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Sample records for ambulatory care clinics

  1. Clinical reminders in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Banks, N J; Palmer, R H

    1990-01-01

    Computerized reminders are a tool to improve patient care, increase compliance, and reduce medical liability in ambulatory health care. Continuity of care is often hard to achieve given large patient loads, cost containment pressures, and regulatory requirements. Recall reminders prompt patients to make or keep appointments for health maintenance or screening exams. Physician reminders are issued to clinicians at or between visits when their patients have specific screening or diagnostic needs. Reminder systems based on clinical protocols have the added advantage of providing explicit instructions for workup or treatment of abnormal conditions. These reminder systems are especially useful to standardize care in offices with many providers. Implementation of reminder systems is aided by careful staff preparation and resource allocation. Ultimately, reminder systems enhance quality of care, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce costs through improved continuity of care and early detection of serious illness.

  2. Redesigning ambulatory care business processes supporting clinical care delivery.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C; Sinkewich, M; Short, J; Callas, E

    1997-04-01

    The first step in redesigning the health care delivery process for ambulatory care begins with the patient and the business processes that support the patient. Patient-related business processes include patient access, service documentation, billing, follow-up, collection, and payment. Access is the portal to the clinical delivery and care management process. Service documentation, charge capture, and payment and collection are supporting processes to care delivery. Realigned provider networks now demand realigned patient business services to provide their members/customers/patients with improved service delivery at less cost. Purchaser mandates for cost containment, health maintenance, and enhanced quality of care have created an environment where every aspect of the delivery system, especially ambulatory care, is being judged. Business processes supporting the outpatient are therefore being reexamined for better efficiency and customer satisfaction. Many health care systems have made major investments in their ambulatory care environment, but have pursued traditional supporting business practices--such as multiple access points, lack of integrated patient appointment scheduling and registration, and multiple patient bills. These are areas that are appropriate for redesign efforts--all with the customer's needs and convenience in mind. Similarly, setting unrealistic expectations, underestimating the effort required, and ignoring the human elements of a patient-focused business service redesign effort can sabotage the very sound reasons for executing such an endeavor. Pitfalls can be avoided if a structured methodology, coupled with a change management process, are employed. Deloitte & Touche Consulting Group has been involved in several major efforts, all with ambulatory care settings to assist with the redesign of their business practices to consider the patient as the driver, instead of the institution providing the care. PMID:10181605

  3. Characteristics of effective clinical teachers of ambulatory care medicine.

    PubMed

    Irby, D M; Ramsey, P G; Gillmore, G M; Schaad, D

    1991-01-01

    This study identified characteristics of clinical teachers in ambulatory care settings that influenced ratings of overall teaching effectiveness and examined the impacts of selected variables of the clinic environment on teaching effectiveness ratings. A survey instrument derived from prior research and observations of ambulatory care teaching was sent to 165 senior medical students and 60 medicine residents at the University of Washington School of Medicine in 1988. A total of 122 (74%) of the seniors and 60 (71%) of the residents responded. Results indicate that the most important characteristics of the ambulatory care teachers were that they actively involved the learners, promoted learner autonomy, and demonstrated patient care skills. Environmental variables did not have a substantial influence on these ratings.

  4. Developing ambulatory care clinics: nurse practitioners as primary providers.

    PubMed

    Lamper-Linden, C; Goetz-Kulas, J; Lake, R

    1983-12-01

    While hospitals evaluate ambulatory clinics as a revenue-generating service alternative, nursing executives develop new areas for nursing practice in nurse-managed clinics. The authors describe the five-year growth of a nurse-managed ambulatory clinic providing primary health care to those aged 55 and older. The discussion explains nurse practitioner leadership and practice, and accountability between professions. The concept and structure of services and marketing strategies are elated to the people served. Financial feasibility, cost containment, and other factors demonstrate the clinic's contribution to its sponsoring hospital.

  5. Preparing for the primary care clinic: an ambulatory boot camp for internal medicine interns

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Lindsay M.; Bird, Amber-Nicole; Oyler, Julie L.; Lee, Wei Wei; Shah, Sachin D.; Pincavage, Amber T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Internal medicine (IM) interns start continuity clinic with variable ambulatory training. Multiple other specialties have utilized a boot camp style curriculum to improve surgical and procedural skills, but boot camps have not been used to improve interns’ ambulatory knowledge and confidence. The authors implemented and assessed the impact of an intern ambulatory boot camp pilot on primary care knowledge, confidence, and curricular satisfaction. Methods During July 2014, IM interns attended ambulatory boot camp. It included clinically focused case-based didactic sessions on common ambulatory topics as well as orientation to the clinic and electronic medical records. Interns anonymously completed a 15-question pre-test on topics covered in the boot camp as well as an identical post-test after the boot camp. The interns were surveyed regarding their confidence and satisfaction. Results Thirty-eight interns participated in the boot camp. Prior to the boot camp, few interns reported confidence managing common outpatient conditions. The average pre-test knowledge score was 46.3%. The average post-test knowledge score significantly improved to 76.1% (p<0.001). All interns reported that the boot camp was good preparation for clinics and 97% felt that the boot camp boosted their confidence. Conclusions The ambulatory boot camp pilot improved primary care knowledge, and interns thought it was good preparation for clinic. The ambulatory boot camp was well received and may be an effective way to improve the preparation of interns for primary care clinic. Further assessment of clinical performance and expansion to other programs and specialties should be considered. PMID:26609962

  6. Integrated Clinical Geriatric Pharmacy Clerkship in Long Term, Acute and Ambulatory Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Isabel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A clinical geriatric pharmacy clerkship containing three separate practice areas (long-term, acute, and ambulatory care) is described. The program follows the medical education clerkship protocol, with a clinical pharmacy specialist, pharmacy practice resident, and student. Participation in medical rounds, interdisciplinary conferences, and…

  7. Role Model Ambulatory Care Clinical Training Site in a Community-Based Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magarian, Edward O.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…

  8. Primary health-care services with a functional ambulatory care clinical pharmacy in a low-income housing project clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Oke, T. O.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the establishment of clinical pharmacy services at a primary health-care clinic in a low-income housing area in New Orleans. The St Thomas Health Care Services Outpatient Clinic was established in 1987 by the Catholic Sisters of Charity. The clinic provides care for 4500 ambulatory patients who otherwise have inadequate health care. Xavier University College of Pharmacy established pharmacy services in the clinic as a site for its ambulatory clerkship students. The pharmacy provides training for students on the principles and practice standards of ambulatory care pharmacy services, which include taking medication history and performing drug therapy review. A computer-generated medical record was developed to provide access to patients' demographic and drug profiles. The system was designed to help the pharmacist preceptor and students detect, resolve, and prevent drug-related problems, and to aid in learning to monitor the progression of disease(s) and whether the patient is experiencing the desired therapeutic outcome. Direct contact with patients allows the pharmacist and the students to become familiar with patient compliance problems, adverse drug reaction monitoring, patient counseling techniques, and providing patient education. PMID:8078084

  9. Gaps in quality of diabetes care in internal medicine residency clinics suggest the need for better ambulatory care training.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Lorna; Hess, Brian J; Weng, Weifeng; Lipner, Rebecca S; Holmboe, Eric S

    2012-01-01

    To ensure that medical residents will be prepared to deliver consistently high-quality care, they should be trained in settings that provide such care. Residents in internal medicine, particularly, need to learn good care habits in order to meet the needs of patients with diabetes and other common chronic and high-impact illnesses. To assess the strength of such training, we compared the quality of medical care provided in sixty-seven US internal medicine residency ambulatory clinics with the quality of care provided by 703 practicing general internists. We found significant quality gaps in process, intermediate outcome, and patient-experience measures. These inadequacies in ambulatory training for internal medicine residents must be addressed by policy makers and educators-for example, by accelerating the movement toward new residency curricula that emphasize competency-based training.

  10. The Role of Rural Health Clinics in Hospitalization Due to Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions: A Study in Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wanqing; Mueller, Keith J.; Chen, Li-Wu; Conway, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Context: Hospitalization due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) is often used as an indicator for measuring access to primary care. Rural health clinics (RHCs) provide basic primary care services for rural residents in health professional shortage areas (HPSAs). The relationship between RHCs and ACSCs is unclear. Purpose: The purpose…

  11. Centers Speak Up: The Clinical Context for Health Information Technology in the Ambulatory Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ming; Webster, Tashonna R.; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Fifield, Judith; Burstin, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Clinicians in ambulatory care settings are increasingly called upon to use health information technology (health IT) to improve practice efficiency and performance. Successful adoption of health IT requires an understanding of how clinical tasks and workflows will be affected; yet this has not been well described. Objective To describe how health IT functions within a clinical context. Design Qualitative study, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Participants Executives and staff at 4 community health centers, 3 health center networks, and 1 large primary care organization. Approach Transcribed audio-recorded interviews, analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results Systematic characterization of clinical context identified 6 primary clinical domains. These included results management, intra-clinic communication, patient education and outreach, inter-clinic coordination, medication management, and provider education and feedback. We generated clinical process diagrams to characterize these domains. Participants suggested that underlying workflows for these domains must be fully operational to ensure successful deployment of health IT. Conclusions Understanding the clinical context is a necessary precursor to successful deployment of health IT. Process diagrams can serve as the basis for EHR certification, to identify challenges, to measure health IT adoption, or to develop curricular content regarding the role of health IT in clinical practice. PMID:18373132

  12. Trends and initiatives in hospital ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Burns, L A

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the financing and delivery of hospital ambulatory care are discussed. Ambulatory care encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical services provided to patients who are not confined overnight to an institutional bed as inpatients. There are a large and growing number of ways hospitals and physicians cooperate to provide ambulatory-care services. Technological advancements, which have spurred changes in other sectors of medicine, have also changed patterns of medical practice in ambulatory care. Some of the reasons why hospitals develop and expand ambulatory-care programs relate to the changing demand for health services, the shifting preferences of third-party payers and regulators, competitive influences, diversification of risk, and use of such programs as feeders for inpatient services and as teaching and research settings. Although outpatient revenues are a small portion of total hospital revenues, they are growing more rapidly than inpatient revenues. Changes in the health industry that offer opportunities to hospitals are described, such as the increasing physician supply and the formation of group practices, the climate of cost consciousness and price competition, and the trend toward new corporate structures for hospitals. These changes portend changes for hospital pharmacists and give them the opportunity to increase their clinical roles in providing ambulatory care. PMID:7081250

  13. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  14. Clinical hypertension in Native Americans: a comparison of 1987 and 1992 rates from ambulatory care data.

    PubMed Central

    Acton, K J; Preston, S; Rith-Najarian, S

    1996-01-01

    THE AUTHORS EXAMINED THE PREVALENCE of clinically diagnosed hypertension among all American Indian and Alaska Native outpatients served in Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities in fiscal year 1992, and compared these rates with a similar analysis done in 1987. In this report they provided data on that analysis as well as on the association between hypertension and diabetes. The 1992 overall estimated age-adjusted prevalence of clinically diagnosed hypertension in adults older than age 15 was 10.4%, compared with 10.9% in 1987, a small but significant decrease. Considerable variation exists in hypertension prevalence rates in American Indian communities as analyzed by IHS service area. This report represents an attempt to use ambulatory patient care data to demonstrate a means for ongoing surveillance of a chronic disease for the entire service population of the IHS. This comprehensive data set represents approximately 60% of the entire U.S. American Indian and Alaska Native population. Based on the ongoing nature of this ambulatory patient care data system, this model for hypertension surveillance permits a unique opportunity for longitudinal evaluation of quality improvement efforts for the American Indian and Alaska Native populations served by the IHS. PMID:8898769

  15. Finding falls in ambulatory care clinical documents using statistical text mining

    PubMed Central

    McCart, James A; Berndt, Donald J; Jarman, Jay; Finch, Dezon K; Luther, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine how well statistical text mining (STM) models can identify falls within clinical text associated with an ambulatory encounter. Materials and Methods 2241 patients were selected with a fall-related ICD-9-CM E-code or matched injury diagnosis code while being treated as an outpatient at one of four sites within the Veterans Health Administration. All clinical documents within a 48-h window of the recorded E-code or injury diagnosis code for each patient were obtained (n=26 010; 611 distinct document titles) and annotated for falls. Logistic regression, support vector machine, and cost-sensitive support vector machine (SVM-cost) models were trained on a stratified sample of 70% of documents from one location (dataset Atrain) and then applied to the remaining unseen documents (datasets Atest–D). Results All three STM models obtained area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) scores above 0.950 on the four test datasets (Atest–D). The SVM-cost model obtained the highest AUC scores, ranging from 0.953 to 0.978. The SVM-cost model also achieved F-measure values ranging from 0.745 to 0.853, sensitivity from 0.890 to 0.931, and specificity from 0.877 to 0.944. Discussion The STM models performed well across a large heterogeneous collection of document titles. In addition, the models also generalized across other sites, including a traditionally bilingual site that had distinctly different grammatical patterns. Conclusions The results of this study suggest STM-based models have the potential to improve surveillance of falls. Furthermore, the encouraging evidence shown here that STM is a robust technique for mining clinical documents bodes well for other surveillance-related topics. PMID:23242765

  16. Improving Clinical Workflow in Ambulatory Care: Implemented Recommendations in an Innovation Prototype for the Veteran’s Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Emily S.; Lowry, Svetlana Z.; Ramaiah, Mala; Gibbons, Michael C.; Brick, David; Calco, Robert; Matton, Greg; Miller, Anne; Makar, Ellen; Ferrer, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    NIST recommendations to improve workflow in ambulatory care using an EHR provide a first step in moving from a billing-centered perspective on how to maintain accurate, comprehensive, and up-to-date information about a group of patients to a clinician-centered perspective. These recommendations point the way towards a “patient visit management system,” which incorporates broader notions of supporting workload management, supporting flexible flow of patients and tasks, enabling accountable distributed work across members of the clinical team, and supporting dynamic tracking of steps in tasks that have longer time distributions. PMID:26290887

  17. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  18. Clinical Considerations for Insulin Pharmacotherapy in Ambulatory Care, Part Two: Review of Primary Literature and an Evidence-Based Approach for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Bourg, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF This article reinforces the dosing guidance from the package inserts of available insulin products and supplemental information provided by the manufacturers of insulin products. It reviews and evaluates pertinent primary literature detailing algorithms for the initiation and titration of insulin therapy that have helped to shape current clinical practice guidelines. The article discusses the clinical applicability of the evidence on insulin pharmacotherapy and offers recommendations for initiation and titration of various insulin products for insulin-requiring people with type 2 diabetes in the ambulatory care setting. PMID:25653469

  19. Transitioning the RN to Ambulatory Care: An Investment in Orientation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Juliet Walshe

    2016-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) struggle when transitioning from the inpatient setting to the outpatient clinical environment because it results in a diverse skill-set shift. The RN, considered an outpatient revenue source, experiences a decrease in peer-to-peer relationships, changes in leadership responsibilities, and changes in workgroup dynamics (supervision of unlicensed clinical personnel who function under the direction of the physician, not the RN). Ambulatory organizations find themselves implementing clinical orientation programs that may not delineate the attributes of the RN. This diminishes their value while emphasizing the unlicensed technical skill set. Creating a core RN orientation program template is paramount for the transition of the RN to the ambulatory setting. The literature reveals several areas where improving the value of the RN will ultimately enhance recruitment and retention, patient care outcomes, and leverage the RN role within any organization. Eleven 30-minute in-depth telephone interviews were conducted in addition to 4 nurse observations to explore the lived experience of the RN in ambulatory care. The findings disclosed an overarching theme of nurse isolation and offered insightful underpinnings for the nurse leader as ambulatory growth continues and nurse leaders further endorse the RN presence in the ambulatory setting. PMID:26938183

  20. Diagnostic Errors in Ambulatory Care: Dimensions and Preventive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Hardeep; Weingart, Saul N.

    2009-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on patient safety in ambulatory care, progress in understanding and reducing diagnostic errors in this setting lag behind many other safety concerns such as medication errors. To explore the extent and nature of diagnostic errors in ambulatory care, we identified five dimensions of ambulatory care from which errors may…

  1. Faculty Development for Ambulatory Care Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.; Carline, Jan D.; Ambrozy, Donna M.; Irby, David M.

    1997-01-01

    A study documented the practices of 14 peer-nominated medical educators who conduct faculty development programs in ambulatory care settings. Results indicate the programs were delivered almost exclusively in workshop format, with great similarities in topics and strategies. Evaluation was generally limited to satisfaction ratings. Makes…

  2. Memo to: Ambulatory Health Care Planners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Planning for changing types of health professions and a changing clientele necessitates designing flexible facilities. Findings from a recently completed analysis of ambulatory care facilities are directed to planners in the form of 16 memos. Approaches to planning and design considerations are made that attempt to humanize these facilities.…

  3. Planning an ambulatory care joint venture.

    PubMed

    Harpster, L M

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses ambulatory care joint ventures by hospitals and selected members of their medical staffs and emphasizes the resolution of problems in the early planning stages. Failure to follow an orderly and thoughtful planning process not only risks valuable resources of the venture partners, but also jeopardizes the working relationship between the hospital and its medical staff.

  4. Active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone technology in patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Anton R; Gridnev, Vladimir I; Shvartz, Vladimir A; Posnenkova, Olga M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Ya

    2012-01-01

    The use of short message services and mobile phone technology for ambulatory care management is the most accessible and most inexpensive way to transition from traditional ambulatory care management to active ambulatory care management in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone technology with traditional ambulatory care management in AH patients. The study included 97 hypertensive patients under active ambulatory care management and 102 patients under traditional ambulatory care management. Blood pressure levels, body mass, and smoking history of patients were analyzed in the study. The duration of study was 1 year. In the active ambulatory care management group, 36% of patients were withdrawn from the study within a year. At the end of the year, 77% of patients from the active care management group had achieved the goal blood pressure level. That was more than 5 times higher than that in the traditional ambulatory care management group (P < .001). The risk ratio of achieving and maintaining the goal blood pressure in patients of active care management group was 5.44, CI (3.2-9.9; P = .005). Implementation of active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone improves the quality of ambulatory care of hypertensive patients.

  5. Patient Perceptions of Mistakes in Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E.; Walter, Louise C.; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Sloane, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT Little information exists about current patient perceptions of medical mistakes in ambulatory care within a diverse population. OBJECTIVES To learn about adults’ perceptions of mistakes in ambulatory care, what factors were associated with perceived mistakes, and whether or not the respondents changed physicians because of these perceived mistakes DESIGN Cross-sectional survey conducted in 2008 SETTING Seven primary care medical practices in North Carolina PARTICIPANTS One thousand six hundred ninety-seven English or Spanish speaking adults, aged 18 and older, who presented to a medical provider during the data collection period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES 1) Has a doctor in a doctor’s office ever made a mistake in your care? 2) In the past 10 years, has a doctor in a doctor’s office made a wrong diagnosis or misdiagnosed you? (If yes, how much harm did this cause you?) 3) In the last 10 years, has a doctor in a doctor’s office given you the wrong medical treatment or delayed treatment? (If yes, how much harm did this cause you?) 4) Have you ever changed doctors because of either a wrong diagnosis or a wrong treatment of a medical condition? RESULTS Two hundred sixty-five participants (15.6%) responded that a doctor had ever made a mistake, 13.4% reported a wrong diagnosis, 12.4% reported a wrong treatment, and 14.1% reported having changed doctors because of a mistake. Participants perceived mistakes and harm in both diagnostic care and medical treatment. Patients with chronic low back pain, higher levels of education, and poor physical health were at increased odds of perceiving harm, whereas African-Americans were less likely to perceive mistakes. CONCLUSIONS Patients perceived mistakes in their diagnostic and treatment care in the ambulatory setting. These perceptions had a concrete impact on the patient-physician relationship, often leading patients to seek another health care provider. PMID:20837835

  6. Clinical Considerations for Insulin Pharmacotherapy in Ambulatory Care, Part One: Introduction and Review of Current Products and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Galdo, John A.; Thurston, Maria Miller; Bourg, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    In Brief This article describes available insulin products and published guidelines to aid clinicians in making treatment decisions for insulin-dependent patients with type 2 diabetes. It establishes the need for a thorough evaluation of the literature regarding ambulatory insulin dosing to further inform providers who manage insulin therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26130864

  7. Antibiotic stewardship: a focus on ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Gangat, M Azhar; Hsu, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the major health threats facing modern medicine. While there are many tactics to address this issue, antibiotic stewardship has been shown effective in reducing antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug effects, mortality and health care cost. Most antibiotic stewardship programs have evolved within acute care settings where the bulk of resistant infections are identified. Unfortunately, hospitals are just the tip of the iceberg in terms of overall antibiotic use. The vast majority of the antibiotic prescriptions are dispensed in ambulatory care settings, making this a critical target for stewardship programs. This article discusses the global need for antibiotic stewardship, highlights the importance of outpatient stewardship, and discusses strategies and challenges for implementation of stewardship in community settings.

  8. An Agenda for Residency Training in Ambulatory Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Kurt; Buchsbaum, David

    1984-01-01

    Some of the differences between in-hospital and ambulatory medicine and their implications for the teaching and practice of ambulatory care are explored. The availability of time, the role of patient cooperation, and the decision-making process differ in the two settings. (MLW)

  9. Improving outpatient access and patient experiences in academic ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sarah; Calderon, Sherry; Casella, Joanne; Wood, Elizabeth; Carvelli-Sheehan, Jayne; Zeidel, Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Effective scheduling of and ready access to doctor appointments affect ambulatory patient care quality, but these are often sacrificed by patients seeking care from physicians at academic medical centers. At one center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the authors developed interventions to improve the scheduling of appointments and to reduce the access time between telephone call and first offered appointment. Improvements to scheduling included no redirection to voicemail, prompt telephone pickup, courteous service, complete registration, and effective scheduling. Reduced access time meant being offered an appointment with a physician in the appropriate specialty within three working days of the telephone call. Scheduling and access were assessed using monthly "mystery shopper" calls. Mystery shoppers collected data using standardized forms, rated the quality of service, and transcribed their interactions with schedulers. Monthly results were tabulated and discussed with clinical leaders; leaders and frontline staff then developed solutions to detected problems. Eighteen months after the beginning of the intervention (in June 2007), which is ongoing, schedulers had gone from using 60% of their registration skills to over 90%, customer service scores had risen from 2.6 to 4.9 (on a 5-point scale), and average access time had fallen from 12 days to 6 days. The program costs $50,000 per year and has been associated with a 35% increase in ambulatory volume across three years. The authors conclude that academic medical centers can markedly improve the scheduling process and access to care and that these improvements may result in increased ambulatory care volume. PMID:22193182

  10. Translating caring theory across the continuum from inpatient to ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Tonges, Mary; McCann, Meghan; Strickler, Jeff

    2014-06-01

    While theory-based practice is a Magnet® characteristic, translating theories to practice remains challenging. As a result, theory-guided practice remains an ideal rather than a realized goal in many organizations. This article provides an overview of a research-derived caring theory, a translational model for theory-driven practice, implementation of a delivery model designed to translate theory across the acute and ambulatory care continuum, and resulting outcomes in oncology clinics and the emergency department.

  11. [Ambulatory care nursing sites in Italy: results of a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Rosaria; Venturini, Giulia; Tartaglini, Daniela; Vellone, Ercole; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to map existing ambulatory care nursing sites in Italy, compare operational and organizational methodologies used, and evaluate visibility of the sites in health institutions and the community. Nurses' level of satisfaction with this work experience was also evaluated. The American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing and American Nurses Association definition of ambulatory care nursing (1997) was used to select sites for the study. Two hundred fifty ambulatory care sites meeting this definition were listed, most of which provide clinical and educational services to oncology and cardiology patients. Surgical sites provide treatment of surgical wounds and stomas. Results of the study show that ambulatory care nursing sites are not uniformly distributed across Italy and a greater concentration of sites can be found in northern Italy with respect to central and southern Italy. Nurses report having greater professional autonomy and an excellent level of satisfaction. All interviewed nurses attend specific training and continuing education courses. Ambulatory care sites are managed by nurses; medical consultations are requested when necessary and home assistance is assured through coordination with general practitioners. PMID:19629150

  12. Estimated financial savings associated with health information exchange and ambulatory care referral.

    PubMed

    Frisse, Mark E; Holmes, Rodney L

    2007-12-01

    Data and financial models based on an operational health information exchange suggest that health care delivery costs can be reduced by making clinical data available at the time of care in urban emergency departments. Reductions are the result of decreases in laboratory and radiographic tests, fewer admissions for observation, and lower overall emergency department costs. The likelihood of reducing these costs depends on the extent to which clinicians alter their workflow and take into account information available through the exchange from other institutions prior to initiating a treatment plan. Far greater savings can be realized in theory by identifying individuals presenting to emergency departments whose acute and long-term care needs are more suitably addressed at lower costs in ambulatory settings or medical homes. These alternative ambulatory settings can more effectively address the chronic care needs of those who receive most of their care in emergency departments. To support a shift from emergency room care to clinic care, health care information available through the health information exchange must be made available in both emergency department and ambulatory care settings. If practice workflow and patient behavior can be changed, a more effective and efficient care delivery system will be made possible through the secure exchange of clinical information across regional settings. These projections support the case for the financial viability of regional health information exchanges and motivate participation of hospitals and ambulatory care organizations-particularly in urban settings.

  13. Commentary on the required skills for ambulatory cardiac care in the young: is training necessary?

    PubMed

    Boris, Jeffrey R

    2015-12-01

    Extensive supplemental training exists for many subspecialty disciplines within fellowship training for paediatric cardiology in the United States of America. These disciplines, or domains, such as echocardiography, cardiac intensive care, interventional cardiology, and electrophysiology, allow for initial exposure and training during the basic 3 years of fellowship, plus mandate a 4th year of advanced training; however, ambulatory cardiology has no in-depth or additional training beyond the basic clinical exposure during fellowship training. Ambulatory cardiology is not included in the recommended scheduling of the various domains of cardiology training. This document reviews the reasons to consider augmenting the depth and breadth of training in ambulatory paediatric cardiology. PMID:26675611

  14. Redesigning the Regulatory Framework for Ambulatory Care Services in New York

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Dave A; Rugge, John; Shah, Nirav R

    2014-01-01

    Context While hospitals remain important centers of gravity in the health system, services are increasingly being delivered through ambulatory care. This shift to ambulatory care is giving rise to new delivery structures, such as retail clinics and urgent care centers, as well as reinventing existing ambulatory care capacity, as seen with the patient-centered medical home model and the movement toward team-based care. To protect the public's interests, oversight of ambulatory care services must keep pace with these rapid changes. With this purpose, in January 2013 the New York Public Health and Health Planning Council undertook a redesign of the regulatory framework for the state's ambulatory care services. This article describes the principles undergirding the framework as well as the regulatory recommendations themselves. Methods We explored and analyzed the regulation of ambulatory care services in New York in accordance with the available gray and peer-reviewed literature and legislative documents. The deliberations of the Public Health and Health Planning Council informed our review. Findings The vision of high-performing ambulatory care should be rooted in the Triple Aim (better health, higher-quality care, lower costs), with a particular emphasis on continuity of care for patients. There is a pressing need to better define the taxonomy of ambulatory care services. From the state government's perspective, this clarification requires better reporting from new health care entities (eg, retail clinics), connections with regional and state health information technology hubs, and coordination among state agencies. A uniform nomenclature also would improve consumers’ understanding of rights and responsibilities. Finally, the regulatory mechanisms employed—from mandatory reporting to licensure to regional planning to the certificate of need—should remain flexible and match the degree of consensus regarding the appropriate regulatory path. Conclusions Few other

  15. Computer networking in an ambulatory health care setting.

    PubMed

    Alger, R; Berkowitz, L L; Bergeron, B; Buskett, D

    1999-01-01

    Computers are a ubiquitous part of the ambulatory health care environment. Although stand-alone computers may be adequate for a small practice, networked computers can create much more powerful and cost-effective computerized systems. Local area networks allow groups of computers to share peripheral devices and computerized information within an office or cluster of offices. Wide area networks allow computers to securely share devices and information across a large geographical area. Either singly or in combination, these networks can be used to create robust systems to help physicians automate their practices and improve their access to important clinical information. In this article, we will examine common network configurations, explain how they function, and provide examples of real-world implementations of networking technology in health care. PMID:10662271

  16. Computer networking in an ambulatory health care setting.

    PubMed

    Alger, R; Berkowitz, L L; Bergeron, B; Buskett, D

    1999-01-01

    Computers are a ubiquitous part of the ambulatory health care environment. Although stand-alone computers may be adequate for a small practice, networked computers can create much more powerful and cost-effective computerized systems. Local area networks allow groups of computers to share peripheral devices and computerized information within an office or cluster of offices. Wide area networks allow computers to securely share devices and information across a large geographical area. Either singly or in combination, these networks can be used to create robust systems to help physicians automate their practices and improve their access to important clinical information. In this article, we will examine common network configurations, explain how they function, and provide examples of real-world implementations of networking technology in health care.

  17. Hospital-based, acute care following ambulatory surgery center discharge

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Justin P.; Vashi, Anita A.; Ross, Joseph S.; Gross, Cary P.

    2014-01-01

    Background As a measure of quality, ambulatory surgery centers have begun reporting rates of hospital transfer at discharge. However, this may underestimate patient’s acute care needs after care. We conducted this study to determine rates and evaluate variation in hospital transfer and hospital-based, acute care within 7 days among patients discharged from ambulatory surgery centers. Methods Using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, we identified adult patients who underwent a medical or surgical procedure between July 2008 and September 2009 at ambulatory surgery centers in California, Florida, and Nebraska. The primary outcomes were hospital transfer at the time of discharge and hospital-based, acute care (emergency department visits or hospital admissions) within 7-days expressed as the rate per 1,000 discharges. At the ambulatory surgery center level, rates were adjusted for age, sex, and procedure-mix. Results We studied 3,821,670 patients treated at 1,295 ambulatory surgery centers. At discharge, the hospital transfer rate was 1.1/1,000 discharges (95% CI, 1.1–1.1). Among patients discharged home, the hospital-based, acute care rate was 31.8/1,000 discharges (95% CI, 31.6–32.0). Across ambulatory surgery centers, there was little variation in adjusted hospital transfer rates (median=1.0/1,000 discharges [25th–75th percentile=1.0–2.0]), while substantial variation existed in adjusted hospital-based, acute care rates (28.0/1,000 [21.0–39.0]). Conclusions Among adult patients undergoing ambulatory surgery center care, hospital transfer at discharge is a rare event. In contrast, the hospital-based, acute care rate is nearly 30-fold higher, varies across centers, and may be a more meaningful measure for discriminating quality. PMID:24787100

  18. Cost sharing and hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Alejandro; García-Prado, Ariadna

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, Chile's private health sector has experienced a dramatic increase in hospitalization rates, growing at four times the rate of ambulatory visits. Such evolution has raised concern among policy-makers. We studied the effect of ambulatory and hospital co-insurance rates on hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among individuals with private insurance in Chile. We used a large administrative dataset of private insurance claims for the period 2007-8 and a final sample of 2,792,662 individuals to estimate a structural model of two equations. The first equation was for ambulatory visits and the second for future hospitalizations for ACSC. We estimated the system by Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) corrected by heteroskedasticity via Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation. Results show that increased ambulatory visits reduced the probability of future hospitalizations, and increased ambulatory co-insurance decreased ambulatory visits for the adult population (19-65 years-old). Both findings indicate the need to reduce ambulatory co-insurance as a way to reduce hospitalizations for ACSC. Results also showed that increasing hospital co-insurance does have a statistically significant reduction on hospitalizations for the adult group, while it does not seem to have a significant effect on hospitalizations for the children (1-18 years-old) group. This paper's contribution is twofold: first, it shows how the level of co-insurance can be a determinant in avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations for certain conditions; second, it highlights the relevance for policy-making of using data on ACSC to improve the efficiency of health systems by promoting ambulatory care as well as population health.

  19. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  20. Impact of an Elective Course in Community and Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Practices on Student Perception of Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kelli D; Maguire, Michelle; Bennett, Marialice S

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To determine the impact of an elective course on students' perception of opportunities and of their preparedness for patient care in community and ambulatory pharmacy settings. Design. Each course meeting included a lecture and discussion to introduce concepts and active-learning activities to apply concepts to patient care or practice development in a community or ambulatory pharmacy setting. Assessment. A survey was administered to students before and after the course. Descriptive statistics were used to assess student responses to survey questions, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the improvement in student responses with an alpha level set at 0.05. Students felt more prepared to provide patient care, develop or improve a clinical service, and effectively communicate recommendations to other health care providers after course completion. Conclusion. This elective course equipped students with the skills necessary to increase their confidence in providing patient care services in community and ambulatory settings. PMID:27168617

  1. [Ambulatory procedures to replace inpatient care. Background and applications].

    PubMed

    Hensen, P; Bunzemeier, H; Fürstenberg, T; Luger, T A; Rochell, B; Roeder, N

    2004-07-01

    Since January 2004, German hospitals and specialists in private practice have equal rights to provide and to charge for ambulatory surgeries according to paragraph 115b, 5th Code of Social Law. The current agreement between the German self-governing bodies replaces the existing contracts from 1993. In contrast to the previous version, the revised catalogue contains additional non-operative procedures. Some procedures may be provided either in an ambulatory or inpatient setting. However, for the hospitals it is of particular importance that some specified procedures should be performed on an ambulatory basis. If these particular services are delivered in an inpatient setting at least one stipulated criteria of exception has to be fulfilled. From the perspective of dermatology, not only opportunities but also obligations for ambulatory care arise from the new conditions. The critical facts and aspects with special relevance to dermatology are reviewed in detail. PMID:15168028

  2. Ambulatory care centers: structure, services, and marketing techniques.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J H; Reeder, C E

    1987-12-01

    A generic definition for an ambulatory care center (ACC) is not apparent. ACCs differ in ownership, primary function, and services offered. ACCs are attempting to expand their patient base by providing nonemergency care, contracting with provider organizations (e.g., HMOs and PPOs), and using aggressive marketing techniques.

  3. [Interprofessional pill box management in an ambulatory care setting].

    PubMed

    Abrecht, Loïc; Anchisi, Annick; Widmer, Daniel; Bugnon, Olivier; Du Pasquier, Sophie; Jotterand, Sébastien; Karlen, Martine; Herzig, Lilli

    2014-11-26

    Complex multimorbid patients are now more common in ambulatory care and the management of their medication more frequently needs interprofessional collaboration. This qualitative study explored health professional's main challenges when introducing, preparing and sharing the use of a pill box for a patient. Another objective of this study was to explore options for improving care in these situations.

  4. Teaching Interdisciplinary Geriatrics Ambulatory Care: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brent C.; Remington, Tami L.; Foulk, Mariko A.; Whall, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Interdisciplinary health care training is advocated by numerous government and philanthropic organizations. Educators in the health professions are increasingly offering training in interdisciplinary health care in a variety of contexts, including ambulatory settings. This paper describes a three-year program to teach skills in interdisciplinary…

  5. Management of chronic nonmalignant pain with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Joint opinion statement of the Ambulatory Care, Cardiology, and Pain and Palliative Care Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Christopher M; Hutchison, Rob W; Berdine, Hildegarde J; Stacy, Zachary A; Chen, Judy T; Farnsworth, David D; Dang, Devra; Fermo, Joli D

    2008-06-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain is a major burden on the health care system in the United States. Frequently, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to assist in the management of various chronic pain syndromes. Although evidence is accumulating on the potential toxicities associated with NSAIDs, clear recommendations are lacking to guide the appropriate use of these drugs. Equivocal data, especially with respect to cardiovascular risk, further confuse a clear treatment pathway when assessing pharmacotherapy. Originally, cyclooxygenase selectivity appeared to be a determining factor in choosing an agent because of the presumed lack of effect on the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal renal systems. This theory, however, was recently dispelled. To provide guidance on the selection of an NSAID for various chronic pain syndromes, members of the Ambulatory Care, Cardiology, and Pain and Palliative Care Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy evaluated evidence-based use of NSAIDs for frequently encountered pain syndromes, with special focus on the adverse effects of this class of agents.

  6. Ambulatory care practice variation within a Medicaid program.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, J P; Starfield, B H; Powe, N R; Stuart, M E; Steinwachs, D M

    1996-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS: What is the extent of variation in patterns of ambulatory care practice across one state's Medicaid program once case mix is controlled for? How much of this variation in resource consumption is explained by factors linked to the provider, patient, and geographic subarea? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Practices of all providers delivering care to persons who were continuously enrolled in the Maryland Medicaid program during FY 1988 were studied. A computerized summary of all services received during this year for 134,725 persons was developed using claims data. We also obtained data from the state's beneficiary and provider files and the American Medical Association's masterfile. Each patient was assigned a "usual source of care" (primary provider) based on the actual patterns of service. The Ambulatory Care Group (ACG) measure was used to help control for case mix. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study based on the universe of continuously enrolled Medicaid enrollees in one state. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After controlling for case mix, the variation in patient resource use by type of primary provider was 19 percent for ambulatory visits, 46 percent for ancillary testing, 61 percent for prescriptions, and 81 percent for hospitalizations. Across Maryland counties, comparing the low- to high-use jurisdiction, there was 41 percent variation in case mix-adjusted visit rates, 72 percent variation in pharmacy use, and 325 percent variation in hospital days. At the individual practice level, physician characteristics explain up to 17 percent of ambulatory resource use and geographic area explains only a few percent, while patient characteristics explain up to 60 percent of variation. CONCLUSIONS: Since a large proportion of variation was explained by patient case mix, it is evident that risk adjustment is essential for these types of analyses. However, even after adjustment, resource use varies considerably across types of ambulatory care provider and

  7. A vision for ambulatory care in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, A M

    1998-01-01

    The 1990's have been a remarkable decade for ambulatory care providers. Ambulatory care services have flourished in an era of rapidly increasing demands and seemingly limitless potential. Will the first decade of the next millennium continue this trend or is something new on the horizon? Ambulatory care's future prospects need to be evaluated within the context of the overall health care delivery environment of the future. At this time, three alternative "futures" seem plausible for the next decade. Managed care dominates. This scenario appears most likely at present with managed care poised to make significant inroads into Medicaid and Medicare populations. National health insurance is instituted. Some believe that this is a logical reaction to the excesses of the current competitive marketplace and is possible following the presidential election of 2004. Slow evolution of current system. This scenario may be viewed as the status quo alternative and is likely in the absence of a crisis or a better, generally agreed upon way in which to improve health care delivery.

  8. Clinical Assessment Applications of Ambulatory Biosensors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stephen N.; Yoshioka, Dawn T.

