia nilotica (AN), Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel (MKL), Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts of AN, MKL. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and P. guajava were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The stock solutions of individual plant extracts (100 mg/ml) were prepared. Equal quantities of stock solutions were mixed to obtain six double combinations of herbal extracts. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done against three primary plaque colonizers using agar well-diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and as negative controls. The mean inhibition zone between the categories was compared using one-way Analysis of Variance and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the highest mean diameter of inhibition zone (21.08 mm ± 2.11) against Streptococcus mutans. The chlorhexidine produced the least inhibition zone against S. mutans (14.50 ± 2.07). The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the maximum antimicrobial efficacy against Streptococcus sanguis (19.67 ± 1.03) and Streptococcus salivarius (20.33 ± 1.86). Conclusion: All the combinations of plant extracts have the potential to be used as antiplaque and anticaries agents. The combinations of herbal extracts offer enhanced antimicrobial efficacy due to the synergistic effects besides slowing the development of resistance. PMID:25316992

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of the combinations of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers.

    PubMed

    Chandra Shekar, B R; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thaku, Roopesh

    2014-09-01

    There is an urgent need for innovative strategies to combat the two most common dental diseases of mankind namely dental caries and periodontitis. The aim was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the double combinations of Acacia nilotica (AN), Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel (MKL), Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers. The plant extracts of AN, MKL. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and P. guajava were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The stock solutions of individual plant extracts (100 mg/ml) were prepared. Equal quantities of stock solutions were mixed to obtain six double combinations of herbal extracts. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done against three primary plaque colonizers using agar well-diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and as negative controls. The mean inhibition zone between the categories was compared using one-way Analysis of Variance and Tukey's post hoc test. The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the highest mean diameter of inhibition zone (21.08 mm ± 2.11) against Streptococcus mutans. The chlorhexidine produced the least inhibition zone against S. mutans (14.50 ± 2.07). The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the maximum antimicrobial efficacy against Streptococcus sanguis (19.67 ± 1.03) and Streptococcus salivarius (20.33 ± 1.86). All the combinations of plant extracts have the potential to be used as antiplaque and anticaries agents. The combinations of herbal extracts offer enhanced antimicrobial efficacy due to the synergistic effects besides slowing the development of resistance.

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Chandra Shekar, B R; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Jain, Richa; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh; Shekar, Suma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 ± 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 ± 1.8 mm). All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the polyherbal combinations in animal models and effectiveness

  20. Another Asian ambrosia bark beetle, Xyleborinus artestriatus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), found in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xyleborinus artestriatus (Eichhoff), an ambrosia beetle native to Asia, is reported for the first time in North America based on specimens from Georgia and Texas. This is the twenty-fourth species of exotic Xyleborina documented in North America. North American distributional records, key identifica...

  1. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi

    Treesearch

    J.J. Riggins; M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; R. Chapin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other plants within the Lauraceae family. The laurel wilt pathogen, (Raffaelea lauricola), is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), which...

  2. Integrating kaolin clay for ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) management in ornamental tree nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries. Available chemical measures are not completely effective, and due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and product breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in ...

  3. Attraction of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Avocado, Lychee, and Essential Oil Lures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB, Xyleborus glabratus) is a wood-boring pest that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease that currently threatens Florida avocados. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate attraction of RAB to avocado wood (three races), lychee wood, and two co...

  4. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Treesearch

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  5. Vertical distribution and daily flight periodicity of ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt affected avocado orchards.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado (Persea americana Mill.; Lauraceae) due to their association with fungal pathogens, in particular, the causal agent of laurel wilt disease, Raffaelea lauricola. The objective of this study was to provide insights into the intera...

  6. Chemical control of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and other Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S. This wood-boring insect vectors a lethal fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, the causal agent of laurel wilt disease. The vector-pathogen complex is responsible...

  7. Chemical Control of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...

  8. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) species, flight, and attack on living eastern cottonwood trees

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; Derek C. Booth; M. S. Wallace

    2005-01-01

    In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon...

  9. Development of an Odor-Based Trap Tree Strategy for Ambrosia Beetles Infesting Ornamental Nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are increasingly being recognized as key pests of ornamental nursery stock, and Xylosandrus germanus is one of the most problematic species. Xylosandrus germanus has a wide host range, but deciduous trees are preferred over coniferous hosts. Xylosandrus germanus has an effici...

  10. New host record for the Asian Ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; George N. Horn

    2006-01-01

    The Asian ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motchulsky), is a widely distributed beetie found in southern Asia, Africa, Indonesia, Australia, Islands of the Pacific, Europe, and the U.S. (Wood 1982, Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 6, BYU; Solot3on 1995, insect Borers in N. Am. broadleaf Trees and Shrubs, AH-706; Pennacchio et al. 2003, Redia 86: 77-80). It...

  11. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  12. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    PubMed

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini.

  13. Attraction of ambrosia and bark beetles to coast live oaks infected by Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Brice A. McPherson; Nadir Erbilgin; David L. Wood; Pavel Svihra; Andrew J. Storer; Richard B. Standiford

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, de Cock & Man in?t Veld), has killed thousands of oaks (Quercus spp.) in coastal California forests since the mid-1990s. Bark and ambrosia beetles that normally colonize dead or severely weakened trees selectively tunnel into the bleeding cankers that are the first...

  14. Efficacy of essential oil lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB) is a wood borer that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado. Field tests and chemical analyses were conducted with commercial lures of manuka oil and phoebe oil to (1) compare efficacy of lures for capture of RAB,...

  15. Ambrosiella roeperi sp. nov. is the mycangial symbiont of the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus.

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Harrington; Douglas McNew; Chase Mayers; Stephen Fraedrich; Sharon E. Reed

    2014-01-01

    Isolations from the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini), collected in Georgia, South Carolina, Missouri and Ohio, yielded an undescribed species of Ambrosiella in thousands of colony-forming units (CFU) per individual female. Partial sequences of ITS and 28S rDNA...

  16. Non-native ambrosia beetles as opportunistic exploiters of living but weakened trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on trees after their introduction into new ecosystems, but factors driving their host selection are poorly understood and critical for developing management tactics. The overall goal of this study was to ...

  17. Developing a media moisture threshold for nurseries to reduce tree stress and ambrosia beetle attacks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are among the most damaging pests of trees grown in nurseries. The primary pests Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky and Xylosandrus germanus Blandford use ethanol to locate vulnerable trees. Research, primarily with X. germanus, has shown that flood-stressed trees emit eth...

  18. Optimizing ethanol-baited traps for monitoring damaging ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in ornamental nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. We tested different rates of commercially available pouch-style ethanol lures in bottle-traps to optimize bottle-traps as a monitoring system for ...

  19. Method for collection of live redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is the only confirmed vector of laurel wilt, a newly-described lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado. First detected in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia, X. glabratus has since spread to the Carolinas, Florida, Al...

  20. Redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) abundance and perference of Persea spp. in the new world.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the fungus that causes laure...

  1. Development of host-based lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is native to Southeast Asia, but since its initial detection near Savannah, Georgia in 2002, it has become a serious invasive pest in the USA, now established in seven southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a fungal pathogen...

  2. Improved lure for redbay ambrosia beetle developed by enrichment of a-copaene content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past decade, the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA, now established in seven southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of...

  3. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  4. Host preferences / relative attraction of the Lauraceae to redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt. Laurel wilt is a newly-described vascular disease of U.S. trees in the family Lauracea...

  5. Cubeb oil identified as an improved attractant for redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent (Raffaelea lauricola) responsible for laurel wilt disease. Since its introduction into Georgia in 2002, RAB has spread throughout the southeastern USA, and laurel wilt has decimated lar...

  6. American Lauraceae: Relative attraction and susceptibility to attack by redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt. Laurel wilt is a newly-described vascular disease of U.S. trees in the family Lauracea...

  7. Is Litchi chinensis a potential host for redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent (Raffaelea lauricola) responsible for laurel wilt disease. To date, all known hosts of RAB are trees within the family Lauraceae. However, our previous research indicated that female R...

  8. Exotic bark and ambrosia beetles in the USA: potential and current invaders

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2013-01-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are among the most important insects affecting trees and forests worldwide. There are approximately 6000 scolytine species worldwide, with species found on all continents except Antarctica (Table 3.1) (Wood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 1997, 2002; Wood, 2007). The majority of species are found...

  9. Ethanol and (-)-?-pinene: attratant kairomones for bark ad ambrosia beetles in the Southeastern US

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (?)-?-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with...

  10. Ethanol and (-)-a-pinene: attractants for bark and ambrosia beetles in southeastern USA.

    Treesearch

    D. R. Miller; R. J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (−)-α-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South...

  11. The novel interaction between Phytophthora ramorum and wildfire elicits elevated ambrosia beetle landing rates on tanoak

    Treesearch

    Maia M. Beh; Margaret Metz; Steven J. Seybold; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Beh, Maia M.; Metz, Margaret; Seybold, Steven J.; Rizzo, David. 2013. The novel interaction between Phytophthora ramorum and wildfire elicits elevated ambrosia beetle landing rates on tanoak. In: Frankel, S.J.; Kliejunas, J.T.; Palmieri, K.M.; Alexander, J.M. tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death fifth science symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep...

  12. Efficacy of current lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since its introduction into the USA in 2002, the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest, currently established in eight southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt....

  13. Development of a kairomone-based monitoring tool for the invasive redbay ambrosia beetle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent responsible for laurel wilt. This disease has had severe impact on forest ecosystems, and has spread to eight states in the southeastern US since the first detection of the beetle in Georg...

  14. Comparison of ambrosia beetle communities in two hosts with laurel wilt: swampbay vs. avocado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of tre...

  15. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Redbay ambro...

  16. The physiological consequences of ingesting a toxic plant (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) influence subsequent foraging decisions by sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Fernández, P; Villalba, J J; Distel, R A

    2016-12-01

    Toxins and nutrients interact and define herbivores' experiences with toxic plants. However, there are still open questions about the mechanisms by which nutrient-toxin interactions affect experience and as a consequence foraging decisions by consumers. This study provides a deeper insight into such mechanisms by using supplemental nutrients, a toxic plant typically avoided by herbivores (wild rocket; Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and a small ruminant (sheep; Ovis aries) as models. Thirty-six sheep were randomly assigned to four treatments (n=9) where animals consumed: wild rocket ("DT"), wild rocket followed by a protein supplement ("DT+P"), wild rocket followed by a protein supplement+a mineral supplement containing iodine and copper ("DT+P+M"), or alfalfa pellets in amounts that paired the ingestion of wild rocket by DT ("CTRL"). Towards the end of the phase of exposure (day 35), DT showed the lowest intake of wild rocket, as well as reduced levels of plasma thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), alanine aminotransferase, and a trend towards reduced hemoglobin relative to DT+P and DT+P+M. Total concentration of serum proteins and albumins were greater in sheep fed the protein supplements, which have probably elicited a protective effect on toxin ingestion. Foraging behavior was then evaluated in an experimental arena where animals could select among randomly distributed buckets containing a fixed amount of wild rocket or variable amounts of barley grain (a preferred food). Regardless of barley grain availability, DT showed lower intake and lower times spent eating wild rocket than DT+P and DT+P+M. Unexpectedly, CTRL (without previous experience with wild rocket) ingested amounts of wild rocket comparable to those observed by DT+P and DT+P+M. A negative feeding experience with wild rocket is needed for animals to display the typical pattern of aversion commonly observed in grazing conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and a QA final closeout inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). One radiological surveillance and three radiological audits were performed at the Ambrosia Lake site. The surveillance was performed on 12--16 April 1993 (DOE, 1993d). The audits were performed on 26--29 July 1993 (DOE, 1993b); 21--23 March 1994 (DOE, 1994d); and 1--2 August 1994 (DOE, 1994d). The surveillance and audits resulted in 47 observations. Twelve of the observations raised DOE concerns that were resolved on site or through subsequent corrective action. All outstanding issues were satisfactorily closed out on 28 December 1994. The radiological surveillance and audits are discussed in this report. A total of seven QA in-process surveillances were performed at the Ambrosia Lake UMTRA site are discussed. The DOE/TAC Ambrosia Lake final remedial action close-out inspection was conducted on 26 July 1995 (DOE, 1995a). To summarize, a total of 155 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. Follow-up to responses required from the RAC for the DOE/TAC surveillance and audit observations indicated that all issues related to the Ambrosia Lake site were resolved and closed to the satisfaction of the DOE.

  18. Evidence for a new lineage of primary ambrosia fungi in Geosmithia Pitt (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Kirkendall, Lawrence R

    2010-08-01

    Geosmithia is a genus of mitosporic filamentous fungi typically associated with phloeophagous bark beetles world-wide. During this study, the fungal associates of ambrosia beetles Cnesinus lecontei, Eupagiocerus dentipes, and Microcorthylus sp. from Costa Rica, were studied using morphology and DNA sequences. Fungal associates belonged to four undescribed Geosmithia species. Geosmithia eupagioceri sp. nov. and G. microcorthyli sp. nov. are evidently primary ambrosia fungi of their respective vectors E. dentipes and Microcorthylus species. They both have convergently evolved distinct morphological adaptations including the production of large, solitary and globose conidia, and yeast-like cells. Tunnels of C. lecontei contained an undescribed Geosmithia species, but its nutritional importance for its vector is unclear. An auxiliary ambrosia fungus, Geosmithia rufescens sp. nov., was found associated with both G. eupagioceri and the Geosmithia species associated with C. lecontei. G. microcorthyli is genetically quite similar to the phloem-associated Geosmithia sp. 8 from Europe. Large differences in morphology between these two species suggest the rapid co-evolution resulting from the close symbiosis of the former with its beetle host. The ITS rDNA sequences of G. microcorthyli and Geosmithia sp. 8 were not diagnostic, suggesting that alternative markers such as EF-1α, IGS rDNA or β-tubulin should be used, together with morphological and ecological data, for species delimitation in this genus. The primary ambrosia fungi described here are derived from phloem-associated ancestors, and represent two independent lineages of ambrosia fungi in the Hypocreales and a new ecological strategy within Geosmithia. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing a Media Moisture Threshold for Nurseries to Reduce Tree Stress and Ambrosia Beetle Attacks.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven D; Ranger, Christopher M

    2016-08-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are among the most damaging pests of trees grown in nurseries. The primary pests Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky and Xylosandrus germanus Blandford use ethanol to locate vulnerable trees. Research, primarily with X. germanus, has shown that flood-stressed trees emit ethanol and are preferentially attacked by ambrosia beetles. Our goal was to develop a media (also called potting soil) moisture threshold as an integrated pest management (IPM) tactic and assess grower practices that lead to ambrosia beetle attacks. Flooded Cornus florida L., Cornus kousa Burg., and Magnolia grandiflora L. trees incurred more attacks than unflooded trees that were not attacked. To determine optimal media moisture levels, we grew flood-tolerant Acer rubrum L. and flood-intolerant C. florida in containers with 10, 30, 50, 70, or 90% media moisture. No flooded or unflooded A. rubrum were attacked. However, C. florida grown in 70 or 90% moisture were attacked and died, whereas trees at 30 and 50% moisture were not attacked. Thus, we suggest an upper moisture threshold of 50% when growing C. florida and other flood-intolerant trees. However, during peak ambrosia beetle flight activity in spring 2013 and 2014, we found that media moisture levels in commercial nurseries were often between 50 and 90%. Implementing a media moisture threshold, as a new IPM tool, could reduce ambrosia beetle attacks and the need for insecticide applications, which is currently the only available management tactic. Future research should focus on how changes in substrates, irrigation, and other practices could help growers meet this threshold. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2010-02-12

    The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to verify that remedial actions were effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately described the final radiological conditions of the RAM Ambrosia Lake, Section 4 Areas.

  1. New combinations in Raffaelea, Ambrosiella, and Hyalorhinocladiella, and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus

    Treesearch

    T.C. Harrington; D.N. Aghayeva; Stephen Fraedrich

    2010-01-01

    Female adults of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), from the southeastern USA were individually macerated and serially diluted onto culture media for isolation of fungal symbionts. Six Raffaelea species were recovered: R. lauricola, R. arxii...

  2. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method.

  3. Flavonoid-rich fraction of the Monodora tenuifolia seed extract attenuates behavioural alterations and oxidative damage in forced-swim stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2015-03-01

    The antidepressant effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed extract were examined by assessing the extent of attenuation of behavioural alterations and oxidative damage in the rats that were stressed by forced swim test. Compared with the model control group, the altered behavioural parameters were attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) in the group treated with the flavonoid-rich fraction (100 and 200 mg·kg(-1)), comparable to the group treated with the standard drug, fluoxetine (10 mg·kg(-1)). The flavonoid-rich fraction and fluoxetine improved significantly (P < 0.05) the activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione, protein, and nitrite in the brain of the stressed rats. These results suggested that the flavonoid-rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed extract exerted the antidepressant-like effects which could be useful in the management of stress induced disease. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Jain, Richa; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh; Shekar, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 ± 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 ± 1.8 mm). Conclusion: All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the

  5. Correction in malrotation of the scapula and muscle transfer for the management of severe Sprengel deformity: static and dynamic evaluation using 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Katsuhisa; Suenaga, Naoki; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Oizumi, Naomi; Minami, Akio; Funakoshi, Tadanao

    2013-03-01

    The clinical results of surgical procedures for severe Sprengel deformity have been uncertain. To obtain improved elevation, we consider that it is necessary to realign the lateral border of the scapula for upward rotation. The purposes of the current study were to evaluate the clinical results and range of motion of the scapula after such realignment. Seven cases of Sprengel deformity of Cavendish grade 3 or 4 were treated surgically and then clinically evaluated and examined using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT). (Two boys and 5 girls aged 50.9 ± 15.4 mo, mean ± SD at the time of operation.) The mean follow-up was 53.1 months (range, 12 to 92 mo). After the omovertebral bone and the superomedial side of the scapula were removed, the levator scapulae and rhomboids were reattached to wrap around the scapula at maximum upward rotation to assist in maintaining this position. Cavendish and Rigault grades were used for evaluation of postoperative appearance. The superior displacement and rotation of the scapula were measured on the trunk posterior view using 3D CT. The relationship between improvement in the range of motion and radiologic change were analyzed statistically. The postoperative flexion (97.9 ± 12.9 to 160 ± 11.5 degrees) and abduction (99.3 ± 13.0 to 161.4 ± 15.7 degrees) were significantly improved compared with the mean preoperative values (P < 0.0001). 3D CT revealed that in all patients the malrotation of the scapula was improved postoperatively. The current study shows that successful realignment of the scapula led to these improved clinical results. Our procedure has advantages not only for recovery of the range of motion but also for reducing the characteristic lump in the web of the neck. However, our procedure has an inherent limitation related to asymmetric shoulder level and width. 3D CT may be useful for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. Level IV-case series.

  6. Investigating atmospheric transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region with DEHM-Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.

    2009-04-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens. The threshold value for clinical symptoms for ragweed pollen grains for the majority of sensitised patients is below 20 grains/m3. Ambrosia pollen appears to induce asthma about twice as often as other pollen. Each ragweed plant produces millions of pollen grains that are small (18-22 μm) and suitable for long-range transport when conditions are favourable. In this study we use DEHM-Pollen to investigate if the Pannonian Plain could be the source area for observed episodes of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans. A possible Ambrosia pollen inventory for various regions in the Pannonian Plain was constructed using detailed land cover data from Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic in combination with measurements of the annual load of Ambrosia pollen in the source areas. A simple unified pollen release model (SUPREME) was calibrated against daily measurements from Novi Sad in Serbia and implemented in DEHM-Pollen with the Ambrosia pollen inventory. Model simulations was then performed with DEHM-Pollen for the months August and September 2007 and compared with measurements from stations outside the Pannonian Plain. The simulations several times indicate regional scale transport from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region including the 26th - 27th of August and the 1st and 2nd September. During these episode air masses passed over parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Southern Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The verifying measurements at Skopje (Macedonia) show episodes of elevated Ambrosia pollen concentration the 26th -27th of August and for the 1st and 2nd of September. The model experiments with DEHM-Pollen strongly indicate that the Pannonian Plain alone can be a source to significant Ambrosia pollen concentrations in the Balkans. The methods and the model results look promising with respect to future numerical forecasting of Ambrosia

  7. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs.

  8. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. The potential for impacts to human health and the environment from contaminated ground water currently does not exist. No domestic or livestock wells accessing ground water from the uppermost aquifer have been identified within a 5 mile radius from the site. Therefore, no current exposure pathways to humans, livestock, or wildlife exist, nor are any foreseen. The proposed ground water compliance strategy under consideration for application at the Ambrosia Lake site is to perform no remediation, based on the application of supplemental standards because the ground water has ``limited use.``

  9. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts.

  10. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is in McKinley County, New Mexico. As part of UMTRA surface remediation, residual radioactive materials were consolidated on the site in a disposal cell that was completed July 1995. The need for ground water monitoring was evaluated and found not to be necessary beyond the completion of the remedial action because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as limited use.

  11. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-12-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  12. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe.

    PubMed

    de Weger, Letty A; Pashley, Catherine H; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-12-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  13. Plants remember past weather: a study for atmospheric pollen concentrations of Ambrosia, Poaceae and Populus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-10-01

    After extreme dry (wet) summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease (increase) substantially. Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance. The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa. Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used. The 11-year (1997-2007) data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia (ragweed), Poaceae (grasses) and Populus (poplar), as well as daily values of four climate variables (temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation). Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia, but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae. Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements. However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods. Higher climate sensitivity (especially water sensitivity) of the herbaceous taxa ( Ambrosia and Poaceae) can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus. Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production.

  14. Effect of repetitive mowing on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen and seed production.

    PubMed

    Simard, Marie-Josée; Benoit, Diane Lyse

    2011-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L (common ragweed) is a familiar roadside weed in southern Québec (Canada) that produces large amounts of airborne pollen responsible for multiple rhino-conjunctivitis (hay fever) cases. As roadside weeds are increasingly controlled by mowing alone, the effect of a mowing treatment on pollen production was evaluated. Ambrosia artemisiifolia plants were grown in a greenhouse at 4 densities (1, 3, 6 and 12 plants per 314 cm(2) pot) and either left intact or mowed (10 cm from the ground) when the plants reached 25 cm in height, i.e. twice during the life cycle of this annual plant. Pollen production per male inflorescence was collected in open-top bags and counted. Inflorescence mass, length, location on the plant and date of anthesis onset was noted. Above-ground plant biomass and seed production was also evaluated. Mowed plants produced less pollen per unit of inflorescence length than intact plants. Pollen production per plant was reduced by a factor of 8.84 by the double mowing treatment, while viable seed production per plant was reduced by a factor of 4.66, irrespective of density. Mowing twice has the potential to reduce airborne pollen loads but Ambrosia artemisiifolia seed banks are unlikely to be depleted by this management strategy.

  15. New Raffaelea species (Ophiostomatales) from the USA and Taiwan associated with ambrosia beetles and plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D Rabern; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Huang, Yin-Tse; Bateman, Craig; Campbell, Alina S; Dreaden, Tyler J; Li, You; Ploetz, Randy C; Black, Adam; Li, Hou-Feng; Chen, Chi-Yu; Wingfield, Michael J; Hulcr, Jiri

    2016-12-01

    Raffaelea (Ophiostomatales) is a genus of more than 20 ophiostomatoid fungi commonly occurring in symbioses with wood-boring ambrosia beetles. We examined ambrosia beetles and plant hosts in the USA and Taiwan for the presence of these mycosymbionts and found 22 isolates representing known and undescribed lineages in Raffaelea. From 28S rDNA and β-tubulin sequences, we generated a molecular phylogeny of Ophiostomatales and observed morphological features of seven cultures representing undescribed lineages in Raffaelea s. lat. From these analyses, we describe five new species in Raffaelea s. lat.: R. aguacate, R. campbellii, R. crossotarsa, R. cyclorhipidia, and R. xyleborina spp. nov. Our analyses also identified two plant-pathogenic species of Raffaelea associated with previously undocumented beetle hosts: (1) R. quercivora, the causative agent of Japanese oak wilt, from Cyclorhipidion ohnoi and Crossotarsus emancipatus in Taiwan, and (2) R. lauricola, the pathogen responsible for laurel wilt, from Ambrosiodmus lecontei in Florida. The results of this study show that Raffaelea and associated ophiostomatoid fungi have been poorly sampled and that future investigations on ambrosia beetle mycosymbionts should reveal a substantially increased diversity.

  16. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in Rzeszów, Kraków and Poznań, Poland: investigation of trends and possible transport of Ambrosia pollen from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Myszkowska, Dorota; Grewling, Łukasz; Stach, Alicja; Šikoparija, Branko; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Smith, Matt

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that ragweed pollen arrives in Poland from sources in the south, in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Austria. It is likely that ragweed pollen also arrives from sources in the southeast (e.g. Ukraine). This hypothesis was investigated using 13 years of pollen data and back-trajectory analysis. Ambrosia pollen data were collected at three sites in Poland, Rzeszów, Kraków and Poznań. The amount of ragweed pollen recorded at Rzeszów was significantly higher than in Poznań and Kraków. This can be related to either a higher abundance of local populations of Ambrosia in south-east Poland or the proximity of Rzeszów to foreign sources of ragweed pollen. The combined results of pollen measurements and air mass trajectory calculations identified plumes of Ambrosia pollen that were recorded at Rzeszów, Kraków and Poznań on 4 and 5 September 1999 and 3 September 2002. These plumes arrived at the pollen-monitoring sites from an easterly direction, indicating sources of Ambrosia pollen in eastern Poland or Ukraine. This identifies Ukraine as a possible new source of ragweed pollen for Poland and therefore an important source area of Ambrosia pollen on the European Continent.

  17. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in Rzeszów, Kraków and Poznań, Poland: investigation of trends and possible transport of Ambrosia pollen from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Myszkowska, Dorota; Grewling, Lukasz; Stach, Alicja; Sikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Smith, Matt

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that ragweed pollen arrives in Poland from sources in the south, in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Austria. It is likely that ragweed pollen also arrives from sources in the southeast (e.g. Ukraine). This hypothesis was investigated using 13 years of pollen data and back-trajectory analysis. Ambrosia pollen data were collected at three sites in Poland, Rzeszów, Kraków and Poznań. The amount of ragweed pollen recorded at Rzeszów was significantly higher than in Poznań and Kraków. This can be related to either a higher abundance of local populations of Ambrosia in south-east Poland or the proximity of Rzeszów to foreign sources of ragweed pollen. The combined results of pollen measurements and air mass trajectory calculations identified plumes of Ambrosia pollen that were recorded at Rzeszów, Kraków and Poznań on 4 and 5 September 1999 and 3 September 2002. These plumes arrived at the pollen-monitoring sites from an easterly direction, indicating sources of Ambrosia pollen in eastern Poland or Ukraine. This identifies Ukraine as a possible new source of ragweed pollen for Poland and therefore an important source area of Ambrosia pollen on the European Continent.

  18. Rapid analysis of Achillea tenuifolia Lam essential oils by polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite coating as a solid-phase microextraction fibre.

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a highly porous fibre coated with polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite (PT/SBA-15) was prepared and used for extraction of essential oils with microwave-assisted distillation headspace solid phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) method. The prepared nanomaterials were immobilised on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fibre. Using MA-HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 24 compounds were separated and identified in Achillea tenuifolia, which mainly included limonene (28.6%), α-cadinol (12.7%), borneol (6.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2%), bornyl acetate (4.3%), camphene (3.2%) and para-cymene (2.3%). The experimental results showed that the polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite fibres were suitable for the semi-quantitative study of the composition of essential oils in plant materials and for monitoring the variations in the volatile components of the plants.

  19. Inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of Iranian yarrow species Achillea santolina and Achillea tenuifolia based on ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, M; Farajpour, M; Rahimmalek, M

    2012-08-27

    Cultivation and preservation of yarrow has recently attracted wide attention due to its beneficial properties; however, genetic variation of Achillea species is still relatively unknown. We used RAPD and ISSR markers to assess genetic diversity in 16 accessions of yarrow belonging to two species native to Iran. Seven ISSR and nine RAPD primers generated 187 amplified fragments, of which 159 were polymorphic. The similarity coefficient among Achillea tenuifolia accessions ranged from 61 to 86%, and from 40 to 84% among A. santolina accessions. A low similarity was observed between these two species (mean similarity = 0.36%). This low similarity is consistent with their geographical distribution. According to the results of cluster and PCA analyses, the two species completely separated from each other. These markers will aid in the identification of elite genotypes for domestication and breeding programs.

  20. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the spectacular adaptive radiation that gave rise to at least 3,500 extant Xyleborini. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beet...

  1. PCR multiplexes discriminate Fusarium symbionts of invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetles that inflict damage on numerous tree species throughout the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian Euwallacea ambrosia beetles vector Fusarium mutualists. The ambrosial fusaria are all members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Several Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualists have been introduced into non-native regions and have caused varying degr...

  2. Variation in effects of Conophthorin on catches of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ethanol-baited traps in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Dan Miller; K.J. Dodds; E.R. Hoebeke; T.M. Poland; E.A. Willhite

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, we examined the effects of conophthorin on flight responses of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) tomultiple-funnel traps baited with ethanol in Georgia,Michigan, New Hampshire, and Oregon. Adventive species (¼exotic, nonnative, immigrant, introduced) accounted for 91.4% of total catches of ambrosia beetles. Conophthorin increased catches...

  3. Potential impact of global warming on deciduous oak dieback caused by ambrosia fungus Raffaelea sp. carried by ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamata, N; Kamata, N; Esaki, K; Kato, K; Igeta, Y; Wada, K

    2002-04-01

    Deciduous oak dieback in Japan has been known since the 1930s, but in the last ten years epidemics have intensified and spread to the island's western coastal areas. The symbiotic ambrosia fungus Raffaelea sp. is the causal agent of oak dieback, and is vectored by Platypus quercivorus (Murayama). This is the first example of an ambrosia beetle fungus that kills vigorous trees. Mortality of Quercus crispula was approximately 40% but much lower for associated species of Fagaceae, even though each species had a similar number of beetle attacks. It is likely that other oaks resistant to the fungus evolved under a stable relationship between the tree, fungus and beetle during a long evolutionary process. Quercus crispula was probably not part of this coevolution. This hypothesis was supported by the fact that P. quercivorus showed the least preference for Q. crispula yet exhibited highest reproductive success in this species. Therefore, P. quercivorus could spread more rapidly in stands with a high composition of Q. crispula. The present oak dieback epidemic in Japan probably resulted from the warmer climate that occurred from the late 1980s which made possible the fateful encounter of P. quercivorus with Q. cripsula by allowing the beetle to extend its distribution to more northerly latitudes and higher altitudes. Future global warming will possibly accelerate the overlapping of the distributions of P. quercivorus and Q. crispula with the result that oak dieback in Q. crispula will become more prevalent in Japan.