    2007-01-01

    Ambulatory biosensor assessment includes a diverse set of rapidly developing and increasingly technologically sophisticated strategies to acquire minimally disruptive measures of physiological and motor variables of persons in their natural environments. Numerous studies have measured cardiovascular variables, physical activity, and biochemicals…

  9. Hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173

  10. Interdisciplinary Shared Governance in Ambulatory Care: One Health System's Journey.

    PubMed

    Powers, Sharon; Bacon, Cynthia Thornton

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of shared governance structures in acute care has illustrated the positive relationship between shared decision making and nurse empowerment and positive nurse and patient outcomes. Little is known, however, about interdisciplinary shared governance, and even less is known about shared governance in ambulatory care. This article details one health system's experience with the implementation of an interdisciplinary shared governance structure in ambulatory care over a 4-year period. The authors report lessons learned, positive health system outcomes that resulted including improved communication, better preparedness for accreditation visits, improved assessment of fall risk, and a streamlined documentation system. Also discussed are mechanisms to enhance sustainability of the structure and discussion of future opportunities and challenges. PMID:27259130

  11. Describing Primary Care Encounters: The Primary Care Network Survey and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Helen J.; Lanier, David; Pace, Wilson D.; Galliher, James M.; Ganiats, Theodore G.; Grey, Margaret; Ariza, Adolfo J.; Williams, Robert

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to describe clinical encounters in primary care research networks and compare them with those of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). METHODS Twenty US primary care research networks collected data on clinicians and patient encounters using the Primary Care Network Survey (PRINS) Clinician Interview (PRINS-1) and Patient Record (PRINS-2), which were newly developed based on NAMCS tools. Clinicians completed a PRINS-1 about themselves and a PRINS-2 for each of 30 patient visits. Data included patient characteristics; reason for the visit, diagnoses, and services ordered or performed. We compared PRINS data with data obtained from primary care physicians during 5 cycles of NAMCS (1997–2001). Data were weighted; PRINS reflects participating networks and NAMCS provides national estimates. RESULTS By discipline, 89% of PRINS clinicians were physicians, 4% were physicians in residency training, 5% were advanced practice nurses/nurse-practitioners, and 2% were physician’s assistants. The majority (53%) specialized in pediatrics (34% specialized in family medicine, 9% in internal medicine, and 4% in other specialties). All NAMCS clinicians were physicians, with 20% specializing in pediatrics. When NAMCS and PRINS visits were compared, larger proportions of PRINS visits involved preventive care and were made by children, members of minority racial groups, and individuals who did not have private health insurance. A diagnostic or other assessment service was performed for 99% of PRINS visits and 76% of NAMCS visits (95% confidence interval, 74.9%–78.0%). A preventive or counseling/education service was provided at 64% of PRINS visits and 37% of NAMCS visits (95% confidence interval, 35.1%–38.0%). CONCLUSIONS PRINS presents a view of diverse primary care visits and differs from NAMCS in its methods and findings. Further examinations of PRINS data are needed to assess their usefulness for describing encounters that

  12. Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Release Archives learn more » For Patients Your health care choices matter. Whether you're anticipating a surgical ... certificate of accreditation is a sign that a health care organization meets or exceeds nationally-recognized Standards. Learn ...

  13. Studies in the Delivery of Ambulatory Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert; And Others

    A primary reason for increased government involvement in health care delivery resides in the acknowledged difficulty of the poor in obtaining adequate care. However, in the absence of knowledge about how health, health care, socio-economic status, race, ethnicity, and geographic location are related, policies aimed at implementing right to health…

  14. Primary Care, Ambulatory Care, and Family Medicine: Overlapping But Not Synonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    Defines and depicts graphically the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary care functions (from least to most intensified phases of medical care); ambulatory care (care of sick or well people not confined to bed); and family medicine (an emerging medical discipline focusing on complete and longterm care of the family). (JT)

  15. Process visibility analysis in ambulatory care: a simulation study with RFID data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chin; Padman, Rema

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare is primarily delivered in the ambulatory care setting worldwide. The high variability in service delivery encountered in this environment negatively impacts process efficiency and patient satisfaction. In this study, we analyze care delivery process in ambulatory care using time and location stamped data collected via Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled badges worn by patients, clinicians, and staff as they complete each clinic visit. With the objective of improving process visibility and minimizing patient waiting time, we examine this data to delineate the major components of waiting time and use simulation modeling to evaluate the impact of possible interventions. Results indicate that as a prevalent strategy, different appointment scheduling rules can only reduce patient waiting time in the waiting room. Surprisingly, waiting time in the exam room is unchanged, requiring new approaches to improve care coordination that address this delay. The results also highlight the value of RFID technology and the challenges in deploying them to improve service delivery.

  16. Quality assurance in the ambulatory care setting.

    PubMed

    Tyler, R D

    1989-01-01

    One of the most utilitarian developments in the field of quality assurance in health care has been the introduction of industrial concepts of quality management. These concepts, coupled with buyer demand for accountability, are bringing new perspectives to health care quality assurance. These perspectives provide a new view of quality assurance as a major responsibility and strategic opportunity for management; a competitive and marketable commodity; and a method of improving safety, effectiveness, and satisfaction with medical care.

  17. Differences in Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis by Ambulatory Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the US and timely, correct treatment can reduce CT transmission and sequelae. Emergency departments (ED) are an important location for diagnosing STIs. This study compared recommended treatment of CT in EDs to treatment in physician offices. Five years of data (2006-2010) were analyzed from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NHAMCS), including the Outpatient survey (NHAMCS-OPD) and Emergency Department survey (NHAMCS-ED). All visits with a CT diagnosis and those with a diagnosis of unspecified venereal disease were selected for analysis. Differences in receipt of recommended treatments were compared between visits to physician offices and emergency departments using Chi square tests and logistic regression models. During the 5 year period, approximately 3.2 million ambulatory care visits had diagnosed CT or an unspecified venereal disease. A greater proportion of visits to EDs received the recommended treatment for CT compared to visits to physician offices (66.1 vs. 44.9 %, p < .01). When controlling for patients' age, sex and race/ethnicity, those presenting to the ED with CT were more likely to receive the recommended antibiotic treatment than patients presenting to a physician's office (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.04-4.48). This effect was attenuated when further controlling for patients' expected source of payment. These analyses demonstrate differences in the treatment of CT by ambulatory care setting as well as opportunities for increasing use of recommended treatments for diagnosed cases of this important STI. PMID:25940936

  18. Embracing the Insulin Revolution in the Ambulatory Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Bzowyckyj, Andrew S

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF Recent additions of various new formulations of insulin to the U.S. marketplace have increased the number of treatment options available to people living with diabetes. However, it is important to take into consideration the implications of these new insulins in terms of patient safety and medication errors, integration with electronic medical records, and financial considerations. This review outlines several considerations for practitioners regarding the implications of these new insulin products for ambulatory care practice. PMID:27574367

  19. Ambulatory Care Nurse-Sensitive Indicators Series: Reaching for the Tipping Point in Measuring Nurse-Sensitive Quality in the Ambulatory Surgical and Procedure Environments.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane Storer; Aronow, Harriet Udin

    2016-01-01

    The value of the ambulatory care nurse remains undocumented from a quality and patient safety measurement perspective and the practice is at risk of being highly variable and of unknown quality. The American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing and the Collaborative Alliance for Nursing Outcomes propose nurse leaders create a tipping point to measure the value of nursing across the continuum of nursing care, moving from inpatient to ambulatory care. As care continues to shift into the ambulatory care environment, the quality imperative must also shift to assure highly reliable, safe, and effective health care. PMID:27439252

  20. The quality of ambulatory care in Medicare health maintenance organizations.

    PubMed

    Retchin, S M; Brown, B

    1990-04-01

    The quality of ambulatory care received by Medicare recipients who enrolled in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) was compared to the care received by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare recipients, in a quasi-experimental, non-randomized design. Both samples were drawn from the four major geographic areas in the country, and included two types of HMO practices: staff/group models, and independent practice associations (IPAs). A panel of expert physicians developed criteria for evaluating ambulatory care, and medical record abstractions using these criteria were performed on 1,590 outpatient records: 777 FFS and 813 HMO (441 staff/group, 372 IPA). While individual items of medical histories and physical examinations were performed most often for staff/group HMO patients and least often in FFS patients, odds ratios (OR) for performance in staff/group HMO patients were particularly large for health maintenance items: tonometry (OR = 8.4), mammography (OR = 2.7), pelvic examination (OR = 5.3), rectal examination (OR = 2.9), fecal occult blood test (OR = 3.3). The results suggest that recommended elements of routine and preventive care are more likely to be performed for Medicare enrollees in staff/group HMOs than in FFS settings.

  1. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a useful clinical tool in nephrology.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, G A; White, W B

    1997-11-01

    Hypertension is a key factor in the genesis and deterioration of many renal diseases and is also a risk factor for death in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the standard methods of measurement are prone to variability, especially in patients undergoing dialysis. The technique of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring allows a better assessment of overall blood pressure levels and promises to assume a bigger role in the care of renal patients. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is widely used in hypertension trials, and the reports of several consensus meetings on the clinical uses of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring have been published. Two similar validation protocols now exist for ambulatory blood pressure monitors, and tables of population-based normal blood pressures for age and gender are available. The available evidence suggests that ambulatory blood pressure compared with blood pressure measured in the physician's office is better correlated to left ventricular mass in subjects with chronic renal disease. Furthermore, studies in subjects with chronic renal disease and those undergoing renal replacement therapy show that blood pressure control is suboptimal in many patients and that nocturnal blood pressure is generally higher than in control subjects. Further insights into overall blood pressure behavior in this population will certainly emerge in the future. PMID:9370174

  2. The rural - urban divide in ambulatory care of gastrointestinal diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The utilization of medical care for gastrointestinal diseases increased over the past decade worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the difference between rural and urban patients in seeking medical service for gastrointestinal diseases at ambulatory sector in Taiwan. Methods From the one-million-people cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database, the utilization of ambulatory visits for gastrointestinal diseases in 2009 was analyzed. Rural patients were compared with urban and suburban patients as to diagnosis, locality of visits and choice of specialists. Results Among 295,056 patients who had ambulatory visits for gastrointestinal diseases in 2009, rural patients sought medical care for gastrointestinal diseases more frequently than urban and suburban patients (1.60 ± 3.90 vs. 1.17 ± 3.02 and 1.39 ± 3.47). 83.4% of rural patients with gastrointestinal diseases were treated by non-gastroenterologists in rural areas. Rural people had lower accessibility of specialist care, especially for hepatitis, esophageal disorders and gastroduodenal ulcer. Conclusion The rural–urban disparity of medical care for gastrointestinal diseases in Taiwan highlighted the importance of the well communication between rural physicians and gastroenterologists. Besides the establishment of the referral system, the medical teleconsultation system and the arrangement of specialist outreach clinics in rural areas might be helpful. PMID:23497027

  3. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  4. Organization of ambulatory care provision: a critical determinant of health system performance in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, P.

    2000-01-01

    Success in the provision of ambulatory personal health services, i.e. providing individuals with treatment for acute illness and preventive health care on an ambulatory basis, is the most significant contributor to the health care system's performance in most developing countries. Ambulatory personal health care has the potential to contribute the largest immediate gains in health status in populations, especially for the poor. At present, such health care accounts for the largest share of the total health expenditure in most lower income countries. It frequently comprises the largest share of the financial burden on households associated with health care consumption, which is typically regressively distributed. The "organization" of ambulatory personal health services is a critical determinant of the health system's performance which, at present, is poorly understood and insufficiently considered in policies and programmes for reforming health care systems. This article begins with a brief analysis of the importance of ambulatory care in the overall health system performance and this is followed by a summary of the inadequate global data on ambulatory care organization. It then defines the concept of "macro organization of health care" at a system level. Outlined also is a framework for analysing the organization of health care services and the major pathways through which the organization of ambulatory personal health care services can affect system performance. Examples of recent policy interventions to influence primary care organization--both government and nongovernmental providers and market structure--are reviewed. It is argued that the characteristics of health care markets in developing countries and of most primary care goods result in relatively diverse and competitive environments for ambulatory care services, compared with other types of health care. Therefore, governments will be required to use a variety of approaches beyond direct public provision

  5. [Current clinical aspects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Cuéllar-Álvarez, José; Villegas-Herrera, Karla Montserrat; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is the prevalentest disease worldwide that significantly increases cardiovascular risk. An early diagnosis together to achieve goals decreases the risk of complications significatly. Recently have been updated the diagnostic criteria for hypertension and the introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The introduction into clinical practice of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was to assist the diagnosis of «white coat hypertension» and «masked hypertension». Today has also shown that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is better than the traditional method of recording blood pressure in the office, to the diagnosis and to adequate control and adjustment of drug treatment. Also there have been introduced important new concepts such as isloted nocturnal hypertension, morning blood pressure elevation altered and altered patterns of nocturnal dip in blood pressure; which have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Several studies have shown significant prognostic value in some stocks. There are still other concepts on which further study is needed to properly establish their introduction to clinical practice as hypertensive load variability, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. In addition to setting values according to further clinical studies in populations such as elderly and children. PMID:26794338

  6. [Current clinical aspects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Cuéllar-Álvarez, José; Villegas-Herrera, Karla Montserrat; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is the prevalentest disease worldwide that significantly increases cardiovascular risk. An early diagnosis together to achieve goals decreases the risk of complications significatly. Recently have been updated the diagnostic criteria for hypertension and the introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The introduction into clinical practice of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was to assist the diagnosis of «white coat hypertension» and «masked hypertension». Today has also shown that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is better than the traditional method of recording blood pressure in the office, to the diagnosis and to adequate control and adjustment of drug treatment. Also there have been introduced important new concepts such as isloted nocturnal hypertension, morning blood pressure elevation altered and altered patterns of nocturnal dip in blood pressure; which have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Several studies have shown significant prognostic value in some stocks. There are still other concepts on which further study is needed to properly establish their introduction to clinical practice as hypertensive load variability, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. In addition to setting values according to further clinical studies in populations such as elderly and children.

  7. Assessment of ambulatory blood pressure recorders: accuracy and clinical performance.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1991-06-01

    There are now more than ten different manufacturers of non-invasive, portable blood pressure monitors in North America, Europe, and Japan. These ambulatory blood pressure recorders measure blood pressure by either auscultatory or oscillometric methodology. Technologic advances in the recorders have resulted in reduction in monitor size, reduction in or absence of motor noise during cuff inflation, ability to program the recorder without an external computer system, and enhanced precision. Recently, there has been concern that more structured validation protocols have not been implemented prior to the widespread marking of ambulatory blood pressure recorders. There is a need for proper assessment of recorders prior to use in clinical research or practice. Data on several existing recorders suggest that while most are reasonably accurate during resting measurements, many lose this accuracy during motion, and clinical performance may vary among the monitors. Validation studies of ambulatory recorders should include comparison with mercury column and intra-arterial determinations, resting and motion measurements, and assessment of clinical performance in hypertensive patients. PMID:1893652

  8. Enhancing efficiency and quality of ambulatory care through telehealth technology.

    PubMed

    Prince, Thomas R; Croghan, John E; Sheridan, Phillip H; Weatherly, Jonathan D

    2005-01-01

    Technology has made great strides in healthcare, but has been slow in reaching a Senior's home or residence. At 35 million and growing, the Senior population is making it known that home is where they want to stay. Technology advancements in devices, communications, and wireless capability are now making possible the delivery of customized telehealth solutions to provide Seniors with "enabled independence," allowing them to confidently "age in place" at home or residence for much longer, with improved health outcomes and quality of life. Combined with traditional ambulatory care services, integrating telehealth technology services now allows delivery of "virtual assisted living" services at home that can more efficiently meet Senior health requirements, and can simplify other aspects of a Senior's life that can play a role in extending time at home. To be successful, an integrated service must be able to usefully address a range of activities of daily living-instrumental activities of daily living, and enhanced activities of daily living-requirements. Already proven in other areas such as radiology, intensive care units, prisons, and rural communities, companies are working to develop practical telehealth service offerings designed for the home or residence. These services must be (a) packaged to meet individual Senior needs and (b) reviewed and revised regularly to match changes in Senior requirements over time. A core element of this service is the use of regular "virtual visits" between healthcare professionals and a Senior at home or residence, which have been shown to both increase efficiency and Senior health outcomes. Another important element is centralizing key data from the telehealth technology into a single database to improve information delivered to a Senior's doctor, family, and other ambulatory care providers. North Shore eCare and other companies are conducting extensive market tests and pilot efforts to make sure service offerings meet Senior

  9. Obesity disparities in preventive care: findings from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Ahmed, Shushmita M; Morton, John M

    2012-08-01

    Obesity and its consequences are a major health concern. There are conflicting reports regarding utilization of preventive health-care services among obese patients. Our objective was to determine whether obese patients receive the same preventive care as normal weight patients. Weighted patient clinic visit data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) were analyzed for all adult patient visits with height/weight data (N = 866,415,856) from 2005 to 2007. Preventive care practice patterns were compared among different weight groups of normal, obese, and morbidly obese. Obese patients received the least number of preventive exams with a clear gradient present by weight. Obese patients were significantly less likely to receive cancer screening including breast examination (normal weight, reference, obese, odds ratio (OR), 0.8), mammogram (obese OR, 0.7), pap smear (obese OR, 0.7), pelvic exam (obese OR, 0.8), and rectal exam (obese OR, 0.7). The obese population also received less tobacco (obese OR, 0.7) and injury prevention education (obese OR, 0.7), yet significantly more diet, exercise, and weight reduction education. Significant differences in clinic practice patterns relative to normal weight patients were also evident with more physician referral (obese OR, 1.2) and less likely to see physician at the index clinic visit (obese OR, 0.8) and less likely to receive psychotherapy referral (obese OR, 0.6). Significant gaps in preventive care exist for the obese including cancer screening, tobacco cessation and injury prevention counseling, and psychological referral. Although obese patients received more weight-related education, this emphasis may have the consequence of de-emphasizing other needed preventive health measures.

  10. Primary care in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Health care and health status in general practice ambulatory care centres.

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, M.; Hodgetts, G.; Bardon, E.; Seguin, R.; Packer, D.; Geddes, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the health care and health status of patients attending primary care clinics in Bosnia and Herzegovina. DESIGN: Assisted administration patient survey. SETTING: Two ambulatory care clinics (ambulantas) in each of three cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Tuzla, Mostar, and Banja Luka. PARTICIPANTS: Patients attending the ambulantas during a 1-week period in March 1999; 885 answered questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Each patient listed demographic characteristics and answered questions on satisfaction with health care and with the physical and financial accessibility of health care services and medications. A validated health status questionnaire (EuroQoL), previously used in parts of the former Yugoslavia, was administered. RESULTS: Only 22% of patients were employed; 57% could not pay the nominal fee to see a physician; 71% walked to the clinic; mean distance from patients' homes to the clinics was 2.3 km; 63% could not get the medications prescribed (in 85% of cases because of cost, not availability); 80% to 90% of answers to satisfaction questions suggested high satisfaction with the care patients received from their doctors; 67% of the time patients were referred to a specialist by general practitioners; 33% had problems walking; 17% had problems with self-care; 36% had problems with usual daily activities; 72% had at least some pain or discomfort; and 62% described at least some anxiety or depression. The three cities showed significant differences; patients in Tuzla generally had lower health status and more problems with health care. CONCLUSION: Unemployment and financial considerations reduced health care access in Bosnia and Herzegovina. While only one third of patients had physical difficulties, two thirds had emotional problems or pain. Satisfaction with physicians' care was high. PMID:11228029

  11. Ambulatory Care Nurse-Sensitive Indicators Series: Capturing the Role of Nursing in Ambulatory Care--The Case for Meaningful Nurse-Sensitive Measurement.

    PubMed

    Mastal, Margaret; Matlock, Ann Marie; Start, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The nation has been on a quest to advance quality in providing health care services and improving patient outcomes. The challenge has been to identify and define metrics that will demonstrate improvement. Acute care settings have a fairly well-established system of quality measurement, but ambulatory care systems are in less-developed stages. Imperative to accurate quality measurement in ambulatory care is to identify and define metrics that reflect the value of registered nurses to improved patient care and outcomes as well as to the organization. The American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN) established a task force to determine appropriate measures of nursing quality. The task force spent 2 years investigating measures and produced an Industry Report that addresses measures of nursing quality. This article is the first in a series of articles that will reveal and discuss the contents of the Industry Report. PMID:27265952

  12. Development and application of a population-oriented measure of ambulatory care case-mix.

    PubMed

    Weiner, J P; Starfield, B H; Steinwachs, D M; Mumford, L M

    1991-05-01

    This article describes a new case-mix methodology applicable primarily to the ambulatory care sector. The Ambulatory Care Group (ACG) system provides a conceptually simple, statistically valid, and clinically relevant measure useful in predicting the utilization of ambulatory health services within a particular population group. ACGs are based on a person's demographic characteristics and their pattern of disease over an extended period of time, such as a year. Specifically, the ACG system is driven by a person's age, sex, and ICD-9-CM diagnoses assigned during patient-provider encounters; it does not require any special data beyond those collected routinely by insurance claims systems or encounter forms. The categorization scheme does not depend on the presence of specific diagnoses that may change over time; rather it is based on broad clusters of diagnoses and conditions. The presence or absence of each disease cluster, along with age and sex, are used to classify a person into one of 51 ACG categories. The ACG system has been developed and tested using computerized encounter and claims data from more than 160,000 continuous enrollees at four large HMOs and a state's Medicaid program. The ACG system can explain more than 50% of the variance in ambulatory resource use if used retrospectively and more than 20% if applied prospectively. This compares with 6% when age and sex alone are used. In addition to describing ACG development and validation, this article also explores some potential applications of the system for provider payment, quality assurance, utilization review, and health services research, particularly as it relates to capitated settings. PMID:1902278

  13. Evaluation of a career ladder program in an ambulatory care environment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    Clinical ladders, or career advancement systems, were designed to enhance professional development, provide a reward system for quality clinical performance, promote quality nursing practice, and improve job satisfaction among nurses. Most of the literature on RN clinical ladder programs is related to the acute care setting, where these programs originated; not much is known about their effectiveness in the ambulatory care environment. The RN Career Ladder at Kaiser Permanente of Colorado was begun by a Labor Management Partnership Committee in 2003, and awards financial incentives to RNs who demonstrate a commitment to continuing education, leadership activities, and program development on a local and regional level. In this study significantly more involvement in leadership, interdisciplinary, and quality improvement activities were found among career ladder nurses than non-career ladder nurses, regardless of their job role. It is not clear whether nursing leaders gravitate toward a career ladder or whether career ladder participation encourages increased participation in leadership activities. PMID:19330969

  14. Emergency department use as a component of total ambulatory care: a population perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mustard, C A; Kozyrskyj, A L; Barer, M L; Sheps, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (a) To describe the overall proportion of ambulatory care provided in emergency departments for a complete urban population, (b) to describe the variation across small geographic areas in the overall proportion of ambulatory care provided in emergency departments and (c) to identify attributes of small-area populations that are related to the provision of high proportions of total ambulatory care in emergency departments. DESIGN: Cross-sectional ecologic study combining 4 sources of secondary data on health service utilization and socioeconomic status. SETTING: Winnipeg. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 657,871 residents of metropolitan Winnipeg in the period April 1991 to March 1992, grouped into 112 neighbourhoods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A proportion calculated, for each neighbourhood population, from the estimated count of emergency department visits divided by the population's use of total ambulatory care for a sample of 55 days in the study period. RESULTS: The overall proportion of ambulatory care provided in emergency departments was 4.9% (range 2.6% to 10.8%), representing 35.5 emergency department visits per 100 person-years. Neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of total ambulatory care provided in emergency departments were characterized by lower mean household income, a higher proportion of emergency department visits for mental illness and a higher proportion of residents with treaty Indian status. Measures of need for medical care for were not consistently associated with the proportion of ambulatory care received in emergency departments. CONCLUSIONS: In a health care system with an adequate supply of primary care physicians and universal insurance, this study has documented significant variation across small geographic areas in the proportion of total ambulatory care received in emergency departments. In the absence of strong evidence that this variation was associated with underlying need, the results suggest that attention be paid to the

  15. What Ambulatory Care Managers Need to Know About Examination Room Utilization Measurement and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Klarich, Mark J; Rea, Ronald W; Lal, Tarun Mohan; Garcia, Angel L; Steffens, Fay L

    2016-01-01

    Demand for ambulatory care visits is projected to increase 22% between 2008 and 2025. Given this growth, ambulatory care managers need to proactively plan for efficient use of scarce resources (ie, space, equipment, and staff). One important component of ambulatory care space (the number of examination rooms) is dependent on multiple factors, including variation in demand, hours of operation, scheduling, and staff. The authors (1) outline common data collection methods, (2) highlight analysis and reporting considerations for examination room utilization, and (3) provide a strategic framework for short- and long-term decision making for facility design or renovation. PMID:27232683

  16. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Ambulatory Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... works by rules that make sure that patient safety and quality standards are followed. P articipate in all decisions about your treatment. You are the center of the health care team. • You and your doctor should agree on ...

  17. An intervention to improve notifiable disease reporting using ambulatory clinics.

    PubMed

    Trepka, M J; Zhang, G; Leguen, F

    2009-01-01

    Strong notifiable disease surveillance systems are essential for disease control. We sought to determine if a brief informational session between clinic and health department employees followed by reminder faxes and a newsletter would improve reporting rates and timeliness in a notifiable disease surveillance system. Ambulatory clinics were randomized to an intervention group which received the informational session, a faxed reporting reminder and newsletter, or to a control group. Among intervention and control clinics, there were improvements in the number of cases reported and the timeliness of reporting. However, there were no statistically significant changes in either group. Despite improved communication between the health department and clinics, this intervention did not significantly improve the level or the timeliness of reporting. Other types of interventions should be considered to improve reporting such as simplifying the reporting process.

  18. Clinic Design and Continuity in Internal Medicine Resident Clinics: Findings of the Educational Innovations Project Ambulatory Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Maureen D.; Wieland, Mark L.; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Julian, Katherine A.; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Rosenblum, Michael; Smith, Amy; Sweet, David; Thomas, Kris; Varney, Andrew; Warm, Eric; Wininger, David; Francis, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many internal medicine (IM) programs have reorganized their resident continuity clinics to improve trainees' ambulatory experience. Downstream effects on continuity of care and other clinical and educational metrics are unclear. Methods This multi-institutional, cross-sectional study included 713 IM residents from 12 programs. Continuity was measured using the usual provider of care method (UPC) and the continuity for physician method (PHY). Three clinic models (traditional, block, and combination) were compared using analysis of covariance. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of practice metrics and clinic model on continuity. Results UPC, reflecting continuity from the patient perspective, was significantly different, and was highest in the block model, midrange in combination model, and lowest in the traditional model programs. PHY, reflecting continuity from the perspective of the resident provider, was significantly lower in the block model than in combination and traditional programs. Panel size, ambulatory workload, utilization, number of clinics attended in the study period, and clinic model together accounted for 62% of the variation found in UPC and 26% of the variation found in PHY. Conclusions Clinic model appeared to have a significant effect on continuity measured from both the patient and resident perspectives. Continuity requires balance between provider availability and demand for services. Optimizing this balance to maximize resident education, and the health of the population served, will require consideration of relevant local factors and priorities in addition to the clinic model. PMID:26217420

  19. Sleep disturbances in the demented elderly: treatment in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Stoppe, G; Sandholzer, H; Staedt, J; Winter, S; Kiefer, J; Rüther, E

    1995-12-01

    We report the results of a representative survey in Lower Saxony, Germany, that focused on the treatment of sleep disturbances in the moderately demented elderly. Two written sample case histories (vignettes) described either a vascular demented patient suffering from nocturnal wandering or an Alzheimer's-type demented patient without apparent psychotic or behavioral (sleep) disorder. These were randomly assigned and presented to 145 family physicians and 14 neuropsychiatrists working in private practice by a trained investigator, who then conducted a standardized interview with the physicians. The study was representative of physicians (response rate: 83.2%). In response to the question concerning how they would treat the patient's sleep disturbances, about 20% of the physicians (with respect to both versions) answered that they would not choose drugs. More than 40% considered neuroleptics to be the drugs of choice. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances were seldom considered. No significant difference was noted in the response to the two different case histories. The results allow for the conclusion that non-drug treatments, which (at least initially) should be the treatment of choice, are mainly disregarded by the majority of the ambulatory care physicians. The reason for this seems to be a lack of education in sleep medicine and also in geriatric medicine. PMID:8746390

  20. [Present and future ambulatory nursing care in Switzerland: what general practitioners should know].

    PubMed

    Weber-Yaskevich, Olga; Reber, Alexandra; Gillabert, Cédric

    2011-09-28

    In response to the ambulatorization of medical care, the panel of ambulatory nursing medical care is operating important changes. Since 2011, "acute and transitional medical care" is being prescribed by hospital practitioners, implying a new definition of the nurse's profession. The consequence is more complex and more autonomous nursing care: an academic formation has been created for nurses (bachelor and master) and their assistants (healthcare and community assistants). The futur will probably be made of ambulatory case management by nurses (advanced nurse practictioner). General practictioners will not only collaborate with the nurses but also assign them with tasks handled until then by themselves, prescribing, among other things, domiciliary "long-term" medical care.

  1. Worksite Physical Activity Intervention for Ambulatory Clinic Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon; Farrington, Michele; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Clark, M Kathleen; Dawson, Cindy; Quinn, Geralyn J; Laffoon, Trudy; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviors, including physical activity (PA), of registered nurses (RNs) and medical assistants (MAs) are suboptimal but may improve with worksite programs. Using a repeated-measures crossover design, the authors explored if integrating a 6-month worksite non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) intervention, with and without personalized health coaching via text messaging into workflow could positively affect sedentary time, PA, and body composition of nursing staff without jeopardizing work productivity. Two ambulatory clinics were randomly assigned to an environmental NEAT intervention plus a mobile text message coaching for either the first 3 months (early texting group, n = 27) or the last 3 months (delayed texting group, n = 13), with baseline 3-month and 6-month measurements. Sedentary and PA levels, fat mass, and weight improved for both groups, significantly only for the early text group. Productivity did not decline for either group. This worksite intervention is feasible and may benefit nursing staff. PMID:27143144

  2. Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions in Persons with an Intellectual Disability--Development of a Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Robert S.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Brownell, Marni; Colantonio, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that the primary care provided for persons with an intellectual disability living in the community has been inadequate. Hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) conditions are considered an indicator for access to, and quality of, primary care. The objective of this research was to identify ACS…

  3. Implementation and Evaluation of a Computerized Reminder System in Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Naomi J.; Palmer, R. Heather; Kane, Nancy M.; Braun, Peter; Feldstein, Michael L.; Harrington, Alesandra M.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed and are testing computerized reminders for providers to determine whether automated systems can improve patient care in ambulatory settings. The reminder system is based on stepwise clinical protocols, and is entirely controlled by the provider. It does not require clinic use of computerized medical records. A randomized controlled trial will assess provider compliance with protocols, detection of serious pathology, and volume of service usage. Preliminary findings suggest that providers who receive reminders to work up a low hematocrit are more likely to order appropriate diagnostic tests than those not receiving reminders. Incremental costs for implementation of a reminder system are consistent with expenses for other new computer services at the study site. Provider use of the system varies greatly.

  4. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Bastos, Rita Maria; Campos, Estela Márcia Saraiva; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Bastos, Mauro Gomes; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze hospitalization rates and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations and to characterize them according to coverage by the Family Health Strategy, a primary health care guidance program. METHODS An ecological study comprising 853 municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, under the purview of 28 regional health care units, was conducted. We used data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations in 2000 and 2010 were compared. Population data were obtained from the demographic censuses. RESULTS The number of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations declined from 20.75/1,000 inhabitants [standard deviation (SD) = 10.42) in 2000 to 14.92/thousand inhabitants (SD = 10.04) in 2010 Heart failure was the most frequent cause in both years. Hospitalizations rates for hypertension, asthma, and diabetes mellitus, decreased, whereas those for angina pectoris, prenatal and birth disorders, kidney and urinary tract infections, and other acute infections increased. Hospitalization durations and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS Mean hospitalization rates for sensitive conditions were significantly lower in 2010 than in 2000, but no correlation was found with regard to the expansion of the population coverage of the Family Health Strategy. Hospitalization rates and proportion of deaths were different between the various health care regions in the years evaluated, indicating a need to prioritize the primary health care with high efficiency and quality. PMID:26039399

  5. The emerging primary care workforce: preliminary observations from the primary care team: learning from effective ambulatory practices project.

    PubMed

    Ladden, Maryjoan D; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Fishman, Nancy W; Flinter, Margaret; Hsu, Clarissa; Parchman, Michael; Wagner, Edward H

    2013-12-01

    Many primary care practices are changing the roles played by the members of their health care teams. The purpose of this article is to describe some of these new roles, using the authors' preliminary observations from 25 site visits to high-performing primary care practices across the United States in 2012-2013. These sites visits, to practices using their workforce creatively, were part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded initiative, The Primary Care Team: Learning From Effective Ambulatory Practices.Examples of these new roles that the authors observed on their site visits include medical assistants reviewing patient records before visits to identify care gaps, ordering and administering immunizations using protocols, making outreach calls to patients, leading team huddles, and coaching patients to set self-management goals. The registered nurse role has evolved from an emphasis on triage to a focus on uncomplicated acute care, chronic care management, and hospital-to-home transitions. Behavioral health providers (licensed clinical social workers, psychologists, or licensed counselors) were colocated and integrated within practices and were readily available for immediate consults and brief interventions. Physicians have shifted from lone to shared responsibility for patient panels, with other team members empowered to provide significant portions of chronic and preventive care.An innovative team-based primary care workforce is emerging. Spreading and sustaining these changes will require training both health professionals and nonprofessionals in new ways. Without clinical experiences that model this new team-based care and role models who practice it, trainees will not be prepared to practice as a team.

  6. Exploring the link between ambulatory care and avoidable hospitalizations at the Veteran Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Pracht, Etienne E; Bass, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the link between utilization of ambulatory care and the likelihood of rehospitalization for an avoidable reason in veterans served by the Veteran Health Administration (VA). The analysis used administrative data containing healthcare utilization and patient characteristics stored at the national VA data warehouse, the Corporate Franchise Data Center. The study sample consisted of 284 veterans residing in Florida who had been hospitalized at least once for an avoidable reason. A bivariate probit model with instrumental variables was used to estimate the probability of rehospitalization. Veterans who had at least 1 ambulatory care visit per month experienced a significant reduction in the probability of rehospitalization for the same avoidable hospitalization condition. The findings suggest that ambulatory care can serve as an important substitute for more expensive hospitalization for the conditions characterized as avoidable.

  7. Ambulatory tuberculosis treatment in post-Semashko health care systems needs supportive financing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kohler, S; Asadov, D A; Bründer, A; Healy, S; Khamraev, A K; Sergeeva, N; Tinnemann, P

    2014-12-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) control strategy in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, is being changed to decentralised out-patient care for most TB patients by the Government of Uzbekistan, in collaboration with the international medical humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières. Ambulatory treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB from the first day of treatment has been recommended since 2011. Out-patient treatment of TB from the beginning of treatment was previously prohibited. However, the current Uzbek health financing system, which evolved from the Soviet Semashko model, offers incentives that work against the adoption of ambulatory TB treatment. Based on the 'Comprehensive TB Care for All' programme implemented in Karakalpakstan, we describe how existing policies for the allocation of health funds complicate the scale-up of ambulatory-based management of TB. PMID:25517802

  8. Rural Ambulatory Access for Semi-Urgent Care and the Relationship of Distance to an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Ashley; Hoegh, Andy; Kuehl, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Availability of timely access to ambulatory care for semi-urgent medical concerns in rural and suburban locales is unknown. Further distance to an emergency department (ED) may require rural clinics to serve as surrogate EDs in their region, and make it more likely for these clinics to offer timely appointments. We determined the availability of urgent (within 48 hours) access to ambulatory care for non-established visiting patients, and assessed the effect of insurance and ability to pay cash on a patient’s success in scheduling an appointment in rural and suburban Eastern United States. We also assessed how proximity to EDs and urgent care (UC) facilities influenced access to semi-urgent ambulatory appointments at primary care facilities. Methods The Appalachian Trail, which runs from Georgia to Maine, was used as a transect to select 190 rural and suburban primary care clinics located along its entire length. We calculated their location and distance to the nearest hospital-based ED or UC via Google Earth. A sham patient representing a non-established visiting patient called each clinic over a four-month period (2013), requesting an appointment in the next 48 hours for one of three scripted clinical vignettes representing common semi-urgent ambulatory concerns. We randomized the scenarios and insurance statuses (insured vs. uninsured). Each clinic was contacted twice, once with the caller representing an insured patient, once with the caller representing an uninsured patient. When the caller was representing an uninsured patient, any required upfront payment was requested from each clinic. One hundred dollars was used as a cutoff between the uninsured as a distinction between those able to afford substantial upfront sums and those who could not. To determine if proximity to other sources of care impacted a clinic’s ability to grant an appointment, distance to the nearest ED or UC was modeled as a dichotomous variable using 30 miles as the

  9. Using ambulatory care sensitive hospitalisations to analyse the effectiveness of primary care services in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John

    2015-11-01

    Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalisations (ACSH) have been widely used to study the quality and effectiveness of primary care. Using data from 248 general hospitals in Mexico during 2001-2011 we identify 926,769 ACSHs in 188 health jurisdictions before and during the health insurance expansion that took place in this period, and estimate a fixed effects model to explain the association of the jurisdiction ACSH rate with patient and community factors. National ACSH rate increased by 50%, but trends and magnitude varied at the jurisdiction and state level. We find strong associations of the ACSH rate with socioeconomic conditions, health care supply and health insurance coverage even after controlling for potential endogeneity in the rolling out of the insurance programme. We argue that the traditional focus on the increase/decrease of the ACSH rate might not be a valid indicator to assess the effectiveness of primary care in a health insurance expansion setting, but that the ACSH rate is useful when compared between and within states once the variation in insurance coverage is taken into account as it allows the identification of differences in the provision of primary care. The high heterogeneity found in the ACSH rates suggests important state and jurisdiction differences in the quality and effectiveness of primary care in Mexico.

  10. Strategies for Efficient and Effective Teaching in the Ambulatory Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferenchick, Gary; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five strategies for teaching medical students in the ambulatory care setting are described: wave scheduling; orienting learners to patients; having learners do case presentations in the examination room; using the "one-minute preceptor"; and reflecting on teaching to develop effective teaching scripts. The techniques are based on research in…

  11. Technical Limitations of Electronic Health Records in Community Health Centers: Implications on Ambulatory Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Research objectives: This dissertation examines the state of development of each of the eight core electronic health record (EHR) functionalities as described by the IOM and describes how the current state of these functionalities limit quality improvement efforts in ambulatory care settings. There is a great deal of literature describing both the…

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practicability

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population. PMID:24175653

  13. Mathematical Modeling and the Redesign of a Teaching Ambulatory Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Duke H.; Mamlin, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    Mathematical modeling was utilized in the planning and decision-making process involved in reorganizing a teaching clinic to effect continuity of care. The model interrelated physicians, time, and space, facilitating value judgments and decisions. The reorganization was successful and the outcomes remarkably similar to model predictions.…

  14. Career ladder program for registered nurses in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joan; Sassaman, Becky; Phillips, Alison

    2008-01-01

    RN ladder programs are designed to inspire and reward clinical excellence. Kaiser Permanente Colorado's (KPCO) career ladder program emerged as a result of a labor-management partnership. Career ladder point assignments are reflective of the organization's priorities and values. KPCO's career ladder point tool awards RNs for formal and continuing education, professional presentations, organizational experience and experience as an RN, certifications and active professional memberships, leadership activities, research and publications, and nursing-related volunteer work. Participation in the RN career ladder requires that the nurse achieve a self-determined, manager-approved, measurable goal that will improve patient care. Career ladder nurses at KPCO were significantly more involved in leadership and interdisciplinary activities, quality improvement projects, and preceptorship. PMID:19330975

  15. Big data and ambulatory care: breaking down legal barriers to support effective use.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  16. Essentials of Ambulatory Care a postgraduate-level, interdisciplinary, interprofessional curriculum at the University of Minnesota. .

    PubMed

    Buum, Heather Thompson; Mustapha, Taj; Borman-Shoap, Emily; Adam, Patricia; Dierich, Mary; Hager, Keri

    2015-04-01

    Team-based care is a cornerstone of primary care. However, in medical school and residency, trainees get little formal education on this as a concept and how it works in an outpatient setting. Faculty members from the University of Minnesota created a one-day workshop, "Essentials of Ambulatory Care," to help residents in primary care specialties as well as pharmacy and nursing students pursuing advanced degrees better understand the roles and responsibilities of members of the primary care team. The workshop also helped them develop new skills for doing patient-centered visits. This article describes the workshop and what we learned from those who participated in the first session.