  4. Ambrosia pollen in Tulsa, Oklahoma: aerobiology, trends, and forecasting model development.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren Eileen; Levetin, Estelle

    2014-12-01

    Ambrosia pollen is an important aeroallergen in North America; the ability to predict daily pollen levels may provide an important benefit for sensitive individuals. To analyze the long-term Ambrosia pollen counts and develop a forecasting model to predict the next day's pollen concentration. Airborne pollen has been collected since December 1986 with a Burkard spore trap at the University of Tulsa. Summary statistics and season metrics were calculated for the 27 years of data. Concentration and previous-day meteorologic data from 1987 to 2011 were used to develop a multiple regression model to predict pollen levels for the following day. Model output was compared to 2012 and 2013 ragweed pollen data. The Tulsa ragweed season extends from the middle of August to late October. The mean start date is August 22, the mean peak date is September 10, and the mean end date is October 20. The mean cumulative season total is 11,599 pollen/m(3), and the mean daily concentration is 197 pollen/m(3). Previous-day meteorologic and phenologic data were positively related to pollen concentration (P < .001). Precipitation was modeled as a dichotomous variable. The final model included minimum temperature, dichotomous precipitation, dew point, and phenology variable (R = 0.7146, P < .001). Analysis of the model's accuracy revealed that the model was highly representative of the 2012 and 2013 seasons (R = 0.680, P < .001). Multiple regression models may be useful in explaining the variability of Ambrosia pollen levels. Further testing of the modeling parameters in different geographical areas is needed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The ambrosia symbiosis is specific in some species and promiscuous in others: evidence from community pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kostovcik, Martin; Bateman, Craig C; Kolarik, Miroslav; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Jordal, Bjarte H; Hulcr, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses are increasingly seen as dynamic ecosystems with multiple associates and varying fidelity. Symbiont specificity remains elusive in one of the most ecologically successful and economically damaging eukaryotic symbioses: the ambrosia symbiosis of wood-boring beetles and fungi. We used multiplexed pyrosequencing of amplified internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries to document the communities of fungal associates and symbionts inside the mycangia (fungus transfer organ) of three ambrosia beetle species, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus ferrugineus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. We processed 93 beetle samples from 5 locations across Florida, including reference communities. Fungal communities within mycangia included 14–20 fungus species, many more than reported by culture-based studies. We recovered previously known nutritional symbionts as members of the core community. We also detected several other fungal taxa that are equally frequent but whose function is unknown and many other transient species. The composition of fungal assemblages was significantly correlated with beetle species but not with locality. The type of mycangium appears to determine specificity: two Xyleborus with mandibular mycangia had multiple dominant associates with even abundances; Xylosandrus crassiusculus (mesonotal mycangium) communities were dominated by a single symbiont, Ambrosiella sp. Beetle mycangia also carried many fungi from the environment, including plant pathogens and endophytes. The ITS2 marker proved useful for ecological analyses, but the taxonomic resolution was limited to fungal genus or family, particularly in Ophiostomatales, which are under-represented in our amplicons as well as in public databases. This initial analysis of three beetle species suggests that each clade of ambrosia beetles and each mycangium type may support a functionally and taxonomically distinct symbiosis. PMID:25083930

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  7. Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Milcic-Matic, Natalija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Vuckovic, Olga; Burazer, Lidija; Popovic, Nikola; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic

    2013-09-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an immune system disorder that affects 10-15% of the canine population. Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region. In Serbia, about 66% of atopic dogs showed a positive intradermal skin test with its pollen extract, which is second to house dust mites. Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach. To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection. A specific IgE band (38 kDa) was recognized as the most dominant allergen in CAD, occurring in 81% of positive dog's sera. 2-D immunoblotting followed by a mass spectrometry peptide fingerprint analyses with pooled canine and human atopic sera, revealed that 38 kDa major Ambrosia atremisiifolia allergens in CAD were all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (antigen E), including the previously named Amb a 2 (antigen K). In contrast to canine sera, human atopic sera also recognized lower mass allergens such as the β fragment of Amb a 1 and profilins (Amb a 8 variants). The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (pectate lyase): Amb a 1.0101 and its natural variant E1XUL2, Amb a 1.0202, 1.0304, 1.0402 and the natural variant of Amb a 1.0501, E1XUM0, as well as the

  8. Data for the geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report contains the geochemical data and the methods of data collection from the former tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Data are from a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. Selected solid samples are water extracted to remove easily soluble salts and acid extracted to remove carbonates and hydroxides. The waters, extracts, and solid samples were analyzed for selected major and trace elements. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effects of uranium mining of ground water in Ambrosia Lake area, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.E.; Link, R.L.; Schipper, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The principal ore-bearing zone in the Ambrosia Lake area of the Grants uranium district is the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). This unit is also one of the major artesian aquifers in the region. Significant declines in the potentiometric lead within the aquifer have been recorded, although cones of depression do not appear to have spread laterally more than a few miles. Loss of potentiometric head in the Westwater Canyon Member has resulted in the interformational migration of ground water along fault zones from overlying aquifers of Cretaceous age. This migration has produced local deterioration in chemical quality of the ground water.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  11. Efficacy of a-copaene, cubeb, and eucalyptol lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a wood-boring pest that has now invaded nine states in the southeastern USA. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont (Raffaelea lauricola) is phytopathogenic, inducing laurel wilt in trees within the family Lauraceae. Members of the genus Pers...

  12. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  13. Presence and prevalence of Raffaelea lauricola, cause of laurel wilt, in different species of ambrosia beetle in Florida USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We summarize information on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in Florida with Raffaelea lauricola, the primary symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus and cause of laurel wilt, a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae. Adult females of 14 species in Ambrosiodmus, Euwallacea, Premnobius, ...

  14. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Harrington; Hye Young Yun; Sheng-Shan Lu; Hideaki Goto; Dilzara N. Aghayeva; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2011-01-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia. To test this hypothesis adult X. glabratus were trapped in Taiwan and on Kyushu Island, Japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to USA for isolation of fungal...

  15. Japanese oak wilt as a newly emerged forest pest in Japan: why does a symbiotic ambrosia fungus kill host trees?

    Treesearch

    Naoto Kamata; Koujiro Esaki; Kenryu Kato; Hisahito Oana; Yutaka Igeta; Ryotaro Komura

    2007-01-01

    Japanese oak wilt (JOW) has been known since the 1930s, but in the last 15 years epidemics have intensified and spread to the island's western coastal areas. The symbiotic ambrosia fungus Raffaelea quercivora is the causal agent of oak dieback, and is vectored by Platypus quercivorus (Murayama). This is the first example of an...

  16. Quantification of Propagules of the Laurel Wilt Fungus and Other Mycangial Fungi from the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus

    Treesearch

    T. C. Harrington; S. W. Fraedrich

    2010-01-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, is a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia and was believed to have brought R. lauricola with it to the southeastern United States. Individual X. glabratus beetles from six populations in South Carolina and Georgia were individually macerated in glass tissue grinders...

  17. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Kendra; Wayne S. Montgomery; Jerome Niogret; Grechen E. Pruett; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Mark A. Deyrup; Gary R. Bauchan; Randy C. Ploetz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has...

  18. Environmental Factors That Influence a Mutualism Between the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. and the Annual Weed Ambrosia trifida L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. can improve Ambrosia trifida L. seed survival and seedling recruitment in agroecosystems with high risks of post-dispersal seed predation. In a previous 1-yr survey of no-till agricultural fields in the eastern U.S. Corn Belt, both L. terrestris and A. trifida w...

  19. Three genera in the Ceratocystidaceae are the respective symbionts of three independent lineages of ambrosia beetles with large, complex mycangia

    Treesearch

    Chase G. Mayers; Douglas L. McNew; Thomas C. Harrington; Richard A. Roeper; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Peter H.W. Biedermann; Louela A. Castrillo; Sharon E. Reed

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ambrosiella accommodates species of Ceratocystidaceae (Microascales) that are obligate, mutualistic symbionts of ambrosia beetles, but the genus appears to be polyphyletic and more diverse than previously recognized. In addition to Ambrosiella xylebori, Ambrosiella hartigii, Ambrosiella beaveri, and Ambrosiella roeperi, three new species...

  20. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  1. Cubeb oil lures:terpenoid emissions, trapping efficacy, and longevity for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-borer and the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) throughout southeastern U.S. forests, and curr...

  2. Trap deployments in black walnut tree canopies help inform monitoring strategies for bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thousand cankers disease is caused by plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida Kolarík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat; a fungus vectored primarily by the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (Blackman). The role of other bark and ambrosia beetle species in persistence and spread of this disease r...

  3. Is California bay laurel a suitable host for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of laurel wilt disease?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laurel wilt is a deadly vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae that kills healthy redbay (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other related hosts. The fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) and it vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) are native to Asia and ha...

  4. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  5. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  6. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  7. Comparative analysis of terpenoid emissions from Florida host trees of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the Lauraceae. First detected in the U.S. near Savannah, ...

  8. Redbay ambrosia beetle/Laurel wilt: Overview of projects at the USDA-ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT Laurel wilt, a deadly fungal disease of avocado and other trees in the Lauraceae, is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). First detected near Savannah, GA in 2002, the beetle and its obligatory pathogen have since spread to South Carolina and Florida. Currently, t...

  9. Susceptibility of Persea spp. and other Lauraceae to attack by redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva that causes laurel wilt (LW), a l...

  10. The redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) uses stem silhouette diameter as a visual host-finding cue

    Treesearch

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Cavell Brownie

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (Syleborus glabratus Eichhoff) is an invasive pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt disease in Lauraceous tree species in the eastern United States. This insect uses olfactory cues during host finding, but use of visual cues by X. Glabratus has not been previously investigated and may help explain diameter...

  11. Monitoring Flight Activity of Ambrosia Beetles in Ornamental Nurseries with Ethanol-Baited Traps: Influence of Trap Height on Captures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol-baited bottle traps were used to monitor spring flight activity of the ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus and Xylosandrus germanus in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. The traps were deployed at three different heights to determine if height influenced captures. X. germanus was captur...

  12. Evaluation of 7 plant essential oils for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent (Raffaelea lauricola) responsible for laurel wilt disease. Laurel wilt has had severe impact on forest ecosystems in the southeastern USA, killing a large proportion of native Persea tr...

  13. Sesquiterpene emissions from manuka and phoebe oil lures and efficacy for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent (Raffaelea lauricola) responsible for laurel wilt. Laurel wilt has had severe impact on forest ecosystems in the southeastern USA, killing a large proportion of native Persea trees, particula...

  14. Effects of elevated co2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotype...

  15. Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotype...

  16. Granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), survival and brood production following exposure to entomopathogenic and mycoparasitic fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, is one of the most important exotic pests in orchards and nurseries in the U.S. The beetle has a wide host range, including some of the most popular and valuable trees in nurseries, and is difficult to control using chemical insecticides beca...

  17. Ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for detecting and monitoring bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia; Christopher M. Crowe

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to verify the need for separate traps baited with ethanol or ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for bark and ambrosia beetles in pine stands of the southeastern U.S. Eight trapping experiments were conducted in stands of mature pine in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

  18. Cubeb oil Lures: sesquiterpene emissions and efficacy for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus(Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees throughout the southeastern U.S., and...

  19. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, t...

  20. A pernicious agent affecting avocado in Israel: a novel symbiotic Fusarium sp. associated with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since first recorded in Israel in 2009, the ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff, has been shown to vector a fusarial pathogen of avocado (Persea Americana Miller) in its mandibular mycangia. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate the pathogen represents a novel symbiotic Fus...

  1. The invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicates vectors an exotic symbiotic Fusarium species that threatens avocado production in Israel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff) was first recorded in Israel in 2009, and it has been shown to vector an exotic fusarial pathogen. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that the pathogen represents a novel symbiotic Fusarium sp. within Clade 3 of the Fusar...

  2. Enrichment of alpha-copaene content results in improved lure for redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA, now established in seven southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt. This vascular disease has caused extensi...

  3. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the basis for ground water sampling at the Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site during fiscal year 1994. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations and will be updated annually. The Ambrosia Lake site is in McKinley County, New Mexico, about 40 kilometers (km) (25 miles [mi]) north of Grants, New Mexico, and 1.6 km (1 mi) east of New Mexico Highway 509 (Figure 1.1). The town closest to the tailings pile is San Mateo, about 16 km ( 10 mi) southeast (Figure 1.2). The former mill and tailings pile are in Section 28, and two holding ponds are in Section 33, Township 14 North, Range 9 West. The site is shown on the US Geological Survey (USGS) map (USGS, 1980). The site is approximately 2100 meters (m) (7000 feet [ft]) above sea level.

  4. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  5. Carbon isotopic composition of Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen: assessment of a C₃-plant paleophysiological indicator.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David M

    2012-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how shifts in plant physiological performance influence vegetation variations in the paleorecord. To evaluate δ¹³C of pollen from C₃ plants as an indicator of community-level physiology, small quantities (10-30 grains) of untreated pollen and sporopollenin from herbarium specimens of Ambrosia (A. tomentosa and A. psilostachya) and Artemisia (A. frigida, A. ludoviciana and A. dracunculus), genera abundant in grassland pollen profiles, were isolated by micromanipulation. Their δ¹³C values were measured using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. Leaf δ¹³C was also measured. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) for untreated pollen, sporopollenin and leaves was compared with historic records of seasonal precipitation amount, vapor pressure deficit and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Each species showed positive correlations between Δ of untreated pollen and sporopollenin. Sporopollenin Δ was most strongly correlated with PDSI. Correlations among leaf Δ and moisture indicators were stronger for Ambrosia than Artemisia. These results suggest that sporopollenin Δ indicates the level of moisture stress in C₃ plants. Therefore, δ¹³C analysis of pollen promises to help address important paleoecological questions, such as how community-level physiology contributes to shifts in vegetation composition. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Pre-invasion economic assessment of invasive species prevention: A putative ambrosia beetle in Southeastern loblolly pine forests.

    PubMed

    Susaeta, Andres; Soto, José R; Adams, Damian C; Hulcr, Jiri

    2016-12-01

    Invasive wood borers vectoring pathogenic fungi have nearly exterminated several North American tree species, and it is unclear whether landscape dominant trees, such as pines, will face similar threats in the future. This paper explores the economic impacts of a hypothetical arrival of a destructive ambrosia beetle "X" (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that infests loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests in the Southeastern United States. We develop an economic framework for pre-invasion assessment that incorporates fluctuating economic and environmental conditions for a representative loblolly pine stand and biological assumptions from the ongoing laurel wilt epidemic. Assuming an initial annual probability of arrival of a pine infesting ambrosia beetle to be between 0.04 and 0.07, we determine that, on average, the timber economic benefits for a forest landowner are $5325.3 ha(-1), with a harvest time of 17.8 years. Our results indicate that an increase in enforcement consistent with an international phytosanitary standard that partially prevents the arrival of ambrosia beetles (30% arrival reduction) would have a strong, positive impact for forest landowners. On average, economic revenues increase to $6116.4 ha(-1) and the harvest age is extended to 19 years. On average, the economic losses for forest landowners with no control of ambrosia beetle X would be $791 ha(-1), with a harvest time reduction of 1.2 years. The upper-bound regional cost savings from pine-dominated forestry would be roughly $4.6 billion dollars if invasion preventative measures are in place. These benefits vastly outweigh the cost of programs that reduce the expected arrival of exotic ambrosia beetles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 Mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Ambrosia Lake mining district during the early 1960s. The Ambrosia Lake district is one of several mining districts within the Grants mineral belt, an elongate zone containing many uranium deposits along the southern flank of the San Juan basin. Two distinct types of ore occur in the mine. Primary ore occurs as peneconcordant layers of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks and which are typically elongate in an east-southeast direction subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the present-day regional strike of the strata. These are called prefault or trend ores because of their early genesis and their elongation and alinement. A second type of ore in the mine is referred to as postfault, stacked, or redistributed ore. Its genesis was similar to that of the roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Oxidation, related to the development of a large tongue of oxidized rock extending from Gallup to Ambrosia Lake, destroyed much of the primary ore and redistributed it as massive accumulations of lower grade ores bordering the redox interface at the edge of the tongue. Host rocks in the southern half of sec. 23 (T. 14 N., R. 10 W.) are oxidized and contain only remnants of the original, tabular, organic-rich ore. Thick bodies of roll-type ore are distributed along the leading edge of the oxidized zone, and pristine primary ore is found only near the north edge of the section. Organic matter in the primary ore was derived from humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstones and fixed uranium as both coffinite and urano-organic compounds. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are also associated with the ore. The secondary or roll-type ores are essentially free of organic carbon and contain uranium both as coffinite and

  8. Petrography of some Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico prefault uranium ores, and implications for their genesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, James D.

    1983-01-01

    Petrographic and chemical study of prefault uranium ores from the Section 30, Section 30-west, and Section 23 mines in the Ambrosia Lake mining district, New Mexico has revealed that prefault ores commonly contain several authigenic phases including a new V-Ti mineral, which formed from destruction and remobilization of primary constituents in Ti-magnetites. High-grade ore samples also contain diagenetic clausthalite. Microprobe and SEM/EDS study indicate high U concentrations along the contacts of organic matter and surrounding detrital grains. The cores of the organic matter which fill pore spaces are commonly very low in U, as well as Si, Al, V, and Fe. Petrographic relationships as well as the chemistry and U distribution of the titanomagnetite grains and organic matter imply that the U was introduced to the sediments after the organic matter was emplaced and before the sediments were compacted.

  9. Eucalyptol is an attractant of the Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Tribuiani, Yolani; Coy, Monique; Gibbard, Christopher; Peña, Jorge; Hulcr, Jiri; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2014-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has become established in the southeastern United States. The beetle transmits the causal pathogen of lethal laurel wilt to susceptible host trees, which include redbay, an important forest community species, and avocado, a valuable food crop. By examining odors of redbay wood, we developed an artificial lure that captured X. glabratus in redbay forests. Eucalyptol was a critical component of the blend for beetle attraction, and eucalyptol alone in large quantities attracted X. glabratus. Furthermore, eucalyptol stimulated boring by X. glabratus into paper arenas. The results suggest that eucalyptol contributes to host selection behavior of X. glabratus and may be useful for management of this pathogen vector.

  10. 3-pentanol: a new attractant present in volatile emissions from the ambrosia beetle, Megaplatypus mutatus.

    PubMed

    Gatti Liguori, Pablo; Zerba, Eduardo; Alzogaray, Raul A; Gonzalez Audino, Paola

    2008-11-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (=Platypus mutatus) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is an ambrosia beetle that is native to South America. It attacks only standing live trees and causes severe stem breakage and death in commercial poplar (Populus) plantations. Previous work showed that male M. mutatus emits a sex pheromone composed mainly of (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. We collected male volatile emissions during the hours of maximum emergence by using a specific polar microextraction phase; analyzed the extract by GC-MS; and tested the biological activity of selected compounds in the extract with a walking behavioral assay. Female M. mutatus emerged primarily between 7 and 11 h. In the chemical analyses of volatiles, a third compound, 3-pentanol, was identified in a small percentage of samples. Walking behavioral bioassays with video image analysis showed that at the doses tested, 3-pentanol elicited an attractive response from females.

  11. Molecular characterization of atrazine resistance in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Cseh, A; Cernak, I; Taller, J

    2009-01-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is the most frequent weed in the Carpathian Basin and is spreading fast in other parts of Europe. In recent years, besides the wild type, a mutant genotype resistant to atrazine herbicides has evolved and is now widespread in many areas. The present study demonstrates that the atrazine resistance of ragweed is maternally inherited, and is caused by a point mutation in the psbA chloroplast gene. The promoter 5'-untranslated region and the open reading frame regions of the gene were analysed, and a homology search was performed. Both the atrazine-resistant and susceptible types of cpDNA were present in atrazine-resistant plants, while the mixed presence of both genotypes in the same plant, known as heteroplasmy, was not unequivocally detectable in susceptible plants.

  12. Examination of common ragweed's (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) allelopathic effect on some weed species.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Szabó, R; Nelima, M Okumu; Nagy, P; Béres, I

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades the importance of some weed species increased in Hungary. The common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) also belongs to this group. The allelopathic effect of watery extract made from different plant parts of common ragweed (air dried leafy shoots, seeds) were studied on the germination and growth of some weed species. The extracts were prepared with tap water, chopped dry plant materials were added to water and 24 hours later the material was filtered. The germination took place in a Binder KBW type thermostat in dark. 25 seeds were put into one Petri-dish, adding 15 ml plant extract to each in four repeats. The timing of germination was checked in every two days and the rate of growth was estimated after a week, by counting the numbers of germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumula. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating ratio and seedling length were evaluated.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Ambrosia trifida L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Kong, Chui Hua; Zhang, Chao Xian

    2006-07-25

    The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of dried aerial parts of Ambrosia trifida L. from Northeast China was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil yield based on dried plant material was 0.12% and thirty-five compounds (corresponding to 86.7% of the total weight) were identified. The main components were: bornyl acetate (15.5%), borneol (8.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.3%), alpha-pinene (8.0%), germacrene D (6.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.6%), trans-carveol (2.9%), beta-myrcene (2.6%), camphor (2.4%) and limonene (3.2%). A. trifida essential oil demonstrated bactericidal and fungicidal activity against six bacterial strains and two fungal strains, using the agar diffusion method.

  14. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Chong, Juang H; Reding, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  15. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Schultz, Peter B.; Frank, Steven D.; Chong, Juang H.; Reding, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  16. Optimizing ethanol-baited traps for monitoring damaging ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in ornamental nurseries.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Oliver, Jason B

    2011-12-01

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. To optimize bottle-traps as a monitoring system for X. crassiusculus and X. germanus in nurseries, we tested whether increasing the rate of commercial ethanol lures improved captures or early detection of these species. Experiments were conducted in Ohio (2008 and 2009) and Virginia (2008), two states that have experienced significant damage from X. crassiusculus, X. germanus, or both. There were four treatments: no-lure (unbaited control), 1-ethanol lure, 2-ethanol lures and 1 + 1-ethanol lures (one lure in the trap and one suspended 0.5 m above the trap). Captures of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus were higher in all ethanol treatments than unbaited controls, and were generally higher in treatments with two lures versus one. There was no difference in beetle captures between the 2-lure and 1 + 1-lure treatments. First detection of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus occurred more consistently in the treatments with two lures than one lure. Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg), Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Hypothenemus dissimilis Zimmermann, and Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood were also more attracted to traps baited with ethanol than unbaited controls. X. saxesenii was captured in higher numbers in the treatments with two lures than one in Virginia but not in Ohio. There was no difference in captures of the other species among ethanol treatments. The current research shows that ethanol release rates influence sensitivity of traps for detecting emergence of overwintered ambrosia beetles.

  17. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: behavior and laboratory breeding success in three xyleborine species.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly understood. This may be in part because of their cryptic life habits within the wood of trees. Here we present data obtained by varying a laboratory breeding technique based on artificial medium inside glass tubes, which enables behavioral observations. We studied species of the three most widespread genera of Xyleborina in the temperate zone: Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus. We raised several generations of each species with good breeding success in two types of media. The proportion of females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg producing offspring within 40 d depended significantly on founder female origin, which shows a transgenerational effect. Labor-intensive microbial sterilization techniques did not increase females' breeding success relative to a group of females shortly treated with ethanol. Gallery productivity measured as the mean number of mature offspring produced after 40 d varied between species and was weakly affected by the type of medium used and foundress origin (field or laboratory) in X. saxesenii, whereas different preparation and sterilization techniques of the beetles had no effect. Behavioral observations showed the time course of different reproductive stages and enabled to obtain detailed behavioral information in all species studied. We propose that the laboratory techniques we describe here are suited for extensive studies of sociality and modes of agriculture in the xyleborine ambrosia beetles, which may yield important insights into the evolution of fungal agriculture and advanced social organization.

  18. Ragweed pollen source inventory for France - The second largest centre of Ambrosia in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaudon, Michel; Šikoparija, Branko; Oliver, Gilles; Smith, Matt; Skjøth, Carsten A.

    2014-02-01

    France, in particular the Rhône-Alpes region, is one of the three main centres of ragweed (Ambrosia) in Europe. The aim of this study is to develop a gridded ragweed pollen source inventory for all of France that can be used in assessments, eradication plans and by atmospheric models for describing concentrations of airborne ragweed pollen. The inventory combines information about spatial variations in annual Ambrosia pollen counts, knowledge of ragweed ecology, detailed land cover information and a Digital Elevation Model. The ragweed inventory consists of a local infection level on a scale of 0-100% (where 100% is the highest plant abundance per area in the studied region) and a European infection level between 0% and 100% (where 100% relates to the highest identified plant abundance in Europe using the same methodology) that has been distributed onto the EMEP grid with 5 km × 5 km resolution. The results of this analysis showed that some of the highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were recorded at Roussillon in the Rhône-Valley. This is reflected by the inventory, where the European infection level has been estimated to reach 67.70% of the most infected areas in Europe i.e. Kecskemét in central Hungary. The inventory shows that the Rhône Valley is the most heavily infected part of France. Central France is also infected, but northern and western parts of France are much less infected. The inventory can be entered into atmospheric transport models, in combination with other components such as a phenological model and a model for daily pollen release, in order to simulate the dispersion of ragweed pollen within France as well as potential long-distance transport from France to other European countries.

  19. Development of Microsatellites for Population Genetic Analyses of the Granulate Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Husseneder, Claudia; Park, Jong-Seok; Werle, Christopher T; Adamczyk, John J

    2017-06-01

    Limited male dispersal and local mating in ambrosia beetles are expected to result in extreme inbreeding and highly structured populations. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), for use in future studies into population and family structure of this invasive pest species. We employed de novo next-generation sequencing to generate whole genome shotgun sequences for the characterization of microsatellite loci. Approximately 6% of the 84,024 contigs generated from Hi-Seq Illumina 2x250bp sequencing contained microsatellites with at least four repeats of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexamers. Primers were synthesized for 40 microsatellite loci with trimer repeat units. Twenty-four primer pairs yielded consistent PCR products of unique loci and were validated for population genetic application using three sample groups each containing 20 X. crassiusculus individuals from Mississippi. Thirteen loci were found to be polymorphic with up to five alleles per population. The two beetle sample groups from Pearl River County (Poplarville and McNeill) belonged genetically to the same population. The population from Lamar County (Purvis) was genetically distinct, separated by a moderate genetic distance (FST = 0.11) and five unique alleles (with >5% frequency). Consistent with the perceived mating structure (incest of females with flightless males), the populations showed homozygote excess at most loci, as indicated by the coefficients of inbreeding (FIT = 0.45 and FIS = 0.37) and high mean relatedness among individuals (r = 0.15). © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Glossogyne tenuifolia Extract Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Blocking the NF-kB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Lee, Thung-Lip; Wei, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Kwan-Lih; Wu, Chau-Chung; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2015-09-17

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis, where the pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and the recruitment of monocytes are the crucial events leading to its pathogenesis. Glossogyne tenuifolia ethanol extract (GTE) is shown to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the effects of GTE and its major components, luteolin (lut), luteolin-7-glucoside (lut-7-g), and oleanolic acid (OA) on TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results demonstrated that GTE, lut, and lut-7-g attenuated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, and inhibited the adhesion of monocytes to TNF-α-activated HUVECs. The TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was also suppressed, revealing their inhibitory effects at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, GTE, lut, and lut-7-g blocked the TNF-α-induced degradation of nuclear factor-kB inhibitor (IkB), an indicator of the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). In summary, GTE and its bioactive components were effective in preventing the adhesion of monocytes to cytokine-activated endothelium by the inhibition of expression of adhesion molecules, which in turn is mediated through blocking the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kB. The current results reveal the therapeutic potential of GTE in atherosclerosis.

  1. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Reding, Michael E; Frank, Steven D; Palmquist, Debra E

    2016-08-18

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress' eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy.

  2. Composition of polyphenol and polyamide compounds in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen and sub-pollen particles.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, Luka; Radosavljevic, Jelena; Burazer, Lidija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen and sub-pollen particles (SPP) aqueous extracts was determined, using a novel extraction procedure. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined, as well as the antioxidative properties of the extract. Main components of water-soluble pollen phenolics are monoglycosides and malonyl-mono- and diglycosides of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol, while spermidine derivatives were identified as the dominant polyamides. SPP are similar in composition to pollen phenolics (predominant isorhamnetin and quercetin monoglycosides), but lacking small phenolic molecules (<450Da). Ethanol-based extraction protocol revealed one-third lower amount of total phenolics in SPP than in pollen. For the first time in any pollen species, SPP and pollen phenolic compositions were compared in detail, with an UHPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS-MS approach, revealing the presence of spermidine derivatives in both SPP and pollen, not previously reported in Ambrosia species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    PubMed

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles.

  4. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  5. Relationship between climate, pollen concentrations of Ambrosia and medical consultations for allergic rhinitis in Montreal, 1994-2002.

    PubMed

    Breton, Marie-Claude; Garneau, Michelle; Fortier, Isabel; Guay, Frédéric; Louis, Jacques

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of meteorological factors on Ambrosia pollen concentrations and its impact on medical consultations for allergic rhinitis of residents from various socio-economic levels in Montréal (Québec, Canada) between 1994 and 2002. The study was conducted to recognize the sensitivity of pollen productivity to daily climate variability in order to estimate the consequences on human health vulnerability in the context of global climate change. Information related to medical consultations for allergic rhinitis due to pollen comes from the Quebec Health Insurance Board (Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec). Ambrosia pollen concentration was measured by the Aerobiology Research Laboratories (Nepean, Ontario). Daily temperature (maximum, minimum, and mean) and precipitation data were obtained from the Meteorological Service of Canada. Socio-economic data come from the 1996 and 2001 census data of Statistics Canada. Between 1994 and 2002, during the Ambrosia pollen season, 7667 consultations for allergic rhinitis due to pollen were recorded. We found a significant association between the number of medical consultations and pollen levels. Significant associations were detected for over-consultation the day of exposure, 1, 2, 3 and 5 days after exposure to high levels of pollen. The consultation rate is higher from low-income residents (3.10 consultations per 10,000 inhabitants) than for high-income (1.65 consultations per 10,000 inhabitants). Considering the demonstrated impact of pollen levels on health, it has become critical to ensure adequate monitoring of Ambrosia and its meteorological sensivity in the context of the anticipated climate change and its potential consequences on human health.

  6. New Fungus-Insect Symbiosis: Culturing, Molecular, and Histological Methods Determine Saprophytic Polyporales Mutualists of Ambrosiodmus Ambrosia Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Craig C.; Short, Dylan P. G.; Kasson, Matthew T.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Hulcr, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia symbiosis is an obligate, farming-like mutualism between wood-boring beetles and fungi. It evolved at least 11 times and includes many notorious invasive pests. All ambrosia beetles studied to date cultivate ascomycotan fungi: early colonizers of recently killed trees with poor wood digestion. Beetles in the widespread genus Ambrosiodmus, however, colonize decayed wood. We characterized the mycosymbionts of three Ambrosiodmus species using quantitative culturing, high-throughput metabarcoding, and histology. We determined the fungi to be within the Polyporales, closely related to Flavodon flavus. Culture-independent sequencing of Ambrosiodmus minor mycangia revealed a single operational taxonomic unit identical to the sequences from the cultured Flavodon. Histological sectioning confirmed that Ambrosiodmus possessed preoral mycangia containing dimitic hyphae similar to cultured F. cf. flavus. The Ambrosiodmus-Flavodon symbiosis is unique in several aspects: it is the first reported association between an ambrosia beetle and a basidiomycotan fungus; the mycosymbiont grows as hyphae in the mycangia, not as budding pseudo-mycelium; and the mycosymbiont is a white-rot saprophyte rather than an early colonizer: a previously undocumented wood borer niche. Few fungi are capable of turning rotten wood into complete animal nutrition. Several thousand beetle-fungus symbioses remain unstudied and promise unknown and unexpected mycological diversity and enzymatic innovations. PMID:26367271

  7. Airborne ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen content in the city of Zagreb and implications on pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Music Milanovic, Sanja; Srnec, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    The increasing problem of sensitization to Ambrosia pollen in Europe has stimulated studies on Ambrosia pollen occurrence and pollinosis in Croatia. The aim of this study was to analyze the ragweed pollen pattern in Zagreb and to determine the incidence of sensitization to this pollen types in patients with seasonal respiratory allergy. The study was performed in the city of Zagreb during the 2002-2005 seasons. Skin prick test were performed on a total of 750 patients aged 18-80 in Zagreb between 2 January - 31 December 2004. The mean 4-year rate of ragweed pollen in the Zagreb atmosphere was 14.8% of all plant pollen. The highest rate of airborne ragweed pollen was recorded in August and September. 365 patients were allergic to ragweed pollen; 20.3% of them monosensitized; 10.9% allergic to Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen. Almost all study patients suffered the most severe symptoms in August and September. The highest proportion of allergic patients were recorded in the 31-50 age group and the lowest proportion in the >50 age group. Forecasting of allergenic pollen season in an area is a crucial pursuit for all developed countries, in order to minimize clinical symptoms in patients suffering from respiratory allergy. This can be achieved through public announcements by mass media (radio, television, internet, etc.) aiming to protect allergic individuals.

  8. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lapham, S.C.; Millard, J.B.; Samet, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for /sup 238/U, /sup 234/U, /sup 230/Th, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb, and /sup 210/Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested.

  9. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium-Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sink, Stacy; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Hulcr, Jiri; Kasson, Matthew T; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Ploetz, Jill N; Carrillo, Daniel; Campbell, Alina; Duncan, Rita E; Liyanage, Pradeepa N H; Eskalen, Akif; Na, Francis; Geiser, David M; Bateman, Craig; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Sharon, Michal; Aoki, Takayuki; Cossé, Allard A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-09-01

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symbionts in paired mandibular mycangia from their natal gallery to woody hosts where they are cultivated in galleries as a source of food. Native to Asia, several exotic Euwallacea species were introduced into the United States and Israel within the past two decades and they now threaten urban landscapes, forests and avocado production. To assess species limits and to date the evolutionary diversification of the mutualists, we reconstructed the evolutionary histories of key representatives of the Fusarium and Euwallacea clades using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Twelve species-level lineages, termed AF 1-12, were identified within the monophyletic AFC and seven among the Fusarium-farming Euwallacea. Bayesian diversification-time estimates placed the origin of the Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualism near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ∼19-24 Mya. Most Euwallacea spp. appear to be associated with one species of Fusarium, but two species farmed two closely related fusaria. Euwallacea sp. #2 in Miami-Dade County, Florida cultivated Fusarium spp. AF-6 and AF-8 on avocado, and Euwallacea sp. #4 farmed Fusarium ambrosium AF-1 and Fusarium sp. AF-11 on Chinese tea in Sri Lanka. Cophylogenetic analyses indicated that the Euwallacea and Fusarium phylogenies were largely incongruent, apparently due to the beetles switching fusarial symbionts (i.e., host shifts) at least five times during the evolution of this mutualism. Three cospeciation events between Euwallacea and their AFC symbionts were detected, but randomization tests failed to reject the null hypothesis that the putative parallel cladogenesis is a stochastic pattern. Lastly, two collections of Euwallacea sp. #2 from Miami

  10. Green ambrosia for Soil- Dry Cow Dung Powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    "Greener ambrosia for Soil - Dry cow dung powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy" Pedosphere, the soil with its biotic and abiotic component, is produced by lithosphere`s interactions with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The theory of Biorhexistasy proposed by pedologist H. Erhart [1], describes two crucial climatic phases of soil i.e. Biostasy, period of soil formation and Rhexistasy, periods of soil erosion. Humus, the organic matter in soil, permits better aeration, enhances the absorption and releases nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to leaching and erosion [2], thus the agent of soil`s vitality. Mismanagement of soil, leads to the degradation of millions of acres of land through erosion, compaction, salinization and acidification. Among these threats salinity is a major abiotic stress reducing the yield of wide variety of crops all over the world [3]. It is been proved that Humic Acid (HA) treatment can ameliorate the deleterious effects of salt stress by increasing root growth, altering mineral uptake, and decreasing membrane damage, thus inducing salt tolerance in plants [4]. HA can be inexpensively incorporated into soils via different biowastes. Dry cow dung powder (DCP), is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as HA, Fulvic Acid (FA) etc [5]. The microbial consortium enables DCP with considerable potentials for biodegradation and biotransformation of even saline soil and further contributes to many biogeochemical processes, boosting humus content of soil. Due to unambiguous biological, microbiological as well as chemical inert properties of DCP, it has been successfully utilized as a fertilizer and soil conditioner since ages in India, one of the leading agrarian countries of the world. Thus we summarize that DCP is one of the best contenders for the biostasy and desaliner of soil, aptly, soil

  11. Intestinal transport of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, using Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Steinmetz, André; Liao, Yonghong; Wang, Ning; Peng, Bo; Chang, Qi

    2013-10-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose is a major active component of the herb Polygala tenuifolia which has long been used for relieving tranquilization, uneasiness of the mind, and improving learning and memory. Our previous study found that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had a very low oral bioavailability. Its mechanisms of absorption in the small intestine have so far been unclear. In the present study, the absorption mechanisms of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose were investigated by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models. The 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose concentration was determined by an LC/MS/MS method. In a Caco-2 cell transport study, the results showed that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had very limited intestinal permeability with average apparent permeability coefficient values around (1.11-1.34) × 10(-7) cm/s from the apical (A) to the basolateral (B) side and (1.37-1.42) × 10(-7) cm/s from B to A, at concentrations of 5, 20, and 33 µM. No concentration dependence in the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport was observed. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose (5 µM) from A to B greatly increased to 4.49 × 10(-7) and 1.81 × 10(-7) cm/s, respectively, when the cells were preincubated with EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM). No significant effect on the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport by the inhibitors including verapamil, cyclosporine A, and sodium azide was observed. Similar results were found in the small intestinal perfusion study. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose greatly increased from 3.97 × 10(-6) to 23.4 × 10(-6) and 20.0 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM), respectively, in perfusion buffer. An in vitro stability evaluation of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in the gastrointestinal tract showed that it was relatively stable both in the stomach and small intestine contents, while it was found to be more instable in the colon contents. All of the

  12. The long distance transport (LDT) of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain to Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šikoparija, B..; Skjøth, C. A.; Alm Kübler, K.; Dahl, A.; Radišić, P.; Sommer, J.; Grewling, Ł.; Smith, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) pollen grains are important aeroallergens that cause seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma to sensitive individuals. This study describes the conditions required for the LDT of ragweed pollen from the Pannonian Plain (PP) to Sweden on the 27- 28 August 2011, using a combination of daily and bi-hourly pollen count data, the overall synoptic weather situation, 3D analysis of the regional scale orography using Digital Elevation Models, surface meteorological data, satellite observations, and air mas trajectories calculated using the HYSPLIT model. During the episode, high pressure (1024-1028 hPa) situated over European Russia and the Black Sea to the east and deep low pressure (~990 hPa) over the British Isles in the northwest resulted in a general southeast-northwest movement of air, and the occurrence of the jet-effect Kosava wind in the PP. This dry and gusty wind caused ragweed pollen release on the PP and pollen to be transported to the northwest. A foehn wind that governs air movement down leeward slopes into the PP was also active. The 24 and 25 August 2011 were very hot and caused large amounts of ragweed pollen to be released and taken high up in the atmosphere through convection. Such conditions also resulted in high Planetary Boundary Layers over the entire area, conditions that facilitated the transport of pollen over areas of low elevation on the Western Carpathians (i.e. the Moravian Gate or Low Baskid passes) northward into Poland and beyond.

  13. A new allergen from ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) with homology to art v 1 from mugwort.

    PubMed

    Léonard, Renaud; Wopfner, Nicole; Pabst, Martin; Stadlmann, Johannes; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Himly, Martin; Radauer, Christian; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Ferreira, Fatima; Altmann, Friedrich

    2010-08-27

    Art v 1, the major pollen allergen of the composite plant mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) has been identified recently as a thionin-like protein with a bulky arabinogalactan-protein moiety. A close relative of mugwort, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an important allergen source in North America, and, since 1990, ragweed has become a growing health concern in Europe as well. Weed pollen-sensitized patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to a ragweed pollen protein of apparently 29-31 kDa. This reaction could be inhibited by the mugwort allergen Art v 1. The purified ragweed pollen protein consisted of a 57-amino acid-long defensin-like domain with high homology to Art v 1 and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. This part contained hydroxyproline-linked arabinogalactan chains with one galactose and 5 to 20 and more alpha-arabinofuranosyl residues with some beta-arabinoses in terminal positions as revealed by high field NMR. The ragweed protein contained only small amounts of the single hydroxyproline-linked beta-arabinosyl residues, which form an important IgE binding determinant in Art v 1. cDNA clones for this protein were obtained from ragweed flowers. Immunological characterization revealed that the recombinant ragweed protein reacted with >30% of the weed pollen allergic patients. Therefore, this protein from ragweed pollen constitutes a novel important ragweed allergen and has been designated Amb a 4.

  14. Hydrogeology of Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area, McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Brod, R.C.; Stone, W.J.

    1981-11-06

    The Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area is located about 10 mi north of Grants, New Mexico, in the heart of the Grants uranium region, which spans the southern edge of the San Juan Basin. The climate is semiarid and local streams are ephemeral, except where discharge from mines or tailings ponds has made them perennial. Ground water is thus the main source of water in the area. Major aquifers include alluvium, sandstones of the Mesaverde Group, sandstones of the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Bluff Sandstone, Todilto Limestone, Chinle Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Glorieta Sandstone. Although shallow unconfined ground water flows southwesterly, deeper, confined ground water flows toward the northeast and east. Ground water in the area generally has a total-dissolved-solids content of 400 to 2000 mg/L; waters in the notheast are more saline (2000 to 5000 mg/L). Because the uranium occurs in a regional artesian aquifer (Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation), extensive dewatering is required: approximately 164 mgd. A new state law brings mine dewatering under the jurisdiction of the State Engineer and permits use of excess uranium-mine water. Private or municipal wells presently provide adequate supplies of water for most domestic and stock purposes.

  15. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  16. [Effects of light intensity on the phenotypic plasticity of invasive species Ambrosia trifida].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Bei; Li, Jian-Dong; Wang, Guo-Jiao; Sun, Jia-Nan; Wang, Xin-Ruo; Zhong, Ri-Ting

    2012-07-01

    Through artificial shading, this paper studied the phenotypic plasticity of invasive species Ambrosia trifida in its morphology, biomass allocation, and photosynthesis characteristics in response to different light intensities. As compared with the control, shading increased the stem height, crown width, leaf area, specific leaf area, and the proportion of leaf biomass in total biomass of A. trifida significantly, but decreased the total biomass, biomass per unit leaf area, and root to shoot ratio. Under natural light condition, the crown width and leaf area were smaller and the root to shoot ratio was larger, which benefited the decrease of water loss under high temperature and high light intensity and manifested the stronger phenotypic plasticity of A. trifida in its morphology and biomass allocation in response to different light intensities. Under shading, the mean daily net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance decreased, while the stomatal CO2 concentration increased. At noon when the light intensity was the highest, the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance under low shading reached the maximum. Under moderate shading and high shading, the chlorophyll content increased significantly, and the chlorophyll a/b had a significant decrease, which could improve the utilization of light energy by A. trifida under shading environment.

  17. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The inactive uranium-mill tailings pile at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, contains approximately 1520 Ci of /sup 226/Ra in 2.4 million metric tons of tailings covering an area of 43 hectares. All of the former mill buildings were intact and, at the time of this survey, several were in use. The tailings have not been stabilized, but the crusty surface is reported to be resistant to wind erosion. The average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings is 720 ..mu..R/h while the average rate in the former mill area is 150 ..mu..R/h. The adjacent area, between the mill site, ponds, and tailings pile, has an average exposure rate of 230 ..mu..R/h. Gamma radiation measurements outside these areas, as well as the results of analyses of surface or near-surface sediment and soil samples, show fairly wide dispersion of contamination around the site. The subsurface distribution of /sup 226/Ra in 18 holes drilled at the site, calculated from gamma-ray monitoring data, is presented graphically and compared with measured concentrations in two holes.

  18. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  19. Improbable but true: the invasive inbreeding ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus morigerus has generalist genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Hanne F; Jordal, Bjarte H; Kambestad, Marius; Kirkendall, Lawrence R

    2012-01-01

    The wide distribution and dominance of invasive inbreeding species in many forest ecosystems seems paradoxical in face of their limited genetic variation. Successful establishment of invasive species in new areas is nevertheless facilitated by clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, regular self-fertilization, and regular inbreeding. The success of clonal lineages in variable environments has been explained by two models, the frozen niche variation (FNV) model and the general-purpose genotype (GPG) model. We tested these models on a widely distributed forest pest that has been recently established in Costa Rica—the sibling-mating ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus morigerus. Two deeply diverged mitochondrial haplotypes coexist at multiple sites in Costa Rica. We find that these two haplotypes do not differ in their associations with ecological factors. Overall the two haplotypes showed complete overlap in their resource utilization; both genotypes have broad niches, supporting the GPG model. Thus, probable or not, our findings suggest that X. morigerus is a true ecological generalist. Clonal aspects of reproduction coupled with broad niches are doubtless important factors in the successful colonization of new habitats in distant regions. PMID:22408740

  20. [Effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza on alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Sang, Wei-guo; Zhu, Li; Song, Ying-ying; Wang, Jin-ping

    2010-12-01

    A greenhouse control experiment was conducted to explore the effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on the growth of alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). Nitrogen addition had no significant effects on the morphological indices, biomass and its allocation, and absolute growth rate of A. artemisiifolia, but increased the nitrogen content in the aboveground and underground parts of the plant significantly. Carbon addition increased the content of soil available nitrogen. In this case, the biomass allocation in root system for nutrient (nitrogen) absorption promoted, resulting in a remarkable decrease of branch number, total leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf mass ratio. As a result, the total biomass decreased significantly. The symbiosis of A. artemisiifolia and AM fungi had great influence on the common ragweed's soil nitrogen acclimation, which enhanced its resource-capture by the increase of SLA, and this effect was more significant when the soil nitrogen content was low. AM fungi played an important role in the growth of A. artemisiifolia in low-nitrogen environment.

  1. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 1. Novel rapid cell death response to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Christopher R; Moretti, Marcelo L; Robertson, Renae R; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Schulz, Burkhard; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Hall, J Christopher; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Sammons, R Douglas; Wang, Dafu; Westra, Philip; Gaines, Todd A

    2017-03-07

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the midwestern United States and in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype, which exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here, we present a description of the RR phenotype and an investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in several accessions, and whole-plant levels of resistance ranged from 2.3- to 7.5-fold compared with glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accessions. The two GR phenotypes displayed similar levels of resistance, despite having dramatically different phenotypic responses to glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was not associated with mutations in EPSPS sequence, increased EPSPS copy number, EPSPS quantity, or EPSPS activity. These encompassing results suggest that resistance to glyphosate in these GR RR A. trifida accessions is not conferred by a target-site resistance mechanism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Meng; She, Deng-Ying; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-03-01

    Local adaptation has been suggested to play an important role in range expansion, particularly among invasive species. However, the extent to which local adaptation affects the success of an invasive species and the factors that contribute to local adaptation are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate a case of population divergence that may have contributed to the local adaptation of invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Common garden experiments in seven populations indicated clinal variations along latitudinal gradients, with plants from higher latitudes exhibiting earlier flowering and smaller sizes at flowering. In reciprocal transplant experiments, plants of a northern Beijing origin produced more seeds at their home site than plants of a southern Wuhan origin, and the Wuhan-origin plants had grown taller at flowering than the Beijing-origin plants in Wuhan, which is believed to facilitate pollen dispersal. These results suggest that plants of Beijing origin may be locally adapted through female fitness and plants from Wuhan possibly locally adapted through male fitness. Selection and path analysis suggested that the phenological and growth traits of both populations have been influenced by natural selection and that flowering time has played an important role through its direct and indirect effects on the relative fitness of each individual. This study evidences the life history trait differentiation and local adaptation during range expansion of invasive A. artemisiifolia in China.

  3. A synopsis of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Sittichaya, W; Liu, L-Y

    2014-10-21

    The present state of knowledge of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry, timber production and crop tree plantations. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host tree and altitudinal preferences of species are discussed. One hundred and sixty-one species are recorded from Thailand, 67 of them for the first time. The following new synonym is proposed: Euwallacea wallacei (Blandford) (= Xyleborus barbatomorphus Schedl n.syn.). The following new combinations are given: Ambrosiophilus cristatulus (Schedl), Ambrosiophilus latisulcatus (Eggers), Beaverium dihingensis (Eggers), Beaverium lantanae (Eggers) and Immanus desectus (Eggers) are transferred from their present position in Ambrosiodmus; Ancipitis depressus (Eggers) and Ancipitis punctatissimus (Eichhoff) are transferred from Leptoxyleborus; Cyclorhipidion armipenne (Schedl), Cyclorhipidion inarmatum (Eggers), Euwallacea semiermis (Schedl), Fortiborus macropterus (Schedl), Microperus nudibrevis (Schedl) and Wallacellus minutus (Blandford) are transferred from Xyleborus.

  4. A New Allergen from Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) with Homology to Art v 1 from Mugwort*

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, Renaud; Wopfner, Nicole; Pabst, Martin; Stadlmann, Johannes; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Ø.; Himly, Martin; Radauer, Christian; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Ferreira, Fatima; Altmann, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    Art v 1, the major pollen allergen of the composite plant mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) has been identified recently as a thionin-like protein with a bulky arabinogalactan-protein moiety. A close relative of mugwort, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an important allergen source in North America, and, since 1990, ragweed has become a growing health concern in Europe as well. Weed pollen-sensitized patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to a ragweed pollen protein of apparently 29–31 kDa. This reaction could be inhibited by the mugwort allergen Art v 1. The purified ragweed pollen protein consisted of a 57-amino acid-long defensin-like domain with high homology to Art v 1 and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. This part contained hydroxyproline-linked arabinogalactan chains with one galactose and 5 to 20 and more α-arabinofuranosyl residues with some β-arabinoses in terminal positions as revealed by high field NMR. The ragweed protein contained only small amounts of the single hydroxyproline-linked β-arabinosyl residues, which form an important IgE binding determinant in Art v 1. cDNA clones for this protein were obtained from ragweed flowers. Immunological characterization revealed that the recombinant ragweed protein reacted with >30% of the weed pollen allergic patients. Therefore, this protein from ragweed pollen constitutes a novel important ragweed allergen and has been designated Amb a 4. PMID:20576600

  5. Bioherbicidal activity of a germacranolide sesquiterpene dilactone from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Francesco; Monterumici, Chiara Mozzetti; Ferrero, Aldo; Tabasso, Silvia; Negre, Michèle

    2016-12-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive plant whose allelopathic properties have been suggested by its field behaviour and demonstrated through phytotoxicity bioassays. However, the nature of the molecules responsible for the allelopathic activity of common ragweed has not been explored. The main objective of this study was to identify the phytotoxic molecules produced by A. artemisiifolia. A preliminary investigation has indicated that a methanol extract of A. artemisiifolia completely inhibited the germination of cress and radish. Semi-preparative fractionation of the methanol extract allowed separating of phytotoxic fraction which contained a single compound. The structure of this compound was elucidated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS, high-resolution mass spectral, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared spectra as sesquiterpene lactone isabelin (C15H16O4). The effect of pure isabelin was tested on four different weed species, confirming the inhibitory activity of molecule. The results indicate directions for the future studies about herbicidal specific activity of isabelin, as pure molecule or in the crude extract, as a potential candidate for biological weed control.

  6. Modeling the dispersion of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen with the model system COSMO-ART.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katrin; Vogel, Heike; Vogel, Bernhard; Magyar, Donát; Kottmeier, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic plant that is spreading throughout Europe. Ragweed pollen can be transported over large distances by the wind. Even low pollen concentrations of less than 10 pollen m(-3) can lead to health problems in sensitive persons. Therefore, forecasting the airborne concentrations of ragweed pollen is becoming more and more important for public health. The question remains whether distant pollen sources need to be considered in reliable forecasts. We used the extended numerical weather prediction system COSMO-ART to simulate the release and transport of ragweed pollen in central Europe. A pollen episode (September 12-16, 2006) in north-eastern Germany was modeled in order to find out where the pollen originated. For this purpose, several different source regions were taken into account and their individual impact on the daily mean pollen concentration and the performance of the forecast were studied with the means of a 2 × 2 contingency table and skill scores. It was found that the majority of the pollen originated in local areas, but up to 20% of the total pollen load came from distant sources in Hungary. It is concluded that long-distance transport should not be neglected when predicting pollen concentrations.

  7. CO(2) enrichment reduces reproductive dominance in competing stands of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed).

    PubMed

    Stinson, K A; Bazzaz, F A

    2006-02-01

    Plants growing in dense stands may not equally acquire or utilize extra carbon gained in elevated CO(2). As a result, reproductive differences between dominant and subordinate plants may be altered under rising CO(2) conditions. We hypothesized that elevated CO(2) would enhance the reproductive allocation of shaded, subordinate Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae) individuals more than that of light-saturated dominants. We grew stands of A. artemisiifolia at either 360 or 720 muL L(-1) CO(2) levels and measured the growth and reproductive responses of competing individuals. To test whether elevated CO(2) altered size and reproductive inequalities within stands, we compared stand-level coefficients of variation (CV) in height growth and final shoot, root, and reproductive organ biomasses. Elevated CO(2) enhanced biomass and reduced the CV for all aspects of plant growth, especially reproductive biomass. Allocation to reproduction was higher in the elevated CO(2) than in the ambient treatment, and this difference was more pronounced in small, rather than large plant positive relationships between the CV and total stand productivity declined under elevated CO(2), indicating that growth enhancements to smaller plants diminished the relative biomass advantages of larger plants in increasingly crowded conditions. We conclude that elevated CO(2) stimulates stand-level reproduction while CO(2)-induced growth gains of subordinate A. artemisiifolia plants minimize differences in the reproductive output of small and large plants. Thus, more individuals are likely to produce greater amounts of seeds and pollen in future populations of this allergenic weed.

  8. The population genomic basis of geographic differentiation in North American common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael D; Olsen, Morten Tange; Samaniego, Jose A; Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an invasive, wind-pollinated plant nearly ubiquitous in disturbed sites in its eastern North American native range and present across growing portions of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Phenotypic divergence between European and native-range populations has been described as rapid evolution. However, a recent study demonstrated major human-mediated shifts in ragweed genetic structure before introduction to Europe and suggested that native-range genetic structure and local adaptation might fully explain accelerated growth and other invasive characteristics of introduced populations. Genomic differentiation that potentially influenced this structure has not yet been investigated, and it remains unclear whether substantial admixture during historical disturbance of the native range contributed to the development of invasiveness in introduced European ragweed populations. To investigate fine-scale population genetic structure across the species' native range, we characterized diallelic SNP loci via a reduced-representation genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. We corroborate phylogeographic domains previously discovered using traditional sequencing methods, while demonstrating increased power to resolve weak genetic structure in this highly admixed plant species. By identifying exome polymorphisms underlying genetic differentiation, we suggest that geographic differentiation of this important invasive species has occurred more often within pathways that regulate growth and response to defense and stress, which may be associated with survival in North America's diverse climatic regions.

  9. Genetic differentiation in life-history traits of introduced and native common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) populations.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, K A; Rieseberg, L

    2011-12-01

    Introduced species represent opportunities to observe evolution over contemporary time scales, and as exotics encounter new environments, adaptive responses can occur, potentially contributing to invasion. Here, we compare 22 native North American populations and 12 introduced European populations of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in five common gardens (control, herbivory, light stress, nutrient stress and drought). We found evidence for improved growth and reproduction of the introduced populations in most environments, particularly in the light stress. However, under drought conditions, the introduced plants experienced more rapid wilting and mortality than their native counterparts, evidence consistent with a life-history trade-off between rapid growth and drought tolerance. Moreover, we found parallel latitudinal clines in flowering time and correlations between fitness components and the local climate of the source populations in both ranges. Together these data provide evidence for adaptation to local environmental conditions in the native and introduced range of common ragweed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D’Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O3 fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O3, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O3 can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

  12. [Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): expansion history of a "biological pollutant" in France].

    PubMed

    Dessaint, Fabrice; Chauvel, Bruno; Bretagnolle, François

    2005-02-01

    In France, common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an invasive species, which most probably originates from North America. This plant is responsible for human health problems as the pollen causes allergic rhinitis and seasonal asthma; in addition, it engenders agronomical problems as the efficient herbicide treatments are few. Consequently, various departments of the Rhône-Alpes region set up eradication programs for common ragweed. The species is distributed over a large range of ecological environments (road margins, embankments, river beds) and does not seem to be dependent on soil properties. Its ability to occupy different environments varies with the geographic location. Common ragweed was cultivated in botanical gardens during the XVIIIth century but seems to have arrived in France in seed lots during the XIXth century. It therefore began its "invasion" as a crop weed. Because of its late emergence date (late March), common ragweed is most frequently found in spring crops as well as during the inter-crop season. Its "natural" dispersal mechanisms are rudimentary; its seeds are probably dispersed mostly during the transport of material (soil, gravel, compost...), irrigation and especially via harvest combines. The development history of this species in France is scarcely known. The examination of herbarium collections helped to partially reconstruct the history of the species. According to the first results, the species arrived in several locations and at different dates in France. However, common ragweed spread most successfully in the Lyons region because of reasons still unknown.

  13. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  14. Adaptive divergence for a fitness-related trait among invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations in France.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young Jin; LE Corre, Valérie; Bretagnolle, François

    2011-04-01

    The impact of natural selection on the adaptive divergence of invasive populations can be assessed by testing the null hypothesis that the extent of quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST) ) would be similar to that of neutral molecular differentiation (F(ST) ). Using eight microsatellite loci and a common garden approach, we compared Q(ST) and F(ST) among ten populations of an invasive species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) in France. In a common garden study with varying water and nutrient levels, we measured Q(ST) for five traits (height, total biomass, reproductive allocation, above- to belowground biomass ratio, and days to flowering). Although low F(ST) indicated weak genetic structure and strong gene flow among populations, we found significant diversifying selection (Q(ST) > F(ST) ) for reproductive allocation that may be closely related to fitness. It suggests that abiotic conditions may have exerted selection pressure on A. artemisiifolia populations to differentiate adaptively, such that populations at higher altitude or latitude evolved greater reproductive allocation. As previous studies indicate multiple introductions from various source populations of A. artemisiifolia in North America, our results suggest that the admixture of introduced populations may have increased genetic diversity and additive genetic variance, and in turn, promoted the rapid evolution and adaptation of this invasive species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Proposed Four Corners-Ambrosia-Pajarito 500 kV transmission project. Draft environmental statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Public Service Company of New Mexico proposes to construct and operate a 500 kV alternating current (ac) transmission line in the northwestern portion of New Mexico. The proposed line will extend from the Four Corners Power Plant to Ambrosia Station to a proposed Pajarito Station west of Albuquerque, NM. The proposed line will be approximately 173 miles in length. Construction of the 500 kV transmission line will adversely impact soils, vegetation, visual resources, and possibly in an indirect manner, the cultural resources in the area. These adverse impacts may be made minimal by the practice of erosion protection measures, revegetation, and a sound cultural resource management plan. There will be no appreciable impacts, adverse or otherwise in regard to surface or subsurface water by the construction or operation of the proposed transmission line. No adverse effects may be anticipated in regard to communities or social services. Economic impacts in the area will be short-term and should prove beneficial for the duration of the project. Construction and operation of this line will be beneficial in providing needed additional bulk transmission capacity between the Four Corners Plant and Albuquerque and bulk transmission support to the local western New Mexico area.

  16. Modeling the dispersion of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen with the model system COSMO-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Katrin; Vogel, Heike; Vogel, Bernhard; Magyar, Donát; Kottmeier, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic plant that is spreading throughout Europe. Ragweed pollen can be transported over large distances by the wind. Even low pollen concentrations of less than 10 pollen m-3 can lead to health problems in sensitive persons. Therefore, forecasting the airborne concentrations of ragweed pollen is becoming more and more important for public health. The question remains whether distant pollen sources need to be considered in reliable forecasts. We used the extended numerical weather prediction system COSMO-ART to simulate the release and transport of ragweed pollen in central Europe. A pollen episode (September 12-16, 2006) in north-eastern Germany was modeled in order to find out where the pollen originated. For this purpose, several different source regions were taken into account and their individual impact on the daily mean pollen concentration and the performance of the forecast were studied with the means of a 2 × 2 contingency table and skill scores. It was found that the majority of the pollen originated in local areas, but up to 20% of the total pollen load came from distant sources in Hungary. It is concluded that long-distance transport should not be neglected when predicting pollen concentrations.

  17. Multiple anticancer effects of damsin and coronopilin isolated from Ambrosia arborescens on cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Villagomez, Rodrigo; Rodrigo, Gloria C; Collado, Isidro G; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo; Åkesson, Björn; Sterner, Olov; Almanza, Giovanna R; Duan, Rui-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Terpenoids in plants are important sources for drug discovery. In this study, we extracted damsin and coronopilin, two sesquiterpene lactones, from Ambrosia arborescens and examined their anticancer effects on cell cultures. Damsin and coronopilin inhibited cell proliferation, DNA biosynthesis and formation of cytoplasmic DNA histone complexes in Caco-2 cells, with damsin being more potent than coronopilin. Further studies using the luciferase reporter system showed that damsin and coronopilin also inhibited expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), indicating that these sesquiterpenes can interfere with NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Finally, we examined the effects of two synthetic dibrominated derivatives of damsin, 11α,13-dibromodamsin and 11β,13-dibromodamsin. While bromination appeared to weaken the antiproliferative effects of damsin, the β epimer had strong inhibitory effects on STAT3 activation. In conclusion, the sesquiterpene lactones damsin and coronopilin have inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, DNA biosynthesis and NF-κB and STAT3 pathways, thus being potentially important for discovery of drugs against cancer.

  18. Proposed Four Corners-Ambrosia-Pajarito 500 kV transmission project. Final environmental statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Public Service Company of New Mexico proposes to construct and operate a 500 kV alternating current (AC) transmission line in the northwestern portion of New Mexico. The proposed line will extend from the Four Corners Power Plant to Ambrosia Station to a proposed Pajarito Station west of Albuquerque, NM. The proposed line will be approximately 173 miles in length. Construction of the 500 kV transmission line will adversely impact soils, vegetation, visual resources, and possibly in an indirect manner, the cultural resources in the area. The adverse impacts may be made minimal by the practice of erosion protection measures, revegetation, and a sound cultural resource management plan. There will be no appreciable impacts, adverse or otherwise in regard to surface or subsurface water by the construction or operation of the proposed transmission line. No adverse effects may be anticipated in regard to communities or social services. Economic impacts in the area will be short-term and should prove beneficial for the duration of the project. Construction and operation of this line will be beneficial in providing needed additional bulk transmission capacity between the Four Corners Plant and Albuquerque and bulk transmission support to the local western New Mexico area.

  19. Genomic Mining of Phylogenetically Informative Nuclear Markers in Bark and Ambrosia Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Pistone, Dario; Mugu, Sigrid; Jordal, Bjarte Henry

    2016-01-01

    Deep level insect relationships are generally difficult to resolve, especially within taxa of the most diverse and species rich holometabolous orders. In beetles, the major diversity occurs in the Phytophaga, including charismatic groups such as leaf beetles, longhorn beetles and weevils. Bark and ambrosia beetles are wood boring weevils that contribute 12 percent of the diversity encountered in Curculionidae, one of the largest families of beetles with more than 50000 described species. Phylogenetic resolution in groups of Cretaceous age has proven particularly difficult and requires large quantity of data. In this study, we investigated 100 nuclear genes in order to select a number of markers with low evolutionary rates and high phylogenetic signal. A PCR screening using degenerate primers was applied to 26 different weevil species. We obtained sequences from 57 of the 100 targeted genes. Sequences from each nuclear marker were aligned and examined for detecting multiple copies, pseudogenes and introns. Phylogenetic informativeness (PI) and the capacity for reconstruction of previously established phylogenetic relationships were used as proxies for selecting a subset of the 57 amplified genes. Finally, we selected 16 markers suitable for large-scale phylogenetics of Scolytinae and related weevil taxa. PMID:27668729

  20. Outbreeding depression, but no inbreeding depression in haplodiploid Ambrosia beetles with regular sibling mating.

    PubMed

    Peer, Katharina; Taborsky, Michael

    2005-02-01

    In sexual reproduction the genetic similarity or dissimilarity between mates strongly affects offspring fitness. When mating partners are too closely related, increased homozygosity generally causes inbreeding depression, whereas crossing between too distantly related individuals may disrupt local adaptations or coadaptations within the genome and result in outbreeding depression. The optimal degree of inbreeding or outbreeding depends on population structure. A long history of inbreeding is expected to reduce inbreeding depression due to purging of deleterious alleles, and to promote outbreeding depression because of increased genetic variation between lineages. Ambrosia beetles (Xyleborini) are bark beetles with haplodiploid sex determination, strong local mate competition due to regular sibling mating within the natal chamber, and heavily biased sex ratios. We experimentally mated females of Xylosandrus germanus to brothers and unrelated males and measured offspring fitness. Inbred matings did not produce offspring with reduced fitness in any of the examined life-history traits. In contrast, outcrossed offspring suffered from reduced hatching rates. Reduction in inbreeding depression is usually attributed to purging of deleterious alleles, and the absence of inbreeding depression in X. germanus may represent the highest degree of purging of all examined species so far. Outbreeding depression within the same population has previously only been reported from plants. The causes and consequences of our findings are discussed with respect to mating strategies, sex ratios, and speciation in this unusual system.