  17. Ambulatory Care Visits to Pediatricians in Taiwan: A Nationwide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Yu; Lynn, An-Min; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Pediatricians play a key role in the healthy development of children. Nevertheless, the practice patterns of pediatricians have seldom been investigated. The current study analyzed the nationwide profiles of ambulatory visits to pediatricians in Taiwan, using the National Health Insurance Research Database. From a dataset that was randomly sampled one out of every 500 records among a total of 309,880,000 visits in 2012 in the country, 9.8% (n = 60,717) of the visits were found paid to pediatricians. Children and adolescents accounted for only 69.3% of the visits to pediatricians. Male pediatricians provided 80.5% of the services and the main workforces were those aged 40–49 years. The most frequent diagnoses were respiratory tract diseases (64.7%) and anti-histamine agents were prescribed in 48.8% of the visits to pediatricians. Our detailed results could contribute to evidence-based discussions on health policymaking. PMID:26540064

  18. Validating a decision tree for serious infection: diagnostic accuracy in acutely ill children in ambulatory care

    PubMed Central

    Verbakel, Jan Y; Lemiengre, Marieke B; De Burghgraeve, Tine; De Sutter, An; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bullens, Dominique M A; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann; Buntinx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute infection is the most common presentation of children in primary care with only few having a serious infection (eg, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia). To avoid complications or death, early recognition and adequate referral are essential. Clinical prediction rules have the potential to improve diagnostic decision-making for rare but serious conditions. In this study, we aimed to validate a recently developed decision tree in a new but similar population. Design Diagnostic accuracy study validating a clinical prediction rule. Setting and participants Acutely ill children presenting to ambulatory care in Flanders, Belgium, consisting of general practice and paediatric assessment in outpatient clinics or the emergency department. Intervention Physicians were asked to score the decision tree in every child. Primary outcome measures The outcome of interest was hospital admission for at least 24 h with a serious infection within 5 days after initial presentation. We report the diagnostic accuracy of the decision tree in sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values. Results In total, 8962 acute illness episodes were included, of which 283 lead to admission to hospital with a serious infection. Sensitivity of the decision tree was 100% (95% CI 71.5% to 100%) at a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI 82.3% to 84.9%) in the general practitioner setting with 17% of children testing positive. In the paediatric outpatient and emergency department setting, sensitivities were below 92%, with specificities below 44.8%. Conclusions In an independent validation cohort, this clinical prediction rule has shown to be extremely sensitive to identify children at risk of hospital admission for a serious infection in general practice, making it suitable for ruling out. Trial registration number NCT02024282. PMID:26254472

  19. [Hepatic puncture biopsy in ambulatory care. Advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Nouel, O

    1997-03-01

    There is a clear trend towards favoring outpatient care in an attempt to control health care costs. Despite widespread acceptance in some countries, many teams in France still prefer to hospitalize patients requiring percutaneous liver biopsy because the outpatient setting has not been encouraged in French text books on hepatology, many gastroenterologists do not have access to outpatient facilities, and the lack of French references which has raised questions as to the legal responsibilities involved. The series of 231 outpatient percutaneous liver biopsies reported by Bourgaux in this issue of La Presse Médicale will remove the doubt in many minds. There are many advantages for the generally young population with early stage liver disease, frequently hepatitis C, requiring percutaneous liver biopsy. Lower cost is probably the primary advantage, but improved patient comfort, especially if repeated procedures are needed, is also greatly appreciated. The outpatient procedure is safe when all the selection criteria are met including: normal coagulation, ultrasonographically homogeneous liver, patient compliance and availability of a structured outpatient clinic, and absence of a severe concomitent disease. These apparently restrictive criteria actually include the majority of the indications for liver biopsy. There is another debate on whether echo-guided biopsy would be even safer but as emphasized by Bourgaux et al. this would require a reorganization of most of the hepatogastroenterology departments. One other point cannot be overlooked. Some operators (and patients) may also feel that the impressive nature of the procedure merits a more impressive setting, i.e. full hospitalization. Consequently, while it is quite reasonable to propose outpatient liver biopsy as a classical procedure, there are situations when personal preference may still dictate hospitalization.

  20. Effectiveness of electronic guideline-based implementation systems in ambulatory care settings - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Electronic guideline-based decision support systems have been suggested to successfully deliver the knowledge embedded in clinical practice guidelines. A number of studies have already shown positive findings for decision support systems such as drug-dosing systems and computer-generated reminder systems for preventive care services. Methods A systematic literature search (1990 to December 2008) of the English literature indexed in the Medline database, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CRD (DARE, HTA and NHS EED databases) was conducted to identify evaluation studies of electronic multi-step guideline implementation systems in ambulatory care settings. Important inclusion criterions were the multidimensionality of the guideline (the guideline needed to consist of several aspects or steps) and real-time interaction with the system during consultation. Clinical decision support systems such as one-time reminders for preventive care for which positive findings were shown in earlier reviews were excluded. Two comparisons were considered: electronic multidimensional guidelines versus usual care (comparison one) and electronic multidimensional guidelines versus other guideline implementation methods (comparison two). Results Twenty-seven publications were selected for analysis in this systematic review. Most designs were cluster randomized controlled trials investigating process outcomes more than patient outcomes. With success defined as at least 50% of the outcome variables being significant, none of the studies were successful in improving patient outcomes. Only seven of seventeen studies that investigated process outcomes showed improvements in process of care variables compared with the usual care group (comparison one). No incremental effect of the electronic implementation over the distribution of paper versions of the guideline was found, neither for the patient outcomes nor for the process outcomes (comparison two

  1. Diagnoses Treated in Ambulatory Care Among Homeless-Experienced Veterans: Does Supported Housing Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Yuan, Anita H.; Andersen, Ronald M.; Gelberg, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about how permanent supported housing influences ambulatory care received by homeless persons. To fill this gap, we compared diagnoses treated in VA Greater Los Angeles (VAGLA) ambulatory care between Veterans who are formerly homeless—now housed/case managed through VA Supported Housing (“VASH Veterans”)—and currently homeless. Methods We performed secondary database analyses of homeless-experienced Veterans (n = 3631) with VAGLA ambulatory care use from October 1, 2010 to September 30, 2011. We compared diagnoses treated—adjusting for demographics and need characteristics in regression analyses—between VASH Veterans (n = 1904) and currently homeless Veterans (n = 1727). Results On average, considering 26 studied diagnoses, VASH (vs currently homeless) Veterans received care for more (P < .05) diagnoses (mean = 2.9/1.7). Adjusting for demographics and need characteristics, VASH Veterans were more likely (P < .05) than currently homeless Veterans to receive treatment for diagnoses across categories: chronic physical illness, acute physical illness, mental illness, and substance use disorders. Specifically, VASH Veterans had 2.5, 1.7, 2.1, and 1.8 times greater odds of receiving treatment for at least 2 condition in these categories, respectively. Among participants treated for chronic illnesses, adjusting for predisposing and need characteristics, VASH (vs currently homeless) Veterans were 9%, 8%, and 11% more likely to have 2 or more visits for chronic physical illnesses, mental illnesses, and substance use disorder, respectively. Conclusion Among homeless-experienced Veterans, permanent supported housing may reduce disparities in the treatment of diagnoses commonly seen in ambulatory care. PMID:27343544

  2. Change in the form of organizing nursing services in ambulatory health care. I.

    PubMed

    Ksykiewicz-Dorota, Anna; Szczurak, Tamara

    2004-01-01

    The present article is the first of a cycle devoted to the scope of problems concerning independence in decision making while performing tasks at a workplace of a practice nurse in ambulatory health care, after the implementation of financial contracts from health services insurance. The objective was to determine changes at nursing workplaces in public and non-public health care after the implementation of health system reform. In order to achieve the assumed goal the method of diagnostic survey was applied. The study technique was a questionnaire form. The study was conducted in 2000, and covered 45 nurses from public and non-public units each, in Białystok and towns within an area of 100 kilometres. The results of the study indicated that the development and variations in the forms of organizing practice nurse services in ambulatory health care are not considerable. An increase in duties at nursing workplaces in ambulatory health care is neither actually connected with expenditures on services, nor with the widening of practice nurse decision area. PMID:16146112

  3. Marketing ambulatory care to women: a segmentation approach.

    PubMed

    Harrell, G D; Fors, M F

    1985-01-01

    Although significant changes are occurring in health care delivery, in many instances the new offerings are not based on a clear understanding of market segments being served. This exploratory study suggests that important differences may exist among women with regard to health care selection. Five major women's segments are identified for consideration by health care executives in developing marketing strategies. Additional research is suggested to confirm this segmentation hypothesis, validate segmental differences and quantify the findings.

  4. [Development of ambulatory medical care in former East Germany].

    PubMed

    Weiss, O

    1991-12-01

    Outpatient medical care was well organised in the former GDR. Contrary to the FRG in the GDR a governmental Public Health system had been developed with only few privately established physicians. The care was mainly carried by outpatient departments in the city and in the country as well as by governmental doctors' practices. The personnel development and the results of the work are described and the advantages and disadvantages of this form of organisation of outpatient care are characterised.

  5. A Chronic Disease State Simulation in an Ambulatory Care Elective Course

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Cindy Leslie A.; Prasad-Reddy, Lalita

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement a chronic disease state simulation in an ambulatory care elective course and to assess the simulation’s impact on students’ perceptions of their empathy toward patients and of their counseling skills. Design. The chronic disease state simulation occurred over 2 weeks. Students alternated playing the role of patient and pharmacist. As patients, students adhered to medication regimens, lifestyle modifications, and blood glucose or blood pressure monitoring. As pharmacists, students conducted patient interviews, and provided education and counseling. Empathy and counseling skills were assessed through course surveys, written reflections, and SOAP notes. Assessment. Results from a cohort of 130 students indicated the simulation enhanced students’ perceptions of their abilities to empathize with and counsel patients with chronic diseases. Conclusion. The chronic disease state simulation provides a novel approach to develop skills needed for working with complex patient cases in ambulatory care settings. PMID:26839423

  6. Manager's leadership is the main skill for ambulatory health care plan success.

    PubMed

    Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Silberman, Martin; Colombo, Maria Virginia; Ozaeta, Belen; Henen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate effectiveness of ambulatory health care plan implementation among institutions and variables associated with the differences observed. Randomized selection of primary health care (PHC) centers was done. Leadership ability of the plan manager was explored. Univariate/bivariate analyses were performed to observe correlation between variables. Two groups of PHC centers were established according to the efficacy of plan implementation: high and low performance. Differences between groups were observed (592%-1023% more efficacy in controls and practices; P < .001). Leadership was responsible for the main differences observed. Leadership of manager for implementation of the health care plan was the major important variable to reach the best efficacy standards.

  7. Standardizing Assessment of Competences and Competencies of Oncology Nurses Working in Ambulatory Care.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Clara; Magnan, Morris A; Henderson, Denise; DeRose, Patricia; Carolin, Kathleen; Bepler, Gerold

    2016-01-01

    A nursing quality consortium standardized nursing practice across 17 independently functioning ambulatory oncology sites. Programs were developed to validate both competences and competencies. One program assessed nine competences needed to develop systems of care to detect and treat treatment-related side effects. A second program was developed to assess competencies needed to prevent harm to oncology patients. This manuscript describes a successful approach to standardizing nursing practice across geographically distant academic and community sites. PMID:26985750

  8. Determinants of Patient Satisfaction in Internal Medicine Resident Continuity Clinics: Findings of the Educational Innovations Project Ambulatory Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Maureen D.; Warm, Eric; Julian, Katherine A.; Rosenblum, Michael; Thomas, Kris; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Langan, Michael; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Smith, Amy; Sweet, David; Varney, Andrew; Francis, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many internal medicine programs have reorganized their resident continuity clinics to improve the ambulatory care experience for residents. The effect of this redesign on patient satisfaction is largely unknown. Methods Our multi-institutional, cross-sectional study included 569 internal medicine residents from 11 programs participating in the Educational Innovations Project Ambulatory Collaborative. An 11-item patient satisfaction survey from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems was used to assess patient satisfaction, comparing patient satisfaction in traditional models of weekly continuity clinic with 2 new clinic models. We then examined the relationship between patient satisfaction and other practice variables. Results Patient satisfaction responses related to resident listening and communication skills, knowledge of medical history, perception of adequate visit time, overall rating, and willingness to refer to family and friends were significantly better in the traditional and block continuity models than the combination model. Higher ambulatory workload was associated with reduced patient perception of respect shown by the physician. The percentage of diabetic patients with glycated hemoglobin < 8% was positively correlated with number of visits, knowledge of medical history, perception of respect, and higher scores for recommending the physician to others. The percentage of diabetic patients with low density lipoprotein < 100 mg/dL was positively correlated with the physician showing respect. Conclusions Patient satisfaction was similar in programs using block design and traditional models for continuity clinic, and both outperformed the combination model programs. There was a delicate balance between workload and patient perception of the physician showing respect. Care outcome measures for diabetic patients were associated with aspects of patient satisfaction. PMID:26279771

  9. Experts Foresee a Major Shift From Inpatient to Ambulatory Care.

    PubMed

    Beans, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    An American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Research and Education Foundation report predicts trends in health care delivery and financing, drug development and therapeutics, pharmaceutical marketplace, pharmacy workforce, and more.

  10. Ambulatory care for cancer in the United States: results from two national surveys comparing visits to physicians' offices and hospital outpatient departments.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lisa C.; Tangka, Florence K.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the general population, type of health insurance has been reported to affect the location of ambulatory visits and the content of those visits. We examined where cancer patient visits occurred (physicians' offices or hospital clinics), and whether anticancer therapy is administered or prescribed. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey (NAMCS/NHAMCS) data to characterize ambulatory cancer patient visits from 2001-2003. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with where a cancer patient went for care (office practice versus hospital clinic) and anticancer therapy received. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of patients visited hospital clinics, with the remainder visiting office-based settings. Younger cancer patients and those with Medicaid were more likely to visit hospital clinics compared to older and privately insured cancer patients. Cancer patients with <6 visits in the last year were less likely to be seen in the office setting. Patients with lung cancer, lymphoma/leukemia and melanoma were less likely to have anticancer therapy administered or prescribed compared to breast cancer patients. The uninsured were less likely to have anticancer administered or prescribed compared with the privately insured. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients with Medicaid were more likely to visit hospital clinics than privately insured patients. Treatment was associated with cancer type, not where care occurred and health insurance type, though there was a trend for the uninsured and those insured by Medicaid to be less likely to be administered or be prescribed anticancer therapy. PMID:18229771

  11. [Management and organization of ambulatory medical care in a district].

    PubMed

    Schneider, K; Keune, H G; Miethe, D; Ringel, M; Szkibik, B

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is given of the management and organization of out-patient medical care in 15 districts and of the District Physician's responsibilities as well as the profile of a District Health Department. Compared to the situation of a decade ago, substantial changes in the territorial health organization have occurred (decentralization, formation of care areas, affiliation of small health facilities to bigger ones). The District Physician's scope of responsibility is increasingly determined by activities within the framework of the District Council, the proportion of organizational work has increased. In order to be able to fulfill his tasks the District Physician needs the support of a special Health Department. Skeleton regulations for out-patient medical care are necessary.

  12. Developing Staffing Models to Support Population Health Management And Quality Oucomes in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Haas, Sheila A; Vlasses, Frances; Havey, Julia

    2016-01-01

    There are multiple demands and challenges inherent in establishing staffing models in ambulatory heath care settings today. If health care administrators establish a supportive physical and interpersonal health care environment, and develop high-performing interprofessional teams and staffing models and electronic documentation systems that track performance, patients will have more opportunities to receive safe, high-quality evidence-based care that encourages patient participation in decision making, as well as provision of their care. The health care organization must be aligned and responsive to the community within which it resides, fully invested in population health management, and continuously scanning the environment for competitive, regulatory, and external environmental risks. All of these challenges require highly competent providers willing to change attitudes and culture such as movement toward collaborative practice among the interprofessional team including the patient.

  13. Developing Staffing Models to Support Population Health Management And Quality Oucomes in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Haas, Sheila A; Vlasses, Frances; Havey, Julia

    2016-01-01

    There are multiple demands and challenges inherent in establishing staffing models in ambulatory heath care settings today. If health care administrators establish a supportive physical and interpersonal health care environment, and develop high-performing interprofessional teams and staffing models and electronic documentation systems that track performance, patients will have more opportunities to receive safe, high-quality evidence-based care that encourages patient participation in decision making, as well as provision of their care. The health care organization must be aligned and responsive to the community within which it resides, fully invested in population health management, and continuously scanning the environment for competitive, regulatory, and external environmental risks. All of these challenges require highly competent providers willing to change attitudes and culture such as movement toward collaborative practice among the interprofessional team including the patient. PMID:27439249

  14. Ambulatory care groups and the profiling of primary care physician resource use: examining the application of case mix adjustments.

    PubMed

    Greene, B R; Barlow, J; Newman, C

    1996-01-01

    A variety of profiling models and tools is utilized by payers, providers, and regulators to evaluate physician work, performance, and resource utilization. In physician profiling, the provider's pattern of practice is expressed as a rate of service or outcome. The article by Tucker, Weiner, Honigfeld, and Parton (this issue) compares the practice-based norms of primary care physicians by adjusting for case mix using ambulatory care groups (ACGs), a population-based classification method. Once the case mix is adjusted, the actual use of resources, as measured by overall charges, is compared with the expected value of resource use. In the Center for Research in Ambulatory Health Care Administration (CRAHCA) Physician Profiling Project, funded by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, physicians learn which services other physicians in their specialties perform. Physicians are able to compare their profiles with state and national level medians. The profiling project is one of the first demonstration projects in the field to profile ambulatory care practice patterns and collect patient demographics. An aspect of the project is to test the ACG classification system to data selected from 130 nonacademic practices representing over 5,000 physicians.

  15. Just One More Patient: Optimizing EMR Documentation in Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mark; Toscos, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) in primary care settings is on the rise in the United States and many are feeling the stress. The introduction of the EMR or transition to a new EMR is known to create workflow challenges for primary care providers and their office staff, as was the case in our health system. This study evolved out of an attempt to alleviate stress by defining the best practice or most optimal way to document office visits, allowing providers to see just one more patient each day. We leveraged a change management model that encourages looking for what is working vs. throwing resources at problem areas. By doing so we identified several distinguishing behaviors among providers who were doing exceptionally well with the EMR. We deployed an intervention aimed at enhancing the identified behaviors in a group of providers and it resulted marked improvement in efficiency. PMID:26958242

  16. Hospitalisation Rates for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions for Persons with and without an Intellectual Disability--A Population Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, R.; Brownell, M.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Colantonio, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that persons with an intellectual disability (ID) face barriers to primary care; however, this has not been extensively studied at the population level. Rates of hospitalisation for ambulatory care sensitive conditions are used as an indicator of access to, and quality of, primary care. The objective of the study was…

  17. Impact of therapy escalation on ambulatory care costs among patients with type 2 diabetes in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compares annual ambulatory care expenditures per patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in France according to treatment phase and renal function status. Methods Records from patients with T2DM were extracted from a health insurance database. Patients were classified in subgroups, by treatment phase: oral/GLP1 monotherapy, double therapy, triple therapy or insulin therapy, and according to renal function status (identified using pharmacy, lab and consultation claims). Annual ambulatory expenditures were estimated from the national insurance perspective by year (from 2005 to 2010) and subgroup. Results The number of patients ranged from 9,682 to 11,772 between 2005 and 2010. The average annual expenditure per individual in 2010 ranged from €3,017 (standard deviation: €3,829) for monotherapy to €3,609 ± €3,801 for triple therapy, and €7,398 ± €5,487 with insulin (adjusted ratio insulin therapy/monotherapy: 2.36, p < 0.001). Similar differences between treatement stages were found in previous years. Additional costs for insulin were mainly related to nursing care (multiplied by 18.42, p < 0.001), medical devices and pharmacy costs. DM-attributable drug costs were mainly related to antidiabetic drugs (28% for monotherapy to 71% for triple therapy), but also to cardiovascular system drugs (21% for monotherapy to 51% with insulin) and nervous system drugs (up to 8% with insulin). Declining renal function was associated with an increase in expenses by 12% to 53% according to treatment stage. Conclusions Overall, ambulatory care expenditures increase with treatment escalation and declining renal function amongst patients with T2DM. Insulin therapy is associated with substantially increased costs, related to pharmacy, nursing care and medical device costs. PMID:23627403

  18. [The social hygienic assessment of significance of diseases under organization of ambulatory polyclinic care].

    PubMed

    Babenko, A I; Murakhovskiy, A G; Tomtchuk, A A; Bravve, Yu I

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of appealability of adult population of Omsk to municipal polyclinic on the subject of diseases. The coefficients of relative importance of different classes of diseases to determine the groups af their significance were calculated on the basis of integrated evaluation of common and primary morbidity and diseases of patients under dispensarization monitoring. The established character of formation of flows of appealabiliy of population on the subject of diseases is a basic one to determine demand in medical technologies and planning of activities of ambulatory polyclinic section of health care.

  19. Community Health Centers and Private Practice Performance on Ambulatory Care Measures

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L. Elizabeth; Chu, Philip W.; Tran, Huong; Stafford, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2010 Affordable Care Act relies on Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) and FQHC look-alikes (look-alikes) to provide care for newly insured patients, but ties increased funding to demonstrated quality and efficiency. Purpose To compare FQHC and look-alike physician performance with private practice primary care physicians (PCPs) on ambulatory care quality measures. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of visits in the 2006–2008 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Performance of FQHCs and Look-alikes on 18 quality measures was compared with private practice PCPs. Data analysis was completed in 2011. Results Compared to private practice PCPs, FQHCs and look-alikes performed better on 6 measures (p<0.05), worse on diet counseling in at-risk adolescents (26 % vs. 36%, p=0.05), and no differently on 11 measures. Higher performance occurred in: ACE inhibitors use for congestive heart failure (51% vs. 37%, p=0.004); aspirin use in coronary artery disease (CAD) (57% vs. 44%, p=0.004); beta blocker use for CAD (59% vs. 47%, p=0.01); no use of benzodiazepines in depression (91% vs. 84%, p=0.008); blood pressure screening (90% vs. 86%, p<0.001); and screening electrocardiogram (EKG) avoidance in low-risk patients (99% vs. 93%, p<0.001). Adjusting for patient characteristics yielded similar results except private practice PCPs no longer performed better on any measures. Conclusions FQHCs and look-alikes demonstrated equal or better performance than private practice primary care physicians on select quality measures despite serving patients with more chronic disease and socioeconomic complexity. These findings can provide policymakers with some reassurance as to the quality of chronic disease and preventive care at Federally Qualified Health Centers and Federally Qualified Health Center look-alikes, as they plan to use these health centers to serve 20 million newly insured individuals. PMID:22813678

  20. Identifying consumer segments in health services markets: an application of conjoint and cluster analyses to the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Carrol, N V; Gagon, J P

    1983-01-01

    Because of increasing competition, it is becoming more important that health care providers pursue consumer-based market segmentation strategies. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and describing consumer segments in health service markets, and demonstrates the use of the methodology by presenting a study of consumer segments in the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

  1. The cultivation of prognostic awareness through the provision of early palliative care in the ambulatory setting: a communication guide.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Vicki A; Jacobsen, Juliet; Greer, Joseph A; Pirl, William F; Temel, Jennifer S; Back, Anthony L

    2013-08-01

    Early, integrated palliative care delivered in the ambulatory setting has been associated with improved quality of life, lower rates of depression, and even prolonged survival. We outline an expert practice that provides a step-wise approach to cultivating prognostic awareness in patients cared for by a palliative care clinician early in the course of the patient's disease. This approach can be used by both novice and more experienced palliative care clinicians. PMID:23786425

  2. Marketing strategy adjustments in the ambulatory care center industry: implications for community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J H

    1989-01-01

    Each stage of a product's life cycle requires marketing strategy modifications in response to changing demand levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in ambulatory care center (ACC) operational characteristics indicative of product, market, and distribution channel adjustments that could have a competitive impact upon community pharmacy practice. A questionnaire was mailed to a national sample of 325 ACC managers. Evidence of new product feature additions includes increased emphasis on continued care and increased prevalence of prescription drug dispensing. Expansion into new market segments and distribution channels was demonstrated by increased participation in HMO and employer relationships. The observed adjustments in ACC marketing strategies present obvious challenges as well as less obvious opportunities for community pharmacy practice.

  3. Addressing Pediatric Obesity in Ambulatory Care: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed

    Lenders, Carine M; Manders, Aaron J; Perdomo, Joanna E; Ireland, Kathy A; Barlow, Sarah E

    2016-06-01

    Since the "2007 summary report of child and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment" published by Barlow, many obesity intervention studies have been conducted in pediatric ambulatory care. Although several meta-analyses have been published in the interim, many studies were excluded because of the focus and criteria of these meta-analyses. Therefore, the primary goal of this article was to identify randomized case-control trials conducted in the primary care setting and to report on treatment approaches, challenges, and successes. We have developed four themes for our discussion and provide a brief summary of our findings. Finally, we identified major gaps and potential solutions and describe several urgent key action items. PMID:27048522

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of a Computerized Provider Order Entry System in Improving Medication Safety Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Sara H.; Hepp, Zsolt; Roth, Joshua A.; Wirtz, Heidi S.; Devine, Emily Beth

    2014-01-01

    Background Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) is the process of entering physician orders directly into an electronic health record. Although CPOE has been shown to improve medication safety and reduce health care costs, these improvements have been demonstrated largely in the inpatient setting; the cost-effectiveness in the ambulatory setting remains uncertain. Objective The objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of CPOE in reducing medication errors and adverse drug events (ADEs) in the ambulatory setting. Methods We created a decision-analytic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of CPOE in a midsized (400 providers) multidisciplinary medical group over a 5-year time horizon— 2010 to 2014— the time frame during which health systems are implementing CPOE to meet Meaningful Use criteria. We adopted the medical group’s perspective and utilized their costs, changes in efficiency, and actual number of medication errors and ADEs. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Scenario analyses were explored. Results In the base case, CPOE dominated paper prescribing, that is, CPOE cost $18 million less than paper prescribing, and was associated with 1.5 million and 14,500 fewer medication errors and ADEs, respectively, over 5 years. In the scenario that reflected a practice group of five providers, CPOE cost $265,000 less than paper prescribing, was associated with 3875 and 39 fewer medication errors and ADEs, respectively, over 5 years, and was dominant in 80% of the simulations. Conclusions Our model suggests that the adoption of CPOE in the ambulatory setting provides excellent value for the investment, and is a cost-effective strategy to improve medication safety over a wide range of practice sizes. PMID:24968993

  5. Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalization rates in the aged Medicare population in Utah, 1990 to 1994: a rural-urban comparison.

    PubMed

    Silver, M P; Babitz, M E; Magill, M K

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the likelihood of hospitalization for conditions that are related to the adequacy and use of ambulatory health care services for Medicare beneficiaries residing in rural and urban regions in Utah. The Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA) hospital discharge database (Utah hospitals: 1990 to 1994) was used to estimate hospitalization rates (with adjustment for out-of-state admissions) for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Population estimates were obtained from HCFA beneficiary files. Regional hospitalization rates were obtained through ZIP code matching of the hospital discharge and beneficiary files. Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older residing in Utah during 1990 to 1994 are the subjects for the study. The main outcome measures include age and sex-adjusted hospitalization rates by region for the entire state and rate ratio estimates for nonurban regions. The results of the study show that Medicare beneficiaries residing in two rural-frontier regions were more likely than urban beneficiaries to be hospitalized for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Rate ratio estimates were greater than 1.4 for both regions during the study period. These findings suggest a pattern of an increased burden of avoidable secondary complications and disease progression among Utah Medicare beneficiaries residing in some rural regions. This increased burden may be the result of limitations in the ambulatory care system, medical care provider supply, and/or beneficiary propensity to seek care. Variation in disease prevalence or hospital use patterns for these conditions also may be responsible for all or part of the observed variation in ambulatory care sensitive admission rates.

  6. A Qualitative Study of Resident Learning in Ambulatory Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Scott; Morris, Magdalena; Francovich, Chris; Hill, William; Gieselman, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of a large ethnographic database from observations of a resident teaching clinic revealed three important findings. The first finding was that breakdown, a situation where an "actor" (such as a person or the group) is not achieving expected effectiveness, was the most important category because of its frequency and explanatory…

  7. Anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Is there a gap in care for ambulatory patients?

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Wayne; Nicol, Kelly; Anderson, David; Brownell, Brenda; Chiasson, Meredith; Burge, Frederick I.; Flowerdew, Gordon; Cox, Jafna

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) substantially increases risk of stroke. Evidence suggests that anticoagulation to reduce risk is underused (a "care gap"). Our objectives were to clarify measures of this gap in care by including data from family physicians and to determine why eligible patients were not receiving anticoagulation therapy. DESIGN: Telephone survey of family physicians regarding specific patients in their practices. SETTING: Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory AF patients not taking warfarin who had risk factors that made anticoagulation appropriate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of patients removed from the care gap; reasons given for not giving the remainder anticoagulants. RESULTS: Half the patients thought to be in the care gap had previously unknown contraindications to anticoagulation, lacked a clear indication for anticoagulation, or were taking warfarin. Patients' refusal and anticipated problems with compliance and monitoring were among the reasons for not giving patients anticoagulants. CONCLUSION: Adding data from primary care physicians significantly narrowed the care gap. Attention should focus on the remaining reasons for not giving eligible patients anticoagulants. PMID:15508374

  8. Pattern of Ambulatory Care Visits to Obstetrician-Gynecologists in Taiwan: A Nationwide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, An-Min; Lai, Li-Jung; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are the main actors in the provision of health care to women, their practice patterns have rarely been analyzed. The current study investigated the nationwide ambulatory visits to OB-GYNs in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database. From the 1/500 sampling datasets indicating 619,760 ambulatory visits in 2012, it was found that 5.8% (n = 35,697) of the visits were made to OB-GYNs. Two-fifths of the services provided were performed by male OB-GYNs aged 50–59 years. Women of childbearing age accounted for more than half of the visits to OB-GYNs (57.2%), and elderly patients above 60 years accounted for only 7.7%. The most frequent diagnoses were menstrual disorders and other forms of abnormal bleeding from the female genital tract (13.1%). Anti-infective agents were prescribed in 15.1% of the visits to OB-GYNs. The study revealed the proportion of aging practicing OB-GYNs, and our detailed results could contribute to evidence-based discussions on health policymaking. PMID:26086705

  9. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care

    PubMed Central

    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A

    2003-01-01

    

 The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1) errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2) accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3) major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possibilities for organisational learning. Reporting physicians were granted immunity, which encouraged open reporting of errors. A telephone "hotline" served the medical staff for direct reporting and receipt of emotional support and medical guidance. Any adverse event which had learning potential was debriefed, while focusing on the human cause of error within a systemic context. Specific recommendations were formulated to rectify processes conducive to error when failures were identified. During the first 5 years of implementation, the aviation safety concept and tools were successfully adapted to ambulatory care, fostering a culture of greater concern for patient safety through risk management while providing support to the medical staff. PMID:12571343

  10. Medical Students' Education in the Ambulatory Care Setting: Background Paper 1 of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Carl E.; Kallenberg, Gene A.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on strategies being developed by medical schools to carry out education in the ambulatory care setting, based on studies of 38 institutions. Highlights three main strategies: longitudinal preceptorships; multi-specialty clerkships; and community-oriented and population-based activities that provide relevant educational experiences for…

  11. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM) questionnaire, Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Amini, Mitra; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Peyman; Parvizi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation is the main component in design and implementation of educational activities and rapid growth of educational institution programs. Outpatient medical education and clinical training environment is one of the most important parts of training of medical residents. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM) questionnaire, as an instrument for assessment of educational environments in residency medical clinics. Materials and methods This study was performed on 180 residents in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in 2014–2015. The questionnaire designers’ electronic permission (by email) and the residents’ verbal consent were obtained before distributing the questionnaires. The study data were gathered using ACLEEM questionnaire developed by Arnoldo Riquelme in 2013. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, version 14, and MedCalc® software. Then, the construct validity, including convergent and discriminant validities, of the Persian version of ACLEEM questionnaire was assessed. Its internal consistency was also checked by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results Five team members who were experts in medical education were consulted to test the cultural adaptation, linguistic equivalency, and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire. Content validity indexes were >0.9 in all items. In factor analysis of the instrument, the Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin index was 0.928 and Barlett’s sphericity test yielded the following results: X2=6,717.551, df =1,225, and P≤0.001. Besides, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of ACLEEM questionnaire was 0.964. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were also >0.80 in all the three domains of the questionnaire. Overall, the Persian version of ACLEEM showed excellent convergent validity and acceptable discriminant validity, except for the clinical training domain

  12. Clinical terminology support for a national ambulatory practice outcomes research network.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Thomas N; Lieberman, Michael I; Kahn, Michael G; Masarie, F E

    2005-01-01

    The Medical Quality Improvement Consortium (MQIC) is a nationwide collaboration of 74 healthcare delivery systems, consisting of 3755 clinicians, who contribute de-identified clinical data from the same commercial electronic medical record (EMR) for quality reporting, outcomes research and clinical research in public health and practice benchmarking. Despite the existence of a common, centrally-managed, shared terminology for core concepts (medications, problem lists, observation names), a substantial "back-end" information management process is required to ensure terminology and data harmonization for creating multi-facility clinically-acceptable queries and comparable results. We describe the information architecture created to support terminology harmonization across this data-sharing consortium and discuss the implications for large scale data sharing envisioned by proponents for the national adoption of ambulatory EMR systems.

  13. Female genital mutilation management in the ambulatory clinic setting: a case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Craven, Spencer; Kavanagh, Alex; Khavari, Rose

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old patient with obstructive voiding symptoms and apareunia in the setting of Type III female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is presented. The patient underwent ambulatory clinic defibulation to relieve her symptoms. FGM has been shown to have serious immediate complications and many chronic complications that greatly impact patients' lives. Several case series have been published describing center-specific experience with defibulation procedures for Type III FGM/C. Here, we present the treatment of a patient with Type III FGM/C in an ambulatory urology clinic in the United States.

  14. Female genital mutilation management in the ambulatory clinic setting: a case study and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Craven, Spencer; Kavanagh, Alex; Khavari, Rose

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old patient with obstructive voiding symptoms and apareunia in the setting of Type III female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is presented. The patient underwent ambulatory clinic defibulation to relieve her symptoms. FGM has been shown to have serious immediate complications and many chronic complications that greatly impact patients’ lives. Several case series have been published describing center-specific experience with defibulation procedures for Type III FGM/C. Here, we present the treatment of a patient with Type III FGM/C in an ambulatory urology clinic in the United States. PMID:27333917

  15. Medication safety and pharmacovigilance resources for the ambulatory care setting: enhancing patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Jennifer A; Fass, Andrea D

    2014-04-01

    Reputable medication safety resources are fundamental to assist in reducing medication errors and educating consumers. The purpose of this article is to describe medication safety and pharmacovigilance electronic and mobile resources that are available to pharmacists to enhance patient safety in the ambulatory care setting at the national level through the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), American Medicine Chest Challenge, and Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP). Information concerning drug disposal methods is available through the FDA, DEA, and the American Medicine Chest Challenge Rx Drop app. The ISMP provides a variety of tools for reporting and preventing medication errors including Assess-ERR and ConsumerMedSafety.org. Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) were created as a requirement of the FDA Amendments Act of 2007 to ensure that the drug's benefits outweigh the risks. Health care professionals are encouraged to report adverse drug events through the FDA's MedWatch reporting system. Pharmacists have a variety of useful resources for their medication safety and pharmacovigilance toolbox. Studies should evaluate the use of these resources by pharmacists and consumers.

  16. Ambulatory electrocardiology.

    PubMed

    Romero, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    About 50 years ago, Norman Jefferis Holter invented a device that opened the possibility of recording heart activity over long periods of time. This invention, together with the rapid developments in electronics, has enabled a revolutionary change in the diagnosis and management of cardiac diseases. Ambulatory cardiac monitors have decreased in size to the point of becoming wearable or implantable and are able to monitor heart activity for months or even years. In addition, new telecommunication systems allow clinicians to remotely access cardiac events and to respond within a short period of time. Novel advances in computing and algorithm development are expanding the clinical applications of ambulatory devices with more complex automatic interpretation of the electrocardiographic signal. This article reviews the state of the art of these techniques from both clinical and technical approaches, covering a historic perspective up to today, and discusses current applications, challenges, and future directions. PMID:23422020

  17. Application of Porter's generic strategies in ambulatory health care: a comparison of managerial perceptions in two Israeli sick funds.

    PubMed

    Torgovicky, Refael; Goldberg, Avishay; Shvarts, Shifra; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Onn, Erez; Levi, Yehezkel; BarDayan, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    A number of typologies have been developed in the strategic management literature to categorize strategies that an organization can pursue at the business level. Extensive research has established Porter's generic strategies of (1) cost leadership, (2) differentiation, (3) differentiation focus, (4) cost focus, and (5) stuck-in-the-middle as the dominant paradigm in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to research competitive strategies in the Israeli ambulatory health care system, by comparing managerial perceptions of present and ideal business strategies in two Israeli sick funds. We developed a unique research tool, which reliably examines the gap between the present and ideal status managerial views. We found a relation between the business strategy and performance measures, thus strengthening Porter's original theory about the nonviability of the stuck-in-the-middle strategy, and suggesting the applicability Porter's generic strategies to not-for-profit institutes in an ambulatory health care system.

  18. Application of Porter's generic strategies in ambulatory health care: a comparison of managerial perceptions in two Israeli sick funds.

    PubMed

    Torgovicky, Refael; Goldberg, Avishay; Shvarts, Shifra; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Onn, Erez; Levi, Yehezkel; BarDayan, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    A number of typologies have been developed in the strategic management literature to categorize strategies that an organization can pursue at the business level. Extensive research has established Porter's generic strategies of (1) cost leadership, (2) differentiation, (3) differentiation focus, (4) cost focus, and (5) stuck-in-the-middle as the dominant paradigm in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to research competitive strategies in the Israeli ambulatory health care system, by comparing managerial perceptions of present and ideal business strategies in two Israeli sick funds. We developed a unique research tool, which reliably examines the gap between the present and ideal status managerial views. We found a relation between the business strategy and performance measures, thus strengthening Porter's original theory about the nonviability of the stuck-in-the-middle strategy, and suggesting the applicability Porter's generic strategies to not-for-profit institutes in an ambulatory health care system. PMID:15773250

  19. Clinical predictors and impact of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in pediatric hypertension referrals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Marguerite L; Ferguson, Michael A; Zachariah, Justin P

    2014-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is rising in children. Significant proportions of children have reactive hypertension or masked hypertension, making ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) a valuable tool, although with potential economic implications. In youth referred for elevated BP, we sought clinic BP combinations that obviated the need for ABPM and to specify the economic role of ABPM. In a retrospective pediatric referral cohort (N = 170), we examine clinic systolic BP (SBP) predictors of components of ABPM hypertension and their combination. In economic analyses, we compared effectiveness and charges of three diagnostic pathways: (1) clinic BP alone; (2) abnormal clinic BP prompting ABPM; or (3) universal ABPM. ABPM hypertension occurred in 55 (32.4%) and reactive hypertension in 37 (21.8%), average automated (β = 0.208; 95% confidence interval, 0.027, 0.389; P = .03) and maximum auscultatory clinic SBP (β = 0.160; 95% confidence interval 0.022, 0.299; P = .02) were associated with ABPM SBP mean, but none predicted SBP load. No clinic SBP combination was associated with ABPM hypertension. Universal ABPM accrued the lowest average charge per hypertensive youth identified ($10,948). We did not identify a clinic SBP combination that predicted ABPM hypertension in youth referred for elevated BP. Universal ABPM, in this context, may be the most economically and clinically efficient diagnostic strategy. PMID:25065681

  20. Clinical predictors and impact of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in pediatric hypertension referrals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Marguerite L; Ferguson, Michael A; Zachariah, Justin P

    2014-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is rising in children. Significant proportions of children have reactive hypertension or masked hypertension, making ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) a valuable tool, although with potential economic implications. In youth referred for elevated BP, we sought clinic BP combinations that obviated the need for ABPM and to specify the economic role of ABPM. In a retrospective pediatric referral cohort (N = 170), we examine clinic systolic BP (SBP) predictors of components of ABPM hypertension and their combination. In economic analyses, we compared effectiveness and charges of three diagnostic pathways: (1) clinic BP alone; (2) abnormal clinic BP prompting ABPM; or (3) universal ABPM. ABPM hypertension occurred in 55 (32.4%) and reactive hypertension in 37 (21.8%), average automated (β = 0.208; 95% confidence interval, 0.027, 0.389; P = .03) and maximum auscultatory clinic SBP (β = 0.160; 95% confidence interval 0.022, 0.299; P = .02) were associated with ABPM SBP mean, but none predicted SBP load. No clinic SBP combination was associated with ABPM hypertension. Universal ABPM accrued the lowest average charge per hypertensive youth identified ($10,948). We did not identify a clinic SBP combination that predicted ABPM hypertension in youth referred for elevated BP. Universal ABPM, in this context, may be the most economically and clinically efficient diagnostic strategy.