  1. Three genera in the Ceratocystidaceae are the respective symbionts of three independent lineages of ambrosia beetles with large, complex mycangia.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Chase G; McNew, Douglas L; Harrington, Thomas C; Roeper, Richard A; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Biedermann, Peter H W; Castrillo, Louela A; Reed, Sharon E

    2015-11-01

    The genus Ambrosiella accommodates species of Ceratocystidaceae (Microascales) that are obligate, mutualistic symbionts of ambrosia beetles, but the genus appears to be polyphyletic and more diverse than previously recognized. In addition to Ambrosiella xylebori, Ambrosiella hartigii, Ambrosiella beaveri, and Ambrosiella roeperi, three new species of Ambrosiella are described from the ambrosia beetle tribe Xyleborini: Ambrosiella nakashimae sp. nov. from Xylosandrus amputatus, Ambrosiella batrae sp. nov. from Anisandrus sayi, and Ambrosiella grosmanniae sp. nov. from Xylosandrus germanus. The genus Meredithiella gen. nov. is created for symbionts of the tribe Corthylini, based on Meredithiella norrisii sp. nov. from Corthylus punctatissimus. The genus Phialophoropsis is resurrected to accommodate associates of the Xyloterini, including Phialophoropsis trypodendri from Trypodendron scabricollis and Phialophoropsis ferruginea comb. nov. from Trypodendron lineatum. Each of the ten named species was distinguished by ITS rDNA barcoding and morphology, and the ITS rDNA sequences of four other putative species were obtained with Ceratocystidaceae-specific primers and template DNA extracted from beetles or galleries. These results support the hypothesis that each ambrosia beetle species with large, complex mycangia carries its own fungal symbiont. Conidiophore morphology and phylogenetic analyses using 18S (SSU) rDNA and TEF1α DNA sequences suggest that these three fungal genera within the Ceratocystidaceae independently adapted to symbiosis with the three respective beetle tribes. In turn, the beetle genera with large, complex mycangia appear to have evolved from other genera in their respective tribes that have smaller, less selective mycangia and are associated with Raffaelea spp. (Ophiostomatales). Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  2. 1991 New Mexico economic impact study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The University of New Mexico Bureau of Business and Economic Research completed an abbreviated cost-benefit analysis of the income and employment impact of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor offices in Albuquerque. Since the Project Office will have a significant positive impact on the State`s economy (shown on Table 8), the impact is combined with the impact of remedial actions at the Ambrosia Lake site to highlight the cost-benefit of the entire Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The UMTRA Project at the Ambrosia Lake site will generate $12.509 million in gross labor income in New Mexico between 1989 and 1994. This includes $1.161 million in federal tax revenue, $1.015 million in State personal income tax revenue, and seven thousand in local tax revenue. The UMTRA Project will generate the equivalent of 84 full-time jobs during the peak year of remedial action at Ambrosia Lake site. New Mexico`s total funding requirement for the UMTRA Project is estimated to be $2.963 million. The net economic benefit of the Ambrosia Lake portion of the UMTRA Project to New Mexico after the State`s share of the project`s cost, the federal income tax, and the $0.936 million income impact of the alternate use of the State funding are subtracted, will be $7.451 million between 1990 and 1994. In Fiscal Year 1990 the UMTRA Project DOE and contractor offices in Albuquerque directly employed 163 people. Another 78 jobs were also maintained in support of the industry sector and 166 jobs were also maintained in other sections of the New Mexico economy. It is estimated that $19 million dollars of income was generated and 1.949 million of State and local taxes were collected. The University of New Mexico study shows that for every dollar the State of New Mexico invests in the UMTRA Project, it will realize $95.05 in gross labor income. This corresponds to a net return on the States investment in the Project of $97.20 for every dollar invested.

  3. Attraction of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, to avocado, lychee, and essential oil Lures.

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Peña, Jorge E; Capinera, John L; Brar, Gurpreet; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2011-09-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. High mortality has occurred in native Persea species in the southeastern U.S., and the vector-pathogen complex poses an imminent threat to the production of commercial avocado, P. americana, in south Florida. There is a critical need for effective attractants to detect, monitor, and control this invasive pest. This study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the response of female X. glabratus to host-based volatiles from wood of avocado (cultivars of West Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican races); from wood of lychee (Litchi chinensis, a presumed non-host that is high in the sesquiterpene α-copaene, a putative attractant); and to commercial lures containing manuka and phoebe oils, two reported attractive baits. Volatile collections and GC-MS analyses were performed to quantify the sesquiterpene content of test substrates. In the field, traps baited with lychee wood captured more beetles than those with wood from avocado cultivars; traps baited with phoebe oil lures captured more beetles than those with manuka oil lures (the current monitoring tool). In field and laboratory tests, X. glabratus did not show a preference among avocado races in either attraction or host acceptance (initiation of boring). In choice tests, lychee was more attractive than avocado initially, but a higher percentage of beetles bored into avocado, suggesting that lychee emits more powerful olfactory/visual cues, but that avocado contains more of the secondary cues necessary for host recognition. Emissions of α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene were correlated with field captures, and lychee wood may be a source of additional semiochemicals for X. glabratus.

  4. Let native species take their course: Ambrosia artemisiifolia replacement during natural or ;artificial; succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Montagnani, Chiara; Gilardelli, Federica; Guarino, Maria Francesca; Citterio, Sandra

    2017-07-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is able to dominate the early stages of vegetation succession in open/disturbed habitats, spreading out into available empty niches, after which it can be progressively replaced by perennial plants. In this study, we considered the time-span in which the species is suppressed during active (restoration actions) and passive (spontaneous) vegetation recovery. In particular, we envisaged that A. artemisiifolia growth and fitness may be strongly reduced and that the species may rapidly be suppressed within a short time during succession as a consequence of the increase of vegetation cover, both natural or artificially induced, in a disturbed area of northern Italy. Three different treatments were applied within an abandoned quarry area commonly invaded by A. artemisiifolia: (i) spontaneous succession i.e. (control), (ii) hayseed and (iii) a commercial seed mixture. We determined the effect of mixtures of grassland species, established from native hayseed or from a commercial seed mixture, on A. artemisiifolia growth and fitness traits over time in comparison to a non-seeded area left to spontaneous succession. The results demonstrated that, after the first growing season, compared with spontaneous succession, both commercial seed and hayseed resulted in a strong reduction of A. artemisiifolia abundance and growth rate, in terms of both vegetative and reproductive traits. After the second growing season, A. artemisiifolia was completely suppressed in the commercial seed treatment, and after the third growing season it was also suppressed in the spontaneous succession and hayseed treatments. This study indicated that both active and passive vegetation recovery (by niche filling and competitive exclusion) could be used as methods individually or in combination with other methods, such as mowing and biological control, to suppress A. artemisiifolia from anthropogenic habitats.

  5. Natural terpenoids from Ambrosia species are active in vitro and in vivo against human pathogenic trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Sülsen, Valeria P; Cazorla, Silvia I; Frank, Fernanda M; Laurella, Laura C; Muschietti, Liliana V; Catalán, Cesar A; Martino, Virginia S; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2013-01-01

    Among the natural compounds, terpenoids play an important role in the drug discovery process for tropical diseases. The aim of the present work was to isolate antiprotozoal compounds from Ambrosia elatior and A. scabra. The sesquiterpene lactone (STL) cumanin was isolated from A. elatior whereas two other STLs, psilostachyin and cordilin, and one sterol glycoside, daucosterol, were isolated from A. scabra. Cumanin and cordilin were active against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes showing 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) values of 12 µM and 26 µM, respectively. Moreover, these compounds are active against bloodstream trypomastigotes, regardless of the T. cruzi strain tested. Psilostachyin and cumanin were also active against amastigote forms with IC50 values of 21 µM and 8 µM, respectively. By contrast, daucosterol showed moderate activity on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and was inactive against amastigote forms. We also found that cumanin and psilostachyin exhibited an additive effect in their trypanocidal activity when these two drugs were tested together. Cumanin has leishmanicidal activity with growth inhibition values greater than 80% at a concentration of 5 µg/ml (19 µM), against both L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis promastigotes. In an in vivo model of T. cruzi infection, cumanin was more active than benznidazole, producing an 8-fold reduction in parasitemia levels during the acute phase of the infection compared with the control group, and more importantly, a reduction in mortality with 66% of the animals surviving, in comparison with 100% mortality in the control group. Cumanin also showed nontoxic effects at the doses assayed in vivo, as determined using markers of hepatic damage.

  6. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 2. Rapid response physiology and non-target-site resistance.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Van Horn, Christopher R; Robertson, Renae; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Douglas Sammons, R; Wang, Dafu; Ge, Xia; d' Avignon, André; Gaines, Todd A; Westra, Philip; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Christopher Hall, J; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Schulz, Burkhard

    2017-03-08

    The glyphosate-resistant rapid response (GR RR) resistance mechanism in Ambrosia trifida is not due to target-site resistance (TSR) mechanisms. This study explores the physiology of the rapid response and the possibility of reduced translocation and vacuolar sequestration as non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. GR RR leaf discs accumulated hydrogen peroxide within minutes of glyphosate exposure, but only in mature leaf tissue. The rapid response required energy either as light or exogenous sucrose. The combination of phenylalanine and tyrosine inhibited the rapid response in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced glyphosate translocation was observed in GR RR, but only when associated with tissue death caused by the rapid response. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that glyphosate enters the cytoplasm and reaches chloroplasts, and it is not moved into the vacuole of GR RR, GR non-rapid response or glyphosate-susceptible A. trifida. The GR RR mechanism of resistance is not associated with vacuole sequestration of glyphosate, and the observed reduced translocation is likely a consequence of rapid tissue death. Rapid cell death was inhibited by exogenous application of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The mechanism by which these amino acids inhibit rapid cell death in the GR RR phenotype remains unknown, and it could involve glyphosate phytotoxicity or other agents generating reactive oxygen species. Implications of these findings are discussed. The GR RR mechanism is distinct from the currently described glyphosate TSR or NTSR mechanisms in other species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  8. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  9. Ragweed (Ambrosia) progression and its health risks: will Switzerland resist this invasion?

    PubMed

    Taramarcaz, P; Lambelet, B; Clot, B; Keimer, C; Hauser, C

    2005-09-17

    The purpose of this article is to alert physicians for the environmental and health threats of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) in Switzerland. Switzerland borders several heavily ragweed colonised areas. Up to 12% of the population suffers from allergies (hay fever, asthma) to ragweed pollen in these areas. Switzerland is beginning to be invaded by this plant. Currently, the ragweed pollen counts are still low but can reach local peaks that induce symptoms in allergic individuals. Ragweed allergy, however, is still rare in Switzerland. Because the amount of ragweed pollen was increasing in the last few years, identification and surveillance of ragweed plant foci was started. Colonisation is currently systematically monitored in Geneva and southern Tessin. Major accumulation of ragweed foci have been detected in the canton of Geneva, the western shore of the lake of Geneva belonging to the canton of Vaud, and in the southern part of the canton of Tessin, aside from minor foci registered all over Switzerland. The routes of ragweed invasion are presented and discussed. Current measures of ragweed containment and needs for the future are presented. The urge for these measures at an early stage of ragweed spread is underlined by the impracticability of eradication in highly colonised areas. The costs of preventing ragweed spread in Switzerland are likely to be several magnitudes lower than the treatment of a significant percentage of the Swiss population for ragweed pollen allergy. Because areas can change from low to heavy ragweed colonisation within a few years, the current window of opportunity to prevent further colonisation by ragweed should not be missed.

  10. Phenological Variation in Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Facilitates Near Future Establishment at Northern Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Scalone, Romain; Lemke, Andreas; Štefanić, Edita; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Rašić, Sanda; Andersson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) constitutes a great threat to public health and agriculture in large areas of the globe. Climate change, characterized by higher temperatures and prolonged vegetation periods, could increase the risk of establishment in northern Europe in the future. However, as the species is a short-day plant that requires long nights to induce bloom formation, it might still fail to produce mature seeds before the onset of winter in areas at northern latitudes characterized by short summer nights. To survey the genetic variation in flowering time and study the effect of latitudinal origin on this trait, a reciprocal common garden experiment, including eleven populations of A. artemisiifolia from Europe and North America, was conducted. The experiment was conducted both outside the range limit of the species, in Sweden and within its invaded range, in Croatia. Our main hypothesis was that the photoperiodic-thermal requirements of A. artemisiifolia constitute a barrier for reproduction at northern latitudes and, thus, halts the northern range shift despite expected climate change. Results revealed the presence of a north-south gradient in flowering time at both garden sites, indicating that certain European populations are pre-adapted to photoperiodic and thermal conditions at latitudes up to, at least, 60° N. This was confirmed by phenological recordings performed in a region close to the northern range limit, the north of Germany. Thus, we conclude that there exists a high risk for establishment and spread of A. artemisiifolia in FennoScandinavia in the near future. The range shift might occur independently of climate change, but would be accelerated by it.

  11. Phenological Variation in Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Facilitates Near Future Establishment at Northern Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Scalone, Romain; Lemke, Andreas; Štefanić, Edita; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Rašić, Sanda; Andersson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) constitutes a great threat to public health and agriculture in large areas of the globe. Climate change, characterized by higher temperatures and prolonged vegetation periods, could increase the risk of establishment in northern Europe in the future. However, as the species is a short-day plant that requires long nights to induce bloom formation, it might still fail to produce mature seeds before the onset of winter in areas at northern latitudes characterized by short summer nights. To survey the genetic variation in flowering time and study the effect of latitudinal origin on this trait, a reciprocal common garden experiment, including eleven populations of A. artemisiifolia from Europe and North America, was conducted. The experiment was conducted both outside the range limit of the species, in Sweden and within its invaded range, in Croatia. Our main hypothesis was that the photoperiodic-thermal requirements of A. artemisiifolia constitute a barrier for reproduction at northern latitudes and, thus, halts the northern range shift despite expected climate change. Results revealed the presence of a north-south gradient in flowering time at both garden sites, indicating that certain European populations are pre-adapted to photoperiodic and thermal conditions at latitudes up to, at least, 60° N. This was confirmed by phenological recordings performed in a region close to the northern range limit, the north of Germany. Thus, we conclude that there exists a high risk for establishment and spread of A. artemisiifolia in FennoScandinavia in the near future. The range shift might occur independently of climate change, but would be accelerated by it. PMID:27846312

  12. Variability and Cryptic Heteromorphism of Ambrosia artemisiifolia Seeds: What Consequences for its Invasion in France?

    PubMed Central

    Fumanal, Boris; Chauvel, Bruno; Sabatier, Anne; Bretagnolle, François

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims: Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a ruderal weed introduced from North America to Europe. It produces large amount of achenes which are highly heterogeneous in size. Due to the preponderant role of propagules in invasive plant processes, the achene mass variability related to germination, dispersal strategy and life history traits of offspring were investigated within this species. Methods: The variability in achene mass was quantified among six populations sampled in different habitats. The effects of achene mass variation on germination were studied. The percentages of floating and non-floating achenes were evaluated in the studied populations. The consequences of floatability on the growth and traits of the offspring were studied. Key Results: Mean achene mass ranged from 1·72 to 3·60 mg, depending on the populations, and was highly variable. Variation among achenes within plants accounted for 63·9 % of the variance, whereas variances among plants within each population (22·2 %) and among populations (13·9 %) were lower. Achene masses were also positively correlated to the total germination percentage for four populations out of six. Two kinds of achenes were distinguished: floating and non-floating. The majority of floating achenes (90 %) sank 24 h after water immersion. Whatever the population, floating achenes were lighter, more dormant and germinated faster than non-floating achenes. Plants which issued from floating achenes had better growth than those from non-floating achenes. Conclusions: The capacity of A. artemisiifolia to be invasive in Europe appears to be high, possibly due to its huge plasticity in seed mass which may help it to cope with a wide range of conditions and to establish in disturbed habitats. Furthermore, the recent invasion of southern France by A. artemisiifolia could be partially explained by water dispersal of achenes through rivers and has pinpointed its colonization potential along French rivers. PMID:17575284

  13. Variability and cryptic heteromorphism of Ambrosia artemisiifolia seeds: What consequences for its invasion in France?

    PubMed

    Fumanal, Boris; Chauvel, Bruno; Sabatier, Anne; Bretagnolle, François

    2007-08-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a ruderal weed introduced from North America to Europe. It produces large amount of achenes which are highly heterogeneous in size. Due to the preponderant role of propagules in invasive plant processes, the achene mass variability related to germination, dispersal strategy and life history traits of offspring were investigated within this species. The variability in achene mass was quantified among six populations sampled in different habitats. The effects of achene mass variation on germination were studied. The percentages of floating and non-floating achenes were evaluated in the studied populations. The consequences of floatability on the growth and traits of the offspring were studied. Mean achene mass ranged from 1.72 to 3.60 mg, depending on the populations, and was highly variable. Variation among achenes within plants accounted for 63.9 % of the variance, whereas variances among plants within each population (22.2 %) and among populations (13.9 %) were lower. Achene masses were also positively correlated to the total germination percentage for four populations out of six. Two kinds of achenes were distinguished: floating and non-floating. The majority of floating achenes (90 %) sank 24 h after water immersion. Whatever the population, floating achenes were lighter, more dormant and germinated faster than non-floating achenes. Plants which issued from floating achenes had better growth than those from non-floating achenes. The capacity of A. artemisiifolia to be invasive in Europe appears to be high, possibly due to its huge plasticity in seed mass which may help it to cope with a wide range of conditions and to establish in disturbed habitats. Furthermore, the recent invasion of southern France by A. artemisiifolia could be partially explained by water dispersal of achenes through rivers and has pinpointed its colonization potential along French rivers.

  14. Allergic rhinitis and asthma in southern Croatia: impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior.

    PubMed

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Bozica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-02-01

    To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n=56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median +/-interquartile range, 50+/-11 vs 7+/-4; P<.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (12+/-2 vs 0+/-0; P<.001). A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia.

  15. Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained in the Poison Canyon sandstone (informal usage). The sedimentary features and structures in the Westwater Canyon sandstones indicate that the sediments were deposited by a system of aggrading braided streams, possibly at the distal end of coalescing alluvial fans. The Poison Canyon sandstone was probably the result of deposition in a complex environment of meandering and braided streams. Paleocurrent-direction indicators, such as fossilized-log orientation, foreset azimuths, and the axes of crossbeds and channel scours, suggest that the local palostream flow was to the east and southeast. The uranium mineralization is closely associated with 1) local accumulations of carbonaceous (humate) matter derived from the decay of organic material and 2) paleostream channels preserved in the rocks. The ore elements were derived from the leaching of volcanic air-fall tuffs and ash, which were introduced into the fluvial system during volcanic activity in the western United States. The mobile ore-element ions were reduce and concentrated by humic acids and bacteria present in the fluvial system and ultimately remobilized into the forms present today. The uranium is thus envisioned as forming either essentially on the surface as the sediments were being deposited or at very shallow depth.

  16. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  17. Natural Terpenoids from Ambrosia Species Are Active In Vitro and In Vivo against Human Pathogenic Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Fernanda M.; Laurella, Laura C.; Muschietti, Liliana V.; Catalán, Cesar A.; Martino, Virginia S.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.

    2013-01-01

    Among the natural compounds, terpenoids play an important role in the drug discovery process for tropical diseases. The aim of the present work was to isolate antiprotozoal compounds from Ambrosia elatior and A. scabra. The sesquiterpene lactone (STL) cumanin was isolated from A. elatior whereas two other STLs, psilostachyin and cordilin, and one sterol glycoside, daucosterol, were isolated from A. scabra. Cumanin and cordilin were active against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes showing 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) values of 12 µM and 26 µM, respectively. Moreover, these compounds are active against bloodstrean trypomastigotes, regardless of the T. cruzi strain tested. Psilostachyin and cumanin were also active against amastigote forms with IC50 values of 21 µM and 8 µM, respectively. By contrast, daucosterol showed moderate activity on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and was inactive against amastigote forms. We also found that cumanin and psilostachyin exhibited an additive effect in their trypanocidal activity when these two drugs were tested together. Cumanin has leishmanicidal activity with growth inhibition values greater than 80% at a concentration of 5 µg/ml (19 µM), against both L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis promastigotes. In an in vivo model of T. cruzi infection, cumanin was more active than benznidazole, producing an 8-fold reduction in parasitemia levels during the acute phase of the infection compared with the control group, and more importantly, a reduction in mortality with 66% of the animals surviving, in comparison with 100% mortality in the control group. Cumanin also showed nontoxic effects at the doses assayed in vivo, as determined using markers of hepatic damage. PMID:24130916

  18. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by Verbenone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the ability of verbenone, a bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, to interrupt the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg / d at 25 oC reduced the attraction of Anisandr...

  19. Influence of trap distance from a source population and multiple traps on captures and attack densities of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Laurie S. Reid; Scott Horn

    2016-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is the principal vector of laurel wilt disease in North America. Lures incorporating essential oils of manuka plants (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. Forster & G. Forster) or cubeb seeds (Piper cubeba L.f.) are the most effective in-flight...

  20. Competition between biological control fungi and fungal symbionts of ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus (Coleoptera:Cuculionidae): mycelial interactions and impact on beetle brood production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus are among the most important exotic pests of orchards and nurseries in the US and are difficult to control using conventional insecticides because of their cryptic habits. The use of biological control agents may prove effective by targetin...

  1. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  2. Evaluation of commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi to manage the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of Laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  4. USDA-ARS strategies to address the imminent threat of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease to avocados in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laurel wilt, a deadly fungal disease of avocado and other trees in the Lauraceae, is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). First detected in GA in 2002, the beetle has spread to SC and FL to within 70 miles of commercial avocado areas. Impact is potentially devastating to the...

  5. Volatile chemicals from host and non-host trees of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, threatening the Floridian avocado production.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an invasive pest introduced in spreading in Southeastern US. The beetle carries a symbiotic fungus which causes laurel wilt, a vascular disease killing of host trees of the Laureacea family as 6 weeks. We compare the chemical...

  6. A phytopathogenic fungus manipulates release of host plant odors causing behavioral changes to its symbiont and vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the vector of a symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt, a highly lethal disease to members of the Lauraceae. Pioneer Xyleborus glabratus beetles infect live trees with Raffaelea lauricola, and only when trees are declining be...

  7. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by verbenone.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy.

  8. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the Southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Albert E. Mayfield; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Robert J. Babaglia

    2008-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolyhnae), and its fungal symbiont, Rafaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the...

  9. Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Treesearch

    James Hanula; Michael Ulyshen; Scott Horn`

    2011-01-01

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and...

  10. Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

  11. Species dependent influence of (-)alpha pinene on attraction of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to ethanol-baited traps in nursery agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field-based trapping experiments were conducted in Ohio in 2003, 2004, and 2008 to determine the influence of (-)-a-pinene on the attraction of exotic and native ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps. In 2003 and 2004, we determined the effect of adding an (-)-a-pinene ultra-high-release lure (UH...

  12. Comparison of 7 essential oils identifies cubeb oil as an improved attractant for redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent (Raffaelea lauricola) responsible for laurel wilt disease. Since its introduction into Georgia in 2002, X. glabratus has spread throughout the southeastern USA, and laurel wilt has decimated large...

  13. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This volume deals with the main construction subcontract for the uranium mill tailings remedial action of Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Contents of subcontract documents AMB-4 include: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications which cover general requirements and sitework; and subcontract drawings.

  14. Efficacy of traps, lures, and repellents for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles on Coffea arabica plantations and Acacia koa nurseries in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    E. G. Burbano; M.G. Wright; N.E. Gillette; S. Mori; N. Dudley; N. Jones; M. Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a pest of coffee and many endemic Hawaiian plants. Traps baited with chemical attractants commonly are used to capture ambrosia beetles for purposes of monitoring, studying population dynamics, predicting outbreaks, and mass trapping to reduce damage...

  15. Habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for the exotic ambrosia beetle, Cnestus mutilatus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in the southeastern United States.

    Treesearch

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Douglas Streett; Christopher Carlton

    2014-01-01

    The camphor shot borer, Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) is a nonnative ambrosia beetle first reported in the United States in 1999 at Oktibbeha County in Mississippi. Although C. mutilatus is a major pest of several trees in its native habitat in Asia, it is not yet a major pest in the United States. However, the range expansion in recent years across the southeastern...

  16. An Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus and its novel symbiotic fungus Fusarium sp. pose a serious threat to the Israeli avocado industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus Einchoff was first recorded in Israel in 2009. A novel unnamed symbiotic species within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex, carried in the mandibular mycangia of the beetle, is responsible for the typical wilt symptoms inflicted on avocado (Perse...

  17. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Schultz, Peter B.; Reding, Michael E.; Frank, Steven D.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2016-01-01

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy. PMID:27548230

  18. Presence and Prevalence of Raffaelea lauricola, Cause of Laurel Wilt, in Different Species of Ambrosia Beetle in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Narvaez, Teresa; Duncan, Rita E; Saucedo, Ramon J; Campbell, Alina; Mantilla, Julio; Carrillo, Daniel; Kendra, Paul E

    2017-01-10

    We summarize the information available on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in Florida with Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the primary symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and cause of laurel wilt. In total, 14 species in Ambrosiodmus, Euwallacea, Premnobius, Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus were either reared from laurel wilt-affected host trees or trapped in laurel wilt-affected stands of the same, and assayed for R. lauricola In six collections from native species in the southeastern United States [Persea borbonia (L.), Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and Persea humilis Nash] and four from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), extracted mycangia or heads (taxa with mandibular mycangia) or intact bodies (taxa with mycangia in other locations) were surface-disinfested before assays on a semi-selective medium for the isolation of Raffaelea (CSMA+). Raffaelea lauricola was identified based on its characteristic phenotype on CSMA+, and the identity of a random subset of isolates was confirmed with taxon-specific microsatellite markers. The pathogen was recovered from 34% (246 of 726) of the individuals that were associated with the native Persea spp., but only 6% (58 of 931) of those that were associated with avocado. Over all studies, R. lauricola was recovered from 10 of the ambrosia beetle species, but it was most prevalent in Xyleborus congeners. This is the first record of R. lauricola in Ambrosiodmus lecontei Hopkins, Xyleborinus andrewesi (Blandford), and Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff. The potential effects of R. lauricola's promiscuity are discussed.

  19. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of (1) the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium; (2) the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale; and (3) the fate and transport of contaminants from the uppermost aquifer to the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Shale unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. Figure 1 is a geologic cross section depicting the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Table 1 presents hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit.

  20. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium and a discussion of the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Sahel unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. A geologic cross section depicts the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit is presented.

  1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) in Germany - current presence, allergological relevance and containment procedures.

    PubMed

    Buters, Jeroen; Alberternst, Beate; Nawrath, Stefan; Wimmer, Maria; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Starfinger, Uwe; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) is a neophyte in Europe and Germany, which originated from the United States of America. In the USA the rate of sensitization against ragweed equals that of grass pollen, and without containment the rate of allergic sensitizations against ragweed pollen will clearly increase. Currently, the most frequent sensitizations in Germany are against grass pollen, followed by sensitizations against house dust mite and birch pollen. Ragweed pollen evokes symptoms at about 10 pollen/m3, grass pollen at about 15 pollen/m3. These concentrations of ragweed pollen are only reached on limited occasions in Germany. Ragweed cross-reacts with mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and a correct diagnosis is only feasible with the ragweed specific allergen Amb a 1. Due to cross reactivity with mugwort, new sensitizations against ragweed pollen are not needed to evoke allergic symptoms. The neophyte encounters an already mugwort-sensitized population, extends the pollen season and may provoke new sensitizations. Ragweed sensitizations are characterized by an increased tendency to also affect the lower airways, which is less with mugwort sensitizations. Thus containment of ragweed is needed. Ragweed seeds are imported or spread by contaminated bird feed, the transport of ragweed contaminated soil (also in tyre treads) and agricultural products from infested areas. States bordering on ragweed positive areas, like Brandenburg and Bavaria, are especially at risk and invasion is already underway. Ragweed seeds survive up to 40 years in soil, and so extended timescales for eradication and observations are needed. Germany is, compared to other countries like France (Rhone-Valley), Italy (Po-Valley), Ukraine and Hungary, limited in respect to ragweed infestation. Conditions in Germany are therefore favourable for the containment of ragweed. Switzerland implemented legislation against birdseed contamination by ragweed early during the plants expansion, and obligatory

  2. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen simulations over the Euro-CORDEX domain: model description and emission calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liu, li; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Vautard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is a highly allergenic invasive plant. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007). In the context of the ATOPICA EU program we are studying the links between climate, land use and ecological changes on the ragweed pollen emissions and concentrations. For this purpose, we implemented a pollen emission/transport module in the RegCM4 regional climate model in collaboration with ATOPICA partners. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model, i.e. RegCM4 was adapted to incorporate the pollen emissions from (ORCHIDEE French) Global Land Surface Model and a pollen tracer model for describing pollen convective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition over extensive domains, using consistent assumption regarding the transport of multiple species (Fabien et al., 2008). We performed two families of recent-past simulations on the Euro-Cordex domain (simulation for future condition is been considering). Hindcast simulations (2000~2011) were driven by the ERA-Interim re-analyses and designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens, which were calibrated with parts of observations and verified by comparison with the additional observations. Historical simulations (1985~2004) were driven by HadGEM CMPI5 and designed to serve as a baseline for comparison with future airborne concentrations as obtained from climate and land-use scenarios. To reduce the uncertainties on the ragweed pollen emission, an assimilation-like method (Rouǐl et al., 2009) was used to calibrate release based on airborne pollen observations. The observations were divided into two groups and used for calibration and validation separately. A wide range of possible calibration coefficients were tested for each calibration station, making the bias between observations and simulations within an admissible value then

  3. [Gas exchange features of Ambrosia artemisiifolia leaves and fruits and their correlations with soil heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Chen, Huafeng; Yang, Fengjian; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2006-12-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia can survive well in the habitats of heavy human disturbance and partial soil pollution. Weather its photosynthetic features benefit their survival is worthwhile to concern. With a refuse dump in Changchun City (43 degrees 50'N, 125 degrees 23'E) as study site, this paper analyzed the contents of soil Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, As, Sb and Hg at ten plots, and measured in situ the gas exchange in A. artemisiifolia leaves and young fruits. The results showed that the study site was slightly contaminated by Ni, but the contents of other soil heavy metals were approached to or substantially lower than their threshold values. The net photosynthetic rate of leaves ranged from 1.88 to 9.41 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), while that of young fruits could be up to 2. 81 micromol x m(-2) s(-1). Averagely, the respiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and water utilization efficiency of leaves were 1.81 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), 75.7 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), 6.05 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), and 4.72 micromol CO2 x mmol(-1) H2O, being 5.26, 0.64, 1.31 and 1.69 times as much as those of young fruits, respectively, indicating that the respiratory and photosynthetic capacities and water use efficiency of A. artemisiifolia young fruits were equivalent to or higher than those of its leaves. Many test heavy metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Sb and Hg, had no significant effects on the gas exchange features of leaves and fruits, but there were significant correlations of Ni and Cr with the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of leaves and young fruits, Cr with the gross photosynthesis of leaves, and As with the stomatal conductance of young fruits, suggesting that a majority of test soil heavy metals had no direct effects on the gas exchange in A. artemisiifolia leaves and fruits, but soil Ni, Cr and As with the contents approached to or substantially lower than the threshold values could affect the gas exchange features of A

  4. Comparison of three types of traps baited with sexual pheromones for ambrosia beetle Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) in poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Funes, Hernán; Zerba, Eduardo; González Audino, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) is an ambrosia beetle native to South America that only attacks standing live trees and is a serious problem for commercial poplar (Populus L.; Salicaceae) plantations in Argentina. The development of traps baited with synthetic pheromones that can be used for monitoring M. mutatus in infested poplar plantations is an important goal in preventive programs. Pioneer male M. mutatus emit a pheromone composed mainly by (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. In the current study, we tested their release rates from several polymeric reservoir systems, to develop and manufacture a pheromone-releasing device. The efficacy of three different types of traps was evaluated in the field. Single funnel traps equipped with cross-vanes (CIPEIN-CV) captured significantly more insects than multiple funnel traps (LINDGREN) and simple funnel traps (CIPEIN-F).