  1. Identify, isolate, inform: Background and considerations for Ebola virus disease preparedness in U.S. ambulatory care settings.

    PubMed

    Chea, Nora; Perz, Joseph F; Srinivasan, Arjun; Laufer, Alison S; Pollack, Lori A

    2015-11-01

    Public health activities to identify and monitor persons at risk for Ebola virus disease in the United States include directing persons at risk to assessment facilities that are prepared to safely evaluate for Ebola virus disease. Although it is unlikely that a person with Ebola virus disease will unexpectedly present to a nonemergency ambulatory care facility, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have provided guidance for this setting that can be summarized as identify, isolate, and inform.

  2. Depression and Ambulatory Care Sensitive Hospitalizations among Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Physical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Rituparna; Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between depression and hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (H-ACSC) among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic physical conditions. Methods We used a retrospective longitudinal design using multiple years (2002-2009) of linked fee-for-service Medicare claims and survey data from Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data to create six longitudinal panels. We followed individuals in each panel for a period of three years; first year served as the baseline and subsequent two years served as the follow-up. We measured depression, chronic physical conditions and other characteristics at baseline and examined H-ACSC at two follow-up. We identified chronic physical conditions from survey data and H-ACSC and depression from fee-for-service Medicare claims.. We analyzed unadjusted and adjusted relationships between depression and the risk of H-ACSC with chi-square tests and logistic regressions. Results Among all Medicare beneficiaries, 9.3% had diagnosed depression. Medicare beneficiaries with depression had higher rates of any H-ACSC as compared to those without depression (13.6% vs 7.7%). Multivariable regression indicated that compared to those without depression, Medicare beneficiaries with depression were more likely to experience any H-ACSC. Conclusions Depression was associated with greater risk of H-ACSC, suggesting that healthcare quality measures may need to include depression as a risk-adjustment variable. PMID:24999083

  3. Modeling the Impact of Medicare Advantage Payment Cuts on Ambulatory Care Sensitive and Elective Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess relationships between changes in Medicare Advantage (MA) payment rates and Medicare beneficiary hospitalizations and to simulate the effects of scheduled payment cuts on ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) and elective hospitalization rates. Data State Inpatient Database discharge abstracts from Arizona, Florida, and New York merged with administrative Medicare enrollment and MA payment data. Study Design Retrospective, fixed effect regression analysis of the relationship between MA payment rates and rates of ACS and elective hospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries in counties with at least 10,000 Medicare beneficiaries and 3 percent MA penetration from 1999 to 2005. Principal Findings MA payment rates were negatively related to rates of ACS admissions. Simulations suggest that payment cuts could be associated with higher rates of ACS admissions. No relationship between MA payments and rates of elective hospitalizations was found. Conclusions Reductions in MA payment rates may result in a small increase in ACS admissions. Trends in ACS admissions among chronically ill Medicare beneficiaries should be tracked following MA payment cuts. PMID:21609330

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computerized ECG interpretation system in an ambulatory health care organization.

    PubMed

    Carel, R S

    1982-04-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a computerized ECG interpretation system in an ambulatory health care organization has been evaluated in comparison with a conventional (manual) system. The automated system was shown to be more cost-effective at a minimum load of 2,500 patients/month. At larger monthly loads an even greater cost-effectiveness was found, the average cost/ECG being about $2. In the manual system the cost/unit is practically independent of patient load. This is primarily due to the fact that 87% of the cost/ECG is attributable to wages and fees of highly trained personnel. In the automated system, on the other hand, the cost/ECG is heavily dependent on examinee load. This is due to the relatively large impact of equipment depreciation on fixed (and total) cost. Utilization of a computer-assisted system leads to marked reduction in cardiologists' interpretation time, substantially shorter turnaround time (of unconfirmed reports), and potential provision of simultaneous service at several remotely located "heart stations."

  5. Electronic prescribing: improving the efficiency and accuracy of prescribing in the ambulatory care setting.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Amber; Engelbert, Kate; Coustasse, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) is an important part of the nation's push to enhance the safety and quality of the prescribing process. E-prescribing allows providers in the ambulatory care setting to send prescriptions electronically to the pharmacy and can be a stand-alone system or part of an integrated electronic health record system. The methodology for this study followed the basic principles of a systematic review. A total of 47 sources were referenced. Results of this research study suggest that e-prescribing reduces prescribing errors, increases efficiency, and helps to save on healthcare costs. Medication errors have been reduced to as little as a seventh of their previous level, and cost savings due to improved patient outcomes and decreased patient visits are estimated to be between $140 billion and $240 billion over 10 years for practices that implement e-prescribing. However, there have been significant barriers to implementation including cost, lack of provider support, patient privacy, system errors, and legal issues.

  6. Ambulatory care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: lessons learned in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, H.; Tefera, M.; Tesfaye, A.; Klinkenberg, E.; Yimer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Ethiopia is one of the high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries. Efforts by the National TB Programme to control MDR-TB include expanding ambulatory care. Objective: To investigate the opportunities and challenges faced by treatment follow-up health centres (TFCs) when managing MDR-TB patients, with greater focus on recording, TB infection control (IC) and supervision practices. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records of all MDR-TB cases in all 25 TFCs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The TB focal point, pharmacy and laboratory heads were also interviewed. Result: A total of 221 MDR-TB patients were registered; 157 (71%) patients had been referred from one of the two treatment initiating centres. While some TFCs oversaw up to 41 patients, others had just one patient. The majority of the TFCs (n = 21, 84%) followed standardised TB IC procedures. Poor documentation of patient information was observed at all sites; for example, human immunodeficiency virus and current treatment status was not indicated for respectively 86 (38%) and 41 (18%) patients. Conclusion: The study revealed that infection prevention practices were largely adhered to. Documentation of patient-related information was a major challenge, and regular supervision of the TFCs should be emphasised. Record keeping is critical. PMID:26478512

  7. New Clinical and Research Trends in Lower Extremity Management for Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Diane L.; Alter, Katharine E.; Chambers, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent physical disability in childhood and includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations and levels of capability in individuals given this diagnosis. This chapter will focus on current and future intervention strategies for improving mobility and participation over the lifespan for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The provision and integration of physical therapy, medical and orthopedic surgery management focused primarily on the lower extremities will be discussed here. Some of the newer trends are: more intense and task-related exercise strategies, greater precision in tone identification and management, and a shift towards musculoskeletal surgery that focuses more on promoting dynamic bony alignment and less on releasing or lengthening tendons. Advances in basic and clinical science and technology development are changing existing paradigms and offering renewed hope for improved functioning for children with CP who are currently facing a lifelong disability with unique challenges at each stage in life. PMID:19643348

  8. Trends in physician diagnosed gout and gout therapies in the US: results from the national ambulatory health care surveys 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gouty arthritis (gout) is primarily cared for in ambulatory care settings. Although the prevalence of gout in the US is thought to be increasing, there have been few data on this as well as temporal changes in gout medication use. Methods We analyzed annual visit and drug utilization data from national sample surveys of physician practices and hospital outpatient clinics in the US from 1993 to 2009. Gout diagnosis was recorded by individual physicians. Result The frequency of visits for gout increased three-fold from 1993 through 2009; most of the increases were observed from 2003 onwards. The increase was only partly explained by changes in age and gender composition of the surveys over time. A concomitant increase in prescriptions for allopurinol and colchicine and decrease in prescriptions for anti-inflammatories was observed. Aspirin use, a putative risk factor for gout and gout flares, increased substantially over this period. Probenecid use was negligible. Frequency of systemic steroid use has not changed over time. Conclusions The number of ambulatory visits for gout has increased almost three-fold in the first decade of the millennium coinciding with increases in physician and patient awareness. This increase was primarily due to visits among the elderly. Uricosuric use remained negligible whereas the uses of allopurinol and colchicine have increased rapidly. Use of traditional non-steroidals has declined, possibly due to safety concerns whereas glucocorticoid use remains unchanged. PMID:24286510

  9. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Ha Anh; Sabin, Lora L.; Cuong, Le Quang; Thien, Duong Duc; Feeley, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. Objective To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. Design We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Results Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Conclusions Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a

  10. Prevalence of Polyherbacy in Ambulatory Visits to Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinics in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Tu, Chun-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a polyherbal prescription are more likely to receive duplicate medications and thus suffer from adverse drug reactions. We conducted a population-based retrospective study to examine the items of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) per prescription in the ambulatory care of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan. We retrieved complete TCM ambulatory visit datasets for 2010 from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. A total of 59,790 patients who received 313,482 CHM prescriptions were analyzed. Drug prescriptions containing more than five drugs were classified as polyherbal prescriptions; 41.6% of patients were given a polyherbal prescription. There were on average 5.2 ± 2.5 CHMs: 2.3 ± 1.1 compound herbal formula items, and 3.0 ± 2.5 single Chinese herb items in a single prescription. Approximately 4.6% of patients were prescribed 10 CHMs or more. Men had a lower odds ratio (OR) among polyherbal prescriptions (OR = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–0.99), and middle-aged patients (35–49 years) had the highest frequency of polyherbal prescription (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13–1.26). Patients with neoplasm, skin and subcutaneous tissue disease, or genitourinary system disease were more likely to have a polyherbal prescription; OR = 2.20 (1.81–2.67), 1.65 (1.50–1.80), and 1.52 (1.40–1.64), respectively. Polyherbal prescription is widespread in TCM in Taiwan. Potential herb interactions and iatrogenic risks associated with polyherbal prescriptions should be monitored. PMID:26287228

  11. A replicable and customizable approach to improve ambulatory care and research.

    PubMed

    Wasson, J H; Jette, A M; Johnson, D J; Mohr, J J; Nelson, E C

    1997-01-01

    Health care is a service industry. A fundamental attribute of many successful service industries is the "small replicable unit (SRU)." There are three essential elements of an SRU: (1) the smallest core unit of activity, (2) micromeasures designed to help manage the core activities, and (3) combinations of the activities and measures to match local customer needs. In this article, we describe a model for geriatric care based on "SRU thinking." We demonstrate how this approach places measurement of patient values, clinical improvement strategies, and research objectives into day-to-day health care delivery. PMID:10164030

  12. Longitudinal Study of Left Ventricular Mass Growth: Comparative Study of Clinic and Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2016-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an established cardiovascular risk factor, yet little is known about its trajectory in people with chronic kidney disease. The goal of this prospective research study was to describe the trajectory of LV mass index, its relationship with blood pressure (BP), and specifically to compare the relationship of BP measured in the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring with LV mass index. Among 274 veterans with chronic kidney disease followed for over ≤ 4 years, the rate of growth of log LV mass index was inversely related to baseline LV mass index; it was rapid in the first 2 years, and plateaued subsequently. Systolic BP also significantly increased, but linearly, 1.7 mm Hg/y by clinic measurements and 1.8 mm Hg/y by 24-hour ambulatory BP. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of both clinic BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP with LV mass index were similar; both BP recording methods were associated with LV mass index and its growth over time. Controlled hypertension, masked uncontrolled hypertension, and uncontrolled hypertension categories had increasing LV mass index when diagnosed by 24-hour ambulatory and awake BP (P<0.05 for linear trend) but not sleep BP. After accounting for clinic BP both at baseline and longitudinally, LV mass index among individuals was additionally predicted by the difference in sleep systolic BP and clinic systolic BP (P=0.032). In conclusion, among people with chronic kidney disease, the growth of LV mass index is rapid. Research-grade clinic BP is useful to assess LV mass index and its growth over time. PMID:26831191

  13. A Break-Even Analysis of Optimum Faculty Assignment for Ambulatory Primary Care Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xakellis, George C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A computer simulation was developed to estimate the number of medical residents one or two faculty teachers could supervise in a university-based primary medical care teaching clinic. With no non-teaching tasks, it was shown that two teachers could supervise 11 residents, while one teacher was able to supervise only three residents under similar…

  14. German Ambulatory Care Physicians' Perspectives on Continuing Medical Education--A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempkens, Daniela; Dieterle, Wilfried E.; Butzlaff, Martin; Wilson, Andrew; Bocken, Jan; Rieger, Monika A.; Wilm, Stefan; Vollmar, Horst C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This survey aimed to investigate German ambulatory physicians' opinions about mandatory continuing medical education (CME) and CME resources shortly before the introduction of mandatory CME in 2004. Methods: A structured national telephone survey of general practitioners and specialists was conducted. Main outcome measures were…

  15. Ambulatory Care in Medical Residency: Integration of Private Practitioner's Office with Traditional Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bane, Susan; Criscione, Teri

    1983-01-01

    An Albany Medical College program utilizes private internists' offices as sites for resident ambulatory education. The private practitioner is perceived as an excellent teacher and role model who provides a positive effect on the long-term career goals of residents. (MLW)

  16. Factors Associated with Hospitalisations for Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions among Persons with an Intellectual Disability--A Publicly Insured Population Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, R. S.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Brownell, M.; Colantonio, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hospitalisations for ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) conditions are used as an indicator of access to, and the quality of, primary care. The objective was to identify factors associated with hospitalisations for ACS conditions among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) in the context of a publicly insured healthcare system.…

  17. Clinical features of 8295 patients with resistant hypertension classified on the basis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Cruz, Juan J; Armario, Pedro; Oliveras, Anna; Ruilope, Luis M

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension through both office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in a large cohort of treated hypertensive patients from the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry. In addition, we also compared clinical features of patients with true or white-coat-resistant hypertension. In December 2009, we identified 68 045 treated patients with complete information for this analysis. Among them, 8295 (12.2% of the database) had resistant hypertension (office blood pressure ≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg while being treated with ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, 1 of them being a diuretic). After ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, 62.5% of patients were classified as true resistant hypertensives, the remaining 37.5% having white-coat resistance. The former group was younger, more frequently men, with a longer duration of hypertension and a worse cardiovascular risk profile. The group included larger proportions of smokers, diabetics, target organ damage (including left ventricular hypertrophy, impaired renal function, and microalbuminuria), and documented cardiovascular disease. Moreover, true resistant hypertensives exhibited in a greater proportion a riser pattern (22% versus 18%; P<0.001). In conclusion, this study first reports the prevalence of resistant hypertension in a large cohort of patients in usual daily practice. Resistant hypertension is present in 12% of the treated hypertensive population, but among them more than one third have normal ambulatory blood pressure. A worse risk profile is associated with true resistant hypertension, but this association is weak, thus making it necessary to assess ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for a correct diagnosis and management.

  18. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention. PMID:26278235

  19. Patterns of ambulatory medical care utilization in elderly patients with special reference to chronic diseases and multimorbidity - Results from a claims data based observational study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to estimate the future demands for health services, the analysis of current utilization patterns of the elderly is crucial. The aim of this study is to analyze ambulatory medical care utilization by elderly patients in relation to age, gender, number of chronic conditions, patterns of multimorbidity, and nursing dependency in Germany. Methods Claims data of the year 2004 from 123,224 patients aged 65 years and over which are members of one nationwide operating statutory insurance company in Germany were studied. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of 3 or more chronic conditions of a list of 46 most prevalent chronic conditions based on ICD 10 diagnoses. Utilization was analyzed by the number of contacts with practices of physicians working in the ambulatory medical care sector and by the number of different physicians contacted for every single chronic condition and their most frequent triadic combinations. Main statistical analyses were multidimensional frequency counts with standard deviations and confidence intervals, and multivariable linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbid patients had more than twice as many contacts per year with physicians than those without multimorbidity (36 vs. 16). These contact frequencies were associated with visits to 5.7 different physicians per year in case of multimorbidity vs. 3.5 when multimorbidity was not present. The number of contacts and of physicians contacted increased steadily with the number of chronic conditions. The number of contacts varied between 35 and 54 per year and the number of contacted physicians varied between 5 to 7, depending on the presence of individual chronic diseases and/or their triadic combinations. The influence of gender or age on utilization was small and clinically almost irrelevant. The most important factor influencing physician contact was the presence of nursing dependency due to disability. Conclusion In absolute terms, we found a very high rate of

  20. Determining Primary Care Physician Information Needs to Inform Ambulatory Visit Note Display

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, M.A.; Steege, L.M.; Moore, J.L.; Koopman, R.J.; Belden, J.L.; Kim, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background With the increase in the adoption of electronic health records (EHR) across the US, primary care physicians are experiencing information overload. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the information needs of primary care physicians (PCPs) as they review clinic visit notes to inform EHR display. Method Data collection was conducted with 15 primary care physicians during semi-structured interviews, including a third party observer to control bias. Physicians reviewed major sections of an artificial but typical acute and chronic care visit note to identify the note sections that were relevant to their information needs. Statistical methods used were McNemar-Mosteller’s and Cochran Q. Results Physicians identified History of Present Illness (HPI), Assessment, and Plan (A&P) as the most important sections of a visit note. In contrast, they largely judged the Review of Systems (ROS) to be superfluous. There was also a statistical difference in physicians’ highlighting among all seven major note sections in acute (p = 0.00) and chronic (p = 0.00) care visit notes. Conclusion A&P and HPI sections were most frequently identified as important which suggests that physicians may have to identify a few key sections out of a long, unnecessarily verbose visit note. ROS is viewed by doctors as mostly “not needed,” but can have relevant information. The ROS can contain information needed for patient care when other sections of the Visit note, such as the HPI, lack the relevant information. Future studies should include producing a display that provides only relevant information to increase physician efficiency at the point of care. Also, research on moving A&P to the top of visit notes instead of having A&P at the bottom of the page is needed, since those are usually the first sections physicians refer to and reviewing from top to bottom may cause cognitive load. PMID:24734131

  1. Patient Education: A Better Way to Achieve Compliance in the Ambulatory Care Setting. Proceedings from a Conference Held at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York, New York, May 29, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Nicholas, Ed.; And Others

    These proceedings consist of the texts of eight papers presented at a conference on patient education. Included in the volume are the following conference presentations: "An Educational Framework in the Ambulatory Care Setting," by Jeannette J. Simmons; "The Status of Education in Ambulatory Care: A Report of the American Hospital Association," by…

  2. A Physician's Practice Profile: Application for a Teaching Hospital Ambulatory Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Retchin, Sheldon M.; Blish, Christine S.

    1984-01-01

    A computer generated report (Practice Profile) summarizing epidemiologic, demographic and utilization data from a general internal medicine practice, was developed and implemented in a teaching hospital setting. Using a computerized medical record system, the Profile displays individual and group practice data. It is used for enhancing the physicians' understanding of their ambulatory practices and for raising important quality assurance issues. The Practice Profile is also used for improving educational activities in the residency program and for stimulating research opportunities within the practice.

  3. [Contribution of ambulatory digestive surgery].

    PubMed

    Sales, J P

    2000-10-01

    In France, ambulatory surgery is controlled by specific regulations which outline the organization of the facilities. It is practiced less in France than in other countries, but specific governmental incentive policies have been instituted. The characteristic feature of digestive surgery is the high occurrence of post-operative nausea and vomiting due to the peritoneal incision. New surgical procedures and anesthetic regimens allow ambulatory care in children and adults. But the choice of ambulatory care is based on the patient's characteristics more than on surgical procedure and follows well-known selection criteria. The procedures concerned in general surgery are groin hernia repair, proctologic surgery, and subcutaneous tissue surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and neck surgery in increasing numbers of patients on an ambulatory basis is the first step before expanding ambulatory surgical procedures toward major surgery. Physicians must have a thorough knowledge of ambulatory surgery as an organizational concept.

  4. Discordance between ambulatory versus clinic blood pressure according to global cardiovascular risk group

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jinho; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Ju Han; Ihm, Sang Hyun; Kim, Kwang-il; Kim, Woo Shik; Pyun, Wook Bum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Choi, Sung-il; Kim, Soon Kil

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The detection of white coat hypertension (WCH), treated normalized hypertension, and masked hypertension (MH) is important to improve the effectiveness of hypertension management. However, whether global cardiovascular risk (GCR) profile has any effect on the discordance between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and clinic blood pressure (CBP) is unknown. Methods: Data from 1,916 subjects, taken from the Korean Multicenter Registry for ABP monitoring, were grouped according to diagnostic and therapeutic thresholds for CBP and ABP (140/90 and 135/85 mmHg, respectively). GCR was assessed using European Society of Hypertension 2007 guidelines. Results: The mean subject age was 54.1 ± 14.9 years, and 48.9% of patients were female. The discordancy rate between ABP and CBP in the untreated and treated patients was 32.5% and 26.5%, respectively (p = 0.02). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension and MH was 14.4% and 16.0%, respectively. Discordance between ABP and CBP was lower in the very high added-risk group compared to the moderate added-risk group (odds ratio [OR], 0.649; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.487 to 0.863; p = 0.003). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension was also lower in the very high added-risk group (OR, 0.451; 95% CI, 0.311 to 0.655). Conclusions: Discordance between ABP and CBP was observed more frequently in untreated subjects than in treated subjects, and less frequently in the very high added-risk group, which was due mainly to the lower prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension. PMID:26354055

  5. Comprehensive ambulatory medicine training for categorical internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Bharel, Monica; Jain, Sharad; Hollander, Harry

    2003-04-01

    It is challenging to create an educational and satisfying experience in the outpatient setting. We developed a 3-year ambulatory curriculum that addresses the special needs of our categorical medicine residents with distinct learning objectives for each year of training and clinical experiences and didactic sessions to meet these goals. All PGY1 residents spend 1 month on a general medicine ambulatory care rotation. PGY2 residents spend 3 months on an ambulatory block focusing on 8 core medicine subspecialties. Third-year residents spend 2 months on an advanced ambulatory rotation. The curriculum was started in July 2000 and has been highly regarded by the house staff, with statistically significant improvements in the PGY2 and PGY3 evaluation scores. By enhancing outpatient clinical teaching and didactics with an emphasis on the specific needs of our residents, we have been able to reframe the thinking and attitudes of a group of inpatient-oriented residents. PMID:12709096

  6. Ambulatory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory assessment (AA) covers a wide range of assessment methods to study people in their natural environment, including self-report, observational, and biological/physiological/behavioral. AA methods minimize retrospective biases while gathering ecologically valid data from patients’ everyday life in real time or near real time. Here, we report on the major characteristics of AA, and we provide examples of applications of AA in clinical psychology (a) to investigate mechanisms and dynamics of symptoms, (b) to predict the future recurrence or onset of symptoms, (c) to monitor treatment effects, (d) to predict treatment success, (e) to prevent relapse, and (f) as interventions. In addition, we present and discuss the most pressing and compelling future AA applications: technological developments (the smartphone), improved ecological validity of laboratory results by combined lab-field studies, and investigating gene-environment interactions. We conclude with a discussion of acceptability, compliance, privacy, and ethical issues. PMID:23157450

  7. Studies in Ambulatory Care Quality Assessment in the Indian Health Service. Volume III: Comparison of Rural Private Practice, Health Maintenance Organizations, and the Indian Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutting, Paul A.; And Others

    Utilizing a quality assessment methodology for ambulatory patient care currently under development by the Indian Health Service's (IHS) Office of Research and Development, comparisons were made between results derived from a pilot test in IHS service units, 2 metropolitan Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO), and 3 rural private practices.…

  8. Factors associated with pneumonia in Yanomami children hospitalized for Ambulatory Care sensitive conditions in the north of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caldart, Raquel Voges; Marrero, Lihsieh; Basta, Paulo Cesar; Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall

    2016-05-01

    In developing countries, pneumonia is the leading cause of sickness and mortality in childhood, especially among vulnerable groups. The scope of this study was to analyze the factors associated with pneumonia in Yanomami children hospitalized for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC). Hospital admissions were divided into two groups: i) pneumonia; and ii) other causes, according to the Brazilian ACSC list. Adjusted hospitalization rates were estimated and unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with pneumonia. Over 90% of the registered cases were considered ACSC. The adjusted rate of ACSC was 18.6/1000. The odds ratio of hospitalization for pneumonia was 2.7 (CI: 1.3-5.4) times higher in children aged between 0.1 and 5.9 months; 1.9 (CI: 1.1-3.3) times higher in children who were hospitalized for 8-14 days; and three (CI: 1.2-7.5) times higher in children with a secondary diagnosis of malnutrition. The excess of avoidable hospitalizations is a clear indication of the low quality of care and limited accessibility to primary health care in indigenous territories, which is contrary to the assistance model proposed by the indigenous healthcare subsystem in Brazil, which should in theory focus on welfare technologies based on primary health care.

  9. Factors associated with pneumonia in Yanomami children hospitalized for Ambulatory Care sensitive conditions in the north of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caldart, Raquel Voges; Marrero, Lihsieh; Basta, Paulo Cesar; Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall

    2016-05-01

    In developing countries, pneumonia is the leading cause of sickness and mortality in childhood, especially among vulnerable groups. The scope of this study was to analyze the factors associated with pneumonia in Yanomami children hospitalized for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC). Hospital admissions were divided into two groups: i) pneumonia; and ii) other causes, according to the Brazilian ACSC list. Adjusted hospitalization rates were estimated and unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with pneumonia. Over 90% of the registered cases were considered ACSC. The adjusted rate of ACSC was 18.6/1000. The odds ratio of hospitalization for pneumonia was 2.7 (CI: 1.3-5.4) times higher in children aged between 0.1 and 5.9 months; 1.9 (CI: 1.1-3.3) times higher in children who were hospitalized for 8-14 days; and three (CI: 1.2-7.5) times higher in children with a secondary diagnosis of malnutrition. The excess of avoidable hospitalizations is a clear indication of the low quality of care and limited accessibility to primary health care in indigenous territories, which is contrary to the assistance model proposed by the indigenous healthcare subsystem in Brazil, which should in theory focus on welfare technologies based on primary health care. PMID:27166907

  10. [Results of ambulatory care of 103 patients who committed sex offenses].

    PubMed

    Zvĕrina, J

    1990-08-01

    103 sexual delinquents were treated in our sexological outpatient clinic. These men were referred for compulsory treatment by courts on account of: indecent exposure (N = 51, i.e. 49.5%), heterosexual aggression (N = 22, i.e. 21.3%), homosexual offence with minors (N = 18, i.e. 17.5%), hetero-sexual paedophilia (N = 8, i.e. 7.8%), fetishist offence (N = 2, i.e. 1.9%), incest with adolescent daughter (N = 1) and zoophilia (N = 1). Sexological treatment consisted of psychotherapeutic, sociotherapeutic and drug treatment. After a three-year follow-up the results were evaluated as favourable in 44 men (i.e. 42.7%). 33 men (i.e. 32.1%) relapsed and committed a further sexual crime. 26 men (i.e. 25.2%) remain in a long-term medical care, as favourable sexual adaptation was not achieved in these cases within three years of treatment. Psychological, psychosexual and social characteristics of patients are analysed in connection with results of sexological treatment.

  11. County variation in use of inpatient and ambulatory psychiatric care in New York State 1999-2001: need and supply influences in a structural model.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Sarah; Congdon, Peter; Almog, Michael; Ellermann, Raymond

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the potential for ecological studies to contribute useful information on variations in service use, both across areas and across different types of psychiatric care. The analysis uses data for the 62 counties of New York State, which include both urbanised and rural areas, with widely differing social, household and ethnic structures. We analysed data on service use by patients aged 15-64 years for several psychiatric conditions combined. The research reported here used an approach which for several reasons is innovative, compared with other ecological studies of psychiatric service use. First, the impact of population variables on both ambulatory and hospitalisation rates is considered, whereas many previous studies are confined to hospital use. Second, our method combines and weights population variables in the 'need index' in a way that (a) reflects geographical variations in service use rates in both hospital and ambulatory sectors (b) controls for service configuration and access as well as (c) allowing for spatial autocorrelation in the need index. To demonstrate this method, four simple indicators of poverty, social isolation, concentration of racial minorities and population density, were used in combination to define a 'needs' index that predicts use of psychiatric services at county level. Comparison with alternative methods of measuring need, using the same data but based on more conventional strategies, resulted in significantly different need rankings of areas. Our composite index of 'underlying need' showed a positive association with service use (hospital and ambulatory care for men and for women). This relationship controls for access to services, and allows for spatial correlation in the need construct. Controlling for underlying population 'need', a measure of spatial proximity to hospitals with psychiatric beds had an independent effect, being associated positively with hospital inpatient use, and negatively with

  12. Quality of care in sickle cell disease: Cross-sectional study and development of a measure for adults reporting on ambulatory and emergency department care.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Christian T; Treadwell, Marsha J; Keller, San; Levine, Roger; Hassell, Kathryn L; Werner, Ellen M; Smith, Wally R

    2016-08-01

    Documented deficiencies in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) care include poor access to knowledgeable providers and inadequate treatment in emergency departments (EDs).The aim of this study was to create patient-reported outcome measures of the quality of ambulatory and ED care for adults with SCD.We developed and pilot tested SCD quality of care questions consistent with Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We applied psychometric methods to develop scores and evaluate reliability and validity.The participants of this study were adults with SCD (n = 556)-63% aged 18 to 34 years; 64% female; 64% SCD-SS-at 7 US sites.The measure used was Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement information system Quality of Care survey.Most participants (90%) reported at least 1 severe pain episode (pain intensity 7.8 ± 2.3, 0-10 scale) in the past year. Most (81%) chose to manage pain at home rather than the ED, citing negative ED experiences (83%). Using factor analysis, we identified Access, Provider Interaction, and ED Care composites with reliable scores (Cronbach α 0.70-0.83) and construct validity (r = 0.32-0.83 correlations with global care ratings). Compared to general adult Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores, adults with SCD had worse care, adjusted for age, education, and general health.Results were consistent with other research reflecting deficiencies in ED care for adults with SCD. The Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Quality of Care measure is a useful self-report measure for documenting and tracking disparities in quality of SCD care. PMID:27583862

  13. Multifaceted national and regional drug reforms and initiatives in ambulatory care in Sweden: global relevance.

    PubMed

    Godman, Brian; Wettermark, Björn; Hoffmann, Mikael; Andersson, Karolina; Haycox, Alan; Gustafsson, Lars L

    2009-02-01

    It is a continual challenge trying to improve the quality of prescribing while concurrently trying to address increasing pharmaceutical development, utilization and expenditure. National and regional reforms and initiatives in Sweden have moderated growth in ambulatory drug expenditure to 2.7% per annum in recent years despite increasing volumes. National reforms include mandatory generic substitution and value-based pricing alongside devolution of drug budgets to the regions. Regional initiatives include strengthening the role of the regional Drug and Therapeutic Committees, further budget devolution as well as strategies incorporating prescribing guidance and monitoring coupled with financial incentives. The extent and nature of the regional initiatives vary depending on their characteristics. In this article, we compare initiatives undertaken in two major counties, Stockholm and Ostergötland, and their outcomes. Outcomes include annual drug budget savings while achieving agreed quality as well as increased adherence to prescribing targets and guidance; the latter associated with savings. Appraising these multifaceted reforms can provide guidance to other countries and regions in view of their diversity. Future steps must incorporate measures to improve the utilization of new expensive drugs, which should include horizon scanning and forecasting activities as well as post-launch activities involving monitoring of prescribing and registries. This may well require cooperation with other European countries.

  14. The "medical neighborhood": integrating primary and specialty care for ambulatory patients.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jeffrey O; Barnett, Michael L; Spinks, Melissa A; Dudley, Jessica C; Frolkis, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    As health care organizations create larger networks, better coordination of primary and specialty care is paramount. Attention has focused on strengthening primary care by creating patient-centered medical homes. The "medical neighborhood" provides a framework for structured, reciprocal relationships that integrate specialty care and extend the principles of the medical home to all practicing physicians. The foundation of the medical neighborhood is the collaborative care agreement, which outlines mutual expectations for primary care physicians and specialists as they care for patients together. These expectations include a preconsultation exchange between the referring physician and the consultant, the consultation, and subsequent comanagement of patients over time. Although independent practices can create individualized collaborative care agreements with specific specialist colleagues, large health care provider networks and accountable care organizations should have 1 agreement for all affiliated physicians. Challenges to the medical neighborhood include fee-for-service reimbursement, existing referral relationships, and building a robust electronic platform, including a referral management module. Cooperation between physicians, regardless of their specialty, and innovation in payment models and electronic platforms will all be essential if medical neighborhoods are to succeed.

  15. Recommendations for standardizing glucose reporting and analysis to optimize clinical decision making in diabetes: the ambulatory glucose profile.

    PubMed

    Bergenstal, Richard M; Ahmann, Andrew J; Bailey, Timothy; Beck, Roy W; Bissen, Joan; Buckingham, Bruce; Deeb, Larry; Dolin, Robert H; Garg, Satish K; Goland, Robin; Hirsch, Irl B; Klonoff, David C; Kruger, Davida F; Matfin, Glenn; Mazze, Roger S; Olson, Beth A; Parkin, Christopher; Peters, Anne; Powers, Margaret A; Rodriguez, Henry; Southerland, Phil; Strock, Ellie S; Tamborlane, William; Wesley, David M

    2013-01-01

    Underutilization of glucose data and lack of easy and standardized glucose data collection, analysis, visualization, and guided clinical decision making are key contributors to poor glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. An expert panel of diabetes specialists, facilitated by the International Diabetes Center and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust, met in 2012 to discuss recommendations for standardizing the analysis and presentation of glucose monitoring data, with the initial focus on data derived from continuous glucose monitoring systems. The panel members were introduced to a universal software report, the Ambulatory Glucose Profile, and asked to provide feedback on its content and functionality, both as a research tool and in clinical settings. This article provides a summary of the topics and issues discussed during the meeting and presents recommendations from the expert panel regarding the need to standardize glucose profile summary metrics and the value of a uniform glucose report to aid clinicians, researchers, and patients.

  16. Recommendations for standardizing glucose reporting and analysis to optimize clinical decision making in diabetes: the Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP).

    PubMed

    Bergenstal, Richard M; Ahmann, Andrew J; Bailey, Timothy; Beck, Roy W; Bissen, Joan; Buckingham, Bruce; Deeb, Larry; Dolin, Robert H; Garg, Satish K; Goland, Robin; Hirsch, Irl B; Klonoff, David C; Kruger, Davida F; Matfin, Glenn; Mazze, Roger S; Olson, Beth A; Parkin, Christopher; Peters, Anne; Powers, Margaret A; Rodriguez, Henry; Southerland, Phil; Strock, Ellie S; Tamborlane, William; Wesley, David M

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Underutilization of glucose data and lack of easy and standardized glucose data collection, analysis, visualization, and guided clinical decision making are key contributors to poor glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes. An expert panel of diabetes specialists, facilitated by the International Diabetes Center and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust, met in 2012 to discuss recommendations for standardization of analysis and presentation of glucose monitoring data, with the initial focus on data derived from CGM systems. The panel members were introduced to a universal software report, the Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP), and asked to provide feedback on its content and functionality, both as a research tool and in clinical settings. This paper provides a summary of the topics and issues discussed during the meeting and presents recommendations from the expert panel regarding the need to standardize glucose profile summary metrics and the value of a uniform glucose report to aid clinicians, researchers, and patients.

  17. Recommendations for Standardizing Glucose Reporting and Analysis to Optimize Clinical Decision Making in Diabetes: The Ambulatory Glucose Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bergenstal, Richard M.; Ahmann, Andrew J.; Bailey, Timothy; Beck, Roy W.; Bissen, Joan; Buckingham, Bruce; Deeb, Larry; Dolin, Robert H.; Garg, Satish K.; Goland, Robin; Hirsch, Irl B.; Klonoff, David C.; Kruger, Davida F.; Matfin, Glenn; Mazze, Roger S.; Olson, Beth A.; Parkin, Christopher; Peters, Anne; Powers, Margaret A.; Rodriguez, Henry; Southerland, Phil; Strock, Ellie S.; Tamborlane, William; Wesley, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Underutilization of glucose data and lack of easy and standardized glucose data collection, analysis, visualization, and guided clinical decision making are key contributors to poor glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. An expert panel of diabetes specialists, facilitated by the International Diabetes Center and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust, met in 2012 to discuss recommendations for standardizing the analysis and presentation of glucose monitoring data, with the initial focus on data derived from continuous glucose monitoring systems. The panel members were introduced to a universal software report, the Ambulatory Glucose Profile, and asked to provide feedback on its content and functionality, both as a research tool and in clinical settings. This article provides a summary of the topics and issues discussed during the meeting and presents recommendations from the expert panel regarding the need to standardize glucose profile summary metrics and the value of a uniform glucose report to aid clinicians, researchers, and patients. PMID:23567014

  18. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on clinic and ambulatory blood pressures in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muxfeldt, Elizabeth S; Margallo, Victor; Costa, Leonardo M S; Guimarães, Gleison; Cavalcante, Aline H; Azevedo, João C M; de Souza, Fabio; Cardoso, Claudia R L; Salles, Gil F

    2015-04-01

    The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressures (BPs) in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea is not established. We aimed to evaluate it in a randomized controlled clinical trial, with blinded assessment of outcomes. Four hundred thirty-four resistant hypertensive patients were screened and 117 patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 per hour, were randomized to 6-month CPAP treatment (57 patients) or no therapy (60 patients), while maintaining antihypertensive treatment. Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs were obtained before and after 6-month treatment. Primary outcomes were changes in clinic and ambulatory BPs and in nocturnal BP fall patterns. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol (limited to those with uncontrolled ambulatory BPs) analyses were performed. Patients had mean (SD) 24-hour BP of 129(16)/75(12) mm Hg, and 59% had uncontrolled ambulatory BPs. Mean apnea-hypopnea index was 41 per hour and 58.5% had severe obstructive sleep apnea. On intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in any BP change, neither in nocturnal BP fall, between CPAP and control groups. The best effect of CPAP was on night-time systolic blood pressure in per-protocol analysis, with greater reduction of 4.7 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -11.3 to +3.1 mm Hg; P=0.24) and an increase in nocturnal BP fall of 2.2% (95% confidence interval, -1.6% to +5.8%; P=0.25), in comparison with control group. In conclusion, CPAP treatment had no significant effect on clinic and ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension and moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea, although a beneficial effect on night-time systolic blood pressure and on nocturnal BP fall might exist in patients with uncontrolled ambulatory BP levels.