  5. Gene flow and population admixture as the primary post-invasion processes in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) populations in France.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young Jin; Fumanal, Boris; Laitung, Beryl; Bretagnolle, François

    2010-03-01

    *An improved inference of the evolutionary history of invasive species may be achieved by analyzing the genetic variation and population differentiation of recently established populations and their ancestral (historical) populations. Employing this approach, we investigated the role of gene flow in the post-invasion evolution of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). *Using eight microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure among nine pairs of historical and recent populations in France. Historical populations were reconstructed from herbarium specimens dated from the late 19th to early 20th century, whereas recent populations were collected within the last 5 yr. *Recent populations showed greater allelic and genetic diversity than did historical populations. Recent populations exhibited a lower level of population differentiation, shorter genetic distances among populations and more weakly structured populations than did historical populations. *Our results suggest that currently invasive populations have arisen from active gene flow and the subsequent admixture of historical populations, incorporating new alleles from multiple introductions.

  6. Evidence for novel viruses by analysis of nucleic acids in virus-like particle fractions from Ambrosia psilostachya.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Ulrich; Muthukumar, Vijay; Wiley, Graham B; Min, Byoung Eun; Palmer, Michael W; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie; Ali, Akhtar; Nelson, Richard S; Roe, Bruce A; Thapa, Vaskar; Pierce, Margaret L

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that many viruses remain to be discovered in plants, a procedure was developed to sequence nucleic acids cloned randomly from virus-like particle fractions of plant homogenates. As a test of the efficiency of the procedure we targeted Ambrosia psilostachya, western ragweed, plants growing at the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northeastern Oklahoma. Amplifiable nucleic acid was found in the fractions from six of twelve specimens and sequences were characterized from four of them. Evidence was obtained for the presence of viruses belonging to two families (Caulimoviridae, Flexiviridae). Multiple viral species were found in two of the four specimens and their level within the isolated nucleic acid population varied from less than 1-37%. None of the sequences were derived from reported sequences of known viruses. Thus, the analysis of nucleic acid from virus-like particles is a useful tool to expand our knowledge of the universe of viruses to non-cultivated species.

  7. Comparative importance of overland runoff and mean annual rainfall to shrub communities of the Mojave Desert. [Larrea tridentata; Ambrosia dumosa

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, W.H.; Jones, C.S.

    1984-03-01

    The density, biomass, and pattern of shrubs on a desert piedmont in southern California were measured in a series of plots from which sheet-flow and stream-channel runoff from adjacent mountains have been excluded for 45 yr. The plots were compared with undisturbed adjacent areas in which soil moisture is derived from both runoff and incident precipitation. Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa showed significantly lower density in areas of drainage diversion. There were no differences in mean shrub biomass for A. dumosa, but in areas of drainage diversion, mortality of L. tridentata was concentrated among larger individuals. The remaining population of smaller shrubs showed a more aggregated pattern than the population in undisturbed sites. Biomass per hectare was lower for both species in areas of drainage diversion. Desert shrub communities depend on soil moisture recharge during periods of overland runoff. Sources of runoff are important to consider in studies of competition and pattern of desert shrubs.

  8. Attraction of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus Glabratus, To Leaf Volatiles of its Host Plants in North America.

    PubMed

    Martini, Xavier; Hughes, Marc A; Smith, Jason A; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-07-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an important pest of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swamp bay (P. palustris) trees in forests of the southeastern USA. It is also a threat to commercially grown avocado. The beetle is attracted to host wood volatiles, particularly sesquiterpenes. Contrary to other ambrosia beetles that attack stressed, possibly pathogen-infected, and dying trees, X. glabratus readily attacks healthy trees. To date little is known about the role of leaf volatiles in the host selection behavior and ecology of X. glabratus. To address this question, an olfactometer bioassay was developed to test the behavioral response of X. glabratus to plant leaf volatiles. We found that X. glabratus was attracted to the leaf odors of their hosts, redbay and swamp bay, with no attraction to a non-host tree tested (live oak, Quercus virginiana), which served as a negative control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS/MS) analysis of leaves revealed the absence of sesquiterpenes known to be attractive to X. glabratus and present in host wood, suggesting that additional leaf-derived semiochemicals may serve as attractants for this beetle. An artificial blend of chemicals was developed based on GC/MS analyses of leaf volatiles and behavioral assays. This blend was attractive to X. glabratus at a level that rivaled currently used lures for practical monitoring of this pest. This synthetic redbay leaf blend also was tested in the field. Baited traps captured more X. glabratus than unbaited controls and equivalently to manuka oil lures. We hypothesize that leaf volatiles may be used by X. glabratus as an additional cue for host location.

  9. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen allergenicity: SuperSAGE transcriptomic analysis upon elevated CO2 and drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is a main cause of allergic diseases in Northern America. The weed has recently become spreading as a neophyte in Europe, while climate change may also affect the growth of the plant and additionally may also influence pollen allergenicity. To gain better insight in the molecular mechanisms in the development of ragweed pollen and its allergenic proteins under global change scenarios, we generated SuperSAGE libraries to identify differentially expressed transcripts. Results Ragweed plants were grown in a greenhouse under 380 ppm CO2 and under elevated level of CO2 (700 ppm). In addition, drought experiments under both CO2 concentrations were performed. The pollen viability was not altered under elevated CO2, whereas drought stress decreased its viability. Increased levels of individual flavonoid metabolites were found under elevated CO2 and/or drought. Total RNA was isolated from ragweed pollen, exposed to the four mentioned scenarios and four SuperSAGE libraries were constructed. The library dataset included 236,942 unique sequences, showing overlapping as well as clear differently expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The analysis targeted ESTs known in Ambrosia, as well as in pollen of other plants. Among the identified ESTs, those encoding allergenic ragweed proteins (Amb a) increased under elevated CO2 and drought stress. In addition, ESTs encoding allergenic proteins in other plants were also identified. Conclusions The analysis of changes in the transcriptome of ragweed pollen upon CO2 and drought stress using SuperSAGE indicates that under global change scenarios the pollen transcriptome was altered, and impacts the allergenic potential of ragweed pollen. PMID:24972689

  10. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen allergenicity: SuperSAGE transcriptomic analysis upon elevated CO2 and drought stress.

    PubMed

    El Kelish, Amr; Zhao, Feng; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J Barbro; Behrendt, Heidrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Horres, Ralf; Pfeifer, Matthias; Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2014-06-27

    Pollen of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is a main cause of allergic diseases in Northern America. The weed has recently become spreading as a neophyte in Europe, while climate change may also affect the growth of the plant and additionally may also influence pollen allergenicity. To gain better insight in the molecular mechanisms in the development of ragweed pollen and its allergenic proteins under global change scenarios, we generated SuperSAGE libraries to identify differentially expressed transcripts. Ragweed plants were grown in a greenhouse under 380 ppm CO2 and under elevated level of CO2 (700 ppm). In addition, drought experiments under both CO2 concentrations were performed. The pollen viability was not altered under elevated CO2, whereas drought stress decreased its viability. Increased levels of individual flavonoid metabolites were found under elevated CO2 and/or drought. Total RNA was isolated from ragweed pollen, exposed to the four mentioned scenarios and four SuperSAGE libraries were constructed. The library dataset included 236,942 unique sequences, showing overlapping as well as clear differently expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The analysis targeted ESTs known in Ambrosia, as well as in pollen of other plants. Among the identified ESTs, those encoding allergenic ragweed proteins (Amb a) increased under elevated CO2 and drought stress. In addition, ESTs encoding allergenic proteins in other plants were also identified. The analysis of changes in the transcriptome of ragweed pollen upon CO2 and drought stress using SuperSAGE indicates that under global change scenarios the pollen transcriptome was altered, and impacts the allergenic potential of ragweed pollen.

  11. Genomic characterization of Ambrosia asymptomatic virus 1 and evidence of other Tymovirales members in the Oklahoma tallgrass prairie revealed by sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mukta; Sokhandan Bashir, Nemat; Palmer, Michael W; Melcher, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    The Plant Virus Biodiversity and Ecology project was undertaken to better understand the nature of plant-viral interactions and the occurrence of non-pathogenic viruses. Plants from the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP), Osage County, Oklahoma, were surveyed from 2005 to 2008 for the presence of viruses, resulting in the detection, using a virus-like particle enrichment method, of the genome a novel virus, Ambrosia asymptomatic virus 1 (AAV1), from Ambrosia psilostachya DC (western ragweed). Here, we present the genomic organization and genetic variability of AAV1. The virus has a single-stranded RNA genome of about 7408 nt, which has six open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the replicase and coat protein ORFs of the virus indicates strongly that the virus should be placed in the genus Mandarivirus. No evidence of recombination was detected. We also report the detection in the TPP of two known viruses and seven other putative viruses, members of the order Tymovirales.

  12. Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael; Six, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    Insect fungus gardens consist of a community of interacting microorganisms that can have either beneficial or detrimental effects to the farmers. In contrast to fungus-farming ants and termites, the fungal communities of ambrosia beetles and the effects of particular fungal species on the farmers are largely unknown. Here, we used a laboratory rearing technique for studying the filamentous fungal garden community of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees. Raffaelea sulfurea and Fusicolla acetilerea were transmitted in spore-carrying organs by gallery founding females and established first in new gardens. Raffaelea sulfurea had positive effects on egg-laying and larval numbers. Over time, four other fungal species emerged in the gardens. Prevalence of one of them, Paecilomyces variotii, correlated negatively with larval numbers and can be harmful to adults by forming biofilms on their bodies. It also comprised the main portion of garden material removed from galleries by adults. Our data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii. Fungal diversity in gardens of ambrosia beetles appears to be much lower than that in gardens of fungus-culturing ants, which seems to result from essential differences in substrates and behaviours. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Ambrosia Lake project archaeological investigations of three small sites associated with the southern Chacoan outlier of Kin Nizhoni, McKinley County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cullington, B.J.; Hammack, L.C.; Baugh, T.G.

    1990-03-15

    During the fall of 1987, Complete Archaeological Service Associates conducted mitigative excavations at three sites (LA50363, LA50364, and LA50371) in McKinley County, New Mexico. These sites are adjacent to the Phillips/United Nuclear Inactive Uranium Mill and Tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The primary deposition at each of these sites appears to be related to a Pueblo II or Bonito Phase occupation. Temporal placement is based primarily on the cross dating of ceramics and archaeomagnetic determinations when possible. No tree-ring or radiocarbon samples are available from these sites. These Ambrosia Lake sites indicate that this area was occupied primarily by Pueblo II people who may have had close social, economic, and ceremonial ties with the people living at the nuclear community of Lower Nizhoni about 3 km south-southeast. The later component at LA50364 indicates a Pueblo III occupation by people who may have had similar ties to the people of the Kin Nizhoni nuclear community. The Ambrosia Lake sites, then, provide important information on the structure of subnuclear communities within the southern Chaco periphery.

  14. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy with a biologically standardized extract of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mirone, C; Albert, F; Tosi, A; Mocchetti, F; Mosca, S; Giorgino, M; Pecora, S; Parmiani, S; Ortolani, C

    2004-09-01

    The allergological relevance of Ambrosia in Europe is growing but the efficacy of the injective immunotherapy for this allergen has been documented only in Northern America. We sought to study the safety and efficacy of injective immunotherapy in European patients sensitized to Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Thirty-two patients (18 M/14 F, mean age 36.78, range 23-60 years) suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma and sensitized to Ambrosia were enrolled and randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) study lasting 1 year. A maintenance dose corresponding to 7.2 microg of Amb a 1 was administered at 4-week intervals after the build-up. During the second and the third year, all patients were under active therapy in an open fashion. Symptom and medication scores, skin reactivity to Ambrosia (parallel line biological assay), and pollen counts were assessed throughout the trial. Twenty-three patients completed the trial. No severe adverse event was observed. During the DBPC phase, actively treated patients showed an improvement in asthmatic symptoms (P=0.02) and drug (P=0.0068) scores days with asthmatic symptoms (P=0.003), days with rhinitis symptoms (P=0.05), and days with intake of drugs (P=0.0058), as compared to before therapy. No improvement for any of these parameters was detected in the placebo group. Moreover, the number of days with rhinitis and asthma was significantly higher in the placebo as compared to the active group (P=0.048 and P<0.0001, respectively). Patients who switched from placebo to active therapy improved in rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and drug intake. The skin reactivity decreased significantly (12.2-fold, P=0.0001) in the active group whereas a slight increase (1.07-fold, P=0.87) was observed in the placebo group after the DBPC phase. After switching to active therapy, patients previously under placebo showed a significant decrease of this parameter (4.78-fold, P=0.002). Injective immunotherapy is safe and clinically effective

  15. History of the Exotic Ambrosia Beetles Euwallacea interjectus and Euwallacea validus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Xyleborini) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cognato, Anthony I; Hoebeke, E Richard; Kajimura, Hisashi; Smith, Sarah M

    2015-06-01

    Exotic insects are constantly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry. Of these, wood-boring beetles, particularly xyleborine ambrosia beetles, are sometimes missed during port inspections and become established in the United States. Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff) and Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) are morphologically similar Asian ambrosia beetle species that vary by their fungal associates and their potential to cause economic damage. Euwallacea validus and E. interjectus were first discovered in New York (1975) and Hawaii (1976), respectively. Euwallacea validus was collected multiple times from widely separated localities and is assumed to have spread throughout the eastern United States. The discovery of E. interjectus in Florida (2011) and Texas (2011) prompted our review of the E. validus specimens because of the potential misidentification of the species. In addition, using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA data and phylogenetic analysis, we tested the hypothesis that multiple introductions account for the U.S. populations of E. interjectus and E. validus. Our review of 7,184 specimens revealed an earlier introduction to the mainland for E. interjectus, which was first collected from Louisiana in 1984. This species is distributed in the South while E. validus occurs in the North with a known area of syntopy in northeastern Georgia. The extent of the syntopy within the United States is unknown and further investigation is required. Phylogenetic analysis of 24 E. interjectus and 20 E. validus individuals resolved clades that associated with each species and gross geographic provenance. Four well-supported clades represented E. interjectus which included the following localities: 1) Hawaii and Thailand; 2) Vietnam, Taiwan, and Texas; 3) Okinawa (Japan); and 4) Japan and several southern U.S. states. One clade comprised all E. validus specimens from Japan and the mainland United States. Four and two haplotypes were found for the E. interjectus and E

  16. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens, Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-wu; Gjesing, Birgitte; Kong, Xing-ai; Wang, Jing-yuan; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-xin; Zhong, Nan-shan; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide. The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia, Ambrosia, and Humulus in northern China. Methods: A total of 1 144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources. Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and Humulus scandens, and against the purified allergens, Art v 1 and Amb a 1. Results: Of 1 144 subjects, 170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing. The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia annua, A. artemisiifolia, and H. scandens was 11.0%, 10.2%, 3.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. Among the intradermal positive subjects, the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A. vulgaris was 58.3%, to A. artemisiifolia 14.7%, and to H. scandens 41.0%. The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%, and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%. The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A. vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high. Subjects with A. artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A. vulgaris specific IgE, but with relatively high levels of A. vulgaris IgE antibodies. There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H. scandens and A. vulgaris or to H. scandens and A. artemisiifolia. Conclusions: The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%. Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization. PMID:23463767

  17. Characterization of a Plasmopara species on Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and notes on P. halstedii, based on morphology and multiple gene phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Kiss, Levente; Vajna, László; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2009-10-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive and highly allergenic plant species, on which two species, Plasmopara halstedii and Plasmopara angustiterminalis, have been recognized to cause downy mildew disease. In this study, morphological and molecular patterns of seven Plasmopara specimens collected from A. artemisiifolia in Canada, Hungary, and USA were compared with those of P. halstedii and P. angustiterminalis from Helianthus and Xanthium, respectively. Analyses of partial sequences of three genes, namely those for the large subunit (28S) of rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) of mtDNA, were carried out to examine the phylogenetic relationships among these specimens using both Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods. All the phylogenetic analyses revealed that the downy mildew pathogens infecting A. artemisiifolia in Hungary and North America clearly represent a lineage distinct from other Plasmopara taxa investigated. The shape of sporangia and the width of trunks and branches also allowed the separation of the specimens parasitic to A. artemisiifolia from P. halstedii on Helianthus annuus and P. angustiterminalis on Xanthium strumarium. Surprisingly, the Hungarian and the Canadian specimens were more closely related to each other than to those from the USA based on COX2 and ND1 mtDNA data, although the D1/D2/D3 sequences of 28S rDNA were identical in all these Plasmopara specimens. The regional distribution of the mtDNA haplotypes seen in this study suggests a transatlantic migration has occurred and would be interesting to follow up with a more detailed sampling. To investigate the diversity within P. halstedii sensu lato, infecting different host plant species, specimens from six asteraceous genera, Ambrosia, Flaveria, Helianthus, Siegesbeckia, Solidago, and Xanthium, were also included in molecular analyses. These represented six distinct lineages according to the host plant genera. These

  18. Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Alleviates Stress-Exacerbated Atopy-Like Skin Dermatitis through the Modulation of Protein Kinase A and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Bongjun; Lee, Bombi; Yoon, Ye Seul; Lim, Pooreum; Hong, Riwon; Yeom, Mijung; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Hijoon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Jang, Young Pyo; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and stress create a vicious cycle: stress exacerbates atopic symptoms, and atopic disease elicits stress and anxiety. Targeting multiple pathways including stress and allergic inflammation is, therefore, important for treating AD. In this study, we investigated the remedial value of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (PTW) for treating immobilization (IMO) stress-exacerbated atopy-like skin dermatitis and its underlying mechanism. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was applied to dorsal skin for sensitization and subsequently both ears for eliciting T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity in mice, which underwent 2 h-IMO stress and PTW administration for the latter 6 and 9 days in the ear exposure period of TMA, respectively. To elicit in vitro degranulation of human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1), 10 µM substance P (SP) and 200 nM corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) were sequentially added with 48 h-interval. PTW extract (500 µg/mL) was added 30 min before CRF treatment. IMO stress exacerbated TMA-induced scratching behavior by 252%, and increased their blood corticosterone levels by two-fold. Treatment with 250 mg/kg PTW significantly restored IMO stress-exacerbated scratching behavior and other indicators such as skin inflammation and water content, lymph node weights, and serum histamine and immunoglobulin E (lgE) levels. Furthermore, it also reversed TMA-stimulated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 mRNAs in ear tissues. PTW significantly inhibited SP/CRF-stimulated degranulation of HMC-1 cells, subsequent tryptase secretion, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. PTW also selectively inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in SP/CRF-treated HMC-1 cells. PTW significantly inhibited HMC-1 cell degranulation and alleviated IMO stress-exacerbated atopic dermatitis symptoms by modulating the PKA/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:28106783

  19. Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Alleviates Stress-Exacerbated Atopy-Like Skin Dermatitis through the Modulation of Protein Kinase A and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sur, Bongjun; Lee, Bombi; Yoon, Ye Seul; Lim, Pooreum; Hong, Riwon; Yeom, Mijung; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Hijoon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Jang, Young Pyo; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2017-01-18

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and stress create a vicious cycle: stress exacerbates atopic symptoms, and atopic disease elicits stress and anxiety. Targeting multiple pathways including stress and allergic inflammation is, therefore, important for treating AD. In this study, we investigated the remedial value of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (PTW) for treating immobilization (IMO) stress-exacerbated atopy-like skin dermatitis and its underlying mechanism. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was applied to dorsal skin for sensitization and subsequently both ears for eliciting T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity in mice, which underwent 2 h-IMO stress and PTW administration for the latter 6 and 9 days in the ear exposure period of TMA, respectively. To elicit in vitro degranulation of human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1), 10 µM substance P (SP) and 200 nM corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) were sequentially added with 48 h-interval. PTW extract (500 µg/mL) was added 30 min before CRF treatment. IMO stress exacerbated TMA-induced scratching behavior by 252%, and increased their blood corticosterone levels by two-fold. Treatment with 250 mg/kg PTW significantly restored IMO stress-exacerbated scratching behavior and other indicators such as skin inflammation and water content, lymph node weights, and serum histamine and immunoglobulin E (lgE) levels. Furthermore, it also reversed TMA-stimulated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 mRNAs in ear tissues. PTW significantly inhibited SP/CRF-stimulated degranulation of HMC-1 cells, subsequent tryptase secretion, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. PTW also selectively inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in SP/CRF-treated HMC-1 cells. PTW significantly inhibited HMC-1 cell degranulation and alleviated IMO stress-exacerbated atopic dermatitis symptoms by modulating the PKA/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  20. DNA barcoding of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals excessive NUMTs and consistent east-west divergence across Palearctic forests.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Kambestad, Marius

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive DNA barcoding library is very useful for rapid identification and detection of invasive pest species. We tested the performance of species identification in the economically most damaging group of wood-boring insects - the bark and ambrosia beetles - with particular focus on broad geographical sampling across the boreal Palearctic forests. Neighbour-joining and Bayesian analyses of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences from 151 species in 40 genera revealed high congruence between morphology-based identification and sequence clusters. Inconsistencies with morphological identifications included the discovery of a likely cryptic Nearctic species of Dryocoetes autographus, the possible hybrid origin of shared mitochondrial haplotypes in Pityophthorus micrographus and P. pityographus, and a possible paraphyletic Xyleborinus saxeseni. The first record of Orthotomicus suturalis in North America was confirmed by DNA barcoding. The mitochondrial data also revealed consistent divergence across the Palearctic or Holarctic, confirmed in part by data from the large ribosomal subunit (28S). Some populations had considerable variation in the mitochondrial barcoding marker, but were invariant in the nuclear ribosomal marker. These findings must be viewed in light of the high number of nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA (NUMTs) detected in eight bark beetle species, suggesting the possible presence of additional cryptic NUMTs. The occurrence of paralogous COI copies, hybridization or cryptic speciation demands a stronger focus on data quality assessment in the construction of DNA barcoding databases.

  1. Multiple introductions, admixture and bridgehead invasion characterize the introduction history of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe and Australia.

    PubMed

    van Boheemen, Lotte A; Lombaert, Eric; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Gauffre, Bertrand; Rieseberg, Loren H; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2017-08-12

    Admixture between differentiated populations is considered to be a powerful mechanism stimulating the invasive success of some introduced species. It is generally facilitated through multiple introductions; however, the importance of admixture prior to introduction has rarely been considered. We assess the likelihood that the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations of Europe and Australia developed through multiple introductions or were sourced from a historical admixture zone within native North America. To do this, we combine large genomic and sampling data sets analysed with approximate Bayesian computation and random forest scenario evaluation to compare single and multiple invasion scenarios with pre- and postintroduction admixture simultaneously. We show the historical admixture zone within native North America originated before global invasion of this weed and could act as a potential source of introduced populations. We provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that the invasive populations established through multiple introductions from the native range into Europe and subsequent bridgehead invasion into Australia. We discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that could promote invasiveness and evolutionary potential of alien species from bridgehead invasions and admixed source populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  3. Data Validation Package December 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site March 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Tsosie, Bernadette; Johnson, Dick

    2016-03-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site does not require groundwater monitoring because groundwater in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and supplemental standards have been applied to the aquifer. However, at the request of the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy conducts annual monitoring at three locations: monitoring wells 0409, 0675, and 0678. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Monitoring Well 0409 was not sampled during this event because it was dry. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. One duplicate sample was collected from location 0675. Groundwater samples from the two sampled wells were analyzed for the constituents listed in Table 1. Time-concentration graphs for selected analytes are included in this report. At well 0675, the duplicate results for total dissolved solids and for most metals (magnesium, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, and uranium) were outside acceptance criteria, which may indicate non-homogeneous conditions at this location. November 2014 results for molybdenum and uranium at well 0675 also were outside acceptance criteria. The well condition will be evaluated prior to the next sampling event.

  4. UV and visible light screening by individual sporopollenin exines derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) and Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed).

    PubMed

    Atkin, Stephen L; Barrier, Sylvain; Cui, Zhenggang; Fletcher, Paul D I; Mackenzie, Grahame; Panel, Vincent; Sol, Vincent; Zhang, Xunli

    2011-03-02

    We have investigated the UV-visible light transmission of three types of micrometre-sized sporopollenin exine shells, two derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) spores and one from Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) pollen. We have used spectrophotometer measurements of partial monolayers of exines and microscope absorbance imaging to derive the light transmission properties of individual exines. Measurements have been made for exines in air when light transmission losses are due to a combination of absorption, reflection and scattering processes and for exines dispersed in a liquid for which the refractive index (RI) is approximately equal to the RI of the exine such that reflection and scattering effects are negligible. Overall, it found that the light transmission of a single exine wall is approximately 50%. This value of the transmission is due mainly to light absorption, is similar for the three exines studied here and varies only slightly with light wavelength over the range 200-900 nm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Which role can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play in the facilitation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. invasion in France?

    PubMed

    Fumanal, B; Plenchette, C; Chauvel, B; Bretagnolle, F

    2006-12-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed), an annual invasive plant, was introduced more than 100 years ago from North America to Europe. Like the majority of other invasive plants in Europe, it develops in open, disturbed areas such as fields, wastelands, roadsides, and riverbanks. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been suspected to play a role in some plant invasion processes. As the common ragweed is known to be colonized by AMF in its native range, the intensity of mycorrhizal root colonization was studied in 35 natural populations in eastern France. About 94% of the A. artemisiifolia populations sampled were mycorrhizal. Root colonization levels varied from 1 to 40% depending on the ecological sites, with lower levels for agricultural habitats and higher levels in disturbed sites, such as wastelands or roadsides. A subsequent greenhouse experiment showed positive impacts of AMF on the growth and development of A. artemisiifolia. It is proposed that the spread of this invasive plant species could be facilitated by AMF, underlining the need to integrate symbiotic interactions in future work on invasive plant processes.

  6. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and post-controlled atmosphere air storage treatments on fresh-cut Ambrosia apple slices.

    PubMed

    Tardelli, Francesca; Guidi, Lucia; Massai, Rossano; Toivonen, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and two different post-controlled atmosphere air storage (PCAAS) durations on the quality and chemistry of fresh-cut Ambrosia apple slices was studied. PCAAS for 1 or 2 weeks prior to slicing had an overall positive effect on the resultant quality of fresh-cut apple slices. The most significant responses to PCAAS were the suppression of both phenolic and o-quinone accumulation in slices, and this was related to the significantly lower browning potential values obtained for slices from PCAAS-treated apples. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities were not affected by 1-MCP or PCAAS treatments. PPO and POX activities were almost completely inhibited by a 50 g L⁻¹ calcium ascorbate anti-browning dip of apple slices from all treatments. The most dramatic effect of the PCAAS treatments was to reduce the accumulation of soluble phenolics, which is likely the reason that o-quinone accumulation was also inhibited in treated fruits. The consequent reduction in browning potential may be the explanation as to why PCAAS treatment has been shown to reduce fresh apple slice browning in previous work. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  8. Geology and recognition of a relict uranium deposit in Sec. 28, T. 14 N. , R. 10 W. , Southwest Ambrosia Lake Area, McKinley County

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.; Peterson, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sandstone uranium deposits in the Morrison Formation (Jurassic) within the Ambrosia Lake district, New Mexico, can be broadly classified into four types, based on their geometry and genesis: primary (trend), redistributed fracture-controlled (stack), redistributed geochemical-cell-controlled, and relict (remnant) deposits. Combinations of these deposits can be found within individual orebodies. Many similarities exist among these types of deposits, suggesting the same mechanisms and controls for the origin of the deposits. Probably the most important distinguishing control is the position of the deposits relative to the furthest advance of a pre-Dakota geochemical cell within the Morrison strata. Redistribution of both uranium and humate material occurred as oxidizing conditions migrated through the fluvial sediments. The migration of the oxidizing ground water was largely controlled by the differences in transmissivity developed within the fluvial facies of the host rock. The Sec. 28 uranium deposit, southwest of the major deposits of the Ambrosia Lake district, is here described as a relict uranium deposit. Preservation of the Sec. 28 relict deposit probably was aided by 1) the relatively insoluble character of intermixed uranium and organic matter, 2) lower ground-water transmissivity associated with a stratigraphic pinch-out of the mineralized upper Westwater Canyon, and 3) the influence a set of bounding faults has exhibited on the ground-water flow pattern since Laramide time. Iron-redox, isopach, and sandstone/mudstone trends observed in the Morrison strata in sec. 28 allow the development of a genetic model for relict orebodies within the Ambrosia Lake district.

  9. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L. . Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office); Mitzelfelt, R. . Environmental Improvement Div.)

    1991-11-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  10. Evaluation of screen barriers on redbay trees to protect them from Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and distribution of initial attacks in relation to stem moisture content, diameter, and height

    Treesearch

    M. Lake Maner; James Hanula; S. Kristine Braman

    2013-01-01

    Fine mesh screen was used to create a physical barrier to prevent redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), from accessing various parts of the boles of redbay trees, Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel, and infecting them with the laurel wilt fungus, Raffaelea lauricola...

  11. No Evolutionary Shift in the Mating System of North American Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae) Following Its Introduction to China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Meng; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wolfe, Lorne M.; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2012-01-01

    The mating system plays a key role during the process of plant invasion. Contemporary evolution of uniparental reproduction (selfing or asexuality) can relieve the challenges of mate limitation in colonizing populations by providing reproductive assurance. Here we examined aspects of the genetics of colonization in Ambrosia artemisiifolia, a North American native that is invasive in China. This species has been found to possess a strong self-incompatibility system and have high outcrossing rates in North America and we examined whether there has been an evolutionary shift towards the dependence on selfing in the introduced range. Specifically, we estimated outcrossing rates in one native and five invasive populations and compared levels of genetic diversity between North America and China. Based on six microsatellite loci we found that, like the native North American population, all five Chinese populations possessed a completely outcrossing mating system. The estimates of paternity correlations were low, ranging from 0.028–0.122, which suggests that populations possessed ∼8–36 pollen donor parents contributing to each maternal plant in the invasive populations. High levels of genetic diversity for both native and invasive populations were found with the unbiased estimate of gene diversity ranging from 0.262–0.289 for both geographic ranges based on AFLP markers. Our results demonstrate that there has been no evolutionary shift from outcrossing to selfing during A. artemisiifolia's invasion of China. Furthermore, high levels of genetic variation in North America and China indicate that there has been no erosion of genetic variance due to a bottleneck during the introduction process. We suggest that the successful invasion of A. artemisiifolia into Asia was facilitated by repeated introductions from multiple source populations in the native range creating a diverse gene pool within Chinese populations. PMID:22384104

  12. Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Cognato, Anthony I

    2012-08-01

    Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named 'ambrosia beetles'. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1α, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma). Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming.

  13. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season.

  14. Flight Capacities and Diurnal Flight Patterns of the Ambrosia Beetles, Xyleborus glabratus and Monarthrum mali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Seo, Meeja; Martini, Xavier; Rivera, Monique J; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-06-01

    We compared the flight activity of Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, vector and symbiont of the causal agent of laurel wilt disease (Raffaelea lauricola), with a native species Monarthrum mali (Fitch) using flight mills. Flight mills were operated either for 24 h or for three 3-h time intervals. During the 3-h interval experiment, the shortest time to flight initiation for X. glabratus occurred at 1600-1900 hours. The average flight time and total flying distance during 1600-2100 hours were also higher than those quantified during the other two recording times investigated. However, total flight duration and proportion of fliers was highest at 1000-1300 hours. We compared several flight parameters. About 64.0% of tested X. glabratus flew <20 m. During 24-h recording periods, M. mali flew longer distances than X. glabratus. Over 50.0% of M. mali flew over 100 m on the flight mill. Xyleborus glabratus flight activity was greatest between 1200 and 1800 hours, while M. mali flew most frequently between 1500 and 2100 hours. Monarthrum mali flew more than five times more frequently than X. glabratus, and their longest single flight distance (37.5 ± 12.5 m) and total flight distance (213.7 ± 85.5 m) were greater than those of X. glabratus. These data will be useful for development of species-specific control and monitoring protocols for these ambrosia beetles based on greater understanding of their flight capacities and associated invasion distance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)

    PubMed Central

    Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Price, Andrew J.; McElroy, J. Scott; Torbert, H. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 μ mol mol−1) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops. PMID:25309569

  16. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid Emissions, Relative Attraction and Boring Preferences of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Kendra, Paul E.; Montgomery, Wayne S.; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Epsky, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  17. Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Barreiro, Fátima; Vieira, Filipe G; Martin, Michael D; Haile, James; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wales, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    Population genetic studies of nonmodel organisms frequently employ reduced representation library (RRL) methodologies, many of which rely on protocols in which genomic DNA is digested by one or more restriction enzymes. However, because high molecular weight DNA is recommended for these protocols, samples with degraded DNA are generally unsuitable for RRL methods. Given that ancient and historic specimens can provide key temporal perspectives to evolutionary questions, we explored how custom-designed RNA probes could enrich for RRL loci (Restriction Enzyme-Associated Loci baits, or REALbaits). Starting with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data generated on modern common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) specimens, we designed 20 000 RNA probes to target well-characterized genomic loci in herbarium voucher specimens dating from 1835 to 1913. Compared to shotgun sequencing, we observed enrichment of the targeted loci at 19- to 151-fold. Using our GBS capture pipeline on a data set of 38 herbarium samples, we discovered 22 813 SNPs, providing sufficient genomic resolution to distinguish geographic populations. For these samples, we found that dilution of REALbaits to 10% of their original concentration still yielded sufficient data for downstream analyses and that a sequencing depth of ~7m reads was sufficient to characterize most loci without wasting sequencing capacity. In addition, we observed that targeted loci had highly variable rates of success, which we primarily attribute to similarity between loci, a trait that ultimately interferes with unambiguous read mapping. Our findings can help researchers design capture experiments for RRL loci, thereby providing an efficient means to integrate samples with degraded DNA into existing RRL data sets.