  19. Same organization, same electronic health records (EHRs) system, different use: exploring the linkage between practice member communication patterns and EHR use patterns in an ambulatory care setting

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Despite efforts made by ambulatory care organizations to standardize the use of electronic health records (EHRs), practices often incorporate these systems into their work differently from each other. One potential factor contributing to these differences is within-practice communication patterns. The authors explore the linkage between within-practice communication patterns and practice-level EHR use patterns. Design Qualitative study of six practices operating within the same multi-specialty ambulatory care organization using the same EHR system. Semistructured interviews and direct observation were conducted with all physicians, nurses, medical assistants, practice managers, and non-clinical staff from each practice. Measurements An existing model of practice relationships was used to analyze communication patterns within the practices. Practice-level EHR use was defined and analyzed as the ways in which a practice uses an EHR as a collective or a group—including the degree of feature use, level of EHR-enabled communication, and frequency that EHR use changes in a practice. Interview and observation data were analyzed for themes. Based on these themes, within-practice communication patterns were categorized as fragmented or cohesive, and practice-level EHR use patterns were categorized as heterogeneous or homogeneous. Practices where EHR use was uniformly high across all users were further categorized as having standardized EHR use. Communication patterns and EHR use patterns were compared across the six practices. Results Within-practice communication patterns were associated with practice-level EHR use patterns. In practices where communication patterns were fragmented, EHR use was heterogeneous. In practices where communication patterns were cohesive, EHR use was homogeneous. Additional analysis revealed that practices that had achieved standardized EHR use (uniformly high EHR use across all users) exhibited high levels of mindfulness and

  20. Patient Preferences for Care by General Internists and Specialists in the Ambulatory Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Carmen L; Wickstrom, Glenda C; Kolar, Maria M; Keyserling, Thomas C; Bognar, Bryan A; DuPre, Connie T; Hayden, Juliana

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate patients' preferences for care by general internists and specialists for common medical conditions. DESIGN Telephone interview. SETTING A convenience sample of general internal medicine practices at 10 eastern academic medical centers. PATIENT/PARTICIPANTS A probability sample of 314 participants who had at least one visit with their primary care physician during the preceding 2 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Items addressed patients' attitudes concerning continuity of care, preferences for care by general internists or specialists for common medical problems, and perceptions about the competency of general internists and specialists to manage these problems. Continuity was important to participants, with 63% reporting they preferred having one doctor. Respondents were willing to wait 3 or 4 days to see their regular doctor (85%) and wanted their doctor to see them in the emergency department (77%) and monitor their care while in the hospital (94%). A majority (>60%) preferred care from their regular doctor for a variety of new conditions. Though respondents valued continuity, 84% felt it was important to be able to seek medical care from any type of physician without a referral, and 74% responded that if they needed to see a specialist, they were willing to pay out-of-pocket to do so. Although most participants (98%) thought their regular doctor was able to take care of usual medical problems, the majority thought that specialists were better able to care for allergies (79%) and better able to prescribe medications for depression (65%) and low-back pain (72%). CONCLUSIONS Participants preferred to see their general internist despite their perceptions that specialists were more competent in caring for the conditions we examined. However, they wanted unrestricted access to specialists to supplement care provided by general internists. PMID:10672109

  1. National observatory on the therapeutic management in ambulatory care patients aged 65 and over, with type 2 diabetes, chronic pain or atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Becquemont, Laurent; Benattar-Zibi, Linda; Bertin, Philippe; Berrut, Gilles; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Danchin, Nicolas; Delespierre, Tiba; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Falissard, Bruno; Forette, Francoise; Hanon, Olivier; Pasquier, Florence; Pinget, Michel; Ourabah, Rissane; Piedvache, Céline

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of the S.AGES cohort is to describe the real-life therapeutic care of elderly patients. Patients and methods. This is a prospective observational cohort study of 3 700 non-institutionalized patients over the age of 65 years with either type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), chronic pain or atrial fibrillation (AF) recruited by French general practitioners (GPs). Follow-up is planned for 3 years. Baseline characteristics. In the chronic pain sub-cohort, 33% of patients are treated with only grade 1 analgesics, 29% with grade 2 analgesics and 3% with grade 3 analgesics, and 22% have no pain treatment. In the T2DM sub-cohort, 61% of patients have well-controlled diabetes (Hb1c<7%) and 18% are treated with insulin. In the AF sub-cohort, 65% of patients have a CHADS2 score greater than 2, 77% are treated with oral anticoagulants, 17% with platelet inhibitors, 40% with antiarrhythmic drugs and 56% with rate slowing medications. Conclusion. The S.AGES cohort presents a unique opportunity to clarify the real-life therapeutic management of ambulatory elderly subjects and will help to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of major clinical events. PMID:23981265

  2. National observatory on the therapeutic management in ambulatory care patients aged 65 and over, with type 2 diabetes, chronic pain or atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Becquemont, Laurent; Benattar-Zibi, Linda; Bertin, Philippe; Berrut, Gilles; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Danchin, Nicolas; Delespierre, Tiba; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Falissard, Bruno; Forette, Francoise; Hanon, Olivier; Pasquier, Florence; Pinget, Michel; Ourabah, Rissane; Piedvache, Céline

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of the S.AGES cohort is to describe the real-life therapeutic care of elderly patients. Patients and methods. This is a prospective observational cohort study of 3 700 non-institutionalized patients over the age of 65 years with either type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), chronic pain or atrial fibrillation (AF) recruited by French general practitioners (GPs). Follow-up is planned for 3 years. Baseline characteristics. In the chronic pain sub-cohort, 33% of patients are treated with only grade 1 analgesics, 29% with grade 2 analgesics and 3% with grade 3 analgesics, and 22% have no pain treatment. In the T2DM sub-cohort, 61% of patients have well-controlled diabetes (Hb1c<7%) and 18% are treated with insulin. In the AF sub-cohort, 65% of patients have a CHADS2 score greater than 2, 77% are treated with oral anticoagulants, 17% with platelet inhibitors, 40% with antiarrhythmic drugs and 56% with rate slowing medications. Conclusion. The S.AGES cohort presents a unique opportunity to clarify the real-life therapeutic management of ambulatory elderly subjects and will help to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of major clinical events.

  3. Secure e-mailing between physicians and patients: transformational change in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Terhilda; Meng, Di; Wang, Jian J; Palen, Ted E; Kanter, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Secure e-mailing between Kaiser Permanente physicians and patients is widespread; primary care providers receive an average of 5 e-mails from patients each workday. However, on average, secure e-mailing with patients has not substantially impacted primary care provider workloads. Secure e-mail has been associated with increased member retention and improved quality of care. Separate studies associated patient portal and secure e-mail use with both decreased and increased use of other health care services, such as office visits, telephone encounters, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Directions for future research include more granular analysis of associations between patient-physician secure e-mail and health care utilization.

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Proper Robot-Assisted Gait Training Group in Non-ambulatory Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Hye Jin; Hwang, Seung Won; Pyo, Hannah; Yang, Sung Phil; Lim, Mun-Hee; Park, Gyu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the clinical characteristics of proper robot-assisted gait training group using exoskeletal locomotor devices in non-ambulatory subacute stroke patients. Methods A total of 38 stroke patients were enrolled in a 4-week robotic training protocol (2 sessions/day, 5 times/week). All subjects were evaluated for their general characteristics, Functional Ambulatory Classification (FAC), Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Statistical analysis were performed to determine significant clinical characteristics for improvement of gait function after robot-assisted gait training. Results Paired t-test showed that all functional parameters except MMSE were improved significantly (p<0.05). The duration of disease and baseline BBS score were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with FAC score in multiple regression models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that a baseline BBS score of '9' was a cutoff value (AUC, 0.966; sensitivity, 91%–100%; specificity, 85%). By repeated-measures ANOVA, the differences in improved walking ability according to time were significant between group of patients who had baseline BBS score of '9' and those who did not have baseline BBS score of '9' Conclusion Our results showed that a baseline BBS score above '9' and a short duration of disease were highly correlated with improved walking ability after robot-assisted gait training. Therefore, baseline BBS and duration of disease should be considered clinically for gaining walking ability in robot-assisted training group. PMID:27152266

  5. Health care clinics in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wollschlaeger, K

    1995-04-01

    Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care.

  6. An implementation case study. Implementation of the Indian Health Service's Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record in the ambulatory care setting at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Dunnigan, Anthony; John, Karen; Scott, Andrea; Von Bibra, Lynda; Walling, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC) has successfully implemented the Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record (RPMS-EHR) in its Ambulatory Care departments. One-hundred and twenty-six providers use the system for essentially all elements of documentation, ordering, and coding. Implementation of one function at a time, in one clinical area at a time, allowed for focused training and support. Strong departmental leadership and the development of 'super-users' were key elements. Detailed assessments of each clinic prior to implementation were vital, resulting in optimal workstation utilization and a greater understanding of each clinic's unique flow. Each phase saw an increasing reluctance to revert to old paper processes. The success of this implementation has placed pressure on the remainder of the hospital to implement the RPMS-EHR, and has given the informatics team an increased awareness of what resources are required to achieve this result.

  7. Why do we observe a limited impact of primary care access measures on clinical quality indicators?

    PubMed

    Chung, Sukyung; Panattoni, Laura; Hung, Dorothy; Johns, Nicole; Trujillo, Laurel; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of enhanced primary care access and continuity on clinical quality in a large, multipayer, multispecialty ambulatory care organization with fee-for-service provider incentives. The difference-in-differences estimates indicate that access to own primary care physician is a statistically significant predictor of improved clinical quality, although the effect size is small such that clinical significance may be negligible. Reduced time for own primary care physician appointment and increased enrollment in electronic personal health record are positive predictors of chronic disease management processes and preventive screening but are inconsistently associated with clinical outcomes. Challenges in identifying relationships between access and quality outcomes in a real-world setting are also discussed. PMID:24594563

  8. The Association of Ambulatory Care with Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Among Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Nancy L; Landrum, Mary Beth; Ayanian, John Z; Winer, Eric P; Guadagnoli, Edward

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although nearly all elderly Americans are insured through Medicare, there is substantial variation in their use of services, which may influence detection of serious illnesses. We examined outpatient care in the 2 years before breast cancer diagnosis to identify women at high risk for limited care and assess the relationship of the physicians seen and number of visits with stage at diagnosis. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using cancer registry and Medicare claims data. PATIENTS Population-based sample of 11,291 women aged ≥67 diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995 to 1996. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ten percent of women had no visits or saw only physicians other than primary care physicians or medical specialists in the 2 years before diagnosis. Such women were more often unmarried, living in urban areas or areas with low median incomes (all P≥.01). Overall, 11.2% were diagnosed with advanced (stage III/IV) cancer. The adjusted rate was highest among women with no visits (36.2%) or with visits to physicians other than primary care physicians or medical specialists (15.3%) compared to women with visits to either a primary care physician (8.6%) or medical specialist (9.4%) or both (7.8%) (P <.001). The rate of advanced cancer also decreased with increasing number of visits (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Even within this insured population, many elderly women had limited or no outpatient care in the 2 years before breast cancer diagnosis, and these women had a markedly increased risk of advanced-stage diagnosis. These women, many of whom were unmarried and living in poor and urban areas, may benefit from targeted outreach or coverage for preventive care visits. PMID:15693926

  9. Ambulatory Diagnosis and Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Screening Questionnaires, Diagnostic Tests, and the Care Team.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, R Doug; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Antic, Nick A

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea has increased in prevalence in recent years and despite the expansion in sleep medicine services there is a significant unmet burden of disease. This burden presents a challenge to specialists and requires a reappraisal of service delivery, including a move toward lower-cost, simplified methods of diagnosis and treatment, an expansion of the sleep apnea workforce to include suitably trained and equipped primary care physicians and nurses, and the incorporation of chronic disease management principles that link patients to relevant community resources and empower them through new technologies to engage more fully in their own care. PMID:27542873

  10. Potentially avoidable and ambulatory care sensitive hospitalisations among forced migrants: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lichtl, Célina; Gewalt, Sandra Claudia; Noest, Stefan; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an increasing number of forced migrants globally, including refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons and undocumented migrants. According to international law, forced migrants should enjoy access to health services free of discrimination equivalent to the host population, but they face barriers to healthcare worldwide. This may lead to a delay in care and result in preventable hospital treatment, referred to as potentially preventable hospitalisation (PPH) or ambulatory care sensitive hospitalisation (ACSH). There is as yet no overview of the prevalence of PPH in different countries and groups of forced migrants, and it is unknown whether the concept has been used among these migrant groups. We aim to systematically review the evidence (1) on the prevalence of PPH among forced migrants and (2) on differences in the prevalence of PPH between forced migrants and the general host population. Methods and analysis A systematic review will be conducted searching databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science/Knowledge, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Google Scholar) and the internet (Google). Inclusion criteria: observational studies on forced migrants reporting PPH or ACSH with or without comparison groups published in the English or German language. Exclusion criteria: studies on general migrant groups or hospitalisations without clear reference to avoidability. Study selection: titles, abstracts and full texts will be screened in duplicate for eligibility. Data on the prevalence of PPH/ACSH among forced migrants, as well as any reported prevalence differences between host populations, will be systematically extracted. Quality appraisal will be performed using standardised checklists. The evidence will be synthesised in tabular form and by means of forest plots. A meta-analysis will be performed only among homogeneous studies (in terms of design and population). Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance is not necessary (secondary research

  11. Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

  12. Role of local health departments in the delivery of ambulatory care.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C A; Moos, M K; Kotch, J B; Brown, M L; Brainard, M P

    1981-01-01

    Many people (40 per cent) receive each year some personal health service provided by local health departments. A substantial number of poor children (50 per cent) look to public agencies including health departments for all or part of their medical care. A number of departments including those represented in this study come close to serving as the guarantor of basic medical care for entire constituent populations, reaching those people who are not reached by other provider systems. Health departments over the past decade have increased their involvement as providers of medical care, in part assisted by such federal initiatives as WIC, and Medicaid. Health departments have institutionalized many of the innovations generated by federal demonstration projects of the 1960s, and continue a tradition as centers of important innovation in styles and continuity of health care. The health departments studied are notable in many respects, not the least of which is their constructive relationship with private providers. Some health departments appear to function at high levels of effectiveness in a dual fashion alongside private provider systems. Other departments interact or accommodate with private providers in ways that appear beneficial to the populations they serve. It would appear that both public and private provider systems are essential, and that they need not compete; they can provide mutual reinforcement for achieving universal and equitable health services in the public interest. PMID:7457670

  13. [Restructuring of ambulatory care in France: proposals for the management of hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Clerc, Pascal; Duhot, Didier; Le Breton, Julien

    2015-01-01

    One of the factors responsible for the creation of multidisciplinary health centres is the growth of outpatient management of multiple chronic conditions. Based on a classification of hypertensive patients into eight groups, the authors discuss the interrelations between health care organization and modification of management. They discuss the effects of modification of health care structures and the need to create new job positions for the purposes of coordination, support of patients in the form of therapeutic education and support ofyoung professionals in multidisciplinary practice. External effects are improvement of office-hospital flows, especially with the development of second-line consultant roles and improved management of patient admissions and discharges. However, to ensure sustainable changes, there must be a change of mentalities with new modalities of remuneration of private practitioners and development of the health information system.

  14. A force field evaluation tool for telephone service in ambulatory health care.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V L; Steinberg, B

    1991-10-01

    The tool presented here is useful in analyzing the constraints and capabilities of a health care telephone service. It also provides a systematic method for assessing systems problems. As part of our analysis, we recommended that the manager implement the following steps. First, the manager determines whether the driving force on the unit is continuity of care by an individual provider or consistency of response. This focus directly affects how the unit's telephone service can be best organized (i.e., decentralized or centralized) and clarifies the factors most needed for success. For example, to function effectively and efficiently, a centralized phone service needs strong provider-endorsed protocols. Second, the manager should carefully examine neutral constraint factors to determine methods to transform these constraints into capabilities, such as planning for extra staff or office hours (or both) during influenza season. Planning for extra hours or staff depends largely on whether budget and resource planning is done in advance and whether value is placed on customer access and satisfaction during peak demand periods. The manager must next determine whether the service delivery format (centralized or decentralized) is consistent with the force field analysis findings. If the findings are not consistent, can the analysis present a compelling argument for using the opposite approach? Finally, the manager must create a plan of action for minimizing the constraints revealed and maximizing existing capabilities to achieve the overall goal of excellent phone service. The process of analysis and creating a plan of action is an excellent opportunity to involve staff, providers, and administrators in efforts to achieve better health care telephone service for all customers. PMID:10112997

  15. 77 FR 37680 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care for Continued Approval of Its Ambulatory... Association for Ambulatory Health Care for continued recognition as a national accrediting organization for... 6 years or as determined by CMS. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care...

  16. Uses of ambulatory health/mental health utilization data in organized health care settings.

    PubMed

    Burns, B J; Goldberg, I D; Hankin, J; Hoeper, E W; Jacobson, A M; Regier, D A

    1982-01-01

    A follow-up assessing uses of findings from NIMH-supported research on health and mental health services utilization in organized health care settings revealed a range of applications across the study sites. The research, conducted primarily for national policy purposes, had an impact on study sites in the following areas: clinician perceptions and attitudes about mental health services provided; program directions; fiscal policy; and further related research. Research team composition and dissemination of study findings are discussed in relation to the applications made. PMID:10260970

  17. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  18. Correlation between ambulatory function and clinical factors in hemiplegic patients with intact single lateral corticospinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To define the relationship between the complete destruction of 1 lateral corticospinal tract (CST), as demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, and ambulatory function 6 months following stroke. Twenty-six adults (17 male, 9 female) with poststroke hemiplegia who were transferred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department. Participants underwent DTI tractography, which showed that 1 lateral CST had been clearly destroyed. Functional ambulation classification (FAC) scores at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the patients’ ability to walk. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Korean version of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the degree of functional recovery. Of the 26 patients, 18 were nonambulatory (FAC level 1–3), and 8 were able to walk without support (FAC level 4–6). The type of stroke (infarction or hemorrhage), site of the lesion, spasticity of lower extremities, cranioplasty, and the time taken from onset to MRI were not statistically significantly correlated with the ability to walk. However, statistically significant correlations were found in relation to age, K-MBI scores, and initial NIHSS scores. Despite the complete damage to the lesion site and the preservation of 1 unilateral CST, as shown by DTI, good outcomes can be predicted on the basis of younger age, low NIHSS scores, and high MBI scores at onset. PMID:27495041

  19. Investigating the epidemiology of medication errors and error-related adverse drug events (ADEs) in primary care, ambulatory care and home settings: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Ghadah Asaad; Grant, Liz; Aljadhey, Hisham; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a need to better understand the epidemiology of medication errors and error-related adverse events in community care contexts. Methods and analysis We will systematically search the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the WHO (EMRO), MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. In addition, we will search Google Scholar and contact an international panel of experts to search for unpublished and in progress work. The searches will cover the time period January 1990–December 2015 and will yield data on the incidence or prevalence of and risk factors for medication errors and error-related adverse drug events in adults living in community settings (ie, primary care, ambulatory and home). Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment tool for cohort and case–control studies, and cross-sectional studies will be assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Descriptive Studies. Meta-analyses will be undertaken using random-effects modelling using STATA (V.14) statistical software. Ethics and dissemination This protocol will be registered with PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic reviews, and the systematic review will be reported in the peer-reviewed literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. PMID:27580826

  20. Expedited blood pressure control with initial angiotensin II antagonist/diuretic therapy compared with stepped-care therapy in patients with ambulatory systolic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lacourcière, Yves; Poirier, Luc; Lefebvre, Jean

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated whether initiating therapy with a combination of losartan (L) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) allows for faster blood pressure (BP) control and fewer medications than the usual stepped-care approach in patients with stage 2 or 3 hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension. METHODS: Patients with a mean daytime systolic ambulatory BP (ABP) of 135 mmHg or higher were randomly assigned to receive L 50 mg plus HCTZ 12.5 mg titrated to L 100 mg plus HCTZ 25 mg versus HCTZ 12.5 mg plus atenolol 50 mg. Amlodipine 5 mg was then added, if needed, to achieve a BP goal of less than 130 mmHg. Treatment titration was based on ABP. RESULTS: Significantly more patients randomly assigned to L/HCTZ (63.5%) than stepped-care (37.5%; P=0.008) achieved the primary end point (daytime systolic BP of less than 130 mmHg). Initial L/HCTZ induced significantly greater decreases in ABP during each 24 h period after six weeks of therapy. Although reductions in systolic and diastolic ABP were not statistically different at the end of the study, ABP reduction was significantly greater (P<0.001) with the L/HCTZ-based regimen. Twice as many patients in the L/HCTZ group achieved the goal ABP with no more than two drugs (30.0% versus 14.7%; P=0.03). Moreover, tolerability was significantly better (P=0.006) in the L/HCTZ group, with a 40.0% incidence of adverse events, versus 65.6% in the stepped-care group. CONCLUSION: Initiating antihypertensive therapy with the combination of L/HCTZ in patients with stage 2 or 3 hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension reaches a target BP faster in a higher proportion of patients, with fewer adverse events and less need for a third drug regimen than the conventional stepped-care approach. PMID:17440643

  1. CPI (clinical practice improvement): improving quality and decreasing cost in managed care.

    PubMed

    Horn, S D

    1995-07-01

    The focus on quality has never been greater. As a result, a new concept, clinical practice improvement (CPI), is emerging. Clinical practice improvement is the application of the scientific method to the day-to-day practice of medicine and can be employed in all health care settings: inpatient or ambulatory, large or small. According to the author, CPI has proved to be effective in reducing costs and improving outcomes because it requires the committed support of clinicians who are involved directly in the process of designing studies, analyzing data, and developing more efficient forms of treatment in their own organizations. PMID:10143825

  2. Health Care of Adolescents by Office-Based Physicians: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cypress, Beulah K.

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the nature of the conditions presented by adolescents and the health care provided by office-based physicians. The characteristics of patients are noted and the reason for the visit to the doctor and the length of the visit are summarized. Tables present information on: (1) average annual rate of office visits of adolescents…

  3. Treatment-time regimen of hypertension medications significantly affects ambulatory blood pressure and clinical characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ríos, María T; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Domínguez-Sardiña, Manuel; Otero, Alfonso; Sánchez, Juan J; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Ayala, Diana E

    2013-03-01

    Patients with resistant hypertension (RH) are at greater risk for stroke, renal insufficiency, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events than are those for whom blood pressure (BP) is responsive to and well controlled by therapeutic interventions. Although all chronotherapy trials have compared the effects on BP regulation of full daily doses of medications when ingested in the morning versus at bedtime, prescription of the same medications in divided doses twice daily (BID) is frequent. Here, we investigated the influence of hypertension treatment-time regimen on the circadian BP pattern, degree of BP control, and relevant clinical and laboratory medicine parameters of RH patients evaluated by 48-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). This cross-sectional study evaluated 2899 such patients (1701 men/1198 women), 64.2 ± 11.8 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project. Among the participants, 1084 were ingesting all hypertension medications upon awakening (upon-awakening regimen), 1436 patients were ingesting the full daily dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime (bedtime regimen), and 379 were ingesting split doses of ≥1 medications BID upon awakening and at bedtime (BID regimen). Patients of the bedtime regimen compared with the other two treatment-time regimens had lower likelihood of microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease; significantly lower albumin/creatinine ratio, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; plus higher estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The bedtime regimen was also significantly associated with lower asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means than the upon-awakening and BID regimens. The sleep-time relative SBP and DBP decline was significantly attenuated by the upon-awakening and BID regimens (p < .001), resulting in significantly higher prevalence of non-dipping in these two treatment-time regimen groups (80.5% and 77.3%, respectively

  4. Development and clinical validation of an unobtrusive ambulatory knee function monitoring system with inertial 9DoF sensors.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Calliess, T; Gietzelt, M; Wolf, K H; Liu, T H; Seehaus, F; Bocklage, R; Windhagen, H; Marschollek, M

    2012-01-01

    Patients suffering from end-stage knee osteoarthritis are often treated with total knee arthroplasty, improving their functional mobility. A number of patients, however, report continued difficulty with stair ascent and descent or sportive activity after surgery and are not completely satisfied with the outcome. State-of-the-art analyses to evaluate the outcome and mobility after knee replacement are conducted under supervised settings in specialized gait labs and thus can only reflect a short period of time. A number of external factors may lead to artificial gait patterns in patients. Moreover, clinically relevant situations are difficult to simulate in a stationary gait lab. In contrast to this, inertial sensors may be used additionally for unobtrusive gait monitoring. However, recent notable approaches found in literature concerning knee function analysis have so far not been applied in a clinical context and have therefore not yet been validated in a clinical setting. The aim of this paper is to present a system for unsupervised long-term monitoring of human gait with a focus on knee joint function, which is applicable in patients' everyday lives and to report on the validation of this system gathered during walking with reference to state-of-the-art gait lab data using a vision system (VICON Motion System). The system KINEMATICWEAR - developed in close collaboration of computer scientists and physicians performing knee arthroplasty - consists of two sensor nodes with combined tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer to be worn under normal trousers. Reliability of the system is shown in the results. An overall correlation of 0.99 (with an overall RMSE of 2.72) compared to the state-of-the-art reference system indicates a sound quality and a high degree of correspondence. KINEMATICWEAR enables ambulatory, unconstrained measurements of knee function outside a supervised lab inspection.

  5. The NorthStar Ambulatory Assessment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: considerations for the design of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Ricotti, Valeria; Ridout, Deborah A; Pane, Marika; Main, Marion; Mayhew, Anna; Mercuri, Eugenio; Manzur, Adnan Y; Muntoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objective With the emergence of experimental therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), it is fundamental to understand the natural history of this disorder to properly design clinical trials. The aims of this study were to assess the effects produced on motor function by different DMD genotypes and early initiation of glucocorticoids. Methods Through the NorthStar Network, standardised clinical data including the NorthStar Ambulatory Assessment score (NSAA) on 513 ambulant UK boys with DMD were analysed from 2004 to 2012. For the analysis of the genetic subpopulation, we also included data from 172 Italian boys with DMD. NSAA raw scores were converted into linear scores. Results On the linearised NSAA, we observed an average decline of 8 units/year (4 units on raw NSAA analysis) after age 7. The median age at loss of ambulation (LOA) was 13 years (95% CI 12.1 to 13.5); 2 years prior to LOA, the estimated mean linearised NSAA score was 42/100 (13/34 raw scale). Starting glucocorticoids between 3 and 5 years conferred an additional gain in motor function of 3 units/year (1.3 raw units) up to age 7. When analysing the effect of genotype in the UK and Italian cumulative cohorts, individuals with deletions amenable to exons 44 and 46 skipping declined at a slower rate over 2 years (9 units (4 raw units), p<0.001), while 53 and 51 skippable deletions showed a faster decline of 14 (4.5; p<0.001) and 5 linearised units (2.4 NSAA units; p=0.02), respectively. Conclusions Our study provides a novel insight on the current natural history of DMD, which will be instrumental for the design of future clinical trials. PMID:25733532

  6. “My Favourite Day Is Sunday”: Community Perceptions of (Drug-Resistant) Tuberculosis and Ambulatory Tuberculosis Care in Kara Suu District, Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    Burtscher, Doris; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Toktosunov, Ulan; Angmo, Nilza; Samieva, Nazgul; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Kyrgyzstan is one of the 27 high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries listed by the WHO. In 2012, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) started a drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) project in Kara Suu District. A qualitative study was undertaken to understand the perception of TB and DR-TB in order to improve the effectiveness and acceptance of the MSF intervention and to support advocacy strategies for an ambulatory model of care. Methods This paper reports findings from 63 interviews with patients, caregivers, health care providers and members of communities. Data was analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Validation was ensured by triangulation and a ‘thick’ description of the research context, and by presenting deviant cases. Results Findings show that the general population interprets TB as the ‘lungs having a cold’ or as a ‘family disease’ rather than as an infectious illness. From their perspective, individuals facing poor living conditions are more likely to get TB than wealthier people. Vulnerable groups such as drug and alcohol users, homeless persons, ethnic minorities and young women face barriers in accessing health care. As also reported in other publications, TB is highly stigmatised and possible side effects of the long treatment course are seen as unbearable; therefore, people only turn to public health care quite late. Most patients prefer ambulatory treatment because of the much needed emotional support from their social environment, which positively impacts treatment concordance. Health care providers favour inpatient treatment only for a better monitoring of side effects. Health staff increasingly acknowledges the central role they play in supporting DR-TB patients, and the importance of assuming a more empathic attitude. Conclusions Health promotion activities should aim at improving knowledge on TB and DR-TB, reducing stigma, and fostering the inclusion of vulnerable populations. Health seeking

  7. Seasonal variation in meteorological parameters and office, ambulatory and home blood pressure: predicting factors and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Myrsilidi, Aikaterini; Kollias, Anastasios; Destounis, Antonios; Roussias, Leonidas; Kalogeropoulos, Petros

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between seasonal variations in blood pressure (BP) and the corresponding changes in meteorological parameters and weather-induced patients' discomfort. Hypertensives on stable treatment were assessed in winter-1, summer and winter-2 with clinic (CBP), home (HBP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP). Discomfort indices derived from temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure that reflected subjects' discomfort were evaluated. Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension was assessed with a questionnaire. Sixty subjects (mean age 65.1±8.8 [s.d.], 39 men) were analyzed. CBP, HBP and daytime ABP were lower in summer than in winter (P<0.01). Nighttime ABP was unchanged, which resulted in a 55% higher proportion of non-dippers (P<0.001). All the discomfort indices that reflected weather-induced subjects' discomfort were higher in summer (P<0.05) and systolic daytime ABP was <110 mm Hg in 15 subjects (25%). Seasonal changes in temperature and the discomfort indices were correlated with BP changes (P<0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that winter BP levels, seasonal differences in temperature, female gender and the use of diuretics predicted the summer BP decline. In conclusion, all aspects of the BP profile, except nighttime ABP, are reduced in summer, resulting in an increased prevalence of non-dippers in summer with unknown consequences. Seasonal BP changes are influenced by changes in meteorological parameters, anthropometric and treatment characteristics. Trials are urgently needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of excessive BP decline in summer and management guidelines for practicing physicians should be developed.

  8. Using the pharmacoepidemiology approach to evaluate the first-year posttransplantation ambulatory health care cost from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (2001 to 2006) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, E K-L; Cham, T-M; Tseng, P-L

    2010-04-01

    This research evaluated the total first-year posttransplantation ambulatory health care cost using a countrywide health claims database. We searched all health reimbursement claims of posttransplantation patients from 2001 to 2006 using the ICD-9-CM codes (V42.0, V42.1, V42.6, V42.7, V42.8) for kidney, heart, lung, liver, and other specified organ transplantations. We excluded patients undergoing transplantation surgery>12 months before 2001 or with <1 year of or irregular follow-up visits. All of the studied ambulatory care expenditures by visit files were based on the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (2005), which contained the claims of 1,000,000 beneficiaries who were randomly sampled from the Registry for Beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Research Database. During this 6-year period we identified 336 transplant patients with 145 new cases having consecutive and >12 months of follow-up ambulatory visits to calculate the first-year posttransplantation cost. Among them, the first-year posttransplantation drug costs and total health care costs of the kidney, heart, lung, liver, and other organ transplantations were (m NTs) 346,396.6+/-170,806.9 and 404,241.9+/-182,499.1, 242,878.5+/-128,772.7 and 302,325+/-129,609.9, 345,792+/-185,940.8 and 387,840.5+/-184,244.5, 404,441.8+/-299,311.7 and 471,631.5+/-306,936.3 and 40,718.2+/-50,740.2 and 67,469.8+/-70,765.7, respectively. Drug expenditures were approximately 80% of the total health care cost except for the other specified organ transplant, i.e., bone marrow, wherein they were 60%. The mean differences between drug expenditures and total costs of various organ transplants were significant (P<.01; ANOVA). Despite the first-year health care cost a the posttransplantation patient being less than dialysis costs in Taiwan, most end-stage renal disease patients are still a waiting organ donation; therefore, some candidates are seeking a transplants outside Taiwan.

  9. Approach to fever assessment in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowska, M.K.; Walker-Dilks, C.; Atzema, C.; Morris, A.; Gupta, R.; Halligan, R.; Kouroukis, T.; McCann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background This guideline was prepared by the Fever Assessment Guideline Development Group, a group organized by the Program in Evidence-Based Care at the request of the Cancer Care Ontario Systemic Treatment Program. The mandate was to develop a standardized approach (in terms of definitions, information, and education) for the assessment of fever in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods The guideline development methods included a search for existing guidelines, literature searches in medline and embase for systematic reviews and primary studies, internal review by content and methodology experts, and external review by targeted experts and intended users. Results The search identified eight guidelines that had partial relevance to the topic of the present guideline and thirty-eight primary studies. The studies were mostly noncomparative prospective or retrospective studies. Few studies directly addressed the topic of fever except as one among many symptoms or adverse effects associated with chemotherapy. The recommendations concerning fever definition are supported mainly by other existing guidelines. No evidence was found that directly pertained to the assessment of fever before a diagnosis of febrile neutropenia was made. However, some studies evaluated approaches to symptom management that included fever among the symptoms. Few studies directly addressed information needs and resources for managing fever in cancer patients. Conclusions Fever in patients with cancer who are receiving systemic therapy is a common and potentially serious symptom that requires prompt assessment, but currently, evidence to inform best practices concerning when, where, and by whom that assessment is done is very limited. PMID:27536179

  10. Prescription of Opioid and Non-opioid Analgesics for Dental Care in Emergency Departments: Findings from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    PubMed Central

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Xiang, Qun; Thorpe, Joshua M.; Szabo, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine trends and associated factors in the prescription of opioid analgesics, non-opioid analgesics, opioid and non-opioid analgesic combinations and no analgesics by emergency physicians for nontraumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related visits. Our secondary aim was to investigate whether race/ethnicity is a possible predictor of receiving a prescription for either type of medication for NTDC visits in emergency departments (EDs) after adjustment for potential covariates. Methods We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1997–2000 and 2003–2007, and used multinomial multivariate logistic regression to estimate the probability of receiving a prescription for opioid analgesics, non-opioid analgesics, or a combination of both compared to receiving no analgesics for NTDC-related visits. Results During 1997–2000 and 2003–2007, prescription of opioid analgesics and combinations of opioid and non-opioid analgesics increased and that of no analgesics decreased over time. The prescription rates for opioid analgesics, non-opioid analgesics, opioid and non-opioid analgesic combinations and no analgesics for NTDC-related visits in EDs were 43%, 20%, 12% and 25% respectively. Majority of patients categorized as having severe pain received prescriptions for opioids for NTDC-related visits in EDs. After adjusting for covariates, patients with self-reported dental reasons for visit and severe pain had a significantly higher probability of receiving prescriptions for opioid analgesics and opioid and non-opioid analgesic combinations. Conclusion Prescription of opioid analgesics increased over time. ED physicians were more likely to prescribe opioid analgesics and opioid and non-opioid analgesic combinations for NTDC-related visits with reported severe pain. PMID:24863407

  11. Pharmacist’s Role in Improving Medication Safety for Patients in an Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Ambulatory Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lina; Akada, Keith; Messner, Hans; Kuruvilla, John; Wright, Janice; Seki, Jack T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), supported by complex drug regimens, are vulnerable to drug therapy problems (DTPs) at interfaces of care after discharge from hospital and may benefit from timely pharmacy interventions and education. Objective: To determine the effect on medication safety of, as well as potential barriers to, incorporating a pharmacist in the multidisciplinary team of an allo-HCT clinic. Methods: Two pharmacists rotated to attend the allo-HCT clinic of a tertiary care, university-affiliated cancer centre between January and June 2010 (coverage for 1 of 3 clinic days per week). For every patient who was seen by a pharmacist, all discharge medications were reconciled from the inpatient ward to the clinic. The pharmacists’ primary task was to perform medication reconciliation and to identify and resolve DTPs. The pharmacists also provided medication education to patients and pharmacy consultations to clinic staff. Working with the outpatient pharmacy, the pharmacists helped to clarify prescriptions and drug coverage issues. Medication discrepancies identified and interventions performed by the pharmacists were recorded and were later graded for clinical significance by a panel of clinicians. Patient and staff satisfaction surveys were conducted at random during the study period. Barriers to the flow of patient care and other operational issues were documented. Results: The 2 pharmacists saw a total of 35 patients over 100 visits. They identified a total of 50 medication discrepancies involving 17 (49%) of the patients and 70 DTPs involving 23 (66%) of the patients. Thirty-one of the 70 DTPs resulted directly from a medication discrepancy. Twenty (95%) of the 21 unintentional medication discrepancies and 7 (70%) of the 10 undocumented intentional medication discrepancies were graded as clinically significant or moderately significant. Satisfaction surveys completed by patients and clinic staff

  12. Effects of time-of-day of hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure and clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moyá, Ana; Crespo, Juan J; Ayala, Diana E; Ríos, María T; Pousa, Lorenzo; Callejas, Pedro A; Salgado, José L; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    Generally, hypertensive patients ingest all their blood pressure (BP)-lowering agents in the morning. However, many published prospective trials have reported clinically meaningful morning-evening, treatment-time differences in BP-lowering efficacy, duration of action, and safety of most classes of hypertension medications, and it was recently documented that routine ingestion of ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime, compared with ingestion of all of them upon awakening, significantly reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Non-dipping (<10% decline in asleep relative to awake BP mean), as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), is frequent in diabetes and is associated with increased CVD risk. Here, we investigated the influence of hypertension treatment-time regimen on the circadian BP pattern, degree of BP control, and relevant clinical and analytical parameters of hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated by 48-h ABPM. This cross-sectional study involved 2429 such patients (1465 men/964 women), 65.9 ± 10.6 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project, involving primary care centers of northwest Spain and designed to evaluate prospectively CVD risk by ABPM. Among the participants, 1176 were ingesting all BP-lowering medications upon awakening, whereas 1253 patients were ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime. Among the latter, 336 patients were ingesting all BP-lowering medications at bedtime, whereas 917 were ingesting the full daily dose of some hypertension medications upon awakening and the full dose of others at bedtime. Those ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime versus those ingesting all medications upon awakening had lower likelihood of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease (CKD); had significantly lower albumin/creatinine ratio, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; and had higher estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol

  13. Multiples clinic: a model for antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Knox, Ellen; Martin, William

    2010-12-01

    Antenatal care has become more focused in recent years with an increase in the number of specialist clinics providing care in a multidisciplinary manner. Multiple pregnancies are complex with complications for the mother and babies arising frequently. As a group they lend themselves well to a specialist clinic model where interested doctors and midwives can provide care tailored to the individual. This makes it less likely that complications will be missed and provides a consistent approach to care that patients desire. This article aims to describe models of care that can be given in such a clinic, acknowledging that one model will not fit all. The scant evidence that exists is presented along with selected examples of individual complications.

  14. Provider satisfaction in army primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Byers, V L; Mays, M Z; Mark, D D

    1999-02-01

    The job satisfaction of physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants was assessed during the course of a multicenter study of Army primary care clinics. All providers in nine clinics at three medical centers who were engaged in adult or family care were invited to participate in the study. Questionnaires on job satisfaction and other practice style variables were completed by 26 physicians, 19 nurse practitioners, and 13 physician assistants (46, 76, and 41% of eligible providers, respectively). Analysis revealed a broad range of job satisfaction in the sample. However, average levels of job satisfaction were not significantly different across the three groups of primary care providers. Autonomy and collaboration were significant predictors of job satisfaction. It is clear that changes in health care systems that reduce, or appear to reduce, the primary care provider's autonomy in clinical matters are likely to reduce provider satisfaction as well. PMID:10050571

  15. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: methodologic issues.