  18. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  19. Interaction of the Onset of Spring and Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) Pollen Production

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Christine A.; Wayne, Peter M.; Macklin, Eric A.; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Wagner, Christopher J.; Epstein, Paul R.; Bazzaz, Fakhri A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is responsible for climate changes that are having widespread effects on biological systems. One of the clearest changes is earlier onset of spring and lengthening of the growing season. We designed the present study to examine the interactive effects of timing of dormancy release of seeds with low and high atmospheric CO2 on biomass, reproduction, and phenology in ragweed plants (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), which produce highly allergenic pollen. We released ragweed seeds from dormancy at three 15-day intervals and grew plants in climate-controlled glasshouses at either ambient or 700-ppm CO2 concentrations, placing open-top bags over inflorescences to capture pollen. Measurements of plant height and weight; inflorescence number, weight, and length; and days to anthesis and anthesis date were made on each plant, and whole-plant pollen productivity was estimated from an allometric-based model. Timing and CO2 interacted to influence pollen production. At ambient CO2 levels, the earlier cohort acquired a greater biomass, a higher average weight per inflorescence, and a larger number of inflorescences; flowered earlier; and had 54.8% greater pollen production than did the latest cohort. At high CO2 levels, plants showed greater biomass and reproductive effort compared with those in ambient CO2 but only for later cohorts. In the early cohort, pollen production was similar under ambient and high CO2, but in the middle and late cohorts, high CO2 increased pollen production by 32% and 55%, respectively, compared with ambient CO2 levels. Overall, ragweed pollen production can be expected to increase significantly under predicted future climate conditions. PMID:16759986

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Runion, G Brett; Prior, Stephen A; Price, Andrew J; McElroy, J Scott; Torbert, H Allen

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 μ mol mol(-1)) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops.

  1. High genetic diversity in French invasive populations of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, as a result of multiple sources of introduction.

    PubMed

    Genton, B J; Shykoff, J A; Giraud, T

    2005-12-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an aggressive North American annual weed, found particularly in sunflower and corn fields. Besides its economic impact on crop yield, it represents a major health problem because of its strongly allergenic pollen. Ragweed was imported inadvertently to Europe in the 18th century and has become invasive in several countries, notably in the Rhône Valley of France. It has recently expanded in both the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and Bourgogne regions. As first steps towards understanding the causes and mechanisms of ragweed invasion, genetic variability of French and North American populations was analysed using microsatellites. Overall genetic variability was similar in North America and in the Rhône-Alpes region, but within-population levels of genetic variability were surprisingly lower in native than in invasive French populations. French populations also exhibited lower among-population differentiation. A significant pattern of isolation by distance was detected among North American populations but not among French populations. Assignment tests and distribution of rare alleles did not point to a single origin for all French populations, nor for all individuals within populations and private alleles from different North American populations were found in the same French populations. Indeed, within all French populations, individual plants were roughly equally assigned to the different North American populations. Altogether, these results suggest that the French invasive populations include plants from a mixture of sources. Reduced diversity in populations distant from the original area of introduction indicated that ragweed range expansion probably occurred through sequential bottlenecks from the original populations, and not from subsequent new introductions.

  2. Increased specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies induced by natural exposure to ambrosia pollen in patients with allergy.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Induction of specific immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4) response (so-called blocking antibodies) in patients who receive specific immunotherapy (SIT) has been observed for many years. Although many other mechanisms have been identified as key regulators of immunologic processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens, the rise of sIgG4 during immunotherapy, together with the clinical improvement, is still believed to be one of the most important mechanisms through which SIT reaches its clinical efficacy. The aim of this prospective study was to measure levels of IgG4 and sIgE in subjects allergic to Ambrosia elatior pollen (common ragweed), before and during natural exposure to A. elatior pollen. Healthy controls were also included. Twenty-four patients with allergic diseases of the respiratory tract and 24 healthy controls entered the study. The sIgG4 and sIgE levels were measured by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method before and during A. elatior pollination season. A significant increase of the sIgG4 level in subjects with allergy during natural exposure to an allergen (0.676 increased to 0.937; p < 0.05) was shown. An increase in sIgE levels was also observed. Healthy subjects had comparable levels of sIgG4 as in subjects with allergy before the pollination season and no change in sIgG4 and sIgE levels during the pollination season. Increases of sIgG4 and sIgE levels were induced by natural allergen exposure in subjects with allergy but not in healthy individuals. This result support further reevaluation of the "blocking" antibodies concept as one concept responsible for allergen tolerance in patients who receive SIT.

  3. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements.

    PubMed

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season.

  4. Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellites Show Multiple Introductions in the Worldwide Invasion History of Common Ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    PubMed Central

    Gaudeul, Myriam; Giraud, Tatiana; Kiss, Levente; Shykoff, Jacqui A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a North American native that has become one of the most problematic invasive plants in Europe and Asia. We studied its worldwide population genetic structure, using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large population sampling. Our goals were (i) to identify the sources of the invasive populations; (ii) to assess whether all invasive populations were founded by multiple introductions, as previously found in France; (iii) to examine how the introductions have affected the amount and structure of genetic variation in Europe; (iv) to document how the colonization of Europe proceeded; (v) to check whether populations exhibit significant heterozygote deficiencies, as previously observed. Principal Findings We found evidence for multiple introductions of A. artemisiifolia, within regions but also within populations in most parts of its invasive range, leading to high levels of diversity. In Europe, introductions probably stem from two different regions of the native area: populations established in Central Europe appear to have originated from eastern North America, and Eastern European populations from more western North America. This may result from differential commercial exchanges between these geographic regions. Our results indicate that the expansion in Europe mostly occurred through long-distance dispersal, explaining the absence of isolation by distance and the weak influence of geography on the genetic structure in this area in contrast to the native range. Last, we detected significant heterozygote deficiencies in most populations. This may be explained by partial selfing, biparental inbreeding and/or a Wahlund effect and further investigation is warranted. Conclusions This insight into the sources and pathways of common ragweed expansion may help to better understand its invasion success and provides baseline data for future studies on the evolutionary processes involved during range

  5. Interaction of the onset of spring and elevated atmospheric CO2 on ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen production.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christine A; Wayne, Peter M; Macklin, Eric A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Wagner, Christopher J; Epstein, Paul R; Bazzaz, Fakhri A

    2006-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is responsible for climate changes that are having widespread effects on biological systems. One of the clearest changes is earlier onset of spring and lengthening of the growing season. We designed the present study to examine the interactive effects of timing of dormancy release of seeds with low and high atmospheric CO2 on biomass, reproduction, and phenology in ragweed plants (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), which produce highly allergenic pollen. We released ragweed seeds from dormancy at three 15-day intervals and grew plants in climate-controlled glass-houses at either ambient or 700-ppm CO2 concentrations, placing open-top bags over influorescences to capture pollen. Measurements of plant height and weight; inflorescence number, weight, and length; and days to anthesis and anthesis date were made on each plant, and whole-plant pollen productivity was estimated from an allometric-based model. Timing and CO2 interacted to influence pollen production. At ambient CO2 levels, the earlier cohort acquired a greater biomass, a higher average weight per inflorescence, and a larger number of influorescences; flowered earlier; and had 54.8% greater pollen production than did the latest cohort. At high CO2 levels, plants showed greater biomass and reproductive effort compared with those in ambient CO2 but only for later cohorts. In the early cohort, pollen production was similar under ambient and high CO2, but in the middle and late cohorts, high CO2 increased pollen production by 32% and 55%, respectively, compared with ambient CO2 levels. Overall, ragweed pollen production can be expected to increase significantly under predicted future climate conditions.

  6. Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites show multiple introductions in the worldwide invasion history of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

    PubMed

    Gaudeul, Myriam; Giraud, Tatiana; Kiss, Levente; Shykoff, Jacqui A

    2011-03-10

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a North American native that has become one of the most problematic invasive plants in Europe and Asia. We studied its worldwide population genetic structure, using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large population sampling. Our goals were (i) to identify the sources of the invasive populations; (ii) to assess whether all invasive populations were founded by multiple introductions, as previously found in France; (iii) to examine how the introductions have affected the amount and structure of genetic variation in Europe; (iv) to document how the colonization of Europe proceeded; (v) to check whether populations exhibit significant heterozygote deficiencies, as previously observed. We found evidence for multiple introductions of A. artemisiifolia, within regions but also within populations in most parts of its invasive range, leading to high levels of diversity. In Europe, introductions probably stem from two different regions of the native area: populations established in Central Europe appear to have originated from eastern North America, and Eastern European populations from more western North America. This may result from differential commercial exchanges between these geographic regions. Our results indicate that the expansion in Europe mostly occurred through long-distance dispersal, explaining the absence of isolation by distance and the weak influence of geography on the genetic structure in this area in contrast to the native range. Last, we detected significant heterozygote deficiencies in most populations. This may be explained by partial selfing, biparental inbreeding and/or a Wahlund effect and further investigation is warranted. This insight into the sources and pathways of common ragweed expansion may help to better understand its invasion success and provides baseline data for future studies on the evolutionary processes involved during range expansion in novel environments.

  7. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1α, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma). Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming. PMID:22852794

  9. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; Yun, Hye Young; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Goto, Hideaki; Aghayeva, Dilzara N; Fraedrich, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia. To test this hypothesis adult X. glabratus were trapped in Taiwan and on Kyushu Island, Japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to USA for isolation of fungal symbionts. Individual X. glabratus were macerated in glass tissue grinders, and the slurry was serially diluted and plated onto malt agar medium amended with cycloheximide, a medium semiselective for Ophiostoma species and their anamorphs, including members of Raffaelea. R. lauricola was isolated from 56 of 85 beetles in Taiwan and 10 of 16 beetles in Japan at up to an estimated 10 000 CFUs per beetle. The next most commonly isolated species was R. ellipticospora, which also has been recovered from X. glabratus trapped in the USA, as were two other fungi isolated from beetles in Taiwan, R. fusca and R. subfusca. Three unidentified Raffaelea spp. and three unidentified Ophiostoma spp. were isolated rarely from X. glabratus collected in Taiwan. Isolations from beetles similarly trapped in Georgia, USA, yielded R. lauricola and R. ellipticospora in numbers similar to those from beetles trapped in Taiwan and Japan. The results support the hypothesis that R. lauricola was introduced into the USA in mycangia of X. glabratus shipped to USA in solid wood packing material from Asia. However differences in the mycangial mycoflora of X. glabratus in Taiwan, Japan and USA suggest that the X. glabratus population established in USA originated in another part of Asia.

  10. No evolutionary shift in the mating system of north American Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae) following its introduction to China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Meng; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wolfe, Lorne M; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2012-01-01

    The mating system plays a key role during the process of plant invasion. Contemporary evolution of uniparental reproduction (selfing or asexuality) can relieve the challenges of mate limitation in colonizing populations by providing reproductive assurance. Here we examined aspects of the genetics of colonization in Ambrosia artemisiifolia, a North American native that is invasive in China. This species has been found to possess a strong self-incompatibility system and have high outcrossing rates in North America and we examined whether there has been an evolutionary shift towards the dependence on selfing in the introduced range. Specifically, we estimated outcrossing rates in one native and five invasive populations and compared levels of genetic diversity between North America and China. Based on six microsatellite loci we found that, like the native North American population, all five Chinese populations possessed a completely outcrossing mating system. The estimates of paternity correlations were low, ranging from 0.028-0.122, which suggests that populations possessed ~8-36 pollen donor parents contributing to each maternal plant in the invasive populations. High levels of genetic diversity for both native and invasive populations were found with the unbiased estimate of gene diversity ranging from 0.262-0.289 for both geographic ranges based on AFLP markers. Our results demonstrate that there has been no evolutionary shift from outcrossing to selfing during A. artemisiifolia's invasion of China. Furthermore, high levels of genetic variation in North America and China indicate that there has been no erosion of genetic variance due to a bottleneck during the introduction process. We suggest that the successful invasion of A. artemisiifolia into Asia was facilitated by repeated introductions from multiple source populations in the native range creating a diverse gene pool within Chinese populations.

  11. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  12. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Volume 3, Appendix F, Final plans and specifications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This volume deals with the main construction subcontract for the uranium mill tailings remedial action of Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Contents of subcontract documents AMB-4 include: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications which cover general requirements and sitework; and subcontract drawings.

  13. Efficacy of traps, lures, and repellents for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles on Coffea arabica plantations and Acacia koa nurseries in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Burbano, E G; Wright, M G; Gillette, N E; Mori, S; Dudley, N; Jones, T; Kaufmann, M

    2012-02-01

    The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a pest of coffee and many endemic Hawaiian plants. Traps baited with chemical attractants commonly are used to capture ambrosia beetles for purposes of monitoring, studying population dynamics, predicting outbreaks, and mass trapping to reduce damage. The objectives of this research were to optimize trapping systems for X. compactus and other ambrosia beetles such as Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) by comparing efficacy of several attractants, repellents, and trap types. The ability of certain chemicals to act as beetle repellents and thus interfere with trap catch was tested for purposes of protecting host plants from attack. Potential attractants and application methods tested were as follows: ethyl alcohol pouch delivery system, ethyl alcohol vial delivery system, α-pinene in Eppendorf tubes, eugenol bubblecaps, ginger oil bubblecaps, manuka oil bubblecaps, phoebe oil bubblecaps, and an unbaited control. Potential repellents tested were limonene and verbenone. Ethyl alcohol vials were as attractive as ethyl alcohol sleeves, and were more effective than traps baited with eugenol and α-pinene. Japanese beetle traps were more effective for black twig borer trapping than Lindgren funnel traps, and were easier to deploy. Verbenone and limonene significantly reduced trap catch of Xylosandrus compactus and X. crassiusculus, suggesting that they may be effective for reducing attraction to host plants. These results show the importance of developing a combination of several monitoring techniques to enhance management procedures for the black twig borer.

  14. Evaluations of Insecticides and Fungicides for Reducing Attack Rates of a new invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea Sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Infested Landscape Trees in California.

    PubMed

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Kabashima, John; Eskalen, Akif; Dimson, Monica; Mayorquin, Joey S; Carrillo, Joseph D; Hanlon, Christopher C; Paine, Timothy D

    2017-08-01

    A recently discovered ambrosia beetle with the proposed common name of polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is reported to attack >200 host tree species in southern California, including many important native and urban landscape trees. This invasive beetle, along with its associated fungi, causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including sycamore (Platanus racemosa Nutt.). Due to the severity of the impact of this Euwallacea sp., short-term management tools must include chemical control options for the arboriculture industry and private landowners to protect trees. We examined the effectiveness of insecticides, fungicides, and insecticide-fungicide combinations for controlling continued Euwallacea sp. attacks on previously infested sycamore trees which were monitored for 6 mo after treatment. Pesticide combinations were generally more effective than single pesticide treatments. The combination of a systemic insecticide (emamectin benzoate), a contact insecticide (bifenthrin), and a fungicide (metconazole) provided some level of control when applied on moderate and heavily infested trees. The biological fungicide Bacillus subtilis provided short-term control. There was no difference in the performance of the three triazole fungicides (propiconazole, tebuconazole, and metconazole) included in this study. Although no pesticide combination provided substantial control over time, pesticide treatments may be more effective when trees are treated during early stages of attack by this ambrosia beetle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies.

  16. Reynosin and santamarine: two sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia confertiflora with bactericidal activity against clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Aceves, Enrique Wenceslao; Velázquez, Carlos; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Hernández-Martínez, Javier; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previous studies have shown that the dichloromethanic extract of Ambrosia confertiflora DC (Asteraceae) inhibited Mtb. To isolate the compounds responsible for the mycobactericidal activity against clinical Mtb strains. The dichloromethanic extract of aerial parts of A. confertiflora was separated using chromatography columns. Mycobactericidal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using the Alamar Blue bioassay (128-16 μg/mL, 7 days). Cytotoxicity was tested against normal cell line L929 using the MTT ([3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium]) assay (100-3.125 μg/mL, 48 h). Compound structures were elucidated by (1)H and (13)C uni- and bidimensional NMR. Two sesquiterpene lactones (SQLs) with mycobactericidal activity were identified: santamarine and reynosin. Reynosin was the most active compound, with a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 128 μg/mL against the H37Rv, 366-2009 and 104-2010 Mtb strains and a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64, 64, 128, 128 and 128 μg/mL against the H37Rv, 104-2010, 63-2009, 366-2009 and 430-2010 Mtb strains, respectively. Santamarine had MBCs of 128 μg/mL against the H3Rv and 104-2010 Mtb strains and MICs of 128 μg/mL against the H37Rv, 366-2009 and 104-2010 Mtb strains. We also isolated 1,10-epoxyparthenolide but only showed mycobacteriostatic activity (MIC 128 μg/mL) against the Mtb strain. Compounds were tested against the L929 cell line and the calculated selectivity index was <1. This is the first report of the mycobactericidal activity of these compounds against clinical Mtb strains. It is also the first report of the isolation of 1,10-epoxyparthenolide from A. confertiflora. The anti-mycobacterial activity of A. confertiflora was attributed to the SQLs identified.

  17. Ogataea paradorogensis sp. nov., a novel methylotrophic ascomycetous yeast species isolated from galleries of ambrosia beetles in Japan, with a close relation to Pichia dorogensis.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Takashi; Ninomiya, Shinya; Imanishi, Yumi; Nakagiri, Akira; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Limtong, Savitree

    2008-12-01

    Two yeast strains isolated from galleries of ambrosia beetles in Japan and maintained in NITE Biological Resource Center (NBRC) as Pichia pini were found to represent a hitherto undescribed species. This species shows close relationship to Pichia dorogensis by the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA but is clearly differentiated from it by a DNA-DNA reassociation experiment. It is described as Ogataea paradorogensis sp. nov. The vegetative cells and asci of this species are surrounded with distinct capsules like P. dorogensis. One to four hat-shaped ascospores, which tend to be liberated from the asci at maturation, are formed in the ascus.

  18. Development of a simple PCR-based assay for the identification of triazine resistance in the noxious plant common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and its applicability in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Mátyás, Kinga Klára; Taller, János; Cseh, András; Poczai, Péter; Cernák, István

    2011-12-01

    Bidirectional allele-specific PCR (Bi-PASA) was used to detect a point mutation causing triazine resistance in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). The external primers amplified a 278 bp standard DNA fragment in all genotypes. In the susceptible S264S genotypes, a 208 bp fragment was expected while in resistant S264G common ragweed genotypes a 109 bp band was expected. In resistant plants, both the wild and mutant type fragments were detected, indicating that the original triazine sensitive cpDNA is maintained in a heteroplasmic state in the resistant S264G genotypes. Additionally, in silico analysis confirmed the potential applicability of our diagnostic assay for other plant species. In 24 out of 74 taxa (32%), the assay could be used without any change, while in the others some of the primers should be redesigned before use.

  19. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), their phoretic mites (Acari) and associated Geosmithia species (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Virgilia trees in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Machingambi, Netsai M; Roux, Jolanda; Dreyer, Léanne L; Roets, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles are ecologically and economically important phloeophagous insects that often have complex symbiotic relationships with fungi and mites. These systems are greatly understudied in Africa. In the present study we identified bark and ambrosia beetles, their phoretic mites and their main fungal associates from native Virgilia trees in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. In addition, we tested the ability of mites to feed on the associated fungi. Four species of scolytine beetles were collected from various Virgilia hosts and from across the CFR. All were consistently associated with various Geosmithia species, fungi known from phloeophagous beetles in many parts of the world, but not yet reported as Scolytinae associates in South Africa. Four beetle species, a single mite species and five Geosmithia species were recovered. The beetles, Hapalogenius fuscipennis, Cryphalini sp. 1, and Scolytoplatypus fasciatus were associated with a single species of Elattoma phoretic mite that commonly carried spores of Geosmithia species. Liparthrum sp. 1 did not carry phoretic mites. Similar to European studies, Geosmithia associates of beetles from Virgilia were constant over extended geographic ranges, and species that share the same host plant individual had similar Geosmithia communities. Phoretic mites were unable to feed on their Geosmithia associates, but were observed to feed on bark beetle larvae within tunnels. This study forms the first African-centred base for ongoing global studies on the associations between arthropods and Geosmithia species. It strengthens hypotheses that the association between Scolytinae beetles and dry-spored Geosmithia species may be more ubiquitous than commonly recognised.

  20. The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: Patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwinning, S.; Sandquist, D.R.; Miller, D.M.; Bedford, D.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Drainage channels are among the most conspicuous surficial features of deserts, but little quantitative analysis of their influence on plant distributions is available. We analysed the effects of desert stream channels ('washes') on Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa density and cover on an alluvial piedmont in the Mojave Desert, based on a spatial analysis of transect data encompassing a total length of 2775 m surveyed in 5 cm increments. Significant deviations from average transect properties were identified by bootstrapping. Predictably, shrub cover and density were much reduced inside washes, and elevated above average levels adjacent to washes. Average Larrea and Ambrosia cover and density peaked 1??2-1??6 m and 0??5-1??0 m from wash edges, respectively. We compared wash effects in runon-depleted (-R) sections, where washes had been cut off from runon and were presumably inactive, with those in runon-supplemented (+R) sections downslope from railroad culverts to help identify mechanisms responsible for the facilitative effect of washes on adjacent shrubs. Shrub cover and density near washes peaked in both + R and - R sections, suggesting that improved water infiltration and storage alone can cause a facilitative effect on adjacent shrubs. However, washes of < 2 m width in + R sections had larger than average effects on peak cover, suggesting that plants also benefit from occasional resource supplementation. The data suggest that channel networks significantly contribute to structuring plant communities in the Mojave Desert and their disruption has notable effects on geomorphic and ecological processes far beyond the original disturbance sites. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Forecasting of the selected features of Poaceae (R. Br.) Barnh., Artemisia L. and Ambrosia L. pollen season in Szczecin, north-western Poland, using Gumbel's distribution.

    PubMed

    Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The allergenic pollen content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, biogeography and vegetation. Minimisation of the pollen allergy symptoms is related to the possibility of avoidance of large doses of the allergen. Measurements performed in Szczecin over a period of 13 years (2000-2012 inclusive) permitted prediction of theoretical maximum concentrations of pollen grains and their probability for the pollen season of Poaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. Moreover, the probabilities were determined of a given date as the beginning of the pollen season, the date of the maximum pollen count, Seasonal Pollen Index value and the number of days with pollen count above threshold values. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Hirst volumetric trap (Lanzoni VPPS). Linear trend with determination coefficient (R(2)) was calculated. Model for long-term forecasting was performed by the method based on Gumbel's distribution. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between the duration of pollen season of Poaceae and Artemisia and the Seasonal Pollen Index value. Seasonal, total pollen counts of Artemisia and Ambrosia showed a strong and statistically significant decreasing tendency. On the basis of Gumbel's distribution, a model was proposed for Szczecin, allowing prediction of the probabilities of the maximum pollen count values that can appear once in e.g. 5, 10 or 100 years. Short pollen seasons are characterised by a higher intensity of pollination than long ones. Prediction of the maximum pollen count values, dates of the pollen season beginning, and the number of days with pollen count above the threshold, on the basis of Gumbel's distribution, is expected to lead to improvement in the prophylaxis and therapy of persons allergic to pollen.

  2. Candida kashinagacola sp. nov., C. pseudovanderkliftii sp. nov. and C. vanderkliftii sp. nov., three new yeasts from ambrosia beetle-associated sources.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Benno, Yoshimi; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Three new yeast species, Candida kashinagacola (JCM 15019(T) = CBS 10903(T)), C. pseudovanderkliftii (JCM 15025(T) = CBS 10904(T)), and C. vanderkliftii (JCM 15029(T) = CBS 10905(T)) are described on the basis of comparison of nucleotide sequences of large subunit ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region (LSU rDNA D1/D2). The nearest assigned species of the three new species was Candida llanquihuensis. Candida kashinagacola and C. pseudovanderkliftii differed from C. llanquihuensis by 3.8% nucleotide substitution of the region, while C. vanderkliftii did by 4.4%. Three new species differed in a number of physiological and growth characteristics from any previously assigned species and from one another. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of LSU rDNA D1/D2 showed that these new species together with Candida sp. ST-246, Candida sp. JW01-7-11-1-4-y2, Candida sp. BG02-7-20-001A-2-1 and C. llanquihuensis form a clade near Ambrosiozyma species. The new species did not assimilate methanol as a sole source of carbon, which supported the monophyly of these non methanol-assimilating species which are closely related to the methylotrophic yeasts. Candida kashinagacola was frequently isolated from the beetle galleries of Platypus quercivorus in three different host trees (Quercus serrata, Q. laurifolia and Castanopsis cuspidata) located in the sourthern part of Kyoto, Japan, thus indicating that this species may be a primary ambrosia fungus of P. quercivorus. On the other hand, C. pseudovanderkliftii and C. vanderkliftii were isolated only from beetle galleries in Q. laurifolia. Candida vanderkliftii was isolated from beetle gallery of Platypus lewisi as well as those of P. quercivorus. Candida pseudovanderkliftii and C. vanderkliftii are assumed to be auxiliary ambrosia fungi of P. quercivorus.

  3. Species dependent influence of (-)-alpha-pinene on attraction of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to ethanol-baited traps in nursery agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Cañas, Luís; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-04-01

    Field-based trapping experiments were conducted in Ohio in 2003, 2004, and 2008 to determine the influence of (-)-alpha-pinene on the attraction of exotic and native ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to ethanol-baited traps. In 2003 and 2004, we determined the effect of adding an (-)-alpha-pinene ultrahigh release lure (UHR; 2 g/d at 20 degrees C) to traps baited with an ethanol UHR lure (0.39 g/d). FewerAnisandrus (Xyleborus) sayi (Hopkins) and Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg) were collected in 2003 and 2004 from traps baited with ethanol UHR plus (-)-alpha-pinene UHR compared with ethanol UHR. (-)-alpha-Pinene also reduced the attraction of Xyloterinus politus (Say) to ethanol-baited traps in 2004. Total captures of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) in 2003 were higher in traps baited with ethanol UHR plus (-)-alpha-pinene UHR than in traps with ethanol UHR alone but not in 2004. In 2008, captures were compared among traps baited with eight combinations of ethanol and (-)-a-pinene at both UHR and low release (LR) rates. Release rates for ethanol LR and (-)-alpha-pinene LR were 0.027 and 0.0015 g/d, respectively. (-)-alpha-Pinene UHR and (-)-alpha-pinene LR reduced the attractiveness of ethanol UHR to A. sayi and X. saxeseni. Ethanol UHR was also more attractive than ethanol LR to A. sayi and X. germanus. These findings demonstrate traps baited with ethanol alone are more effective than ethanol plus (-)-alpha-pinene for monitoring ambrosia beetle flight activity in ornamental nurseries. Ethanol release rate is also an important consideration for monitoring purposes.

  4. Assessment of the radon concentrations in air caused by emissions from multiple sources in a uranium mining and milling region. A case study of the Ambrosia Lake region of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    The Ambrosia Lake uranium mining and milling operations were selected to characterize the relative importance of these sources on ambient atmospheric radon concentrations. All uranium mines at Ambrosia Lake are underground. The comparisons of interest were both between the sources and between the sources and background concentrations. The results show that vents are by far the greatest source of the computed radon concentrations in the immediate area of the operations. The computed radon concentrations at receptor points were largely influenced by the closer sources, rather than by more distant stronger sources. The area where computed radon concentrations significantly exceed the background is confined to the general area around the vents and mills. A comparison between computed radon concentrations and monitoring data at selected points demonstrates order of magnitude agreement.

  5. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Boland, John M

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  6. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  7. The Ambrosia Lake project archaeological investigations of three small sites associated with the southern Chacoan outlier of Kin Nizhoni, McKinley County, New Mexico. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cullington, B.J.; Hammack, L.C.; Baugh, T.G. )

    1990-03-15

    During the fall of 1987, Complete Archaeological Service Associates conducted mitigative excavations at three sites (LA50363, LA50364, and LA50371) in McKinley County, New Mexico. These sites are adjacent to the Phillips/United Nuclear Inactive Uranium Mill and Tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The primary deposition at each of these sites appears to be related to a Pueblo II or Bonito Phase occupation. Temporal placement is based primarily on the cross dating of ceramics and archaeomagnetic determinations when possible. No tree-ring or radiocarbon samples are available from these sites. These Ambrosia Lake sites indicate that this area was occupied primarily by Pueblo II people who may have had close social, economic, and ceremonial ties with the people living at the nuclear community of Lower Nizhoni about 3 km south-southeast. The later component at LA50364 indicates a Pueblo III occupation by people who may have had similar ties to the people of the Kin Nizhoni nuclear community. The Ambrosia Lake sites, then, provide important information on the structure of subnuclear communities within the southern Chaco periphery.

  8. Factors controlling localization of uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone, Gallup and Ambrosia Lake mining districts, McKinley County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles Thomas; Green, Morris W.

    1977-01-01

    Geologic studies were made at all of the uranium mines and prospects in the Dakota Sandstone of Early(?) and Late Cretaceous age in the Gallup mining district, McKinley County, New Mexico. Dakota mines in the adjacent Ambrosia Lake mining district were visited briefly for comparative purposes. Mines in the eastern part of the Gallup district, and in the Ambrosia Lake district, are on the Chaco slope of the southern San Juan Basin in strata which dip gently northward toward the central part of the basin. Mines in the western part of the Gallup district are along the Gallup hogback (Nutria monocline) in strata which dip steeply westward into the Gallup sag. Geologic factors which controlled formation of the uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone are: (1) a source of uranium, believed to be uranium deposits of the underlying Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age; (2) the accessibility to the Dakota of uranium-bearing solutions from the Morrison; (3) the presence in the Dakota of permeable sandstone beds overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds; and (4) the occurrence within the permeable Dakota sandstone beds of carbonaceous reducing material as bedding-plane laminae, or as pockets of carbonaceous trash. Most of the Dakota uranium deposits are found in the lower part of the formation in marginal-marine distributary-channel sandstones which were deposited in the backshore environment. However, the Hogback no. 4 (Hyde) Mine (Gallup district) occurs in sandy paludal shale of the backshore environment, and another deposit, the Silver Spur (Ambrosia Lake district), is found in what is interpreted to be a massive beach or barrier-bar sandstone of the foreshore environment in the upper part of the Dakota. The sedimentary depositional environment most favorable for the accumulation of uranium is that of backshore areas lateral to main distributary channels, where levee, splay, and some distributary-channel sandstones intertongue with gray carbonaceous shales and

  9. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients' and their family's quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

  10. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  11. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients’ and their family’s quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success. PMID:28243068

  12. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA) predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

  13. Changes in Defense of an Alien Plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the Invasion of a Native Specialist Enemy Ophraella communa

    PubMed Central

    Fukano, Yuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA) predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) – a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:23145089

  14. Modulation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint by sesquiterpene lactones psilostachyins A and C isolated from the common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Christopher M; Craig, Kyle; Brown, Colleen; Rundle, Natalie T; Andersen, Raymond J; Roberge, Michel

    2005-10-01

    A phenotypic cell-based assay for inhibitors of the G (2) DNA damage checkpoint was used to screen plant extracts from the US National Cancer Institute Natural Products Repository. It revealed activity in a methanol extract from the common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Assay-guided fractionation led to the identification of the sesquiterpene lactones psilostachyins A and C as novel checkpoint inhibitors. Elimination of their alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group caused a loss of activity, suggesting that the compounds can bind covalently to target proteins through Michael addition. Psilostachyins A and C also blocked cells in mitosis and caused the formation of aberrant microtubule spindles. However, the compounds did not interfere with microtubule polymerization in vitro. The related sesquiterpene lactones psilostachyin B, paulitin and isopaulitin were also isolated from the same extract but showed no checkpoint inhibition. The identification of the target(s) of psilostachyins A and C may provide further insight into the signalling pathways involved in cell cycle arrest and mitotic progression.