    PubMed

    Prisant, L M; Bottini, P B; Carr, A A

    1996-01-01

    Blood pressure, like heart rate, is a changing physiologic variable. Like ambulatory electrocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure can be recorded intermittently throughout the day. Ambulatory blood pressure is a dynamic variable influenced by multiple factors, and it correlates more strongly with target organ damage than do static office blood pressure measurements. Office (but not ambulatory) measurements are subject to the placebo and physician pressor effect. There is a great patient variability of blood pressure measurements in the office compared with ambulatory methods. Ambulatory blood pressure devices are portable rather than 'ambulatory'. The auscultatory (listens for Korotkoff sounds) and oscillometric (detects maximal arterial vibrations and calculates diastolic blood pressure) methods are used to detect blood pressure. Equipment is generally safe, although mild sleep derangements have been reported. The 24-h blood pressure and diurnal change are usually assessed. A 24-h ambulatory blood pressure mean of 140/90 mm Hg or above is clearly abnormal, though recent data suggest that the 95th centile is 134/84 mm Hg. Correlation of individual blood pressure readings with diary entries may be instructive. New American and British validation criteria have been published to assess the performance of each new device that becomes available. It should not be assumed that newer ambulatory devices have been tested (particularly by a third party) or are better. Test/retest 24-h ambulatory blood pressure shows less variability than office measurements; however, the percentage of patients with a mean difference greater than +/- 5 mm Hg on repeat 24-h blood pressure measurement after 1 week is still surprisingly high (49.3%, systolic; 52.1%, diastolic). European trials are in progress to assess the prognosis of hypertension assessed by ambulatory compared with office blood pressure. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been restricted for use in several clinical

  16. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions at out-of-hospital emergence services in Croatia: a longitudinal study based on routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Diana; Benčić, Miro; Keglević, Mladenka Vrcić

    2014-12-01

    Conditions for which a hospital and emergency utilization can be considered avoidable are often referred as ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). Until now, there has been no published research related to ACSCs in Croatia. This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the trends relating to ACSCs in out-of-hospital ES from 1995-2012. The study is based on data from the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. Five chronic and three acute conditions were chosen: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, asthma and COPD, bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infections and skin infections. The results indicate that the ES in Croatia is overused, and consequently ACSCs are over-represented; 23.3% Croatian citizens visited the ES and around 15% of all diagnoses belonged to the ACSCs, with decreased trend. The leading diagnosis is hypertension, followed by asthma and COPD. For a better understanding of the importance of ACSC within the Croatian context, further research is needed.

  17. [A guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel in ambulatory care facilities].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Carrillo de Gea, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The appearance of electronic health records has led to the need to strengthen the security of personal health data in order to ensure privacy. Despite the large number of technical security measures and recommendations that exist to protect the security of health data, there is an increase in violations of the privacy of patients' personal data in healthcare organizations, which is in many cases caused by the mistakes or oversights of healthcare professionals. In this paper, we present a guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel, drawn from recommendations, regulations and national and international standards. The material presented in this paper can be used in the security audit of health professionals, or as a part of continuing education programs in ambulatory care facilities. PMID:24582808

  18. [A guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel in ambulatory care facilities].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Carrillo de Gea, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The appearance of electronic health records has led to the need to strengthen the security of personal health data in order to ensure privacy. Despite the large number of technical security measures and recommendations that exist to protect the security of health data, there is an increase in violations of the privacy of patients' personal data in healthcare organizations, which is in many cases caused by the mistakes or oversights of healthcare professionals. In this paper, we present a guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel, drawn from recommendations, regulations and national and international standards. The material presented in this paper can be used in the security audit of health professionals, or as a part of continuing education programs in ambulatory care facilities.

  19. Trends in Outpatient Visits for Insomnia, Sleep Apnea, and Prescriptions for Sleep Medications among US Adults: Findings from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.; Wheaton, Anne G.; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Giles, Wayne H.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine recent national trends in outpatient visits for sleep related difficulties in the United States and prescriptions for sleep medications. Design: Trend analysis. Setting: Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1999 to 2010. Participants: Patients age 20 y or older. Measurements and Results: The number of office visits with insomnia as the stated reason for visit increased from 4.9 million visits in 1999 to 5.5 million visits in 2010 (13% increase), whereas the number with any sleep disturbance ranged from 6,394,000 visits in 1999 to 8,237,000 visits in 2010 (29% increase). The number of office visits for which a diagnosis of sleep apnea was recorded increased from 1.1 million visits in 1999 to 5.8 million visits in 2010 (442% increase), whereas the number of office visits for which any sleep related diagnosis was recorded ranged from 3.3 million visits in 1999 to 12.1 million visits in 2010 (266% increase). The number of prescriptions for any sleep medication ranged from 5.3 in 1999 to 20.8 million in 2010 (293% increase). Strong increases in the percentage of office visits resulting in a prescription for nonbenzodiazepine sleep medications (∼350%), benzodiazepine receptor agonists (∼430%), and any sleep medication (∼200%) were noted. Conclusions: Striking increases in the number and percentage of office visits for sleep related problems and in the number and percentage of office visits accompanied by a prescription for a sleep medication occurred from 1999-2010. Citation: Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Cunningham TJ, Giles WH, Chapman DP, Croft JB. Trends in outpatient visits for insomnia, sleep apnea, and prescriptions for sleep medications among US adults: findings from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 1999-2010. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1283-1293. PMID:25083008

  20. Differences in income-related inequality and horizontal inequity in ambulatory care use between rural and non-rural areas: using the 1998-2001 U.S. National Health Interview Survey data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To better understand income-related inequalities in health care use, it is imperative to identify sources of inequalities and assess the extent to which health care use is still related to income after differences in need across the income distribution are accounted for. Little is known regarding rural-urban differences in income-related inequalities and subgroup variation in horizontal inequities in health care use. This study decomposes income-related inequalities in ambulatory care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and compares horizontal inequities of subgroups in rural and non-rural areas. Methods This analysis used non-elderly adult samples from the 1998 to 2001 U.S. National Health Interview Survey data. The area of residence was categorized as rural for non-Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and non-rural for MSA. Concentration indices of ambulatory care use were used to gauge income-related inequalities and decomposed into contributing factors. Horizontal inequities were measured using two methods and the results were compared. Results Ambulatory care use was disproportionately concentrated in the poor before need adjustment. However, the results of decomposition and horizontal inequity analyses indicate that the pro-poor concentration of health care use was due to greater health care need in low-income groups. Adjusting for need, ambulatory care use was distributed favoring the better-off, to a larger degree in non-rural areas. Health-related variables were the major contributors to income-related inequalities. Non-need factors, including socioeconomic factors, health insurance, and usual source of care, also contributed to income-related inequalities. There were variation in determinants' contributions to income-related inequalities between rural and non-rural populations and subgroup differences in horizontal inequities. Horizontal inequities were greater within non-whites, high school graduates, individuals with private

  1. A comparison of diagnosis related groups and ambulatory visit groups in day-case surgery.

    PubMed

    Parkin, D; Hutchinson, A; Philips, P; Coates, J

    1993-01-01

    Case-mix measurement is a basic requirement of clinical and resource management systems within health care organisations, and offers a potentially useful tool for the setting and monitoring of contracts. Ambulatory care has particular problems in the construction of appropriate case-mix measures, and day-case surgery provides an opportunity to test two existing measures, one inpatient (Diagnosis Related Groups) and one ambulatory (Ambulatory Visit Groups). These grouping systems were applied to the same data to compare the case-mix patterns that they produce. The findings show that Ambulatory Visit Groups appear to have advantages over the Diagnosis Related Groups with respect to their underlying assumptions and labelling of the groups; in particular, they assign greater weight to procedures. However, Diagnosis Related Groups are more developed, easier to use, more familiar and allow direct comparisons with inpatient care. Nevertheless, a proper evaluation of these issues requires further data collection and analysis, together with a fundamental examination of the uses of ambulatory case-mix. PMID:10171758

  2. A comparison of diagnosis related groups and ambulatory visit groups in day-case surgery.

    PubMed

    Parkin, D; Hutchinson, A; Philips, P; Coates, J

    1993-01-01

    Case-mix measurement is a basic requirement of clinical and resource management systems within health care organisations, and offers a potentially useful tool for the setting and monitoring of contracts. Ambulatory care has particular problems in the construction of appropriate case-mix measures, and day-case surgery provides an opportunity to test two existing measures, one inpatient (Diagnostic Related Groups) and one ambulatory (Ambulatory Visit Groups). These grouping systems were applies to the same data to compare the case-mix patterns that they produce. The findings show that the ambulatory visit group appear to have advantages over the diagnostic group with respect to their underlying assumptions and labelling of the groups; in particular, they assign greater weight to procedures. However, diagnostic groups are more developed, easier to use, more familiar and allow direct comparisons with inpatient care. Nevertheless, a proper evaluation of these issues requires further data collection and analysis, together with a fundamental examination of the uses of ambulatory case-mix. PMID:10171429

  3. Communication Tools for End-of-Life Decision-Making in Ambulatory Care Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Han-Oh; Hanvey, Louise; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; You, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with serious illness, and their families, state that better communication and decision-making with healthcare providers is a high priority to improve the quality of end-of-life care. Numerous communication tools to assist patients, family members, and clinicians in end-of-life decision-making have been published, but their effectiveness remains unclear. Objectives To determine, amongst adults in ambulatory care settings, the effect of structured communication tools for end-of-life decision-making on completion of advance care planning. Methods We searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomized intervention studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Database of Randomized Controlled Trials from database inception until July 2014. Two reviewers independently screened articles for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to evaluate the quality of evidence for each of the primary and secondary outcomes. Results Sixty-seven studies, including 46 RCTs, were found. The majority evaluated communication tools in older patients (age >50) with no specific medical condition, but many specifically evaluated populations with cancer, lung, heart, neurologic, or renal disease. Most studies compared the use of communication tools against usual care, but several compared the tools to less-intensive advance care planning tools. The use of structured communication tools increased: the frequency of advance care planning discussions/discussions about advance directives (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.25–4.26, p = 0.007, low quality evidence) and the completion of advance directives (ADs) (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.43–2.59, p<0.001, low quality evidence); concordance between AD preferences and subsequent medical orders for use or non-use of life supporting treatment (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01–1.39, p = 0.028, very low quality evidence, 1

  4. [National coordination of the ambulatory treatment centers (ATC) in Gabon: a new process to conduct the scaling up of care for people living with HIV-AIDS].

    PubMed

    Ndong, G-P Obiang; Adam, G; Mouala, C; Faucherre, V; Kouely, Pe Nfoubou; Sibeoni, J; Courpotin, C

    2008-01-01

    Gabonese authorities are strongly mobilized in the fight against AIDS. With a national seroprevalence of 5.9%, 54,000 people are living with HIV-AIDS. Starting from the experience conducted on three ambulatory treatment centers (ATC) [Libreville, Franceville, Port-Gentil] in collaboration with the French Red Cross, Gabonese authorities decided the scaling up of HIV patients' care to seven new ATC at a national level. The increasing number of structures conducted to standardize treatment's guidelines, training of caregivers, quality of care, coordination, monitoring and evaluation. Technical and medical supervision of the ten ATC were attributed to the French Red Cross by Gabonese authorities with the financial support of the French Agency for Development. The ten ATC, founded by the ministry of public health, were then organized within a network under the responsibility of a national coordination. This structure created in September 2007 represents the main organism to conduct, evaluate and follow-up activities and functioning of the ten ATC. All these activities are conducted in agreement with the national program of fight against AIDS. Within one year this structure of coordination allowed to organize the training of 208 caregivers, to elaborate a team of national and international experts, to start a process of national guidelines, to elaborate technical procedures and indicators for monitoring, follow-up and evaluation. In June 2007, 5 ATC were in function taking care of 7,062 PLWA. In November 2008, 9 ATC were in function taking care of 8,174 PLWA. This project is planned for four years. It might allow to structure and organize a national network of care for PLWA according to the national strategy. This procedure of scaling up under the responsibility of a national team of technical and operational coordination is a new process. It completes and strengthens the national organization process.

  5. Providing semantic interoperability between clinical care and clinical research domains.

    PubMed

    Laleci, Gokce Banu; Yuksel, Mustafa; Dogac, Asuman

    2013-03-01

    Improving the efficiency with which clinical research studies are conducted can lead to faster medication innovation and decreased time to market for new drugs. To increase this efficiency, the parties involved in a regulated clinical research study, namely, the sponsor, the clinical investigator and the regulatory body, each with their own software applications, need to exchange data seamlessly. However, currently, the clinical research and the clinical care domains are quite disconnected because each use different standards and terminology systems. In this article, we describe an initial implementation of the Semantic Framework developed within the scope of SALUS project to achieve interoperability between the clinical research and the clinical care domains. In our Semantic Framework, the core ontology developed for semantic mediation is based on the shared conceptual model of both of these domains provided by the BRIDG initiative. The core ontology is then aligned with the extracted semantic models of the existing clinical care and research standards as well as with the ontological representations of the terminology systems to create a model of meaning for enabling semantic mediation. Although SALUS is a research and development effort rather than a product, the current SALUS knowledge base contains around 4.7 million triples representing BRIDG DAM, HL7 CDA model, CDISC standards and several terminology ontologies. In order to keep the reasoning process within acceptable limits without sacrificing the quality of mediation, we took an engineering approach by developing a number of heuristic mechanisms. The results indicate that it is possible to build a robust and scalable semantic framework with a solid theoretical foundation for achieving interoperability between the clinical research and clinical care domains.

  6. Providing semantic interoperability between clinical care and clinical research domains.

    PubMed

    Laleci, Gokce Banu; Yuksel, Mustafa; Dogac, Asuman

    2013-03-01

    Improving the efficiency with which clinical research studies are conducted can lead to faster medication innovation and decreased time to market for new drugs. To increase this efficiency, the parties involved in a regulated clinical research study, namely, the sponsor, the clinical investigator and the regulatory body, each with their own software applications, need to exchange data seamlessly. However, currently, the clinical research and the clinical care domains are quite disconnected because each use different standards and terminology systems. In this article, we describe an initial implementation of the Semantic Framework developed within the scope of SALUS project to achieve interoperability between the clinical research and the clinical care domains. In our Semantic Framework, the core ontology developed for semantic mediation is based on the shared conceptual model of both of these domains provided by the BRIDG initiative. The core ontology is then aligned with the extracted semantic models of the existing clinical care and research standards as well as with the ontological representations of the terminology systems to create a model of meaning for enabling semantic mediation. Although SALUS is a research and development effort rather than a product, the current SALUS knowledge base contains around 4.7 million triples representing BRIDG DAM, HL7 CDA model, CDISC standards and several terminology ontologies. In order to keep the reasoning process within acceptable limits without sacrificing the quality of mediation, we took an engineering approach by developing a number of heuristic mechanisms. The results indicate that it is possible to build a robust and scalable semantic framework with a solid theoretical foundation for achieving interoperability between the clinical research and clinical care domains. PMID:23008263

  7. Interdisciplinary care clinics in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Johns, Tanya S; Yee, Jerry; Smith-Jules, Terrian; Campbell, Ruth C; Bauer, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is substantial, and is associated with high hospitalization rates, premature deaths, and considerable health care costs. These factors provide strong rationale for quality improvement initiatives in CKD care. The interdisciplinary care clinic (IDC) has emerged as one solution to improving CKD care. The IDC team may include other physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and social workers--all working together to provide effective care to patients with chronic kidney disease. Studies suggest that IDCs may improve patient education and preparedness prior to kidney failure, both of which have been associated with improved health outcomes. Interdisciplinary care may also delay the progression to end-stage renal disease and reduce mortality. While most studies suggest that IDC services are likely cost-effective, financing IDCs is challenging and many insurance providers do not pay for all of the services. There are also no robust long-term studies demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of IDCs. This review discusses IDC models and its potential impact on CKD care as well as some of the challenges that may be associated with implementing these clinics. PMID:26458811

  8. Clinical investigations in primary care.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Sarazin, Marie; Goetz, Celine; Dubois, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that represents the most common form of dementia. The most prominent feature of AD is the decline in cognitive function, with an early impairment of episodic memory. The memory deficit of an AD patient is characterized by the amnestic syndrome of the medial temporal type. As the disease progresses, the condition often manifests in language disorders, visuospatial deficits and executive dysfunctions. Patients often have neuropsychiatric disturbances, as apathy and psychotic symptoms. Loss of autonomy follows cognitive impairment. The clinical diagnosis of AD is based on a complete medical examination with a neuropsychological evaluation. The FCSRT (free and cued selective reminding test) is recommended for the identification of the amnestic syndrome of the medial temporal type, which is defined by: (1) a very poor free recall and (2) a decreased total recall due to an insufficient effect of cueing. The neuropsychological tests should also assess other cognitive functions that may be perturbed in AD, such as executive functions, praxis, visuospatial capacities and language. Neuroimaging and biological exams (genetics, biomarkers) are of great utility in the evaluation. Other medical, neurological, or psychiatric disorders which could account for the impairment in memory and related symptoms must be always investigated. PMID:19182457

  9. Effect of Intensive Salt-Restriction Education on Clinic, Home, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Levels in Treated Hypertensive Patients During a 3-Month Education Period.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Eguchi, Kazuo; Sato, Toshiko; Onoguchi, Atsuko; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-05-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that low-salt diet education by nutritionists would lower blood pressure (BP) levels in treated hypertensive patients. The amount of urinary salt excretion and clinic, home, and ambulatory BP values at baseline and at 3 months were measured in 95 patients with hypertension. After randomization to a nutritional education group (E group, n=51) or a control group (C group, n=44), the C group received conventional salt-restriction education and the E group received intensive nutritional education aimed at salt restriction to 6 g/d by nutritionists. From baseline to the end of the study, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lowered in the E group compared with the C group (6.8±2.9 g/24 h vs 8.6±3.4 g/24 h, P<.01). Morning home systolic BP tended to be lowered in the E group (P=.051), and ambulatory 24-hour systolic BP was significantly lowered in the E group (-4.5±1.3 mm Hg) compared with the C group (2.8±1.3 mm Hg, P<.001). Intensive nutritional education by nutritionists was shown to be effective in lowering BP in treated hypertensive patients. PMID:26732187

  10. Introducing Optometry Students to Clinical Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Eileen M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the innovative content and structure of an introductory course on clinical patient care at the Illinois College of Optometry. Critiques its success based on student grades and feedback, concluding that it was successful in imparting skills of data analysis but had minimal impact on students' ability to empathize with patients. (EV)

  11. Cardiac emergency simulation: drilling for success in the ambulatory setting.

    PubMed

    Kusler-Jensen, Jane A

    2014-03-01

    The "see one, do one, teach one" method of clinical teaching is no longer practical for preparing perioperative personnel to respond to emergency situations. Teaching with simulation trains team members to respond to unexpected events and enables them to provide care when an emergency situation arises. Simulation drills resemble clinical practice and allow personnel to apply and integrate skills, teamwork, and critical thinking. This article provides information and tools for performing cardiac simulation drills in the ambulatory setting. Tools included are a 10-step guide to simulation drills, a scenario, roles and duties to assign during a drill, and a drill evaluation form. PMID:24581645

  12. Referral Rates of Senior Family Practice Residents in an Ambulatory Care Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Frank H.

    1987-01-01

    A study of patterns in second- and third-year family practice residents' requests for referrals found higher rates for the senior students, suggesting possible differences in approach to case management, lack of experience in referral among younger students, and differences in case mix. (MSE)

  13. Secondary Care Clinic for Chronic Disease: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Michèle; Juneau, Lucille; Legault-Mercier, Samuel; Bernardino, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The complexity of chronic disease management activities and the associated financial burden have prompted the development of organizational models, based on the integration of care and services, which rely on primary care services. However, since the institutions providing these services are continually undergoing reorganization, the Centre hospitalier affilié universitaire de Québec wanted to innovate by adapting the Chronic Care Model to create a clinic for the integrated follow-up of chronic disease that relies on hospital-based specialty care. Objective The aim of the study is to follow the project in order to contribute to knowledge about the way in which professional and management practices are organized to ensure better care coordination and the successful integration of the various follow-ups implemented. Methods The research strategy adopted is based on the longitudinal comparative case study with embedded units of analysis. The case study uses a mixed research method. Results We are currently in the analysis phase of the project. The results will be available in 2015. Conclusions The project’s originality lies in its consideration of the macro, meso, and micro contexts structuring the creation of the clinic in order to ensure the integration process is successful and to allow a theoretical generalization of the reorganization of practices to be developed. PMID:25689840

  14. Concept mapping: reducing clinical care plan paperwork and increasing learning.

    PubMed

    Schuster, P M

    2000-01-01

    The author describes how concept maps were used in place of nursing care plans to reduce care planning paperwork in fundamentals and medical-surgical clinical courses in acute care facilities. In addition to less paperwork, clinical concept mapping enhances students' critical thinking skills and clinical reasoning because students and faculty can clearly and succinctly visualize priorities and identify relationships in clinical patient data.

  15. Assessing the Burden of Diabetes Mellitus in Emergency Departments in the United States: The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Kaminski, James; McEwen, Laura N.; Wu, Xiejian; Lee, Joyce M.; Herman, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of three alternative methods to identify diabetes in patients visiting Emergency Departments (EDs), and to describe the characteristics of patients with diabetes who are not identified when the alternative methods are used. Research Design and Methods We used data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) 2009 and 2010. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of using providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications (both excluding and including biguanides) to identify diabetes compared to using the checkbox for diabetes as the gold standard. We examined the characteristics of patients whose diabetes was missed using multivariate Poisson regression models. Results The checkbox identified 5,567 ED visits by adult patients with diabetes. Compared to the checkbox, the sensitivity was 12.5% for providers’ diagnoses alone, 20.5% for providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications excluding biguanides, and 21.5% for providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications including biguanides. The specificity of all three of the alternative methods was >99%. Older patients were more likely to have diabetes not identified. Patients with self-payment, those who had glucose measured or received IV fluids in the ED, and those with more diagnosis codes and medications, were more likely to have diabetes identified. Conclusions NHAMCS's providers’ diagnosis codes and medication lists do not identify the majority of patients with diabetes visiting EDs. The newly introduced checkbox is helpful in measuring ED resource utilization by patients with diabetes. PMID:24680472

  16. Hidradenitis Suppurativa Management in the United States: An Analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and MarketScan Medicaid Databases

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Scott A.; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To present nationally representative data demonstrating how frequently hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) occurs in specific groups and how it is currently managed. Methods We analyzed data from the 1990–2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the 2003–2007 MarketScan Medicaid databases for patients with a diagnosis of HS (ICD-9-CM code 705.83). Visits per 100,000 population of each race and ethnicity were calculated using the 2000 US Census data for specific demographics. Results There were 164,000 patient visits (95% CI: 128,000–200,000) annually with a diagnosis of HS in the NAMCS, and 17,270 HS patients were found in the MarketScan Medicaid over the 5-year period. Antibiotics were the most common treatment, followed by pain medications, topical steroids, and isotretinoin. Prescriptions of biologics and systemic methotrexate, cyclosporine, and acitretin were not observed in the NAMCS. Physicians prescribed medications in 74% of visits and used procedures in 11% of visits. African Americans, females, and young adults had higher numbers of visits for HS. Conclusions Our data showing a maximum of 0.06% of the population being treated for HS in a given year are consistent with the low estimates of HS prevalence. Compared to the current prescribing patterns, the more frequent prescription of biologics and systemic treatments may yield better outcomes. PMID:27172455

  17. [Interest of ambulatory simplified acute physiology score (ASAPS) applied to patients admitted in an intensive care unit of an infectious diseases unit in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Dia, N M; Diallo, I; Manga, N M; Diop, S A; Fortes-Deguenonvo, L; Lakhe, N A; Ka, D; Seydi, M; Diop, B M; Sow, P S

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of patients by a scale of gravity allows a better categorization of patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Our study had for objective to estimate interest of Ambulatory Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (ASAPS) applied to patients admitted in ICU of infectious diseases department of FANN hospital. It was about a descriptive and analytical retrospective study, made from the data found in patients' files admitted into the USI infectious diseases department of FANN hospital in Dakar, from January 1(st), 2009 till December 31st, 2009.The data of 354 patients' files were analyzed. The sex-ratio was 1.77 with an average age of 37.6 years ± 19.4 years old [5-94 years]. The majority of the patients were unemployed paid (39.6%). The most frequent failures were the following ones: neurological (80.5%), cardio-respiratory (16.7%). The average duration of stay was 6.2 days ± 8.2 days going of less than 24 hours to more than 10 weeks. The deaths arose much more at night (53.1%) than in the daytime (46.9%) and the strongest rate of death was recorded in January (61.5%), most low in October (26.7%). The global mortality was 48.3%. The rate of lethality according to the highest main diagnosis was allocated to the AIDS (80.5%). The average ambulatory simplified acute physiology score was 5.3 ± 3.6 with extremes of 0 and 18. The deaths in our series increased with this index (p = 0.000005). The female patients had a rate of lethality higher than that of the men people, 55.5% against 44.2% (p = 0.03). In spite of a predictive score of a high survival (ASAPS < 8), certain number of patients died (n = 105) that is 61.4% of the deaths. The metabolic disturbances, hyperleukocytosis or leukopenia when realised, the presence of a chronic disease, seemed also to influence this lethality. ASAPS only, although interesting, would not good estimate the gravity of patients, where from the necessity thus of a minimum biological balance sheet. It seems better adapted

  18. Clinical Risk Assessment in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Asefzadeh, Saeed; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Nikpey, Ahmad; Atighechian, Golrokh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin's Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital) through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG) performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN) was in respiratory care “Ventilator's alarm malfunction (no alarm)” with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal “not washing the NG-Tube” with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care. PMID:23930171

  19. The 'wise list'- a comprehensive concept to select, communicate and achieve adherence to recommendations of essential drugs in ambulatory care in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lars L; Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersén-Karlsson, Eva; Bergman, Ulf; Hasselström, Jan; Hensjö, Lars-Olof; Hjemdahl, Paul; Jägre, Ingrid; Julander, Margaretha; Ringertz, Bo; Schmidt, Daniel; Sjöberg, Susan; Sjöqvist, Folke; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Tryselius, Rolf; Vitols, Sigurd; von Bahr, Christer

    2011-04-01

    The aim was to present and evaluate the impact of a comprehensive strategy over 10 years to select, communicate and achieve adherence to essential drug recommendations (EDR) in ambulatory care in a metropolitan healthcare region. EDRs were issued and launched as a 'Wise List' by the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee in Stockholm. This study presents the concept by: (i) documenting the process for selecting, communicating and monitoring the impact of the 'Wise List'; (ii) analysing the variation in the number of drug substances recommended between 2000 and 2010; (iii) assessing the attitudes to the 'Wise List' among prescribers and the public; (iv) evaluating the adherence to recommendations between 2003 and 2009. The 'Wise List' consistently contained 200 drug substances for treating common diseases. The drugs were selected based on their efficacy, safety, suitability and cost-effectiveness. The 'Wise List' was known among one-third of a surveyed sample of the public in 2002 after initial marketing campaigns. All surveyed prescribers knew about the concept and 81% found the recommendations trustworthy in 2005. Adherence to recommendations increased from 69% in 1999 to 77% in 2009. In primary care, adherence increased from 83% to 87% from 2003 to 2009. The coefficient of variation (CV%) decreased from 6.1% to 3.8% for 156 healthcare centres between these years. The acceptance of the 'Wise List' in terms of trust among physicians and among the public and increased adherence may be explained by clear criteria for drug recommendations, a comprehensive communication strategy, electronic access to recommendations, continuous medical education and involvement of professional networks and patients. PMID:21414143

  20. The 'wise list'- a comprehensive concept to select, communicate and achieve adherence to recommendations of essential drugs in ambulatory care in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lars L; Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersén-Karlsson, Eva; Bergman, Ulf; Hasselström, Jan; Hensjö, Lars-Olof; Hjemdahl, Paul; Jägre, Ingrid; Julander, Margaretha; Ringertz, Bo; Schmidt, Daniel; Sjöberg, Susan; Sjöqvist, Folke; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Tryselius, Rolf; Vitols, Sigurd; von Bahr, Christer

    2011-04-01

    The aim was to present and evaluate the impact of a comprehensive strategy over 10 years to select, communicate and achieve adherence to essential drug recommendations (EDR) in ambulatory care in a metropolitan healthcare region. EDRs were issued and launched as a 'Wise List' by the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee in Stockholm. This study presents the concept by: (i) documenting the process for selecting, communicating and monitoring the impact of the 'Wise List'; (ii) analysing the variation in the number of drug substances recommended between 2000 and 2010; (iii) assessing the attitudes to the 'Wise List' among prescribers and the public; (iv) evaluating the adherence to recommendations between 2003 and 2009. The 'Wise List' consistently contained 200 drug substances for treating common diseases. The drugs were selected based on their efficacy, safety, suitability and cost-effectiveness. The 'Wise List' was known among one-third of a surveyed sample of the public in 2002 after initial marketing campaigns. All surveyed prescribers knew about the concept and 81% found the recommendations trustworthy in 2005. Adherence to recommendations increased from 69% in 1999 to 77% in 2009. In primary care, adherence increased from 83% to 87% from 2003 to 2009. The coefficient of variation (CV%) decreased from 6.1% to 3.8% for 156 healthcare centres between these years. The acceptance of the 'Wise List' in terms of trust among physicians and among the public and increased adherence may be explained by clear criteria for drug recommendations, a comprehensive communication strategy, electronic access to recommendations, continuous medical education and involvement of professional networks and patients.

  1. Who Is Providing and Who Is Getting Asthma Patient Education: An Analysis of 2001 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Shaival S.; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; McCullough, Joel Emery; Henley, Eric; Zeitz, Howard Jerome; Lipsky, Martin S.

    2008-01-01

    Patient education in asthma management is important; however, there is little known about the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education or how often primary care physicians provide it. The objective of the study was to identify the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education. It was a cross-sectional study using 2001…

  2. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11 680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P < 0.001) and intraoral incisions (P < 0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P < 0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246

  3. An efficient and effective teaching model for ambulatory education.

    PubMed

    Regan-Smith, Martha; Young, William W; Keller, Adam M

    2002-07-01

    Teaching and learning in the ambulatory setting have been described as inefficient, variable, and unpredictable. A model of ambulatory teaching that was piloted in three settings (1973-1981 in a university-affiliated outpatient clinic in Portland, Oregon, 1996-2000 in a community outpatient clinic, and 2000-2001 in an outpatient clinic serving Dartmouth Medical School's teaching hospital) that combines a system of education and a system of patient care is presented. Fully integrating learners into the office practice using creative scheduling, pre-rotation learning, and learner competence certification enabled the learners to provide care in roles traditionally fulfilled by physicians and nurses. Practice redesign made learners active members of the patient care team by involving them in such tasks as patient intake, histories and physicals, patient education, and monitoring of patient progress between visits. So that learners can be active members of the patient care team on the first day of clinic, pre-training is provided by the clerkship or residency so that they are able to competently provide care in the time available. To assure effective education, teaching and learning times are explicitly scheduled by parallel booking of patients for the learner and the preceptor at the same time. In the pilot settings this teaching model maintained or improved preceptor productivity and on-time efficiency compared with these outcomes of traditional scheduling. The time spent alone with patients, in direct observation by preceptors, and for scheduled case discussion was appreciated by learners. Increased satisfaction was enjoyed by learners, teachers, clinic staff, and patients. Barriers to implementation include too few examining rooms, inability to manipulate patient appointment schedules, and learners' not being present in a teaching clinic all the time.

  4. Degree of Ambulatory Disability: Effects on Rural Siblings' Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Theresa Nowak; Ross-Reynolds, Jane

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 22 mothers of children with ambulatory disability and 33 nondisabled siblings showed no differences in sibling's child care responsibilities, general home responsibilities, or independence related to severity of the ambulatory disability. A difference in the amount of social activity, reported by mothers, was not confirmed by…

  5. From Pharmacovigilance to Clinical Care Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Edward; Moses, Christopher; Ryan, Padhraig; Somai, Melek; Stone, David; Tang, Kai-ou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to ensure the continued, safe administration of pharmaceuticals, particularly those agents that have been recently introduced into the market, there is a need for improved surveillance after product release. This is particularly so because drugs are used by a variety of patients whose particular characteristics may not have been fully captured in the original market approval studies. Even well-conducted, randomized controlled trials are likely to have excluded a large proportion of individuals because of any number of issues. The digitization of medical care, which yields rich and accessible drug data amenable to analytic techniques, provides an opportunity to capture the required information via observational studies. We propose the development of an open, accessible database containing properly de-identified data, to provide the substrate for the required improvement in pharmacovigilance. A range of stakeholders could use this to identify delayed and low-frequency adverse events. Moreover, its power as a research tool could extend to the detection of complex interactions, potential novel uses, and subtle subpopulation effects. This far-reaching potential is demonstrated by our experience with the open Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) intensive care unit database. The new database could also inform the development of objective, robust clinical practice guidelines. Careful systematization and deliberate standardization of a fully digitized pharmacovigilance process is likely to save both time and resources for healthcare in general. PMID:26576325

  6. Studies in Ambulatory Care Quality Assessment in the Indian Health Service. Volume II: Appraisal of System Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutting, Paul A.; And Others

    Six Indian Health Service (IHS) units, chosen in a non-random manner, were evaluated via a quality assessment methodology currently under development by the IHS Office of Research and Development. A set of seven health problems (tracers) was selected to represent major health problems, and clinical algorithms (process maps) were constructed for…

  7. Ambulatory spine surgery: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Baird, Evan O; Brietzke, Sasha C; Weinberg, Alan D; McAnany, Steven J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective To assess the current practices of spine surgeons performing ambulatory surgery in the United States. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to members of the International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery. Data were initially examined in a univariate manner; variables with a p value < 0.25 were entered into a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS System software Version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, United States). Results Overall, 84.2% of respondents performed some manner of ambulatory spine surgery, and 49.1% were investors in an ambulatory surgery center. Surgeon investors in ambulatory surgery centers were more likely to perform procedures of increased complexity than noninvestors, though limited data precluded a statistical correlation. Surgeons in private practice were more likely to perform ambulatory surgery (94.3%; p = 0.0176), and nonacademic surgeons were both more likely to invest in ambulatory surgery centers (p = 0.0024) and perform surgery at least part of the time in a surgery center (p = 0.0039). Conclusions Though the numbers were too few to calculate statistical significance, there was a trend toward the performance of high-risk procedures on an ambulatory basis being undertaken by those with investment status in an ambulatory center. It is possible that this plays a role in the decision to perform these procedures in this setting versus that of a hospital, where a patient may have better access to care should a complication arise requiring emergent assessment and treatment by a physician. This decision should divest itself of financial incentives and focus entirely on patient safety. PMID:25083356

  8. Ambulatory spine surgery: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Baird, Evan O; Brietzke, Sasha C; Weinberg, Alan D; McAnany, Steven J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective To assess the current practices of spine surgeons performing ambulatory surgery in the United States. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to members of the International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery. Data were initially examined in a univariate manner; variables with a p value < 0.25 were entered into a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS System software Version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, United States). Results Overall, 84.2% of respondents performed some manner of ambulatory spine surgery, and 49.1% were investors in an ambulatory surgery center. Surgeon investors in ambulatory surgery centers were more likely to perform procedures of increased complexity than noninvestors, though limited data precluded a statistical correlation. Surgeons in private practice were more likely to perform ambulatory surgery (94.3%; p = 0.0176), and nonacademic surgeons were both more likely to invest in ambulatory surgery centers (p = 0.0024) and perform surgery at least part of the time in a surgery center (p = 0.0039). Conclusions Though the numbers were too few to calculate statistical significance, there was a trend toward the performance of high-risk procedures on an ambulatory basis being undertaken by those with investment status in an ambulatory center. It is possible that this plays a role in the decision to perform these procedures in this setting versus that of a hospital, where a patient may have better access to care should a complication arise requiring emergent assessment and treatment by a physician. This decision should divest itself of financial incentives and focus entirely on patient safety.

  9. Novel description of the 24-hour circadian rhythms of brachial versus central aortic blood pressure and the impact of blood pressure treatment in a randomized controlled clinical trial: The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Baschiera, Fabio; Brunel, Patrick; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts morbidity and mortality in humans. Recently, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and assessment of central aortic BP have been introduced to improve BP phenotyping. The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) study combines these approaches and describes, for the first time, the diurnal patterns of simultaneously measured 24-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressures in a prespecified substudy embedded within a clinical trial of BP lowering in patients with hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressure measurements were acquired using a tonometer mounted into the articulating strap of a wristwatch-like device (BPro) in 171 participants with hypertension recruited into the ASSERTIVE (AliSkiren Study of profound antihypERtensive efficacy in hyperTensIVE patients) trial. Participants were randomly assigned to BP lowering with either aliskiren 300 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD for 12 weeks. Ambulatory brachial and central BP was measured in all participants both at baseline and at study end. Brachial and central BP both demonstrated typical diurnal patterns with lower pressures at night. However, night time was associated with smaller reductions in central relative to brachial pressure and decreased pulse pressure amplification (P<0.0001 for both). These effects were not modulated after BP lowering and were maintained after adjustment for day and night-time BP and heart rate (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that brachial and central pressure show different diurnal patterns, which are not modulated by BP-lowering therapy, with relatively higher night-time central pressures. These novel data indicate that night-time central BP may provide prognostic importance and warrants further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00865020. PMID:23630950

  10. Central Line Maintenance Bundles and CLABSIs in Ambulatory Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, David G.; Chen, Allen R.; Milstone, Aaron M.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Pehar, Miriana; Herpst, Cynthia; Fratino, Lisa; Miller, Marlene R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pediatric oncology patients are frequently managed with central lines as outpatients, and these lines confer significant morbidity in this immune-compromised population. We aimed to investigate whether a multidisciplinary, central line maintenance care bundle reduces central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and bacteremias in ambulatory pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: We conducted an interrupted time-series study of a maintenance bundle concerning all areas of central line care. Each of 3 target groups (clinic staff, homecare agency nurses, and patient families) (1) received training on the bundle and its importance, (2) had their practice audited, and (3) were shown CLABSI rates through graphs, in-service training, and bulletin boards. CLABSI and bacteremia person-time incidence rates were collected for 23 months before and 24 months after beginning the intervention and were compared by using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The mean CLABSI rate decreased by 48% from 0.63 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days at baseline to 0.32 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days during the intervention period (P = .005). The mean bacteremia rate decreased by 54% from 1.27 bacteremias per 1000 central line days at baseline to 0.59 bacteremias per 1000 central line days during the intervention period (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a multidisciplinary, central line maintenance care bundle significantly reduced CLABSI and bacteremia person-time incidence rates in ambulatory pediatric oncology patients with central lines. Further research is needed to determine if maintenance care bundles reduce ambulatory CLABSIs and bacteremia in other adult and pediatric populations. PMID:24101764

  11. Center to Advance Palliative Care palliative care clinical care and customer satisfaction metrics consensus recommendations.

    PubMed

    Weissman, David E; Morrison, R Sean; Meier, Diane E

    2010-02-01

    Data collection and analysis are vital for strategic planning, quality improvement, and demonstration of palliative care program impact to hospital administrators, private funders and policymakers. Since 2000, the Center to Advance Palliative Care (CAPC) has provided technical assistance to hospitals, health systems and hospices working to start, sustain, and grow nonhospice palliative care programs. CAPC convened a consensus panel in 2008 to develop recommendations for specific clinical and customer metrics that programs should track. The panel agreed on four key domains of clinical metrics and two domains of customer metrics. Clinical metrics include: daily assessment of physical/psychological/spiritual symptoms by a symptom assessment tool; establishment of patient-centered goals of care; support to patient/family caregivers; and management of transitions across care sites. For customer metrics, consensus was reached on two domains that should be tracked to assess satisfaction: patient/family satisfaction, and referring clinician satisfaction. In an effort to ensure access to reliably high-quality palliative care data throughout the nation, hospital palliative care programs are encouraged to collect and report outcomes for each of the metric domains described here. PMID:19922199

  12. Dementia Care: Confronting Myths in Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Neitch, Shirley M; Meadows, Charles; Patton-Tackett, Eva; Yingling, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Every day, patients with dementia, their families, and their physicians face the enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible. While there are innumerable myths about dementia and its causes and treatments, we are going to focus on the most common false claims or misunderstandings which we hear in our Internal Medicine practice at Marshall Health. We offer suggestions for busy practitioners approaching some of the more common issues with patients and families in a clinic setting. PMID:27025116

  13. Dementia Care: Confronting Myths in Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Neitch, Shirley M; Meadows, Charles; Patton-Tackett, Eva; Yingling, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Every day, patients with dementia, their families, and their physicians face the enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible. While there are innumerable myths about dementia and its causes and treatments, we are going to focus on the most common false claims or misunderstandings which we hear in our Internal Medicine practice at Marshall Health. We offer suggestions for busy practitioners approaching some of the more common issues with patients and families in a clinic setting.

  14. [Evaluation of the effect of nitazoxanide compared with placebo in patients with flatulence at the ambulatory consultation of the Central Clinic of Inppares-Lima].

    PubMed

    Venero Nazario, Bremen

    2008-01-01

    Flatulence is a very common complaint related to functional gastrointestinal disorders. We know functional disorders is the main cause of consultation in gastroenterology offices. We don't know the exact reason of flatulence, but the intestinal fermentative microbiota could be an important etiologic factor. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nitazoxanida, on the clinical improvement of the flatulence in a group of patients of ambulatory consultation with respect to another group that receives placebo. The present article, is a controlled randomized clinical study designed to double blind, in whom 120 patients with flatulence criteria participate, of which 60 patients received Nitazoxanida 500mg, every 12 hours by 3 days, and the next 60 patients received placebo every 12 hours by 3 days, after one week were reevaluated, and they were put under a test of perception about clinical improvement (Jerome Frank). The Nitazoxanida group and the placebo group were very similar in age, sex, symptoms to the entrance, presence of anxiety, depression and upheavals of the dream. In the Nitazoxanida group was an average of improvement of 4.02 (75.31%) DS 0.94 and with placebo 2.35 (19.58%) D.S. 0.63. with percentage of 0.001 error. Being the perception of global improvement in the Nitazoxanida group 91.67% and in the placebo group 36.67%. Which is statistically significant. The study conclude that Nitozoxanide group produce a significative improvement in the perception of relief of flatulence in comparison to the placebo group. The study sets out a new therapeutic indication of the active principle Nitazoxanide, in flatulence. We found is a high prevalence of anxiety, depression and of upheavals of the dream in patients with flatulence.

  15. Evaluation of health care service quality in Poland with the use of SERVQUAL method at the specialist ambulatory health care center

    PubMed Central

    Manulik, Stanisław; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Karniej, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Service quality and customer satisfaction are very important components of competitive advantage in the health care sector. The SERVQUAL method is widely used for assessing the quality expected by patients and the quality of actually provided services. Objectives The main purpose of this study was to determine if patients from state and private health care facilities differed in terms of their qualitative priorities and assessments of received services. Materials and methods The study included a total of 412 patients: 211 treated at a state facility and 201 treated at a private facility. Each of the respondents completed a 5-domain, 22-item SERVQUAL questionnaire. The actual quality of health care services in both types of facilities proved significantly lower than expected. Results All the patients gave the highest scores to the domains constituting the core aspects of health care services. The private facility respondents had the highest expectations with regard to equipment, and the state facility ones regarding contacts with the medical personnel. Conclusion Health care quality management should be oriented toward comprehensive optimization in all domains, rather than only within the domain identified as the qualitative priority for patients of a given facility. PMID:27536075

  16. The Road to Excellence for Primary Care Resident Teaching Clinics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Reena; Dubé, Kate; Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Primary care residency programs and their associated primary care clinics face challenges in their goal to simultaneously provide a good education for tomorrow's doctors and excellent care for today's patients. A team from the Center for Excellence in Primary Care at the University of California, San Francisco, conducted site visits to 23 family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatric residency teaching clinics. The authors found that a number of programs have transformed themselves with respect to engaged leadership, resident scheduling, continuity of care for patients and residents, team-based care, and resident engagement in practice improvement. In this Commentary, the authors highlight the features of transforming programs that are melding inspiring resident education with excellent patient care. The authors propose a model, the 10 + 3 Building Blocks of Primary Care Teaching Clinics, to illustrate the themes that characterize transforming primary care residency programs. PMID:26826073

  17. The Road to Excellence for Primary Care Resident Teaching Clinics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Reena; Dubé, Kate; Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Primary care residency programs and their associated primary care clinics face challenges in their goal to simultaneously provide a good education for tomorrow's doctors and excellent care for today's patients. A team from the Center for Excellence in Primary Care at the University of California, San Francisco, conducted site visits to 23 family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatric residency teaching clinics. The authors found that a number of programs have transformed themselves with respect to engaged leadership, resident scheduling, continuity of care for patients and residents, team-based care, and resident engagement in practice improvement. In this Commentary, the authors highlight the features of transforming programs that are melding inspiring resident education with excellent patient care. The authors propose a model, the 10 + 3 Building Blocks of Primary Care Teaching Clinics, to illustrate the themes that characterize transforming primary care residency programs.

  18. Improving access to a primary care medical clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Meditz, R. W.; Manberg, C. L.; Rosner, F.

    1992-01-01

    Patients presenting to an episodic care walk-in clinic often warrant prompt but not necessarily emergency attention. Legitimate reasons often prohibit these patients from attending regularly scheduled daytime weekday clinics. Most patients interviewed thought that having a single primary care provider was important to ensure continuity of care. Access to primary care can be improved by scheduling clinics and ancillary services on nontraditional times and days. Enhanced communication can help patients differentiate routine from urgent from emergency conditions. Printed and audiovisual materials can be used to increase awareness of the benefits of comprehensive care. PMID:1507251

  19. Effects of azilsartan medoxomil compared with olmesartan and valsartan on ambulatory and clinic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Cuadra, René H.; Lloyd, Eric; Bakris, George L.; Kupfer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are preferred antihypertensive therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M) is a potent ARB for the treatment of stages 1-2 hypertension. We compared the efficacy, safety, and metabolic effects of AZL-M to both valsartan (VAL) and olmesartan (OLM), separately in patients with impaired fasting glucose (prediabetes mellitus) and T2DM. Methods: A pooled analysis of 3821 patients from three separate randomized placebo-controlled trials comparing the effects of AZL-M (40 and 80 mg), OLM (40 mg), VAL (320 mg), and placebo on changes in ambulatory and clinic blood pressure (BP) among patients with hypertension and prediabetes mellitus or T2DM was performed. Two analysis pools were created to facilitate comparisons: Pool A included patients who received placebo, AZL-M or OLM and Pool B included those who received AZL-M or VAL. Within each pool, patients were stratified by glycemic subgroups (normoglycemic, prediabetes mellitus, or T2DM) based on hemoglobin A1c values. Changes from baseline in both 24-h and clinic SBP were the primary efficacy assessments. Results: Baseline 24-h mean SBPs were approximately 145 and 146 mmHg in the prediabetes mellitus and T2DM subgroups, respectively; corresponding clinic SBPs were approximately 158 and 159 mmHg. Baseline hemoglobin A1c values for each subgroup (both pools) were normoglycemic, 5.3%; prediabetes mellitus, 6.0%; and T2DM, 6.9%. Changes from baseline in 24-h or clinic SBP were significantly greater with AZL-M, 80 mg compared with either OLM 40 mg or VAL 320 mg in all subgroups in each pool. Safety and tolerability were similar among the active treatment and placebo subgroups. Conclusion: These analyses indicate that AZL-M, 80 mg/day lowers SBP by a greater magnitude than OLM or VAL at maximally approved doses in patients with prediabetes mellitus and T2DM. These findings have important clinical implications for this

  20. 42 CFR 410.165 - Payment for rural health clinic services and ambulatory surgical center services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of subpart X of part 405 of this chapter and subpart A of part 491 of this chapter; and (2) The clinic or center files a written request for payment on the form and in the manner prescribed by CMS. (b... furnished in accordance with the requirements of part 416 of this chapter; and (2) The ASC files a...

  1. The Certified Clinical Nurse Leader in Critical Care.

    PubMed

    L'Ecuyer, Kristine M; Shatto, Bobbi J; Hoffmann, Rosemary L; Crecelius, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Challenges of the current health system in the United States call for collaboration of health care professionals, careful utilization of resources, and greater efficiency of system processes. Innovations to the delivery of care include the introduction of the clinical nurse leader role to provide leadership at the point of care, where it is needed most. Clinical nurse leaders have demonstrated their ability to address needed changes and implement improvements in processes that impact the efficiency and quality of patient care across the continuum and in a variety of settings, including critical care. This article describes the role of the certified clinical nurse leader, their education and skill set, and outlines outcomes that have been realized by their efforts. Specific examples of how clinical nurse leaders impact critical care nursing are discussed.

  2. The Certified Clinical Nurse Leader in Critical Care.

    PubMed

    L'Ecuyer, Kristine M; Shatto, Bobbi J; Hoffmann, Rosemary L; Crecelius, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Challenges of the current health system in the United States call for collaboration of health care professionals, careful utilization of resources, and greater efficiency of system processes. Innovations to the delivery of care include the introduction of the clinical nurse leader role to provide leadership at the point of care, where it is needed most. Clinical nurse leaders have demonstrated their ability to address needed changes and implement improvements in processes that impact the efficiency and quality of patient care across the continuum and in a variety of settings, including critical care. This article describes the role of the certified clinical nurse leader, their education and skill set, and outlines outcomes that have been realized by their efforts. Specific examples of how clinical nurse leaders impact critical care nursing are discussed. PMID:27487750

  3. Oncologist Factors That Influence Referrals to Subspecialty Palliative Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Yael; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Dohan, Daniel; Rabow, Michael W.; Smith, Cardinale B.; White, Douglas B.; Chu, Edward; Tiver, Greer A.; Einhorn, Sara; Arnold, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research and professional guidelines support expanded use of outpatient subspecialty palliative care in oncology, but provider referral practices vary widely. We sought to explore oncologist factors that influence referrals to outpatient palliative care. Methods: Multisite, qualitative interview study at three academic cancer centers in the United States with well-established palliative care clinics. Seventy-four medical oncologists participated in semistructured interviews between February and October 2012. The interview guide asked about experiences and decision making regarding outpatient palliative care use. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative methods to inductively develop and refine themes related to palliative care referral decisions. Results: We identified three main oncologist barriers to subspecialty palliative care referrals at sites with comprehensive palliative care clinics: persistent conceptions of palliative care as an alternative philosophy of care incompatible with cancer therapy, a predominant belief that providing palliative care is an integral part of the oncologist's role, and a lack of knowledge about locally available services. Participants described their views of subspecialty palliative care as evolving in response to increasing availability of services and positive referral experiences, but emphasized that views of palliative care as valuable in addition to standard oncology care were not universally shared by oncologists. Conclusions: Improving provision of palliative care in oncology will likely require efforts beyond increasing service availability. Raising awareness of ways in which subspecialty palliative care complements standard oncology care and developing ways for oncologists and palliative care physicians to collaborate and integrate their respective skills may help. PMID:24301842

  4. Ambulatory Pediatric Oncology CLABSIs: Epidemiology and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rinke, Michael L.; Milstone, Aaron M.; Chen, Allen R.; Mirski, Kara; Bundy, David G.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Pehar, Miriana; Herpst, Cynthia; Miller, Marlene R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the burden of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in ambulatory versus inpatient pediatric oncology patients, and identify the epidemiology of and risk factors associated with ambulatory CLABSIs. Procedure We prospectively identified infections and retrospectively identified central line days and characteristics associated with CLABSIs from January 2009 to October 2010. A nested case–control design was used to identify characteristics associated with ambulatory CLABSIs. Results We identified 319 patients with central lines. There were 55 ambulatory CLABSIs during 84,705 ambulatory central line days (0.65 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line days (95% CI 0.49, 0.85)), and 19 inpatient CLABSIs during 8,682 inpatient central line days (2.2 CLABSIs per 1,000 central lines days (95% CI 1.3, 3.4)). In patients with ambulatory CLABSIs, 13% were admitted to an intensive care unit and 44% had their central lines removed due to the CLABSI. A secondary analysis with a sub-cohort, suggested children with tunneled, externalized catheters had a greater risk of ambulatory CLABSI than those with totally implantable devices (IRR 20.6, P < 0.001). Other characteristics independently associated with ambulatory CLABSIs included bone marrow transplantation within 100 days (OR 16, 95% CI 1.1, 264), previous bacteremia in any central line (OR 10, 95% CI 2.5, 43) and less than 1 month from central line insertion (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.0, 17). Conclusions In pediatric oncology patients, three times more CLABSIs occur in the ambulatory than inpatient setting. Ambulatory CLABSIs carry appreciable morbidity and have identifiable, associated factors that should be addressed in future ambulatory CLABSI prevention efforts. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;60:1882–1889. PMID:23881643

  5. How 3 Rural Safety Net Clinics Integrate Care for Patients

    PubMed Central

    Derrett, Sarah; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Nocon, Robert S.; Quinn, Michael T.; Coleman, Katie; Daniel, Donna M.; Wagner, Edward H.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrated care focuses on care coordination and patient centeredness. Integrated care supports continuity of care over time, with care that is coordinated within and between settings and is responsive to patients’ needs. Currently, little is known about care integration for rural patients. Objective To examine challenges to care integration in rural safety net clinics and strategies to address these challenges. Research Design Qualitative case study. Participants Thirty-six providers and staff from 3 rural clinics in the Safety Net Medical Home Initiative. Methods Interviews were analyzed using the framework method with themes organized within 3 constructs: Team Coordination and Empanelment, External Coordination and Partnerships, and Patient-centered and Community-centered Care. Results Participants described challenges common to safety net clinics, including limited access to specialists for Medicaid and uninsured patients, difficulty communicating with external providers, and payment models with limited support for care integration activities. Rurality compounded these challenges. Respondents reported benefits of empanelment and team-based care, and leveraged local resources to support care for patients. Rural clinics diversified roles within teams, shared responsibility for patient care, and colocated providers, as strategies to support care integration. Conclusions Care integration was supported by 2 fundamental changes to organize and deliver care to patients—(1) empanelment with a designated group of patients being cared for by a provider; and (2) a multidisciplinary team able to address rural issues. New funding and organizational initiatives of the Affordable Care Act may help to further improve care integration, although additional solutions may be necessary to address particular needs of rural communities. PMID:25310637

  6. Ambulatory surgery center market share and rates of outpatient surgery in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Brent K; Hollingsworth, John M; Dunn, Rodney L; Zaojun Ye; Birkmeyer, John D

    2010-12-01

    Relative to outpatient surgery in hospital settings, ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) are more efficient and associated with a lower cost per case. However, these facilities may also spur higher overall procedure utilization and thus lead to greater overall health care costs. The authors used the State Ambulatory Surgery Database from the State of Florida to identify Medicare-aged patients undergoing 4 common ambulatory procedures in 2006, including knee arthroscopy, cystoscopy, cataract removal, and colonoscopy. Hospital service areas (HSAs) were characterized according to ASC market share, that is, the proportion of residents undergoing outpatient surgery in these facilities. The authors then examined relationships between ASC market share and rates of each procedure. Age-adjusted rates of ambulatory surgery ranged from 190.5 cases per 1000 to 320.8 cases per 1000 in HSAs with low and high ASC market shares, respectively (P < .01). For all 4 procedures, adjusted rates of procedures were significantly higher in HSAs with the highest ASC market share. The greatest difference, both in relative and absolute terms, was observed for patients undergoing cystoscopy. In areas of high ASC market share, the age-adjusted rate of cystoscopy was nearly 3-fold higher than in areas with low ASC market share (34.5 vs 11.9 per 1000 population; P < .01). The presence of an ASC is associated with higher utilization of common outpatient procedures in the elderly. Whether ASCs are meeting unmet clinical demand or spurring overutilization is not clear.

  7. Clinical Integration Managing across the care continuum.

    PubMed

    Karash, Julius A; Larson, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    In the changing world of health care, the traditional boundaries are vanishing and hospitals and others must integrate care within their own organizations, as well as externally, across the care continuum. Here are three approaches to accomplishing just that. PMID:27468454

  8. Peripheral nerve blocks for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Francis V; Joseph, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) provide significant improvement in postoperative analgesia and quality of recovery for ambulatory surgery. Use of continuous PNB techniques extend these benefits beyond the limited duration of single-injection PNBs. The use of ultrasound guidance has significantly improved the overall success, efficiency, and has contributed to the increased use of PNBs in the ambulatory setting. More recently, the use of ultrasound guidance has been demonstrated to decrease the risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. This article provides a broad overview of the indications and clinically useful aspects of the most commonly used upper and lower extremity PNBs in the ambulatory setting. Emphasis is placed on approaches that can be used for single-injection PNBs and continuous PNB techniques.

  9. Teledermatology Consultations Provide Specialty Care for Farmworkers in Rural Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Feldman, Steven R.; Fleischer, Alan B., Jr.; Brooks, Thanh; Cabral, Gonzalo; Heck, Judy; Schulz, Mark R.; Verma, Amit; Whalley, Lara E.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Rural patients have limited access to dermatologic care. Farmworkers have high rates of skin disease and limited access to care. Purpose: This exploratory study assessed whether teledermatology consultations could help meet the needs of health care providers for farmworkers in rural clinics. Methods: Dermatologists provided 79…

  10. Managing clinical risk: right person, right care, right time.

    PubMed

    Graham, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Dentists and the dental health care industry have a renewed interest in clinical risk assessment, because they offer the potential to identify a patient's clinical needs for oral health care more specifically, to maximize prevention by early intervention, and to educate patients to become more informed consumers of oral health care and direct resources where they are most needed and can produce the greatest value. To realize this potential, risk assessment must be applied appropriately, and its indirect ramifications for access to care should be considered. Several ideas for the appropriate application of risk assessment are discussed and the ramifications for access to care are explored.

  11. Clinical review: Critical care transport and austere critical care

    PubMed Central

    Rice, David H; Kotti, George; Beninati, William

    2008-01-01

    The development of modern intensive care units (ICUs) has allowed the survival of patients with advanced illness and injury, although at a cost of substantial infrastructure. Natural disasters and military operations are two common situations that can create critically ill patients in an environment that is austere or has been rendered austere. This has driven the development of two related strategies to care for these casualties. Portable ICU capability can be rapidly established in the area of need, providing relatively advanced capability but limited capacity and sustainability. The other strategy is to rapidly evacuate critically ill and injured patients following their initial stabilization. This permits medical personnel in the austere location to focus resources on a larger number of less critical patients. It also permits the most vulnerable patients to receive care in an advanced center. This strategy requires careful planning to overcome the constraints of the transport environment. The optimal strategy has not been determined, but a combination of these two approaches has been used in recent disasters and military operations and is promising. The critical care delivered in an austere setting must be integrated with a long-term plan to provide follow-on care. PMID:18373882

  12. Medicare beneficiaries more likely to receive appropriate ambulatory services in HMOs than in traditional medicare.

    PubMed

    Ayanian, John Z; Landon, Bruce E; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Saunders, Robert C; Pawlson, L Gregory; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2013-07-01

    With quality-of-care bonus payments now available for Medicare Advantage health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and for accountable care organizations in traditional Medicare, the need to understand the relative quality of care delivered to Medicare enrollees has increased. We compared the quality of ambulatory care from 2003 through 2009 between beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage HMOs and those enrolled in traditional Medicare, and we assessed how the performance of various types of Medicare HMOs differed from that of traditional Medicare for these same measures. We found that beneficiaries in Medicare HMOs were consistently more likely than those in traditional Medicare to receive appropriate breast cancer screening, diabetes care, and cholesterol testing for cardiovascular disease. We also found that Medicare HMO physicians were rated less favorably by their patients than were physicians in traditional Medicare in 2003; however, by 2009 the opposite was true. Not-for-profit, larger, and older Medicare HMOs performed consistently more favorably on clinical measures and ratings of care than for-profit, smaller, and newer HMOs. Our results suggest that the positive effects of more-integrated delivery systems on the quality of ambulatory care in Medicare HMOs may outweigh the potential incentives to restrict care under capitated payments.

  13. Ambulatory Healthcare Utilization in the United States: A System Dynamics Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Rafael; Behr, Joshua G.; Tulpule, Mandar

    2011-01-01

    Ambulatory health care needs within the United States are served by a wide range of hospitals, clinics, and private practices. The Emergency Department (ED) functions as an important point of supply for ambulatory healthcare services. Growth in our aging populations as well as changes stemming from broader healthcare reform are expected to continue trend in congestion and increasing demand for ED services. While congestion is, in part, a manifestation of unmatched demand, the state of the alignment between the demand for, and supply of, emergency department services affects quality of care and profitability. The central focus of this research is to provide an explanation of the salient factors at play within the dynamic demand-supply tensions within which ambulatory care is provided within an Emergency Department. A System Dynamics (SO) simulation model is used to capture the complexities among the intricate balance and conditional effects at play within the demand-supply emergency department environment. Conceptual clarification of the forces driving the elements within the system , quantifying these elements, and empirically capturing the interaction among these elements provides actionable knowledge for operational and strategic decision-making.

  14. A conceptual framework of clinical nursing care in intensive care1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Apostolidis, Thémistoklis; Brandão, Marcos Antônio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to propose a conceptual framework for clinical nursing care in intensive care. Method: descriptive and qualitative field research, carried out with 21 nurses from an intensive care unit of a federal public hospital. We conducted semi-structured interviews and thematic and lexical content analysis, supported by Alceste software. Results: the characteristics of clinical intensive care emerge from the specialized knowledge of the interaction, the work context, types of patients and nurses characteristic of the intensive care and care frameworks. Conclusion: the conceptual framework of the clinic's intensive care articulates elements characteristic of the dynamics of this scenario: objective elements regarding technology and attention to equipment and subjective elements related to human interaction, specific of nursing care, countering criticism based on dehumanization. PMID:26487133

  15. Emotion and ambulatory EHR in the ARRA era.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Amy

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing focus in change management literature on the role of emotion in managing change. Barriers to adoption and effective implementation of ambulatory EHR-ranging from technical to financial to logistical-are well-described in the health-care IT literature. In the ARRA era, ambulatory practices are under increasing pressure to overcome these barriers. This article explores the emotional barriers to EHR adoption and implementation in ambulatory settings, synthesizing ideas drawn from business and psychology literature on emotion in organizational change. Key strategies for assessing and addressing these barriers are outlined.

  16. Practical Aspects of Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Aldo J.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) monitoring is becoming increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Home BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) are the two forms of monitoring BP in the out-of-office environment. Home BP monitoring is easy to perform, inexpensive, and engages patients in the care of their hypertension. Although ABPM is expensive and not widely available, it remains the gold standard for diagnosing hypertension. Observational studies show that both home BP and ABPM are stronger predictors of hypertension-related outcomes than office BP monitoring. There are no clinical trials showing their superiority over office BP monitoring in guiding the treatment of hypertension, but the consistency of observational data make a compelling case for their preferential use in clinical practice. PMID:27057289

  17. Visual Impairment/lntracranial Pressure Risk Clinical Care Data Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Mason, Sara S.; Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Moynihan, Shannan; Alexander, David; Hart, Steve; Tarver, William

    2014-01-01

    Prior to 2010, several ISS crewmembers returned from spaceflight with changes to their vision, ranging from a mild hyperopic shift to frank disc edema. As a result, NASA expanded clinical vision testing to include more comprehensive medical imaging, including Optical Coherence Tomography and 3 Tesla Brain and Orbit MRIs. The Space and Clinical Operations (SCO) Division developed a clinical practice guideline that classified individuals based on their symptoms and diagnoses to facilitate clinical care. For the purposes of clinical surveillance, this classification was applied retrospectively to all crewmembers who had sufficient testing for classification. This classification is also a tool that has been leveraged for researchers to identify potential risk factors. In March 2014, driven in part by a more comprehensive understanding of the imaging data and increased imaging capability on orbit, the SCO Division revised their clinical care guidance to outline in-flight care and increase post-flight follow up. The new clinical guidance does not include a classification scheme

  18. [Ambulatory alcohol withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Grehl, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol addiction is a common problem in daily life as well as in medicine. Apart from inpatient therapy programs, ambulatory withdrawal is a relatively new option, which may be done safely, efficient and cost-effective close to the domicile an without stigmatisation of the patient.

  19. Critical care clinical trials: getting off the roller coaster.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Andrew J

    2012-09-01

    Optimizing care in the ICU is an important goal. The heightened severity of illness in patients who are critically ill combined with the tremendous costs of critical care make the ICU an ideal target for improvement in outcomes and efficiency. Incorporation of evidence-based medicine into everyday practice is one method to optimize care; however, intensivists have struggled to define optimal practices because clinical trials in the ICU have yielded conflicting results. This article reviews examples where such conflicts have occurred and explores possible causes of these discrepant data as well as strategies to better use critical care clinical trials in the future. PMID:22948575

  20. The role of clinical information technology in depression care management.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Amy M; McGinnis, Gretchen Flanders; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Klinkman, Michael; Thomas, Marshall

    2006-01-01

    We examine the literature on the growing application of clinical information technology in managing depression care and highlight lessons learned from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's national program "Depression in Primary Care-Incentives Demonstrations." Several program sites are implementing depression care registries. Key issues discussed about implementing registries include using a simple yet functional format, designing registries to track multiple conditions versus depression alone (i.e., patient-centric versus disease-centric registries) and avoiding violations of patient privacy with the advent of more advanced information technologies (e.g., web-based formats). Finally, we discuss some implications of clinical information technology for health care practices and policy makers.

  1. The Day Care Clinic as Container.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovensiepen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    Describes the operations of a clinic for the long-term psychiatric treatment of adolescents in Germany. The different types of container as opposed to contained relationships evident in the clinic structure are discussed. The metaphor of the clinic as container for the troubled youth is useful in understanding its effectiveness. (SLD)

  2. Clinical trial design in the neurocritical care unit.

    PubMed

    Hall, C E; Mirski, M; Palesch, Y Y; Diringer, M N; Qureshi, A I; Robertson, C S; Geocadin, R; Wijman, C A C; Le Roux, P D; Suarez, Jose I

    2012-02-01

    Clinical trials provide a robust mechanism to advance science and change clinical practice across the widest possible spectrum. Fundamental in the Neurocritical Care Society's mission is to promote Quality Patient Care by identifying and implementing best medical practices for acute neurological disorders that are consistent with the current scientific knowledge. The next logical step will be to foster rapid growth of our scientific body of evidence, to establish and disseminate these best practices. In this manuscript, five invited experts were impaneled to address questions, identified by the conference organizing committee as fundamental issues for the design of clinical trials in the neurological intensive care unit setting. PMID:21792753

  3. The application of design principles to innovate clinical care delivery.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Michael D; Duncan, Alan K; Armbruster, Ryan R; Montori, Victor M; Feyereisn, Wayne L; LaRusso, Nicholas F

    2009-01-01

    Clinical research centers that support hypothesis-driven investigation have long been a feature of academic medical centers but facilities in which clinical care delivery can be systematically assessed and evaluated have heretofore been nonexistent. The Institute of Medicine report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" identified six core attributes of an ideal care delivery system that in turn relied heavily on system redesign. Although manufacturing and service industries have leveraged modern design principles in new product development, healthcare has lagged behind. In this article, we describe a methodology utilized by our facility to study the clinical care delivery system that incorporates modern design principles. PMID:19343895

  4. Volume of Cataract Surgery and Surgeon Gender: The Florida Ambulatory Surgery Center Experience 2005 Through 2012.

    PubMed

    French, Dustin D; Margo, Curtis E; Campbell, Robert R; Greenberg, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is the most common surgically reversible cause of vision loss and the most common major surgical procedure performed in the United States. To understand how gender composition might affect differences in health services, we examined the surgeon gender-specific rates of routine cataract surgery performed in ambulatory surgical centers in Florida. Routine cataract surgeries were identified through the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) ambulatory surgery center dataset. The background of individual surgeons was determined by linking license numbers in the dataset to physician profiles publicly available from AHCA. From 2005 through 2012, women ophthalmologists in Florida performed roughly half the annual rate of cataract surgery as their male counterparts. This difference is not explained by greater time in clinical practice for men. Further investigation into the causes of this gender-volume disparity is warranted to determine what roles choice and barriers may play. PMID:27249881

  5. Volume of Cataract Surgery and Surgeon Gender: The Florida Ambulatory Surgery Center Experience 2005 Through 2012.

    PubMed

    French, Dustin D; Margo, Curtis E; Campbell, Robert R; Greenberg, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is the most common surgically reversible cause of vision loss and the most common major surgical procedure performed in the United States. To understand how gender composition might affect differences in health services, we examined the surgeon gender-specific rates of routine cataract surgery performed in ambulatory surgical centers in Florida. Routine cataract surgeries were identified through the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) ambulatory surgery center dataset. The background of individual surgeons was determined by linking license numbers in the dataset to physician profiles publicly available from AHCA. From 2005 through 2012, women ophthalmologists in Florida performed roughly half the annual rate of cataract surgery as their male counterparts. This difference is not explained by greater time in clinical practice for men. Further investigation into the causes of this gender-volume disparity is warranted to determine what roles choice and barriers may play.

  6. Point-of-Care Technologies for Precision Cardiovascular Care and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin; Grazette, Luanda P.; Paltoo, Dina N.; McDevitt, John T.; Sia, Samuel K.; Barrett, Paddy M.; Apple, Fred S.; Gurbel, Paul A.; Weissleder, Ralph; Leeds, Hilary; Iturriaga, Erin J.; Rao, Anupama; Adhikari, Bishow; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Galis, Zorina S.; Libby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care technologies (POC or POCT) are enabling innovative cardiovascular diagnostics that promise to improve patient care across diverse clinical settings. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group to discuss POCT in cardiovascular medicine. The multidisciplinary working group, which included clinicians, scientists, engineers, device manufacturers, regulatory officials, and program staff, reviewed the state of the POCT field; discussed opportunities for POCT to improve cardiovascular care, realize the promise of precision medicine, and advance the clinical research enterprise; and identified barriers facing translation and integration of POCT with existing clinical systems. A POCT development roadmap emerged to guide multidisciplinary teams of biomarker scientists, technologists, health care providers, and clinical trialists as they: 1) formulate needs assessments; 2) define device design specifications; 3) develop component technologies and integrated systems; 4) perform iterative pilot testing; and 5) conduct rigorous prospective clinical testing to ensure that POCT solutions have substantial effects on cardiovascular care. PMID:26977455

  7. Clinical review: Medication errors in critical care

    PubMed Central

    Moyen, Eric; Camiré, Eric; Stelfox, Henry Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Medication errors in critical care are frequent, serious, and predictable. Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as many medications as patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-threatening error at some point during their stay. The aim of this article is to provide a basic review of medication errors in the ICU, identify risk factors for medication errors, and suggest strategies to prevent errors and manage their consequences. PMID:18373883

  8. [Clinical case: Complicated grief in primary care. Care plan].

    PubMed

    Ruymán Brito-Brito, Pedro; Rodríguez-Ramos, Mercedes; Pérez-García-Talavera, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This is the case of a 61-year-old patient woman that visits her nurse in Primary Health Care to get the control of blood pressure and glycemia. In the last two years has suffered the loss of her husband and of two brothers beside having lived through other vital stressful events that have taken her to a situation of complicated grief. The care plan is realized using the M. Gordon assessment system and standardized languages NANDA, NOC and NIC. The principal aims were the improvement of the depression level and the improvement in the affliction resolution. As suggested interventions were proposed to facilitate the grief and the derivation to a mental health unit. A follow-up of the patient was realized in nursing consultation at Primary health care to weekly intervals, in the beginning, and monthly, later. The evaluation of the care plan reflects an improvement in the criteria of Prigerson's complicated grief; an increase of the recreative activities; the retreat of the mourning that still she was guarding; as well as an improvement in the control of the blood pressure numbers. The attention of nurses before a case of complicated grief turns out to be complex. Nevertheless the suitable accomplishment of certain interventions orientated to facilitating the grief, with a follow-up in consultation, shows the efficiency. The difficulty in the boarding of the psychosocial problems meets increased at the moment of are necessary the nursing diagnostics adapted for every individual case. The work in group between nurses could improves the consensus.

  9. Communicating Nursing Care Using the Health Level Seven Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 Care Plan.

    PubMed

    Matney, Susan A; Dolin, Gay; Buhl, Lindy; Sheide, Amy

    2016-03-01

    A care plan provides a patient, family, or community picture and outlines the care to be provided. The Health Level Seven Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture (C-CDA) Release 2 Care Plan Document is used to structure care plan data when sharing the care plan between systems and/or settings. The American Nurses Association has recommended the use of two terminologies, Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for assessments and outcomes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) for problems, procedures (interventions), outcomes, and observation findings within the C-CDA. This article describes C-CDA, introduces LOINC and SNOMED CT, discusses how the C-CDA Care Plan aligns with the nursing process, and illustrates how nursing care data can be structured and encoded within a C-CDA Care Plan.

  10. Staff selection for an ambulatory surgery unit.

    PubMed

    Martin, B J

    1992-07-01

    Major changes in the care delivery system affect the selection of the professional nursing staff for an ambulatory surgery unit. The skills required are diverse and dynamic. Selecting the right applicant requires not only knowledge of the interview process, but also acute observation and communication skills. The use of a matrix system helps to organize the process as well as to quantify and qualify the information gained.

  11. Ritual and the organisation of care in primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Simon; Green, Judith

    2009-04-01

    Few sociological studies have examined care organisation in primary health settings in low- and middle-income countries. This paper explores the organisation of health care work in primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa, by analysing two elements of clinic organisation as rituals. The first is a formal, policy-driven element of care: directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients. The second is an informal ritual, seemingly separate from the clinical work of the team: morning prayers in the clinic. We draw on data from an ethnography in which seven clinics providing care to people with tuberculosis were theoretically sampled for study. These data include participant observation of clinic sessions, and interviews and group discussions with providers and patients, which were analysed using approaches drawn from grounded theory. Our findings suggest that rather than seeing the ritualised aspects of clinic activities as merely traditional elements of care that potentially interfere with the application of good practice, it is essential to understand their symbolic values if their contribution to health care organisation is to be recognised. While both staff and patients participate in these rituals, these performances do not demonstrate or facilitate cohesion across these groups but rather embody the conflicting values of patients and staff in these clinics. As such, rituals act to reinforce asymmetrical relations of power between different constituencies, and to strengthen conventional modes of provider-patient interaction.

  12. Mexican patient satisfaction in a rural Minnesota primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katelyn

    2008-08-01

    The Latino population in rural Minnesota has grown significantly in recent years. Despite the increase, few studies have considered whether these newcomers are satisfied with the care they receive from local medical clinics. This article describes the results of a pilot study that assessed 20 Mexican patients' satisfaction with care they received in a primary care clinic in rural central Minnesota. Participants were interviewed using questions from Stewart's Interpersonal Care Survey and open-ended questions. Results showed the patients were generally satisfied with their health care. However, they suggested improvements in the areas of communication and involvement in decisions. Answers to the open-ended questions suggested that even though patients seemed satisfied with their care, they still strongly desired a bilingual physician.

  13. Training family medicine residents to care for children

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Pauline; Curran, Vernon; Hollett, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed There is a lack of consensus around the optimal way to train family medicine residents to care for children. Objective of program Evaluation of an ambulatory versus an inpatient pediatrics rotation for family medicine residents. Program description A 4-week pediatrics rotation for second-year family medicine residents was introduced involving half-day ambulatory pediatric clinics. A nonequivalent control group evaluation study design was followed. Patient logbook entries, as well as residents’ satisfaction, knowledge, and self-reported confidence outcomes were compared between family medicine residents completing the new ambulatory rotation and those completing a traditional inpatient-ambulatory pediatrics rotation. Conclusion An ambulatory rotation in pediatrics is a feasible option for facilitating family medicine resident learning in child health care. Residents report exposure to more patient cases that reflect a family practice office setting and the same level of knowledge and confidence as residents completing an inpatient-ambulatory rotation. Intraprofessional collaboration, flexibility in scheduling, and the support of pediatric preceptors are key factors in the organization and implementation of an ambulatory rotation. PMID:21321160

  14. What is Clinical Safety in Electronic Health Care Record Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, George

    There is mounting public awareness of an increasing number of adverse clinical incidents within the National Health Service (NHS), but at the same time, large health care projects like the National Programme for IT (NPFIT) are claiming that safer care is one of the benefits of the project and that health software systems in particular have the potential to reduce the likelihood of accidental or unintentional harm to patients. This paper outlines the approach to clinical safety management taken by CSC, a major supplier to NPFIT; discusses acceptable levels of risk and clinical safety as an end-to-end concept; and touches on the future for clinical safety in health systems software.

  15. Alternative clinical trial design in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Christos; Maas, Andrew I R; Souter, Michael J; Martin, Renee H; Chesnut, Randal M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Sung, Gene; Leroux, Peter D; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Neurocritical care involves the care of highly complex patients with combinations of physiologic derangements in the brain and in extracranial organs. The level of evidence underpinning treatment recommendations remains low due to a multitude of reasons including an incomplete understanding of the involved physiology; lack of good quality, prospective, standardized data; and the limited success of conventional randomized controlled trials. Comparative effectiveness research can provide alternative perspectives and methods to enhance knowledge and evidence within the field of neurocritical care; these include large international collaborations for generation and maintenance of high quality data, statistical methods that incorporate heterogeneity and individualize outcome prediction, and finally advanced bioinformatics that integrate large amounts of variable-source data into patient-specific phenotypes and trajectories. PMID:25894451

  16. Alternative clinical trial design in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Christos; Maas, Andrew I R; Souter, Michael J; Martin, Renee H; Chesnut, Randal M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Sung, Gene; Leroux, Peter D; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Neurocritical care involves the care of highly complex patients with combinations of physiologic derangements in the brain and in extracranial organs. The level of evidence underpinning treatment recommendations remains low due to a multitude of reasons including an incomplete understanding of the involved physiology; lack of good quality, prospective, standardized data; and the limited success of conventional randomized controlled trials. Comparative effectiveness research can provide alternative perspectives and methods to enhance knowledge and evidence within the field of neurocritical care; these include large international collaborations for generation and maintenance of high quality data, statistical methods that incorporate heterogeneity and individualize outcome prediction, and finally advanced bioinformatics that integrate large amounts of variable-source data into patient-specific phenotypes and trajectories.

  17. Clinical care paths: a role for finance in clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Michael N; Cummings, Simone; Hage, Dana

    2012-12-01

    Care paths map the critical actions and decision points across a patient's course of medical treatment; their purpose is to guide physicians in the delivery of high-quality care while reducing care costs by avoiding services that do not contribute meaningfully to positive outcomes. Each care path development initiative should be led by a respected physician champion, whose specialty is in the area of the care episode being mapped, with the support of a clinician project manager. Once the care path has been developed and implemented, the finance leader's role begins in earnest with the tracking of financial and clinical data against care paths.

  18. Ambulatory extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Nisonson, I; Witus, W S; Madorsky, M L; Weems, W S

    1986-11-01

    The Kidney Stone Center in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, is an ambulatory ESWL facility where 226 patients have been treated since July, 1985. A total of 258 kidneys were treated over a period of five months with a success rate of 99 per cent. The post-treatment admission rate, both immediate and delayed, was 14.2 per cent. Outpatient ESWL treatment of both renal and ureteral calculi is feasible, medically safe, and cost-effective.

  19. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth.