  15. Pollen of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): Illumina-based de novo sequencing and differential transcript expression upon elevated NO2/O3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J Barbro; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Strom, Tim-Matthias; Ernst, Dieter; Frank, Ulrike

    2017-05-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic annual ruderal plant and native to Northern America, but now also spreading across Europe. Air pollution and climate change will not only affect plant growth, pollen production and duration of the whole pollen season, but also the amount of allergenic encoding transcripts and proteins of the pollen. The objective of this study was to get a better understanding of transcriptional changes in ragweed pollen upon NO2 and O3 fumigation. This will also contribute to a systems biology approach to understand the reaction of the allergenic pollen to air pollution and climate change. Ragweed plants were grown in climate chambers under controlled conditions and fumigated with enhanced levels of NO2 and O3. Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly revealed significant differentially expressed transcripts, belonging to different gene ontology (GO) terms that were grouped into biological process and molecular function. Transcript levels of the known Amb a ragweed encoding allergens were clearly up-regulated under elevated NO2, whereas the amount of allergen encoding transcripts was more variable under elevated O3 conditions. Moreover transcripts encoding allergen known from other plants could be identified. The transcriptional changes in ragweed pollen upon elevated NO2 fumigation indicates that air pollution will alter the transcriptome of the pollen. The changed levels of allergenic encoding transcripts may have an influence on the total allergenic potential of ragweed pollen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The molecular basis of invasiveness: differences in gene expression of native and introduced common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in stressful and benign environments.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Nurkowski, Kristin; Huang, Jie; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-05-01

    Although the evolutionary and ecological processes that contribute to plant invasion have been the focus of much research, investigation into the molecular basis of invasion is just beginning. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an annual weed native to North America and has been introduced to Europe where it has become invasive. Using a custom-designed NimbleGen oligoarray, we examined differences in gene expression between five native and six introduced populations of common ragweed in three different environments (control, light stress and nutrient stress), as well as two different time points. We identified candidate genes that may contribute to invasiveness in common ragweed based on differences in expression between native and introduced populations from Europe. Specifically, we found 180 genes where range explained a significant proportion of the variation in gene expression and a further 103 genes with a significant range by treatment interaction. Several of these genes are potentially involved in the metabolism of secondary compounds, stress response and the detoxification of xenobiotics. Previously, we found more rapid growth and greater reproductive success in introduced populations, particularly in benign and competitive (light stress) environments, and many of these candidate genes potentially underlie these growth differences. We also found expression differences among populations within each range, reflecting either local adaptation or neutral processes, although no associations with climate or latitude were identified. These data provide a first step in identifying genes that are involved with introduction success in an aggressive annual weed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. U-Pb isotope systematics and apparent ages of uranium ores, Ambrosia Lake and Smith Lake districts, Grants mineral belt, New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Simmons, K.R.; Webster, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of uranium orebodies occur in continental sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison formation: 1) 'primary' tabular peneconcordant bodies rich in interstitial organic material (containing most of the U) and older than the overlying Cretaceous Dakota sandstone and 2) younger discordant ore-bodies associated with Tertiary faults, containing little organic material (coffinite is the U-carrier) and considered to be redistributed primary ore. U/Pb isotope ages of four of the younger ore-bodies from the Ambrosia Lake district are concordant at 3.3-12.5 m.y. U/Pb isotope ages of primary ores from the same district show pronounced normal discordance, explained by continuous loss of Pb and 238U daughters and, locally, by U-gain during Tertiary redistribution. The primary ores, without Tertiary U-gain, plot on the concordia diagram close to a calculated continuous diffusion curve for coupled loss of Pb and 238U daughters. The concordia intercept of this curve corresponds with an age of approx 130 m.y. Ore-bodies in the Smith Lake district have characteristics both of primary (co-extensive with organic material) and redistributed (discordant) types. They show less coherent U/Pb isotope systematics but give only pre-Tertiary apparent ages.-G.J.N.

  18. Estimating calibration equations for predicting Ra-226 soil concentrations using RTRAK in-situ detectors at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Umtra site

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R. O.; Meyer, H. R.; Miller, M. L.; Begley, C.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes a field study conducted at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, UMTRA site to obtain data for calibrating the RTRAK Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors for estimating concentrations of Ra-226 in surface soil. The statistical analyses indicate that the data are useful for estimating the calibration equations. Several statistical models are used to evaluate which model is best as a basis for the calibration equations. A procedure is provided for using the estimated calibration equations and extensive RTRAK measurements to estimate the average Ra-226 concentration on 100-m/sup 2/ land areas to determine whether additional remedial action is needed. The UMTRA Project office proposes to use the RTRAK for cleanup verification of surface Ra-226 contamination. The system enables 100% coverage of areas having undergone remedial action. The sensitivity of the system enables verification at less than 5 pCi/g averaged over 100 m/sup 2/, as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards (40 CFR Part 192). This analysis demonstrates RTRAK's ability to meet reasonable standards of statistical accuracy, using commonly accepted procedures. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Predicting the potential distribution of invasive exotic species using GIS and information-theoretic approaches: A case of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) distribution in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hao, Chen; LiJun, Chen; Albright, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive exotic species pose a growing threat to the economy, public health, and ecological integrity of nations worldwide. Explaining and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive exotic species is of great importance to prevention and early warning efforts. We are investigating the potential distribution of invasive exotic species, the environmental factors that influence these distributions, and the ability to predict them using statistical and information-theoretic approaches. For some species, detailed presence/absence occurrence data are available, allowing the use of a variety of standard statistical techniques. However, for most species, absence data are not available. Presented with the challenge of developing a model based on presence-only information, we developed an improved logistic regression approach using Information Theory and Frequency Statistics to produce a relative suitability map. This paper generated a variety of distributions of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) from logistic regression models applied to herbarium specimen location data and a suite of GIS layers including climatic, topographic, and land cover information. Our logistic regression model was based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) from a suite of ecologically reasonable predictor variables. Based on the results we provided a new Frequency Statistical method to compartmentalize habitat-suitability in the native range. Finally, we used the model and the compartmentalized criterion developed in native ranges to "project" a potential distribution onto the exotic ranges to build habitat-suitability maps. ?? Science in China Press 2007.

  20. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Mitzelfelt, R.

    1991-11-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  1. The Fungus Raffaelea lauricola Modifies Behavior of Its Symbiont and Vector, the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Xyleborus Glabratus), by Altering Host Plant Volatile Production.

    PubMed

    Martini, Xavier; Hughes, Marc A; Killiny, Nabil; George, Justin; Lapointe, Stephen L; Smith, Jason A; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-05-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus is the vector of the symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt, a highly lethal disease to members of the Lauraceae family. Pioneer X. glabratus beetles infect live trees with R. lauricola, and only when tree health starts declining more X. glabratus are attracted to the infected tree. Until now this sequence of events was not well understood. In this study, we investigated the temporal patterns of host volatiles and phytohormone production and vector attraction in relation to laurel wilt symptomology. Following inoculations with R. lauricola, volatile collections and behavioral tests were performed at different time points. Three days after infection (DAI), we found significant repellency of X. glabratus by leaf odors of infected swamp bay Persea palustris as compared with controls. However, at 10 and 20 DAI, X. glabratus were more attracted to leaf odors from infected than non-infected host plants. GC-MS analysis revealed an increase in methyl salicylate (MeSA) 3 DAI, whereas an increase of sesquiterpenes and leaf aldehydes was observed 10 and 20 DAI in leaf volatiles. MeSA was the only behaviorally active repellent of X. glabratus in laboratory bioassays. In contrast, X. glabratus did not prefer infected wood over healthy wood, and there was no associated significant difference in their volatile profiles. Analyses of phytohormone profiles revealed an initial increase in the amount of salicylic acid (SA) in leaf tissues following fungal infection, suggesting that the SA pathway was activated by R. lauricola infection, and this activation caused increased release of MeSA. Overall, our findings provide a better understanding of X. glabratus ecology and underline chemical interactions with its symbiotic fungus. Our work also demonstrates how the laurel wilt pathosystem alters host defenses to impact vector behavior and suggests manipulation of host odor by the fungus that attract more vectors.

  2. Species composition, seasonal activity, and semiochemical response of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in northeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Cognato, Anthony I; Lightle, Danielle M; Mosley, Bryson J; Nielsen, David G; Herms, Daniel A

    2010-08-01

    In 2007, we surveyed the alien and endemic scolytine (bark and ambrosia beetles) fauna of northeastern Ohio, and for the most abundant species, we characterized their seasonal activity and response to three semiochemical baits. In total ,5,339 scolytine beetles represented by 47 species and 29 genera were caught in Lindgren funnel traps. Three species constituted 57% of the total catch, including Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), Tomicus piniperda (L.), and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg). Of the total captured, 32% of the species and approximately 60% of the individuals were exotic, suggesting that exotic species numerically dominate the scolytine fauna in some urban areas. More native and exotic species were caught in traps baited with ethanol alone than in traps baited with other lures. However, significantly more individuals, especially of T. piniperda, D. autographus, Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch), and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), and species were caught in traps baited with ethanol plus alpha-pinene than in traps baited with ethanol alone or the exotic Ips lure. This suggests that among these baits, the ethanol plus alpha-pinene baits may be useful in maximizing scolytine beetle catches of these species within this region. Species diversity and richness for both native and exotic beetles was greatest in traps baited with ethanol alone. The period of peak trap capture varied depending upon species: X. germanus was most abundant in traps in mid-May and early-August; T. piniperda in mid-May; D. autographus in early June, mid-July, and mid-September; Anisandrus sayi Hopkins and G. materiarius in mid-May, mid-July, and early September; and I. grandicollis in early April, mid-July, and late September.

  3. Investigating the relationship between Ambrosia pollen concentration and meteorological variables in a European domain based on CORDEX and CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torma, Csaba Zsolt; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    As part of the European project, ATOPICA (atopic diseases in changing climate, land use & air quality) evaluation and scenario simulations were accomplished on 50-km grid spacing over a European domain which was defined in the framework of the international initiation called COordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). Based on observational data collected from European pollen data bases, the pollen peak season of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (short or common ragweed) was found between the period: August-September (AS). One sub-region was selected (the most contaminated one: southern part of the Carpathian Basin) for further studies. Based on the ERA-Interim driven simulation of a regional climate model (RegCM) developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre of Theoretical Physics: temperature and precipitation indices are introduced related to the total common ragweed pollen concentration amounts over the target region for the period 1984-2008. In each case (temperature, precipitation) the index was based on the August-September (AS, peak-season) and June-July (JJ, pre-season) means by subtracting the latter from the previous one. The results manifested in a relatively clear signal between total pollen amounts and the indices. The temperature index is negatively, while the precipitation index is positively correlated with the total pollen amounts. This means cooler and wetter pre-seasonal and relatively drier and warmer peak-season weather conditions are favorable for the common ragweed outburst with high pollen concentrations. In total twenty global climate models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and five regional climate models from the CORDEX initiative were involved in the analyses in order to assess the link between the indices and the seasonal total pollen amounts. The temperature and precipitation indices presented in this study can be a useful tool for seasonal pollen forecasting in future studies.

  4. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    PubMed Central

    Muscarella, Robert; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in ‘high allergy risk’ (HAR) areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25%) of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27–100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe. PMID:28321366

  5. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Muscarella, Robert; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' (HAR) areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25%) of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27-100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

  6. Effects of temperature on survival, development, longevity, and fecundity of Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent against Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2010-06-01

    Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a leaf beetle that is unintentionally introduced in China. It is a potential biological control agent against common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae). The effects of temperature on the development and fecundity of O. communa were studied at eight constant temperature regimens (15, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 36 degrees C) in the laboratory. The results showed that the developmental periods for egg, larva, pupa, and entire immature stages decreased in response to the increasing temperature, with the exception of 30 degrees C. The survival rates at different developmental stages were higher at 25 and 28 degrees C than at other temperatures. Ovipositional period and longevity of female shortened with the increasing temperature. The highest fecundity of female was observed to be 2,712.3 eggs/female at 28 degrees C. Life table of O. communa was constructed based on the data at 20-32 degrees C. The innate capacity for increase (r(m)), the net reproductive rate (R(0)), and the finite rate of increase (lambda) reached the maximum at 28 degrees C, with values of 0.247, 1,773.0, and 1.280, respectively. The shortest period of a generation (T) was 24.6 d at 32 degrees C, whereas the longest T value was recorded as 79.3 d at 20 degrees C. These results offer valuable insight on the establishment potential of O. communa in new environments with diverse temperature regimens and on its mass-rearing techniques in laboratory.

  7. Establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in disturbed soil as a function of an urban-rural macro-environment

    SciTech Connect

    ZISKA, L. H.; GEORGE, K.; FRENZ, D. A.

    2006-09-28

    No data are available on whether rising carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] or increased air temperature can alter the establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) within a plant community following soil disturbance. To determine ragweed longevity, we exposed disturbed soil with a common seed bank population to an in situ temperature and [CO2] gradient along an urban-rural transect beginning in early 2002. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented over the course of the study (2002-2005). Above-ground measurements of biomass over this period demonstrated that ragweed along the transect responded to urban induced increases in [CO2]/temperature with peak biomass being observed at this location by the end of 2003. However, by the Fall of 2004, and continuing through 2005, urban ragweed populations had dwindled to a few plants. The temporal decline in ragweed populations was not associated with increased disease, herbivory or auto-allelopathy, but was part of a demographic reduction in the total number of annual plant species observed for the urban location. In a separate experiment, we showed that such a demographic shift is consistent with CO2/temperature induced increases in biomass and litter accumulation, with a subsequent reduction in germination / survival of annual plant species. Overall, these data indicate that [CO2]/temperature differences associated with urbanization may increase initial ragweed productivity and pollen production, but suggest that long-term, multi-year persistence of ragweed in the urban macro-environment may be dependent on other factors.

  8. Origin of intraformational folds in the Jurassic Todilto Limestone, Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district, McKinley and Valencia counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Todilto Limestone of Middle Jurassic age in the Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district of McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico, is the host formation for numerous small- to medium-sized uranium deposits in joints, shear zones, and fractures within small- to large-scale intraformational folds. The folds probably were formed as a result of differential sediment loading when eolian sand dunes of the overlying Summerville Formation of Middle Jurassic age migrated over soft, chemically precipitated, lime muds of the Todilto shortly after their deposition in a regressive, mixed fresh and saline lacustrine or marine environment of deposition. Encroachment of Summerville eolian dunes over soft Todilto lime muds was apparently a local phenomenon and was restricted to postulated beltlike zones which trended radially across the Todilto coastline toward the receding body of water. Intraformational folding is believed to be confined to the pathways of individual eolian dunes or clusters of dunes within the dune belts. During the process of sediment loading by migrating sand dunes, layers of Todilto lime mud were differentially compacted, contorted, and dewatered, producing both small- and large-scale plastic deformation structures, including convolute laminations, mounds, rolls, folds, and small anticlines and synclines. With continued compaction and dewatering, the mud, in localized areas, reached a point of desaturation at which sediment plasticity was lost. Prolonged loading by overlying dune sands thus caused faulting, shearing, fracturing, and jointing of contorted limestone beds. These areas or zones of deformation within the limestone became the preferred sites of epigenetic uranium mineralization because of the induced transmissivity created by sediment rupture. Along most of the prograding Todilto coastline, adjacent to the eolian dune belts, both interdune and coastal sabkha environments dominated during Todilto-Summerville time. Sediments in coastal areas

  9. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2008-08-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore

  10. Non-native Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Rzeszów (SE Poland); evaluation of the effect of weather conditions on daily concentrations and starting dates of the pollen season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2008-05-01

    The investigated problem was whether and to what an extent the elements of weather conditions were associated with changes in the concentration of Ambrosia pollen in air. The study was carried out in the years 1997-2004 using the volumetric method. Ragweed did not occur in the flora of the town of Rzeszów and its vicinity, but every year its pollen occurred at concentrations considerably exceeding the threshold values for the allergic response. The pollen seasons usually began from near the end of August to the first part of September. The values of daily concentrations varied greatly: days without pollen grains being frequently noted while single grains occurred long before and after the season. The effect of the elements of weather on changes in the concentration of pollen in the air was slight. Taking into account all meteorological parameters, it can be stated that an increase in the number of pollen grains is connected with increased temperature and higher wind speeds, but negatively correlated with humidity and rainfall. These relationships can usually be explained by the effects of the type of weather taking place over the wider region. The analysis of the results showed that pollen was probably transported from distant regions. The mean angle at which the greatest pollen concentrations were recorded corresponded to the SE wind direction. The analysis of synoptic phenomena during the pollen season confirms the thesis about the long-distance transport from the south, southeast and southwest. A close dependence was also found between the starting date of the season and the sum of maximum temperatures and the sum of differences between the maximum and minimum temperatures.

  11. Non-native Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Rzeszów (SE Poland); evaluation of the effect of weather conditions on daily concentrations and starting dates of the pollen season.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2008-05-01

    The investigated problem was whether and to what an extent the elements of weather conditions were associated with changes in the concentration of Ambrosia pollen in air. The study was carried out in the years 1997-2004 using the volumetric method. Ragweed did not occur in the flora of the town of Rzeszów and its vicinity, but every year its pollen occurred at concentrations considerably exceeding the threshold values for the allergic response. The pollen seasons usually began from near the end of August to the first part of September. The values of daily concentrations varied greatly: days without pollen grains being frequently noted while single grains occurred long before and after the season. The effect of the elements of weather on changes in the concentration of pollen in the air was slight. Taking into account all meteorological parameters, it can be stated that an increase in the number of pollen grains is connected with increased temperature and higher wind speeds, but negatively correlated with humidity and rainfall. These relationships can usually be explained by the effects of the type of weather taking place over the wider region. The analysis of the results showed that pollen was probably transported from distant regions. The mean angle at which the greatest pollen concentrations were recorded corresponded to the SE wind direction. The analysis of synoptic phenomena during the pollen season confirms the thesis about the long-distance transport from the south, southeast and southwest. A close dependence was also found between the starting date of the season and the sum of maximum temperatures and the sum of differences between the maximum and minimum temperatures.

  12. Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Ambrosia Lake Site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, J.H. )

    1982-12-01

    Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.

  13. Glucosinolates, myrosinase hydrolysis products, and flavonols found in rocket (Eruca sativa and Diplotaxis tenuifolia).

    PubMed

    Bell, Luke; Wagstaff, Carol

    2014-05-21

    Rocket species have been shown to have very high concentrations of glucosinolates and flavonols, which have numerous positive health benefits with regular consumption. This review highlights how breeders and processors of rocket species can utilize genomic and phytochemical research to improve varieties and enhance the nutritive benefits to consumers. Plant breeders are increasingly looking to new technologies such as HPLC, UPLC, LC-MS, and GC-MS to screen populations for their phytochemical content to inform plant selections. This paper collates the research that has been conducted to date in rocket and summarizes all glucosinolate and flavonol compounds identified in the species. The paper emphasizes the importance of the broad screening of populations for phytochemicals and myrosinase degradation products, as well as unique traits that may be found in underutilized gene bank resources. This review also stresses that collaboration with industrial partners is becoming essential for long-term plant breeding goals through research.

  14. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    PubMed

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-03-03

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates - permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type - represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association of permanent inbreeding on diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution of the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Euwallacea – Fusarium mutualistic symbiosis represents one of the independent evolutionary origins of fungus-farming. Diversification time estimates place the evolutionary origin of this mutualism in the early Miocene approximately 21 million years ago. Fusarium is best known as one of the most ...

  16. Invasive bark and ambrosia beetles in California Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Steven Seybold; Richard Penrose; Andrew Graves

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the native ranges, histories of introduction, recent research efforts, and the potential impacts of some of 22 species of invasive scolytids in California’s Mediterranean forest ecosystems. The diversity of native and ornamental tree species, the varied climatic zones, and the widespread importation of nursery stock and packaged cargo have made...

  17. A hydrothermal seedling emergence model for giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Late-season seedling emergence of giant ragweed in Ohio crop fields complicates efforts for predicting the optimum time to implement control measures for minimizing crop-yield losses. Our objectives were to develop a hydrothermal seedling emergence model for a late-emerging biotype in Ohio and valid...

  18. Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

    2011-01-01

    During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed.

  19. Selection of functional lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaesik; Ji, Yosep; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Park, Soyoung; Yeo, Soyoung; Shin, Hyunkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-17

    The purpose of this research was to find safe and suitable starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler), also known as garlic chives or Oriental garlic. This traditional herb has several functional properties and a strong flavour; its leaves are used as food material. Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from well-fermented leek kimchi. Controlled fermentation of the leek leaves was conducted with 2 strains (Weissella confusa LK4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LK8), selected as potential starter cultures on the basis of their safety properties, and on the pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and viable cell numbers [colony forming units (CFUml(-1))] achieved during the fermentation. Microbial dynamics was also followed during fermentation by using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) on DNA level. To analyse bioactive compounds such as thiols and allicin (diallyl thiosulfinates), the total flavonoid and polyphenolic contents were determined by colorimetric methods. Functional properties were assessed on the basis of anti-oxidative capacities by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). W. confusa LK4 rapidly increased during the first stage of leek fermentation, and was mainly responsible for accelerated fermentation during the early period in contrast to L. plantarum LK8, a stronger acid producer during the later stages of fermentation. After 48 h fermentation, leeks fermented with W. confusa LK4 showed the highest radical scavenging effects and reducing ability. The detectable amount of allicin of fermented leeks decreased relative to the change in pH, whereas the concentration of thiols significantly increased. Total flavonoid and poly-phenolic contents changed during fermentation and showed correlation with anti-oxidant effects. We therefore suggest the suitability of W. confusa LK4 as a potential starter culture for fermentation of leeks.

  20. Mikania glomerata Sprengel extract and its major compound ent-kaurenoic acid display activity against bacteria present in endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Moreti, Dora Lúcia Carrara; Leandro, Luís Fernando; da Silva Moraes, Thaís; Moreira, Monique Rodrigues; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio; Ambrosio, Sergio Ricardo; Figueiredo Almeida Gomes, Brenda Paula; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2017-10-01

    The search for new, effective and safe antimicrobial compounds from plant sources has continued to play an important role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Such compounds can be used to help to eradicate microorganisms from the root canal system, preventing/healing periapical diseases. Mikania glomerata (Spreng.), commonly known as "guaco," is a native climbing plant from Brazil that displays a wide range of pharmacological properties. Many of its activities have been attributed to its phytochemical composition, which is mainly composed of diterpenes, such as ent-kaurenoic acid (KA). The present study evaluated the potential activity of an ent-kaurenoic-rich (KA) extract from Mikania glomerata (i.e. Mikania glomerata extract/MGE) and its major compound KA against bacteria that can cause endodontic infections. Time-kill assays were conducted and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), anti-biofilm activity, and synergistic antimicrobial activity of MGE and KA were determined. The MGE exhibited MIC and MBC values, which ranged from 6.25 to 100 μg/mL and 12.5 to 200 μg/mL respectively. The MIC and MBC results obtained for the KA, ranged from 3.12 to 100 μg/mL and 3.12 to 200 μg/mL respectively. Time-kill and anti-biofilm activity assays conducted for KA at concentrations between 3.12 and 12.5 μg/mL exhibited bactericidal activity between 6 and 72 h of incubation and 50% inhibition of biofilm formation for Porphyromonas gingivalis (clinical isolate), Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919), Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563), P. melaninogenica (ATCC 25845), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43717). For synergistic antimicrobial activity, KA combined with chlorhexidine dichlorohydrate (CHD) had an additive effect with increased efficacy against P. gingivalis (clinical isolate) compared to CHD alone. It was concluded that M. glomerata extract and its major compound ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) showed in vitro antibacterial activity, the latter being a potential biofilm inhibitory agent. They may play important roles in the search for novel sources of agents that can act against bacteria present in endodontic infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogeny and assemblage composition of Frankia in Alnus tenuifolia nodules across a primary successional sere in interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    M.D. Anderson; D.L. Taylor; R.W. Ruess

    2013-01-01

    In nitrogen (N) fixing symbioses, host-symbiont specificity, genetic variation in bacterial symbionts and environmental variation represent fundamental constraints on the ecology, evolution and practical uses of these interactions, but detailed information is lacking for many naturally occurring N-fixers. This study examined phylogenetic host specificity of ...

  2. Mode of Action of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Psilostachyin and Psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Papademetrio, Daniela; Batlle, Alcira; Martino, Virginia S.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Lombardo, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas’ disease, which is a major endemic disease in Latin America and is recognized by the WHO as one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases in the world. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C, two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Ambrosia spp., have been demonstrated to have trypanocidal activity. Considering both the potential therapeutic targets present in the parasite, and the several mechanisms of action proposed for sesquiterpene lactones, the aim of this work was to characterize the mode of action of psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the possible targets for these molecules. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C were isolated from Ambrosia tenuifolia and Ambrosia scabra, respectively. Interaction of sesquiterpene lactones with hemin, the induction of oxidative stress, the inhibition of cruzipain and trypanothione reductase and their ability to inhibit sterol biosynthesis were evaluated. The induction of cell death by apoptosis was also evaluated by analyzing phosphatidylserine exposure detected using annexin-V/propidium iodide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, assessed with Rhodamine 123 and nuclear DNA fragmentation evaluated by the TUNEL assay. Both STLs were capable of interacting with hemin. Psilostachyin increased about 5 times the generation of reactive oxygen species in Trypanosoma cruzi after a 4h treatment, unlike psilostachyin C which induced an increase in reactive oxygen species levels of only 1.5 times. Only psilostachyin C was able to inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, causing an accumulation of squalene. Both sesquiterpene lactones induced parasite death by apoptosis. Upon evaluating the combination of both compounds, and additive trypanocidal effect was observed. Despite their structural similarity, both sesquiterpene lactones exerted their anti-T. cruzi activity through interaction with different targets. Psilostachyin accomplished its

  3. Mode of Action of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Psilostachyin and Psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Sülsen, Valeria P; Puente, Vanesa; Papademetrio, Daniela; Batlle, Alcira; Martino, Virginia S; Frank, Fernanda M; Lombardo, María E

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, which is a major endemic disease in Latin America and is recognized by the WHO as one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases in the world. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C, two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Ambrosia spp., have been demonstrated to have trypanocidal activity. Considering both the potential therapeutic targets present in the parasite, and the several mechanisms of action proposed for sesquiterpene lactones, the aim of this work was to characterize the mode of action of psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the possible targets for these molecules. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C were isolated from Ambrosia tenuifolia and Ambrosia scabra, respectively. Interaction of sesquiterpene lactones with hemin, the induction of oxidative stress, the inhibition of cruzipain and trypanothione reductase and their ability to inhibit sterol biosynthesis were evaluated. The induction of cell death by apoptosis was also evaluated by analyzing phosphatidylserine exposure detected using annexin-V/propidium iodide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, assessed with Rhodamine 123 and nuclear DNA fragmentation evaluated by the TUNEL assay. Both STLs were capable of interacting with hemin. Psilostachyin increased about 5 times the generation of reactive oxygen species in Trypanosoma cruzi after a 4h treatment, unlike psilostachyin C which induced an increase in reactive oxygen species levels of only 1.5 times. Only psilostachyin C was able to inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, causing an accumulation of squalene. Both sesquiterpene lactones induced parasite death by apoptosis. Upon evaluating the combination of both compounds, and additive trypanocidal effect was observed. Despite their structural similarity, both sesquiterpene lactones exerted their anti-T. cruzi activity through interaction with different targets. Psilostachyin accomplished its antiparasitic

  4. Evaluation of screen barriers on redbay trees to protect them from Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and distribution of initial attacks in relation to stem moisture content, diameter, and height.

    PubMed

    Maner, M Lake; Hanula, James L; Braman, S Kristine

    2013-08-01

    Fine mesh screen was used to create a physical barrier to prevent redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), from accessing various parts of the boles of redbay trees, Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel, and infecting them with the laurel wilt fungus, Raffaelea lauricola (T.C. Harrington, Fraedrich, & Aghayeva). Screen barriers prevented beetles from attacking boles of mature redbay trees from the ground to 1 or to 3 m and from 1 to 3 m above ground. Untreated control trees were sampled more extensively to determine how location of initial attacks varied with height, diameter, and moisture content of the wood. Screening did not affect tree survival, and all of the trees died within 243 d from the beginning of observation. Initial points of attack by X. glabratus varied from ground level to heights of at least 6.6 m. Trees showed characteristic laurel wilt symptoms with as few as two X. glabratus entry points. The number of attacks exhibited nonlinear relationships with diameter (P = 0.0004; r2 = 0.82) and height (P = 0.0013; r2 = 0.69) but were not correlated with moisture content. Attacks increased gradually with increasing stem diameter up to approximately 10 cm after which the attacks became more numerous. X. glabratus attacks were most numerous on the tree bole near the ground. Attacks then declined as tree height reached 2-3 m. From 3 to 8 m, attacks were relatively consistent.

  5. Evaluation of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle (Loranthaceae), a Mistletoe Growing on Rubber Tree, Using the Dilution Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The alarming increase in multidrug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to conventional drugs in recent years has prompted the search for new leads in alternative remedies in natural products. Hence, this study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial properties of Phragmanthera capitata, a parasitic mistletoe growing on rubber trees. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were investigated using five gram-negative and five gram-positive bacteria and four fungi. A 96-well resazurin broth and agar dilution techniques were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations. The antibacterial activity of the organic extracts had comparative effects on all the bacteria with a MIC of 1.25 to 5 mg/mL and MBC of 2.5 to 10 mg/mL. However, the acetone extract showed higher bactericidal effect while the aqueous extract was not active. The organic solvent extracts also showed antifungal activities on two of the fungi with a MIC of 1.25 mg/mL to 10 mg/mL. However, the aqueous extract had the highest activity inhibiting all the fungi with a MIC of ≤0.3125 to 1.25 mg/mL. The study supports the ethnomedicinal claims of P. capitata as a remedy for the diseases/infections caused by these organisms. PMID:28642934

  6. FTIR spectroscopy as a tool to detect contamination of rocket (Eruca sativa and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) salad with common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) leaves.

    PubMed

    Kokalj, Meta; Prikeržnik, Marcel; Kreft, Samo

    2017-05-01

    Rocket is a popular salad vegetable used all over the world and it has many health benefits. However, like with all plant material, there exists a danger of contamination with toxic substances. In the case of rocket, contamination with groundsel has occurred. Groundsel is a common weed in rocket crops, and it contains very toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. In our study infrared spectroscopy was used to distinguish groundsel samples from rocket leaves. Infrared spectroscopy is a very simple analytical technique; however, some specific conditions are more easily implemented in industrial environment than others. Some of these conditions and parameters of infrared spectroscopy were explored in detail. We tested for the influence of different parameters of attenuated total reflectance and transmission infrared method. Our results show that a 100 % correct classification can be obtained under conditions most suitable for industry: using fresh samples and parameters that enable fast spectral measurement. Infrared spectroscopy is a fast and easy-to-use method that has been shown to be able to differentiate between rocket and groundsel leaves. Therefore, it could be further studied for implementation in the safety control of rocket salads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. [Pollen counts (from Ambrosia and Artemisia) in Lyon-Bron from 1982 to 1985].

    PubMed

    Dechamp, C; Hoch, D; Chouraqui, M; Bensoussan, M; Dechamp, J

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to distinguish the broad outlines of the pollen calendar in the Lyons area for the 5th year, using the same method (P. COUR) and the same location--Lyon-Bron weather station. Weekly data is given for 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 (1986 data was not complete at the time of the conference, October 1986). This work is the fruit of numerical counts integrated into a data processing program which enables pollens tested and not tested in allergology to be identified. In Lyon, we observe 3 pollen seasons: early Spring (TREES), Spring (TREES and GRAMINEAE) and Summer-Autumn (TREES, GRAMINEAE, and COMPOSITAE). During the late the following are present: Artemisia vulgaris (last 10 days of July), RAGWEED (mid-August-1st fortnight of October), Artemisia annua (end September-early October). The particularity of our region is that not only ragweed pollen is collected but also two categories of Mugwort pollen, at different periods.

  8. Mutualism between common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) varies between Ohio and Illinois

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed caching of giant ragweed by common earthworm has been found to contribute to giant ragweed recruitment success in Ohio (OH) by protecting the seeds from postdispersal predation at a depth in the earthworm midden that is also suitable for germination. The objective of this study was to quantify ...

  9. Eradication of an exotic ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), in Oregon

    Treesearch

    James R. LaBonte

    2011-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has been monitoring an industrial plant in The Dalles, OR, for exotic wood boring insects since 1998. This plant receives raw railroad ties from British Columbia and several localities in the United States, including Arkansas, Missouri, and Texas.

  10. Rearing redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), on semi-artifical media

    Treesearch

    M. Lake Maner; James Hanula; S. Kristine Braman

    2014-01-01

    Semi-artificial diets consisting of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng,; Laurales: Lauraceae) sawdust and various nutrients were tested for rearing Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in vitro. Comparison of 2 media, modified and standard, adapted from Biedermann et al. (2009) showed that the more...

  11. Trace elements in the pollen of Ambrosia artemisiifolia: what is the effect of soil concentrations?

    PubMed

    Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Gauthier, Stefanie; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Comtois, Paul; Courchesne, François

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of nine trace elements (Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl and Zn) were measured in a plant bearing allergenic pollens (ragweed) and their transfers from soils to the roots and then to the pollens were investigated. The soil, roots and pollens collected from flowers were sampled at 26 urban sites. Soil pH, soil organic carbon and total-recoverable trace elements (TE) in soil, roots and pollens were measured. The three biogeochemical compartments are well discriminated according to their TE concentrations. The concentrations (in μg g(-1)) in pollens decreased as follow: Zn (59.5-205)>Mn (19.4-117)>Ba≈Cr≈Cu≈Ni≈Pb (0.54-27.7)>Cd (0.06-0.77)>Tl (0.0015-0.0180). Mean elemental allocation within ragweed always favored roots over pollen but, at site level, inverse pattern is also observed mostly for Zn and slightly for Cu and Ni. Significant predictive models of TE concentrations in pollens were obtained using soil or root properties only for Cd, Ni and Pb. They all involved positive relationships between TE concentrations in pollens and in soil or roots. Estimates of short-term exposure of human to TE carried out by ragweed pollens indicate TE absorption of less than 50 ng, far below thresholds of air quality criteria. Investigating the TE chemistry of pollens is a required first step to validate the impact of TE in pollens on human health and on the prevalence and intensity of allergy symptoms and atopic diseases.

  12. Bark and ambrosia beetles and their associated fungi colonizing stressed walnut in Missouri and Indiana

    Treesearch

    Sharon Reed; James English; Jennifer Juzwik; Matt. Ginzel

    2013-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a growing threat to black walnut, an economically and ecologically important tree in the eastern US. Trees in the earliest stages of TCD do not display symptoms. In later stages, leaves of the canopy become yellow, wilt, and ultimately die, yet remain attached to their branches. Eventually, all branches in the canopy may die, leading...

  13. Glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) from Mississippi is partly due to reduced translocation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A giant ragweed population from a glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean field in Mississippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify the magnitude of glyphosate resistance in the giant ragweed population and to elucidate the p...

  14. Raffaelea lauricola, a new ambrosia beetle symbiont and pathogen on the Lauracea.

    Treesearch

    Stephen Fraedrich; D.N. Aghayeva

    2008-01-01

    An undescribed species of Raffaelea earlier was shown to be the cause of a vascular wilt disease known as laurel wilt, a severe disease on redbay (Persea borbonia) and other members of the Lauraceae in the Atlantic coastal plains of the southeastern USA. The pathogen is likely native to Asia and probably was...

  15. Glyphosate resistance in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)from Mississippi, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides over the last 40 years. Due to widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop technology, especially, corn, cotton, and soybean, several weed species in agronomic situations have developed resistance to this herbicide. Rese...

  16. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: cocoa instead of ambrosia?

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2006-06-01

    Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa have beneficial acute and short-term effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults with cardiovascular risk factors, and in patients with coronary artery disease. Furthermore, dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa may have a blood pressure-lowering effect. These effects can be attributed to flavonoids and are mainly mediated through increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether these effects of chocolate on arterial function are translated into clinical benefit.

  17. Chapter 7. Additional studies using CFIRP treatments: Douglas-fir genetics and ambrosia beetle log colonization.

    Treesearch

    Chris C. Maguire; W. Thomas Adams; Rick G. Kelsey

    2005-01-01

    As highlighted in previous chapters, the primary biological objectives of CFIRP were to assess impacts of diverse silvicultural treatments on vegetation structure and growth and on the abundance and diversity of wildlife. Stand conditions resulting from implementation of the CFIRP research design, however, provided for the overlay of additional research projects that...

  18. Variation in ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen concentration in central Croatia, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Culig, Josip; Srnec, Lidija; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan; Hrga, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the onset, duration and termination of the ragweed pollen season; intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and possible differences in the occurrence and concentration of ragweed pollen according to sampling sites between 2002 and 2003. The study was conducted at three sampling sites in central Croatia over two pollen seasons (2002 and 2003) using the volumetric method of sampling (Hirst type sampler). In 2003, the ragweed pollen season was by 43 % longer and the percentage proportion of ragweed pollen by 3.4 % greater in comparison with 2002. The total ragweed pollen count and number of days with ragweed pollen concentration greater than 30 pollen grains per m (3) air showed a declining tendency from East to West in both seasons. The intradiurnal peak concentration occurred between 10.00-14.00. The air concentration of ragweed pollen decreased with temperature decline and precipitation. Results of the study provided useful information to individuals allergic to ragweed pollen thereby allowing them to adjust their outdoor activities to avoid contact with the allergen.

  19. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  20. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  1. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  2. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  3. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research work, DCP has been utilized without pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principal of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly biosorbent. References 1. N.S. Barot, H.K. Bagla, Biosorption of Radiotoxic 90Sr by Green adsorbent: Dry Cow Dung Powder, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 294, pp. 81-86, (2012). 2. N.S. Barot, H.K. Bagla, Eco-friendly waste water treatment by cow-dung powder (Adsorption studies of Cr(III), Cr (VI) & Cd(II) using Tracer Technique), Desalination & Water Treatment, 38(1-3), pp.104-113, (2012). 3. N.S. Barot, R.P. Khilnani, H.K. Bagla, "Biosorptive profile of Synthetic and Natural Humiresin for the remediation of Metallic Water Pollutants", Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 301(1):1-9, (2014). 4. S. Lagergren, Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens, Handlingar 24(4):1-39, (1898).

  4. The novel interaction between Phytophthora ramorum and wildfire elicits elevated ambrosia beetle landing rates on tanoak, Notholithocarpus densiflorus

    Treesearch

    Maia M. Beh; Margaret R. Metz; Steven J. Seybold; David M. Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 wildfires in the Big Sur region of California’s central coast—the first to occur in forests impacted by Phytophthora ramorum, the non-native, invasive pathogen that causes sudden oak death—provided the rare opportunity to study the response of scolytid and other subcortical beetles to this novel disturbance interaction...

  5. Comparative morphometric and chemical analyses of phenotypes of two invasive ambrosia beetles (Euwallacea spp.) in the United States

    Treesearch

    Yigen Chen; Paul L. Dallara; Lori J. Nelson; Tom W. Coleman; Stacy M. Hishinuma; Daniel Carrillo; Steve Seybold

    2016-01-01

    The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), Euwallacea sp., was first detected in 2003 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Recently, this invasive species has become a major pest of many hardwood trees in urban and wildland forests throughout southern California. PSHB is nearly identical in morphology and life history to the tea shot hole borer (...

  6. Comparative morphometric and chemical analyses of phenotypes of two invasive ambrosia beetles (Euwallacea spp.) in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Dallara, Paul L; Nelson, Lori J; Coleman, Tom W; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Carrillo, Daniel; Seybold, Steven J

    2016-03-02

    The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), Euwallacea sp., was first detected in 2003 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Recently, this invasive species has become a major pest of many hardwood trees in urban and wildland forests throughout southern California. PSHB is nearly identical in morphology and life history to the tea shot hole borer (TSHB), Euwallacea fornicatus, an invasive pest of hardwoods in Florida, USA and many other parts of the world. However, molecular studies have suggested that the taxa are different species. We conducted morphometric and chemical analyses of the phenotypes of Euwallacea sp. collected in southern California (Los Angeles Co.) and E. fornicatus collected in Florida (Miami-Dade Co.). Our analyses indicated that PSHB has three larval instars. The third larval instar was separated from the first two instars by head capsule width with zero probability of misclassification. The body length, head width, and pronotal width of PSHB adult males were significantly less than those of females. Head width and pronotal width of female PSHB were significantly less than those of female TSHB. In contrast, body length, and ratio of body length to pronotal width of PSHB females were significantly greater than those of TSHB females. However, females of these two species could not be separated completely by these four measurements because of the overlapping ranges. Cuticular hydrocarbons detected in both species were exclusively alkanes (i.e., n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, and trimethylalkanes). Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of PSHB males and females were similar, but they both differed from that of TSHB females. Cuticular hydrocarbons of PSHB were predominantly internally branched dimethylalkanes with backbones of 31 and 33 carbons, whereas cuticular hydrocarbons of TSHB females were dominated by internally branched monomethyl- and dimethylalkanes with backbones of 29 carbons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. New relationships among the sudden oak death pathogen, bark and ambrosia beetles, and fungi colonizing coast live oaks

    Treesearch

    Nadir Erbilgin; Brice A. McPherson; Pierluigi Bonello; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) has had devastating effects on several oak species in many California coastal forests. Phytophthora ramorum has been identified as the primary causal agent of sudden oak death. While the pathogen may be capable of killing mature trees, it is likely that in nature opportunistic organisms play significant roles in the decline and...

  8. First report of Geosmithia morbida on ambrosia beetles emerged from thousand cankers-diseased Juglans nigra in Ohio

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; M. McDermott-Kubeczko; T. J. Stewart; M. D. Ginzel

    2016-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) is a highly-valued species for timber and nut production in the eastern United States. Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the interaction of the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and the canker fungus Geosmithia morbida (Tisserat et al. 2009), was first...

  9. Laurel Wilt: a new and devastating disease of redbay caused by a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay Ambrosia beetle

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Thomas C. Harrington; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2007-01-01

    The mysterious death of redbay Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) trees on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and surrounding areas was first reported in local newspapers in 2003. Thousands of redbays were dying in the low country of South Carolina, and by the end of 2004 officials on Hilton Head were estimating that they had lost 75-80% of the island...

  10. Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Ethann R.; Knezevic, Stevan Z.; Sikkema, Peter H.; Lindquist, John L.; Jhala, Amit J.

    2017-01-01

    Common ragweed emerges early in the season in Nebraska, USA and is competitive with soybean; therefore, preplant herbicides are important for effective control. Glyphosate has been used as a preplant control option; however, confirmation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) common ragweed in Nebraska necessitates evaluating other herbicide options. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of preplant (PP) herbicides followed by (fb) glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor applied post-emergence (POST) for control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean; (2) their effect on common ragweed density, biomass, and soybean yield; and (3) the partial economics of herbicide programs. A field experiment was conducted in a grower's field infested with GR common ragweed in Gage County, Nebraska, USA in 2015 and 2016. Preplant herbicide programs containing glufosinate, paraquat, 2,4-D, dimethenamid-P, cloransulam-methyl, or high rates of flumioxazin plus chlorimuron-ethyl provided 90–99% control of common ragweed at 21 d after treatment (DAT). The aforementioned PP herbicides fb a POST application of glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor controlled GR common ragweed 84–98% at soybean harvest, reduced common ragweed density (≤20 plants m−2) and biomass by ≥93%, and secured soybean yield 1,819–2,158 kg ha−1. The PP fb POST herbicide programs resulted in the highest gross profit margins (US$373–US$506) compared to PP alone (US$91) or PRE fb POST programs (US$158). The results of this study conclude that effective and economical control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean is achievable with PP fb POST herbicide programs. PMID:28868065

  11. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated NO2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Elkelish, Amr; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian; Winkler, J Barbro; Ruёff, Franziska; Behrendt, Heidrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Holzinger, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Braun, Paula; von Toerne, Christine; Hauck, Stefanie M; Ernst, Dieter; Frank, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Ragweed pollen is the main cause of allergenic diseases in Northern America, and the weed has become a spreading neophyte in Europe. Climate change and air pollution are speculated to affect the allergenic potential of pollen. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NO2 , a major air pollutant, under controlled conditions, on the allergenicity of ragweed pollen. Ragweed was exposed to different levels of NO2 throughout the entire growing season, and its pollen further analysed. Spectroscopic analysis showed increased outer cell wall polymers and decreased amounts of pectin. Proteome studies using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated increased amounts of several Amb a 1 isoforms and of another allergen with great homology to enolase Hev b 9 from rubber tree. Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation. Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ethann R; Knezevic, Stevan Z; Sikkema, Peter H; Lindquist, John L; Jhala, Amit J

    2017-01-01

    Common ragweed emerges early in the season in Nebraska, USA and is competitive with soybean; therefore, preplant herbicides are important for effective control. Glyphosate has been used as a preplant control option; however, confirmation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) common ragweed in Nebraska necessitates evaluating other herbicide options. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of preplant (PP) herbicides followed by (fb) glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor applied post-emergence (POST) for control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean; (2) their effect on common ragweed density, biomass, and soybean yield; and (3) the partial economics of herbicide programs. A field experiment was conducted in a grower's field infested with GR common ragweed in Gage County, Nebraska, USA in 2015 and 2016. Preplant herbicide programs containing glufosinate, paraquat, 2,4-D, dimethenamid-P, cloransulam-methyl, or high rates of flumioxazin plus chlorimuron-ethyl provided 90-99% control of common ragweed at 21 d after treatment (DAT). The aforementioned PP herbicides fb a POST application of glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor controlled GR common ragweed 84-98% at soybean harvest, reduced common ragweed density (≤20 plants m(-2)) and biomass by ≥93%, and secured soybean yield 1,819-2,158 kg ha(-1). The PP fb POST herbicide programs resulted in the highest gross profit margins (US$373-US$506) compared to PP alone (US$91) or PRE fb POST programs (US$158). The results of this study conclude that effective and economical control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean is achievable with PP fb POST herbicide programs.

  13. Sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia spp. are active against a murine lymphoma cell line by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Martino, Renzo; Beer, María Florencia; Elso, Orlando; Donadel, Osvaldo; Sülsen, Valeria; Anesini, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are natural terpenoid compounds. They have been recognized as antitumor agents. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the antiproliferative effects of psilostachyin, psilostachyin C, peruvin and cumanin on the murine lymphoma cell line BW5147. Cells were treated with the STLs at different concentrations. Tritiated thymidine uptake was employed to determine cell proliferation. MTT assay was used to analyze cell viability. Flow cytometry assay with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide was employed to evaluate cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle analysis were also evaluated by flow cytometry. Antioxidant enzymes activities were determined spectrophotometrically by kinetic assays. Results showed that these STLs inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner by exerting cytotoxicity through apoptosis. Psilostachyin C was the most active and the less toxic compound. This STL induced apoptosis with an impairment in mitochondrial membrane potential. Psilostachyin C was able to induce ROS generation, related to a modulation of the antioxidant enzymes activity. In addition, it induced cell cycle arrest in S phase. In conclusion, psilostachyin C was found to be active against lymphoma cells exerting both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects. These findings may provide a novel approach for lymphoma treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An uncertain future for American Lauraceae: A lethal threat from redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laurel wilt is a destructive vascular disease responsible for high mortality of American tree species in the family Lauraceae, particularly redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris), two dominant components of Coastal Plain forest communities in the southeastern United States. The diseas...

  15. Identification and quantification of glucosinolate and flavonol compounds in rocket salad (Eruca sativa, Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) by LC-MS: highlighting the potential for improving nutritional value of rocket crops.

    PubMed

    Bell, Luke; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Wagstaff, Carol

    2015-04-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to obtain glucosinolate and flavonol content for 35 rocket accessions and commercial varieties. 13 glucosinolates and 11 flavonol compounds were identified. Semi-quantitative methods were used to estimate concentrations of both groups of compounds. Minor glucosinolate composition was found to be different between accessions; concentrations varied significantly. Flavonols showed differentiation between genera, with Diplotaxis accumulating quercetin glucosides and Eruca accumulating kaempferol glucosides. Several compounds were detected in each genus that have only previously been reported in the other. We highlight how knowledge of phytochemical content and concentration can be used to breed new, nutritionally superior varieties. We also demonstrate the effects of controlled environment conditions on the accumulations of glucosinolates and flavonols and explore the reasons for differences with previous studies. We stress the importance of consistent experimental design between research groups to effectively compare and contrast results. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and quantification of glucosinolate and flavonol compounds in rocket salad (Eruca sativa, Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) by LC–MS: Highlighting the potential for improving nutritional value of rocket crops

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Luke; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Wagstaff, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to obtain glucosinolate and flavonol content for 35 rocket accessions and commercial varieties. 13 glucosinolates and 11 flavonol compounds were identified. Semi-quantitative methods were used to estimate concentrations of both groups of compounds. Minor glucosinolate composition was found to be different between accessions; concentrations varied significantly. Flavonols showed differentiation between genera, with Diplotaxis accumulating quercetin glucosides and Eruca accumulating kaempferol glucosides. Several compounds were detected in each genus that have only previously been reported in the other. We highlight how knowledge of phytochemical content and concentration can be used to breed new, nutritionally superior varieties. We also demonstrate the effects of controlled environment conditions on the accumulations of glucosinolates and flavonols and explore the reasons for differences with previous studies. We stress the importance of consistent experimental design between research groups to effectively compare and contrast results. PMID:25442630

  17. Evaluation of insect repellents to manage the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of avocado in Florida is valued at $30 million a year, accounting for twelve percent of the national production. Over 90 percent of avocado in Florida is grown in the southern tip of the peninsula, and avocado is considered Florida’s second most important fruit crop after citrus. The redb...

  18. A fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle causes a lethal wilt in redbay and other lauraceae in the Southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Fraedrich. S.W.; T.C. Harrington; R.J. Rabaglia; M.D. Ulyshen; A.E. Mayfield; J.L. Hanula; J.M. Eickwort; D.R. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Extensive mortality of redbay has been observed in the coastal plain counties of Georgia and southeastern South Carolina since 2003 and northeastern Florida since 2005. We show that the redbay mortality is due to a vascular wilt disease caused by an undescribed Raffaelea sp. that is a fungal symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus, an...

  19. Seed burial physical environment explains departures from regional hydrothermal model of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) seedling emergence in U.S. Midwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predicting weed emergence timing from the seed bank plays a critical role in scheduling early season postemergence weed management operations to achieve high efficacies. A common seed accession (Illinois) of giant ragweed was buried in replicate experimental gardens over 18 site years in Illinois, M...

  20. Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen after exposure of the plants to elevated ozone over a whole growing season.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Ulrike; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J Barbro; Engel, Marion; Behrendt, Heidrun; Holzinger, Andreas; Braun, Paula; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Mayer, Klaus; Pfeifer, Matthias; Ernst, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs), including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms.

  1. Molecular and Immunological Characterization of Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) Pollen after Exposure of the Plants to Elevated Ozone over a Whole Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Ulrike; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J. Barbro; Engel, Marion; Behrendt, Heidrun; Holzinger, Andreas; Braun, Paula; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Mayer, Klaus; Pfeifer, Matthias; Ernst, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs), including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms. PMID:23637846

  2. Influence of climatic conditions and elevation on the spatial distribution and abundance of Trypodendron ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Robin M. Reich; John E. Lundquist; Robert E. Acciavati

    2014-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems store approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon (C), which is twice as much C as is currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of permafrost organic matter could add large amounts of C to the atmosphere, thereby influencing the global C cycle. The rates at which C is being released from the...

  3. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  4. The association between the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) in agricultural fields across the eastern U.S. Corn Belt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research indicated that secondary seed dispersal by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris can improve giant ragweed seed survival and influence seedling spatial structure at the quadrat (m2) scale. Here, we examine the association between L. terrestris and giant ragweed at plant neighborhood, ...

  5. Colonization of artificially stressed black walnut trees by ambrosia beetle, bark beetle, and other weevil species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri

    Treesearch

    Sharon E. Reed; Jennifer Juzwik; James T. English; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley &...

  6. Local conditions, not regional gradients, drive demographic variation of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and common sunflower (Helianthus annus) across northern US maize belt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As our climate continues to change, the geographic distribution of agricultural weed species will follow environmental conditions that enable them to thrive in a crop production setting. We set out to quantify the relationship between regional-scale environmental and climatic variables and the popul...

  7. Methods of intervention in the control of ragweed spread (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in the area of Zagreb County and the city of Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Gajnik, Davorin; Peternel, Renata

    2009-12-01

    The increase in ragweed mediated health problems has led to the development of defense strategies in the countries with the most serious ragweed pollution, namely Hungary, Italy and France. The aim of this paper is to define the frequency of allergic disturbances brought by ragweed pollen in the period between 2002 and 2004, and to devise an action plan for its eradication in the area of Zagreb, as well as in Zagreb County. Thanks to the analysis of common methods of ragweed eradication, even by stating biological ragweed eradication, the best efficiency in ragweed eradication would be achieved through a method that combines several common methods, i.e., a mixed method. In its order on taking measures for obligatory eradication of ragweed, it has stated that the Ministry will ensure funds so that Plant Protection Department in Agriculture and Forestry of the Republic of Croatia, and Department of Herbology of the Faculty of Agriculture of Zagreb could observe the beginning and continuity of ragweed blossom, make an evaluation on the degree of weed overgrowth, establish how widespread it is in the Republic of Croatia, inform the public via the media on control measures and some other duties, but there is no financial help to those who are selected to eradicate ragweed.

  8. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall.

  9. Costs of delayed dispersal and alloparental care in the fungus-cultivating ambrosia beetle Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Scolytinae: Curculionidae) Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:1753-1761 11 p.

    Treesearch

    Peter H.W. Biedermann; Kier D. Klepzig; Michael Taborsky

    2011-01-01

    Body reserves may determine the reproductive output of animals, depending on their resource allocation strategy. In insects, an accumulation of reserves for reproduction is often obtained before dispersal by preemergence (or maturation) feeding. This has been assumed to be an important cause of delayed dispersal from the natalnest in scolytine beetles. In the...

  10. Taxonomy and biology of a new ambrosia gall midge Daphnephila urnicola sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing urn-shaped leaf galls on two species of Machilus (Lauraceae) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang-Yu; Chiang, Tung-Chuan; Weng, Yu-Chu; Chen, Wen-Neng; Hsiao, Shu-Chuan; Tokuda, Makoto; Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Yang, Man-Miao

    2015-05-05

    Recent field surveys show that galls induced by Daphnephila spp. (Cecidomyiidae) on Machilus spp. (Lauraceae) are common in Taiwan, yet only five species, four leaf-gall inducers and one stem-gall inducer on M. thunbergii, have been named in the past. Here we describe a new species, Daphnephila urnicola sp. nov. Chiang, Yang & Tokuda, inducing urn-shaped galls on leaves of both M. zuihoensis and M. mushaensis. Comparisons of D. urnicola populations on M. zuihoensis and on M. mushaensis, indicate that they belong to one species, a result supported by gall midge morphology, life-history traits, gall shape and structure, the developmental process of gall tissues, fungal associations, and DNA-sequencing data. Size and structure of the gall operculum was found to differ between M. zuihoensis and M. mushahaensis.

  11. Interaction of 2,4-D or Dicamba with Glufosinate for Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) in Glufosinate-Resistant Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Zahoor A.; Jhala, Amit J.

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) giant ragweed is a problematic broadleaf weed in crops including maize and soybean in the Midwestern United States. Commercialization of crops with 2,4-D or dicamba and glufosinate resistance will allow post-emergence (POST) applications of these herbicides. Therefore, information is needed on how 2,4-D/dicamba will interact with glufosinate in various rate combinations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction of glufosinate plus 2,4-D and/or dicamba for control of GR giant ragweed, and to determine their effect on GR giant ragweed density, biomass, maize injury, and yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in a field infested with GR giant ragweed in Nebraska, United States. The treatments included POST applications of glufosinate (450 or 590 g ai ha-1), 2,4-D, or dicamba at 280 or 560 g ae ha-1 applied alone and in tank-mixtures in glufosinate-resistant maize. The results showed that dicamba applied alone resulted in 56 to 62% and 73 to 83% control at 14 and 28 days after treatment (DAT), respectively, and ≥95% control at 60 DAT or at harvest compared to 17 to 30% and 57 to 73% control with 2,4-D applied alone at 280 and 560 g ai ha-1, respectively. Glufosinate tank-mixed with 2,4-D and/or dicamba consistently provided ≥89% control of GR giant ragweed, except that control with glufosinate plus 2,4-D varied from 80 to 92% at 60 DAT and at harvest. The comparison between the observed and expected control (determined by Colby’s equation) suggested an additive interaction between glufosinate and 2,4-D or dicamba for control of GR giant ragweed. Contrast analysis also indicated that GR giant ragweed control with glufosinate plus 2,4-D or dicamba was either consistently higher or comparable with individual herbicides excluding 2,4-D applied alone. Herbicide programs, excluding 2,4-D at 280 g ae ha-1, resulted in ≥80% reduction in GR giant ragweed density. Tank-mixing glufosinate with 2,4-D or dicamba showed an additive effect and will be an additional tool with two effective modes of action for the management of GR giant ragweed in maize. PMID:28740503

  12. Interaction of 2,4-D or Dicamba with Glufosinate for Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) in Glufosinate-Resistant Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Ganie, Zahoor A; Jhala, Amit J

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) giant ragweed is a problematic broadleaf weed in crops including maize and soybean in the Midwestern United States. Commercialization of crops with 2,4-D or dicamba and glufosinate resistance will allow post-emergence (POST) applications of these herbicides. Therefore, information is needed on how 2,4-D/dicamba will interact with glufosinate in various rate combinations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction of glufosinate plus 2,4-D and/or dicamba for control of GR giant ragweed, and to determine their effect on GR giant ragweed density, biomass, maize injury, and yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in a field infested with GR giant ragweed in Nebraska, United States. The treatments included POST applications of glufosinate (450 or 590 g ai ha(-1)), 2,4-D, or dicamba at 280 or 560 g ae ha(-1) applied alone and in tank-mixtures in glufosinate-resistant maize. The results showed that dicamba applied alone resulted in 56 to 62% and 73 to 83% control at 14 and 28 days after treatment (DAT), respectively, and ≥95% control at 60 DAT or at harvest compared to 17 to 30% and 57 to 73% control with 2,4-D applied alone at 280 and 560 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Glufosinate tank-mixed with 2,4-D and/or dicamba consistently provided ≥89% control of GR giant ragweed, except that control with glufosinate plus 2,4-D varied from 80 to 92% at 60 DAT and at harvest. The comparison between the observed and expected control (determined by Colby's equation) suggested an additive interaction between glufosinate and 2,4-D or dicamba for control of GR giant ragweed. Contrast analysis also indicated that GR giant ragweed control with glufosinate plus 2,4-D or dicamba was either consistently higher or comparable with individual herbicides excluding 2,4-D applied alone. Herbicide programs, excluding 2,4-D at 280 g ae ha(-1), resulted in ≥80% reduction in GR giant ragweed density. Tank-mixing glufosinate with 2,4-D or dicamba showed an additive effect and will be an additional tool with two effective modes of action for the management of GR giant ragweed in maize.

  13. What's killing my walnuts -- how to find help

    Treesearch

    Jerry Van Sambeek; Jenny. Juzwik

    2010-01-01

    For the last decade, we have watched as the granulate ambrosia beetle (GAB) formerly the Asian ambrosia beetle spread into the southern region of walnut. Now we are asked to watch for the possible invasion of the thousand canker disease (TCD) complex into the eastern United States assuming we cannot prevent its invasion from the western United States. For both pest...

  14. Capture of Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford), Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), and other Scolytinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in response to green light emitting diodes, ethanol, and conophthorin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-native ambrosia beetles are increasingly being recognized as significant pests of ornamental trees, particularly, Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky). Olfactory and visual cues play an important role during host location by ambrosia beetles. Ethanol-baited t...

  15. Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ornamental nurseries and surrounding habitats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is the most problematic ambrosia beetle in Ohio nurseries. Movement of X. germanus in nurseries has not been characterized, and knowledge is lacking on whether infestations originate from within nu...

  16. Semiochemicals provide a deterrent to the black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    Nick Dudley; John D. Stein; Taylor Jones; Nancy Gillette

    2007-01-01

    The black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus) (BTB) is a serious pest of agriculture, forestry, and native Hawaiian plants. The BTB is a typical ambrosia beetle that bores into the host and inoculates the galleries with an ambrosia fungus (Fusarium solani) known to cause cankers, root rot, and wilt. The host list for this beetle is...

  17. Developmental anomalies of the scapula-the "omo"st forgotten bone.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marc S

    2003-08-01

    Congenital malformations of the scapula, ranging from complete absence, to abnormal shape and position (Sprengel anomaly) are encountered, not infrequently, in genetic practice. Despite this, little is known of the embryologic origin of the scapula and the relationship of the embryology to the observed birth defects. Standard embryology texts, when discussing the subject at all, generally consider the scapula as part of the upper limb. The pattern of associated birth defects suggests that this is at least an oversimplification and may be inaccurate. Sprengel anomaly is the most frequently encountered malformation of the scapula. It can be seen in isolation, but is often seen in association with other defects that include; scoliosis, hemivertebrae, segmentation abnormalities of vertebrae and ribs (including Klippel-Feil sequence), spina bifida, clavicular abnormalities, renal abnormalities and hypoplasia of the muscles of the neck and shoulder. The ipsilateral limb is usually normal. An unappreciated association between Sprengel anomaly and diastematomyelia of the lumbar spine also raises questions about the embryologic origin of the scapula. 25-50% of Sprengel anomaly patients have an associated omovertebral band or bone that arises from the posterior process of a vertebral body and attaches to the superior angle/medial portion of the scapula. This is felt to be of scapular origin, but the report of at least one patient with an omovertebral bone, not associated with a Sprengel anomaly questions this assumption. Scapuloiliac dysostosis (Kosenow syndrome), a rare skeletal dysplasia, is associated with marked hypoplasia of the scapulae, clavicles and pelvis. Associated anomalies include eye anomalies, rib anomalies and spina bifida. The limbs are normal. Knockout of the Emx2 gene in mice yields a similar skeletal phenotype. Mutations in EMX2 in humans are associated with schizencephaly, not skeletal anomalies. Data on gene expression in the scapula will be reviewed

  18. Climate sensitivity of thinleaf alder growth on an interior Alaska floodplain

    Treesearch

    Dana R. Nossov; Roger W. Ruess; Teresa N. Hollingsworth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the climate sensitivity of the growth of riparian Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia (thinleaf alder), a keystone nitrogen-fixer, on the Tanana River floodplain of interior Alaska. We investigated correlations between alder radial growth and inter-annual variation in monthly meteorology and hydrology, spatial...

  19. Distribution and severity of alder phytophthora in Alaska

    Treesearch

    G.C. Adams; M. Catal; L. Trummer

    2010-01-01

    In Alaska, an unprecedented dieback and mortality of Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia has occurred which stimulated an effort to determine causal agents of the disease. In Europe, similar dieback and mortality of Alnus incana and Alnus glutinosa has been attributed to root rot by a spectrum...

  20. Host species and habitat affect nodulation by specific Frankia genotypes in two species of Alnus in interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    Michael Damon Anderson; Roger W. Ruess; David D. Myrold; D. Lee. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the genetic structure (nifD-K spacer RFLP haplotypes) of Frankia assemblages symbiotic with two species of Alnus (A. tenuifolia and A. viridis) in four successional habitats in interior Alaska. We used one habitat in which both hosts occurred to...