  20. Caring in nursing education: reducing anxiety in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Audet, M C

    1995-01-01

    It has been well-documented that the clinical experience is one of the most anxiety-producing aspects of nursing education. When feelings of anxiety become severe, they present a clear threat to the student's success in the program. This article explores the role of "caring" in nursing education as a means of reducing student anxiety. Caring, described at length by Jean Watson, has become one of the most popular trends in the education of young nurses. When caring behaviors are demonstrated in a meaningful way by clinical instructors, the student may experience a sense of comfort and belonging, which may in turn be effective in reducing anxiety and enabling the student to successfully complete a clinical rotation. The aim of this article is to inspire nurses, not only those in the educational setting but in all settings and at all levels of their careers, to reconsider the effects and benefits of displaying a caring attitude.

  1. A review of analytics and clinical informatics in health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Federal investment in health information technology has incentivized the adoption of electronic health record systems by physicians and health care organizations; the result has been a massive rise in the collection of patient data in electronic form (i.e. "Big Data"). Health care systems have leveraged Big Data for quality and performance improvements using analytics-the systematic use of data combined with quantitative as well as qualitative analysis to make decisions. Analytics have been utilized in various aspects of health care including predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, home health monitoring, finance, and resource allocation. Visual analytics is one example of an analytics technique with an array of health care and research applications that are well described in the literature. The proliferation of Big Data and analytics in health care has spawned a growing demand for clinical informatics professionals who can bridge the gap between the medical and information sciences.

  2. The medical director in integrated clinical care models.

    PubMed

    Parker, Thomas F; Aronoff, George R

    2015-07-01

    Integrated clinical care models, like Accountable Care Organizations and ESRD Seamless Care Organizations, present new opportunities for dialysis facility medical directors to affect changes in care that result in improved patient outcomes. Currently, there is little scholarly information on what role the medical director should play. In this opinion-based review, it is predicted that dialysis providers, the hospitals in which the medical director and staff physicians practice, and the payers with which they contract are going to insist that, as care becomes more integrated, dialysis facility medical directors participate in new ways to improve quality and decrease the costs of care. Six broad areas are proposed where dialysis unit medical directors can have the greatest effect on shifting the quality-care paradigm where integrated care models are used. The medical director will need to develop an awareness of the regional medical care delivery system, collect and analyze actionable data, determine patient outcomes to be targeted that are mutually agreed on by participating physicians and institutions, develop processes of care that result in improved patient outcomes, and lead and inform the medical staff. Three practical examples of patient-centered, quality-focused programs developed and implemented by dialysis unit medical directors and their practice partners that targeted dialysis access, modality choice, and fluid volume management are presented. Medical directors are encouraged to move beyond traditional roles and embrace responsibilities associated with integrated care.

  3. Electronic Nursing Documentation: Patient Care Continuity Using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCC).

    PubMed

    Whittenburg, Luann; Meetim, Aunchisa

    2016-01-01

    An innovative nursing documentation project conducted at Bumrungrad International Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand demonstrated patient care continuity between nursing patient assessments and nursing Plans of Care using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCC). The project developed a new generation of interactive nursing Plans of Care using the six steps of the American Nurses Association (ANA) Nursing process and the MEDCIN® clinical knowledgebase to present CCC coded concepts as a natural by-product of a nurse's documentation process. The MEDCIN® clinical knowledgebase is a standardized point-of-care terminology intended for use in electronic health record systems. The CCC is an ANA recognized nursing terminology. PMID:27332153

  4. Structuring Clinical Workflows for Diabetes Care

    PubMed Central

    Lasierra, N.; Oberbichler, S.; Toma, I.; Fensel, A.; Hoerbst, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Electronic health records (EHRs) play an important role in the treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Although the interoperability and selected functionality of EHRs are already addressed by a number of standards and best practices, such as IHE or HL7, the majority of these systems are still monolithic from a user-functionality perspective. The purpose of the OntoHealth project is to foster a functionally flexible, standards-based use of EHRs to support clinical routine task execution by means of workflow patterns and to shift the present EHR usage to a more comprehensive integration concerning complete clinical workflows. Objectives The goal of this paper is, first, to introduce the basic architecture of the proposed OntoHealth project and, second, to present selected functional needs and a functional categorization regarding workflow-based interactions with EHRs in the domain of diabetes. Methods A systematic literature review regarding attributes of workflows in the domain of diabetes was conducted. Eligible references were gathered and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Subsequently, a functional workflow categorization was derived from diabetes-specific raw data together with existing general workflow patterns. Results This paper presents the design of the architecture as well as a categorization model which makes it possible to describe the components or building blocks within clinical workflows. The results of our study lead us to identify basic building blocks, named as actions, decisions, and data elements, which allow the composition of clinical workflows within five identified contexts. Conclusions The categorization model allows for a description of the components or building blocks of clinical workflows from a functional view. PMID:25024765

  5. Integrated and Gender-Affirming Transgender Clinical Care and Research

    PubMed Central

    Radix, Asa; Deutsch, Madeline B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Transgender (trans) communities worldwide, particularly those on the trans feminine spectrum, are disproportionately burdened by HIV infection and at risk for HIV acquisition/transmission. Trans individuals represent an underserved, highly stigmatized, and under-resourced population not only in HIV prevention efforts but also in delivery of general primary medical and clinical care that is gender affirming. We offer a model of gender-affirmative integrated clinical care and community research to address and intervene on disparities in HIV infection for transgender people. We define trans terminology, briefly review the social epidemiology of HIV infection among trans individuals, highlight gender affirmation as a key social determinant of health, describe exemplar models of gender-affirmative clinical care in Boston MA, New York, NY, and San Francisco, CA, and offer suggested “best practices” for how to integrate clinical care and research for the field of HIV prevention. Holistic and culturally responsive HIV prevention interventions must be grounded in the lived realities the trans community faces to reduce disparities in HIV infection. HIV prevention interventions will be most effective if they use a structural approach and integrate primary concerns of transgender people (eg, gender-affirmative care and management of gender transition) alongside delivery of HIV-related services (eg, biobehavioral prevention, HIV testing, linkage to care, and treatment). PMID:27429189

  6. The normativity of clinical health care: perspectives on moral realism.

    PubMed

    Nortvedt, Per

    2012-06-01

    The paper argues that a particular version of moral realism constitutes an important basis for ethics in medicine and health care. Moral realism is the position that moral value is a part of the fabric of relational and interpersonal reality. But even though moral values are subject to human interpretations, they are not themselves the sole product of these interpretations. Moral values are not invented but discovered by the subject. Moral realism argues that values are open to perception and experience and that moral subjectivity must be portrayed in how moral values are discovered and perceived by the human subject. Moral values may exist independent of the particular subject's interpretative evaluations as a part of reality. This epistemological point about normativity is particularly significant in medical care and in health care. The clinician perceives moral value in the clinical encounter in a way that is important for competent clinical understanding. Clinical understanding in medical care and health care bears on the encounter with moral values in the direct and embodied relations to patients, with their experiences of illness and their vulnerabilities. Good clinical care is then partly conditioned upon adequate understanding of such moral realities.

  7. Integrated and Gender-Affirming Transgender Clinical Care and Research.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Radix, Asa; Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-08-15

    Transgender (trans) communities worldwide, particularly those on the trans feminine spectrum, are disproportionately burdened by HIV infection and at risk for HIV acquisition/transmission. Trans individuals represent an underserved, highly stigmatized, and under-resourced population not only in HIV prevention efforts but also in delivery of general primary medical and clinical care that is gender affirming. We offer a model of gender-affirmative integrated clinical care and community research to address and intervene on disparities in HIV infection for transgender people. We define trans terminology, briefly review the social epidemiology of HIV infection among trans individuals, highlight gender affirmation as a key social determinant of health, describe exemplar models of gender-affirmative clinical care in Boston MA, New York, NY, and San Francisco, CA, and offer suggested "best practices" for how to integrate clinical care and research for the field of HIV prevention. Holistic and culturally responsive HIV prevention interventions must be grounded in the lived realities the trans community faces to reduce disparities in HIV infection. HIV prevention interventions will be most effective if they use a structural approach and integrate primary concerns of transgender people (eg, gender-affirmative care and management of gender transition) alongside delivery of HIV-related services (eg, biobehavioral prevention, HIV testing, linkage to care, and treatment). PMID:27429189

  8. Rural nurse specialists: clinical practice and the politics of care.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ruth P

    2008-01-01

    Doctor flight from rural areas is an international phenomenon that places great pressure on primary health care delivery. In New Zealand, the response to these empty doctors' surgeries has been the introduction of nurse-led rural health clinics that have attracted controversy both in the media and from urban-based doctors over whether such nurse-led care is a direct substitution of medical care. This article analyzes the reflections of nurses working in some of these clinics who suggest that their situation is more complex than a direct substitution of labor. Although the nurses indicate some significant pressures moving them closer to the work of doctoring, they actively police this cross-boundary work and labor simultaneously to shore up their nursing identities. My own conclusions support their assertions. I argue that it is the maintenance of a holistic professional habitus that best secures their professional identity as nurses while they undertake the cross-boundary tasks of primary rural health care. There are clear professional benefits and disadvantages for the nurses in these situations, which make the positions highly politicized. These recurring divisions of labor within medical care giving and the elaboration of new types of care worker form an appropriate although neglected topic of study for anthropologists. The study of the social organization of clinical medicine is much enriched by paying closer attention to its interaction with allied health professions and their associated understandings of "good" care.

  9. A national evaluation of specialists' clinics in primary care settings.

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, A; Bond, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encouraged by the increased purchasing power of general practitioners (GPs), specialist-run clinics in general practice and community health care settings (known as specialist outreach clinics) have increased rapidly across England. The activities of local commissioning schemes within primary care groups are likely to accelerate this trend. AIM: To evaluate the costs, processes, and benefits of specialists' outreach clinics held in GPs' surgeries, compared with hospital outpatient clinics. DESIGN OF STUDY: A case-referent (comparative) study comparing the characteristics of outreach clinics (cases) with matched outpatient control clinics. SETTING: Thirty-eight outreach clinics, compared with 38 matched outpatient clinics as controls, covering 14 hospital trust areas across England. METHOD: Self-administered questionnaires were given to patients in both clinic settings. These covered processes, satisfaction, personal costs, and health status, with postal follow-up at six months to assess health outcomes. Self-administered questionnaires were also given to the specialists and GPs whose clinics were included in the study (individual patient clinical sheet and an attitude questionnaire), practice managers, and trust accountants (process and costs questionnaire). Evaluation of the costs, processes, and benefits of specialist outreach clinics versus hospital outpatient clinics was carried out by comparing questionnaire responses. RESULTS: In comparison with outpatients, outreach clinic patients spent less time on the waiting lists for appointments to see the specialist, they had shorter waiting times in clinics, fewer follow-up appointments, and were more likely to be completely discharged after the sampled attendance. Outreach patients were more satisfied than outpatients with the range of clinic process items asked about. Most doctors felt that the outreach clinic was 'worthwhile'. While patients' personal costs were lower in outreach than in outpatients

  10. Caring--the work of the clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, K M; Lucke, K T

    1990-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) to quality patient care is important for educators and administrators as they plan for the care of patients in an increasingly complex health care system. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical practice of CNSs as reported by practicing CNSs. Grounded theory methodology was used in collecting and analyzing the data. The subjects consisted of a theoretical sample of 17 Master's prepared CNSs who had functioned in the role of the CNS for a minimum of 1 year, and three recorded case studies from the literature. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by the principle investigator. Using the constant comparative method, the data were line-coded and clustered to form groups of data that could be labeled as constructs. When theoretical saturation was reached, no further interviews were conducted. The investigators proposed that caring was the basic social psychological process (BSP), which was validated in a literature review. Scientific caring included investigating and teaching. Humanistic caring included creating-the-new, showing-the-way, working-with-others, and taking-care-of-the-environment. CNSs took care of the caretakers as well as the patients and their families.

  11. Implementing distress management guidelines in ambulatory oncology: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Hammelef, Karen J; Friese, Christopher R; Breslin, Tara M; Riba, Michelle; Schneider, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Distress assessment and referral to psychosocial services is an essential component of evidence-based oncologic nursing care. Oncology nurses have an opportunity to address patient distress needs through leadership of implementation programs and support for the positive outcomes that engaging in psychosocial services provides. This quality improvement project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and utility of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network's distress management clinical practice guidelines in ambulatory oncology. A theoretical framework guided the process design that included staff education, screening, and management in a cohort implementation project with historical control. PMID:24480661

  12. [Clinical bioethics for primary health care].

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, L

    2013-01-01

    The clinical decision making process with ethical implications in the area of primary healthcare differs from other healthcare areas. From the ethical perspective it is important to include these issues in the decision making model. This dissertation explains the need for a process of bioethical deliberation for Primary Healthcare, as well as proposing a method for doing so. The decision process method, adapted to this healthcare area, is flexible and requires a more participative Healthcare System. This proposal involves professionals and the patient population equally, is intended to facilitate the acquisition of responsibility for personal and community health.

  13. [Clinical bioethics for primary health care].

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, L

    2013-01-01

    The clinical decision making process with ethical implications in the area of primary healthcare differs from other healthcare areas. From the ethical perspective it is important to include these issues in the decision making model. This dissertation explains the need for a process of bioethical deliberation for Primary Healthcare, as well as proposing a method for doing so. The decision process method, adapted to this healthcare area, is flexible and requires a more participative Healthcare System. This proposal involves professionals and the patient population equally, is intended to facilitate the acquisition of responsibility for personal and community health. PMID:23608158

  14. Development of a clinical data warehouse from an intensive care clinical information system.

    PubMed

    de Mul, Marleen; Alons, Peter; van der Velde, Peter; Konings, Ilse; Bakker, Jan; Hazelzet, Jan

    2012-01-01

    There are relatively few institutions that have developed clinical data warehouses, containing patient data from the point of care. Because of the various care practices, data types and definitions, and the perceived incompleteness of clinical information systems, the development of a clinical data warehouse is a challenge. In order to deal with managerial and clinical information needs, as well as educational and research aims that are important in the setting of a university hospital, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands, developed a data warehouse incrementally. In this paper we report on the in-house development of an integral part of the data warehouse specifically for the intensive care units (ICU-DWH). It was modeled using Atos Origin Metadata Frame method. The paper describes the methodology, the development process and the content of the ICU-DWH, and discusses the need for (clinical) data warehouses in intensive care.

  15. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects.

  16. Identification of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by ambulatory electrocardiography: clinical evaluation of time-domain and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianling; Li, Xiaoying; Guo, Jihong; Han, Fang; Zhang, Haicheng

    2011-04-01

    The application of ambulatory electrocardiography to identify obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients was evaluated using time-domain and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV). For this, overnight sleep pattern was investigated in 95 individuals (48 OSAS(+) patients and 47 OSAS(-) controls) by polysomnography and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. Apnea scores were calculated using two different HRV analyses. Average age and body mass index, and percentages of men and of patients with history of hypertension and/or diabetes were higher in study group as compared with control group. PNN50(night), SDNNI(day-night) and SDNNI(day-night) in time-domain analysis were more sensitive than other indices. In frequency-domain analysis, mean night-time total power, night-time VLF power, night-time LF power, and the difference between these measures in day and night were significantly higher in study group. LF/HF ratio was also significantly higher in study group in day-time or night-time with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between day and night. At sleep apnea risk score >4, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were, respectively, 81.25, 46.81, and 64.21%. At sleep apnea risk scores >5, 6, or 7, the specificity increased, while the sensitivity and positive predictive value decreased. In conclusion, time-domain and frequency-domain HRV analyses are useful methods for OSAS screening, and the frequency-domain analysis is more sensitive.

  17. Use of aspirin for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients in an ambulatory care setting in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Fernández-de-Bobadilla, Jaime; Frías-Garrido, Xavier; Ruiz-Riera, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Background This study was conducted in order to determine the use of aspirin and to assess the achievement of therapeutic targets in diabetic patients according to primary (PP) or secondary prevention (SP). Methods This is a retrospective, observational study including patients ≥18 years with diabetes mellitus followed in four primary care centers. Measurements included demographics, use of aspirin and/or anticoagulant drugs, co-morbidities, clinical parameters and proportion of patient at therapeutic target (TT). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression model were used for significance. Results A total of 4,140 patients were analyzed, 79.1% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 77.7–80.5%) in PP and 20.9% (95% CI: 18.2–23.7%) in SP. Mean age was 64.1 (13.8) years, and 49.3% of patient were men (PP: 46.3, SP: 60.7, p = 0.001). Aspirin was prescribed routinely in 20.8% (95% CI: 19.4–22.2%) in PP and 60.8% (95% CI: 57.6–64.0%) in SP. Proportion of patient at TT was 48.0% for blood pressure and 59.8% for cholesterol. Use of aspirin was associated to increased age [OR = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00–1.02); p = 0.011], cardiovascular-risk factors [OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03–1.27); p = 0.013], LDL-C [OR = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06–1.88); p = 0.017] and higher glycated hemoglobin [OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22–1.89); p = 0.000] were covariates associated to the use of aspirin in PP. Conclusion Treatment with aspirin is underused for PP in patients with diabetes mellitus in Primary Care. Achievement of TT should be improved. PMID:17941978

  18. Providing care to transgender persons: a clinical approach to primary care, hormones, and HIV management.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Transgender (TG) persons have had historically difficult interactions with health care providers, leading to limited care and risks for a broad spectrum of health problems. This is of particular concern for TG persons with or at risk for HIV infection. This article discusses care providers' roles in establishing TG-friendly clinical care sites; conducting appropriate and thorough physical examinations for TG patients; managing hormones, especially in conjunction with antiretroviral therapy; and engaging TG persons in education about prevention and treatment of HIV. PMID:20363651

  19. Ethical Behaviours in Clinical Practice Among Mexican Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Lavielle, Pilar; Bedolla, Miguel; Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cultural domain of ethical behaviours in clinical practice as defined by health care providers in Mexico. Structured interviews were carried out with 500 health professionals employed at the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The Smith Salience Index was used to evaluate the relevance of concepts gathered from the free listings of the interviewees. Cluster analysis and factor analysis facilitated construction of the conceptual categories, which the authors refer to as ‘dimensions of ethical practice’. Six dimensions emerged from the analysis to define the qualities that comprise ethical clinical practice for Mexican health care providers: overall quality of clinical performance; working conditions that favour quality of care; use of ethical considerations as prerequisites for any health care intervention; values favouring teamwork in the health professional–patient relationship; patient satisfaction scores; and communication between health care providers and patients. The findings suggest that improved working conditions and management practices that promote the values identified by the study’s participants would help to improve quality of care. PMID:18849364

  20. Teaching and learning care--exploring nursing students' clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Heggen, Kristin M

    2010-01-01

    Care has always been a key element of nursing. This paper presents findings from research on the following issue: What opportunities and limitations do nursing students encounter when learning nursing care? The study has a qualitative design with field methodology and the study of documents. Six nursing students have been closely monitored during their clinical studies in hospitals, nursing homes and home-based nursing. The study shows that nursing students are likely to possess the potential to provide care for sick and unknown people. The motivation for their commitment to patients may contain an egoistical orientation and runs contrary to former ideals of the nurse's self-sacrificing altruism. Moreover the study shows that there is a potential in the clinical field and in the university college to reflective considerations on experience of care. While clinical practice often has focus on practical problem-solving and procedures, the college tends to focus on abstract theory. Both of these promote the privatisation and neglect of the students' experience of care. The paper concludes with a call for teaching and learning strategies targeting the use of nursing students' personal experience of care.

  1. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects. PMID:27022315

  2. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects. PMID:27022315

  3. The Madison Clinic: Evaluation of a collaborative outpatient paediatric palliative care clinic

    PubMed Central

    Siden, Harold; Straatman, Lynn; Miller, Tanice; Ham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND A multidisciplinary outpatient clinic at a tertiary care children’s hospital supported and staffed by a children’s hospice was created to enhance and expand the inpatient palliative care services available to families of children with life-limiting conditions. This clinic was created with input from clinicians, program leaders and families in developing the goals and format. METHOD The clinic was evaluated with indicators that included program data from palliative care consultations. This information was collected and recorded on a prospective basis. RESULTS In the first 29 months of operation, 43 clinics were held, 39 individual patients were seen and there were 59 visits. The majority of visits were for pain and symptom management (75%), while 20% were for assessment for the hospice program. The hospice-palliative care team also provided telephone support, videoconference support and inpatient consultations. Patients reported overall satisfaction with their experiences at the clinic. DISCUSSION A major benefit of this outpatient palliative care clinic is its ability to offer continuity of care for patients and their families. It also serves as a preliminary introduction to palliative care, particularly significant for families who are not yet ready to learn about or engage in the full hospice program. PMID:20592973

  4. Costing nursing care: using the clinical care classification system to value nursing intervention in an acute-care setting.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jacqueline; Saba, Virginia

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine an established methodology for coding nursing interventions and action types using the Clinical Care Classification System with a reliable formula (relative value units) to cost nursing services. Using a flat per-diem rate to cost nursing care greatly understates the actual costs and fails to address the high levels of variability within and across units. We observed nurses performing commonly executed nursing interventions and recorded these into an electronic database with corresponding Clinical Care Classification System codes. The duration of these observations was used to calculate intervention costs using relative value unit calculation formulas. The costs of the five most commonly executed interventions were nursing care coordination/manage-refer ($2.43), nursing status report/assess-monitor ($4.22), medication treatment/perform-direct ($6.33), physical examination/assess-monitor ($3.20), and universal precautions/perform-direct ($1.96). Future studies across a variety of nursing specialties and units are needed to validate the relative value unit for Clinical Care Classification System action types developed for use with the Clinical Care Classification System nursing interventions as a method to cost nursing care.

  5. Fundamentals of randomized clinical trials in wound care: reporting standards.

    PubMed

    Brölmann, Fleur E; Eskes, Anne M; Sumpio, Bauer E; Mayer, Dieter O; Moore, Zena; Agren, Magnus S; Hermans, Michel; Cutting, Keith; Legemate, Dink A; Vermeulen, Hester; Ubbink, Dirk T

    2013-01-01

    In wound care research, available high-level evidence according to the evidence pyramid is rare, and is threatened by a poor study design and reporting. Without comprehensive and transparent reporting, readers will not be able to assess the strengths and limitations of the research performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are universally acknowledged as the study design of choice for comparing treatment effects. To give high-level evidence the appreciation it deserves in wound care, we propose a step-by-step reporting standard for comprehensive and transparent reporting of RCTs in wound care. Critical reporting issues (e.g., wound care terminology, blinding, predefined outcome measures, and a priori sample size calculation) and wound-specific barriers (e.g., large diversity of etiologies and comorbidities of patients with wounds) that may prevent uniform implementation of reporting standards in wound care research are addressed in this article. The proposed reporting standards can be used as guidance for authors who write their RCT, as well as for peer reviewers of journals. Endorsement and application of these reporting standards may help achieve a higher standard of evidence and allow meta-analysis of reported wound care data. The ultimate goal is to help wound care professionals make better decisions for their patients in clinical practice.

  6. Facilitators and barriers to implementing clinical care pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The promotion of care pathways in the recent Governmental health policy reports of Lord Darzi is likely to increase efforts to promote the use of care pathways in the NHS. Evidence on the process of pathway implementation, however, is sparse and variations in how organisations go about the implementation process are likely to be large. This paper summarises what is known about factors which help or hinder clinicians in adopting and putting care pathways into practice, and which consequently promote or hinder the implementation of scientific evidence in clinical practice. Discussion Care pathways can provide patients with clear expectations of their care, provide a means of measuring patient's progress, promote teamwork on a multi-disciplinary team, facilitate the use of guidelines, and may act as a basis for a payment system. In order to achieve adequate implementation, however, facilitators and barriers must be considered, planned for, and incorporated directly into the pathway with full engagement among clinical and management staff. Barriers and/or facilitators may be present at each stage of development, implementation and evaluation; and, barriers at any stage can impede successful implementation. Important considerations to be made are ensuring the inclusion of all types of staff, plans for evaluating and incorporating continuous improvements, allowing for organisational adaptations and promoting the use of multifaceted interventions. Summary Although there is a dearth of information regarding the successful implementation of care pathways, evidence is available which may be applied when implementing a care pathway. Multifaceted interventions which incorporate all staff and facilitate organisational adaptations must be seriously considered and incorporated alongside care pathways in a continuous manner. In order to better understand the mechanism upon which care pathways are effective, however, more research specifically addressing conditions under

  7. Ambulatory Surgery for Pilonidal Sinus: Tract Excision and Open Treatment Followed by At-Home Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yutaro; Nagae, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a cystic disease that occurs most often in the sacrococcygeal region. Surgical excision and coverage with a skin flap require postoperative bed rest. Most affected patients are young adults who find it difficult to obtain adequate postoperative bed rest owing to their work. The purpose of this study is to review the effectiveness of our ambulatory surgery procedure for pilonidal sinus, which involves tract excision and open treatment followed by at-home irrigation. We reviewed the 9 cases of chronic pilonidal sinus treated at our out-patient clinic by ambulatory surgery consisting of open excision without skin closure. Patients were sent home after careful observation for hemostasis at the surgical site. Postoperative wound treatment and irrigation were performed at home by the patients themselves. The mean immediate postoperative follow-up period was 22.3 days (13 to 31 days), and the mean number of follow-up visits was 3.3. No serious complication and recurrence was noted during the long-term follow-up period of 26.3 months (1 to 60 months). Although the healing time following our ambulatory procedure was not short, no postoperative rest was required, and the recurrence rate was zero. We believe this procedure is useful for selected patients with pilonidal sinus. J. Med. Invest. 63: 216-218, August, 2016. PMID:27644561

  8. Biomedical and psychosocial determinants of psychiatric morbidity among postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Akechi, T; Okuyama, T; Imoto, S; Yamawaki, S; Uchitomi, Y

    2001-02-01

    There has been much interest in the psychosocial issues faced by breast cancer patients because of the high prevalence of the disease and the severe psychological impact of the cancer itself, as well as its treatment. The objective of our study was to investigate the determinants of psychiatric morbidity among postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients. The variables examined included the patients' biomedical characteristics, demographic characteristics, current concerns, coping responses and social support factors. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale (MAC scale), and information pertaining to demographic variables, current concerns and social support factors was obtained by a specially designed questionnaire. Available data were obtained from 148 randomly selected postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (including clinical anxiety and depression) evaluated by using the HADS cut-off point was 23%. The results of univariate analyses indicated that pain, dyspnea, having children with health problems, various other concerns (about children, other family members, the patients' own health and future treatment) and poor coping responses (low fighting spirit, high anxious preoccupation, high fatalism and high helplessness/hopelessness) were significant determinants of the patients' psychiatric morbidity. Additionally, in the logistic regression analysis, having children with health problems and having a low fighting spirit and a high helplessness/hopelessness were final significant determinants. Postoperative ambulatory breast cancer patients with these problems should be given careful attention, and psychosocial intervention may be beneficial for them.

  9. Patient care simulations: role playing to enhance clinical understanding.

    PubMed

    Comer, Shirley K

    2005-01-01

    Role-play techniques can serve as an effective substitute for, and supplement to, simulation technology when teaching clinical nursing skills. They provide risk-free opportunities to practice clinical skills and develop clinical judgment. A two-phase patient care simulation, performed in real time, is described. Students are presented with a scenario and work cooperatively in role-playing appropriate care, with one student using a prepared script to assume the role of patient. The class functions as a resource for four students who assume the nursing role. Students reported increased understanding of course material as a result of participation in the clinical simulation scenario. Faculty observed a decreased failure rate on the corresponding course examination.

  10. The evolution of ambulatory ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Harold L

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring has undergone continuous technological evolution since its invention and development in the 1950s era. With commercial introduction in 1963, there has been an evolution of Holter recorders from 1 channel to 12 channel recorders with increasingly smaller storage media, and there has evolved Holter analysis systems employing increasingly technologically advanced electronics providing a myriad of data displays. This evolution of smaller physical instruments with increasing technological capacity has characterized the development of electronics over the past 50 years. Currently the technology has been focused upon the conventional continuous 24 to 48 hour ambulatory ECG examination, and conventional extended ambulatory monitoring strategies for infrequent to rare arrhythmic events. However, the emergence of the Internet, Wi-Fi, cellular networks, and broad-band transmission has positioned these modalities at the doorway of the digital world. This has led to an adoption of more cost-effective strategies to these conventional methods of performing the examination. As a result, the emergence of the mobile smartphone coupled with this digital capacity is leading to the recent development of Holter smartphone applications. The potential of point-of-care applications utilizing the Holter smartphone and a vast array of new non-invasive sensors is evident in the not too distant future. The Holter smartphone is anticipated to contribute significantly in the future to the field of global health. PMID:24215744

  11. Interprofessional primary care in academic family medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Neil; Abbott, Karen; Williamson, Tyler; Somji, Behnaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the status and processes of interprofessional work environments and the implications for interprofessional education in a sample of family medicine teaching clinics. Design Focus group interviews using a purposive sampling procedure. Setting Four academic family medicine clinics in Alberta. Participants Seven family physicians, 9 registered nurses, 5 licensed practical nurses, 2 residents, 1 psychologist, 1 informatics specialist, 1 pharmacist, 1 dietitian, 1 nurse practitioner, 1 receptionist, and 1 respiratory therapist. Methods Assessment of clinic status and performance in relation to established principles of interprofessional work and education was explored using semistructured focus group interviews. Main findings Our data supported the D’Amour and Oandasan model of successful interprofessional collaborative practice in terms of the model’s main “factors” (ie, shared goals and vision, sense of belonging, governance, and the structuring of clinical care) and their constituent “elements.” It is reasonable to conclude that the extent to which these factors and elements are both present and positively oriented in academic clinic settings is an important contributory factor to the establishment of interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care. Using this model, 2 of the 4 clinics were rated as expressing substantial progress in relation to interprofessional work, while the other 2 clinics were rated as less successful on that dimension. None of the clinics was identified as having a clear and explicit focus on providing interprofessional education. Conclusion The key factor in relation to the implementation of interprofessional work in primary care appears to be the existence of clear and explicit leadership in that direction. Substantial scope exists for improvement in the organization, conduct, and promotion of interprofessional education for Canadian primary care. PMID:22893347

  12. Standardized Cardiovascular Data for Clinical Research, Registries, and Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H. Vernon; Weintraub, William S.; Radford, Martha J.; Kremers, Mark S.; Roe, Matthew T.; Shaw, Richard E.; Pinchotti, Dana M.; Tcheng, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been focused on standardization of data exchange in clinical research studies and patient care activities. Both are usually managed locally using separate and generally incompatible data systems at individual hospitals or clinics. In the past decade there have been nascent efforts to create data standards for clinical research and patient care data, and to some extent these are helpful in providing a degree of uniformity. Nevertheless these data standards generally have not been converted into accepted computer-based language structures that could permit reliable data exchange across computer networks. The National Cardiovascular Research Infrastructure (NCRI) project was initiated with a major objective of creating a model framework for standard data exchange in all clinical research, clinical registry, and patient care environments, including all electronic health records. The goal is complete syntactic and semantic interoperability. A Data Standards Workgroup was established to create or identify and then harmonize clinical definitions for a base set of standardized cardiovascular data elements that could be used in this network infrastructure. Recognizing the need for continuity with prior efforts, the Workgroup examined existing data standards sources. A basic set of 353 elements was selected. The NCRI staff then collaborated with the two major technical standards organizations in healthcare, the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium and Health Level 7 International, as well as with staff from the National Cancer Institute Enterprise Vocabulary Services. Modeling and mapping were performed to represent (instantiate) the data elements in appropriate technical computer language structures for endorsement as an accepted data standard for public access and use. Fully implemented, these elements will facilitate clinical research, registry reporting, administrative reporting and regulatory compliance, and patient care. PMID

  13. Clinical trials and oral care R&D.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of hydrogen peroxide whitening strips in 2000 has contributed to new paradigms for treatment and expanded interest in tooth whitening. Clinical trials played a prominent role in the whitening strip research and development process. Four case studies from the whitening strip development program are used to review the fundamentals of clinical trials design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation as part of new product development in oral care.

  14. [Individualised care plan during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A clinical case].

    PubMed

    Call Mañosa, S; Pujol Garcia, A; Chacón Jordan, E; Martí Hereu, L; Pérez Tejero, G; Gómez Simón, V; Estruga Asbert, A; Gallardo Herrera, L; Vaquer Araujo, S; de Haro López, C

    2016-01-01

    An individualised care plan is described for a woman diagnosed with pneumonia, intubated, and on invasive mechanical ventilation, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A nursing care plan was designed based on Marjory Gordon functional patterns. The most important nursing diagnoses were prioritised, using a model of clinical reasoning model (Analysis of the current status) and NANDA taxonomy. A description is presented on, death anxiety, impaired gas exchange, decreased cardiac output, dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility, risk for disuse syndrome, infection risk, and bleeding risk. The principal objectives were: to reduce the fear of the family, achieve optimal respiratory and cardiovascular status, to maintain gastrointestinal function, to avoid immobility complications, and to reduce the risk of infection and bleeding. As regards activities performed: we gave family support; correct management of the mechanical ventilation airway, cardio-respiratory monitoring, skin and nutritional status; control of possible infections and bleeding (management of therapies, care of catheters…). A Likert's scale was used to evaluate the results, accomplishing all key performance indicators which were propose at the beginning. Individualised care plans with NNN taxonomy using the veno-venous ECMO have not been described. Other ECMO care plans have not used the same analysis model. This case can help nurses to take care of patients subjected to veno-venous ECMO treatment, although more cases are needed to standardise nursing care using NANDA taxonomy.

  15. The work of a clinical psychologist in primary care.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M

    1978-11-01

    The data presented suggest that general practitioners would be likely to refer a large number of patients with diverse problems to clinical psychologists working in health centres. Compared with a centrally organized clinical psychology service, the work of the primary care psychologist is likely to offer the following advantages:1. Access to psychological help for patients with a need for such help, but who could not attend a central clinic owing to problems associated with travel, work, physical disability, or even a presenting problem such as agoraphobia.2. Greater continuity of care of patients.3. Increased communication between the psychologist and members of the primary care teams.4. Possibility of the psychologist seeing the patient earlier, before the problems have become entrenched.5. Less need for referral to other agencies.6. Reduced stigma for the patient.7. Development of new therapeutic approaches relevant to problems presenting in primary care.8. More flexible and more relevant therapy due to seeing the patients in their home setting.9. Greater therapeutic involvement of the patient's family.10. Reduced costs and inconvenience for the patient's family.11. Reduced administrative and ambulance service costs.While these points do not overcome the need for a formal evaluation of the work of psychologists in primary care, they do suggest that there are advantages in this type of service over the services which are currently available and that a full evaluation would be worth undertaking.

  16. Doctoral Clinical Geropsychology Training in a Primary Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Richard A.; Siegel, Lawrence; Hahn, Steven; Kuslansky, Gail; Byrne, Kathy; Fyffe, Denise; Passman, Vicki; Stewart, Douglas; Hinrichsen, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Most older adults diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment in primary care settings that lack personnel skilled in geropsychological diagnosis and treatment. The Ferkauf Older Adult Program of Yeshiva University endeavors to bridge this gap by providing training in geriatric psychology, through coursework and diverse clinical practica,…

  17. Perspectives on clinical informatics: integrating large-scale clinical, genomic, and health information for clinical care.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population.

  18. Perspectives on Clinical Informatics: Integrating Large-Scale Clinical, Genomic, and Health Information for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K.

    2013-01-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population. PMID:24465229

  19. The DIAMOND initiative: implementing collaborative care for depression in 75 primary care clinics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The many randomized trials of the collaborative care model for improving depression in primary care have not described the implementation and maintenance of this model. This paper reports how and the degree to which collaborative care process changes were implemented and maintained for the 75 primary care clinics participating in the DIAMOND Initiative (Depression Improvement Across Minnesota–Offering a New Direction). Methods Each clinic was trained to implement seven components of the model and participated in ongoing evaluation and facilitation activities. For this study, assessment of clinical process implementation was accomplished via completion of surveys by the physician leader and clinic manager of each clinic site at three points in time. The physician leader of each clinic completed a survey measure of the presence of various practice systems prior to and one and two years after implementation. Clinic managers also completed a survey of organizational readiness and the strategies used for implementation. Results Survey response rates were 96% to 100%. The systems survey confirmed a very high degree of implementation (with large variation) of DIAMOND depression practice systems (mean of 24.4 ± 14.6%) present at baseline, 57.0 ± 21.0% at one year (P = <0.0001), and 55.9 ± 21.3% at two years. There was a similarly large increase (and variation) in the use of various quality improvement strategies for depression (mean of 29.6 ± 28.1% at baseline, 75.1 ± 22.3% at one year (P = <0.0001), and 74.6 ± 23.0% at two years. Conclusions This study demonstrates that under the right circumstances, primary care clinics that are prepared to implement evidence-based care can do so if financial barriers are reduced, effective training and facilitation are provided, and the new design introduces the specific mental models, new care processes, and workers and expertise that are needed. Implementation was associated with a

  20. Ancillary Care: From Theory to Practice in International Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2013-07-01

    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. This article describes how the provision of ancillary care can link international clinical research to the reduction of global health disparities. It identifies the ancillary care obligations supported by a theory of global justice, showing that Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm requires the delivery of ancillary care to trial participants for a limited subset of conditions that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Empirical research on the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit's (SMRU) vivax malaria treatment trial was then undertaken to demonstrate whether and how these obligations might be upheld in a resource-poor setting. Our findings show that fulfilment of the ancillary care obligations is feasible where there is commitment from chief investigators and funders and is strongly facilitated by SMRU's dual role as a research unit and medical non-governmental organization. PMID:23864908

  1. Ancillary Care: From Theory to Practice in International Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2013-07-01

    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. This article describes how the provision of ancillary care can link international clinical research to the reduction of global health disparities. It identifies the ancillary care obligations supported by a theory of global justice, showing that Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm requires the delivery of ancillary care to trial participants for a limited subset of conditions that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Empirical research on the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit's (SMRU) vivax malaria treatment trial was then undertaken to demonstrate whether and how these obligations might be upheld in a resource-poor setting. Our findings show that fulfilment of the ancillary care obligations is feasible where there is commitment from chief investigators and funders and is strongly facilitated by SMRU's dual role as a research unit and medical non-governmental organization.

  2. Ancillary Care: From Theory to Practice in International Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2013-01-01

    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. This article describes how the provision of ancillary care can link international clinical research to the reduction of global health disparities. It identifies the ancillary care obligations supported by a theory of global justice, showing that Jennifer Ruger’s health capability paradigm requires the delivery of ancillary care to trial participants for a limited subset of conditions that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Empirical research on the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit’s (SMRU) vivax malaria treatment trial was then undertaken to demonstrate whether and how these obligations might be upheld in a resource-poor setting. Our findings show that fulfilment of the ancillary care obligations is feasible where there is commitment from chief investigators and funders and is strongly facilitated by SMRU’s dual role as a research unit and medical non-governmental organization. PMID:23864908

  3. Managing hypertension with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    White, William B; Gulati, Vinay

    2015-02-01

    There has been a dramatic shift in the manner in which blood pressure (BP) is measured to provide far more comprehensive clinical information than that provided by a single set of office BP readings. Extensive clinical and epidemiological research shows an important role of ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in the management of hypertensive patients. A 24-h BP profile helps to determine the absence of nocturnal dipping status and evaluate BP control in patients on antihypertensive therapy. The ability to detect white-coat or masked hypertension is enhanced by ambulatory BP monitoring. In 2001, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services approved ABPM for reimbursement for the identification of patients with white-coat hypertension. In 2011, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK published guidelines that recommended the routine use of ABPM in all patients suspected of having hypertension. The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) 2013 guidelines also support greater use of ABPM in clinical practice. While the advantages of ABPM are apparent from a clinical perspective, its use should be considered in relation to its cost, the complexity of data evaluation, as well as patient inconvenience. In this review, we evaluate the clinical importance of ABPM, highlighting its role in the current management of hypertension.

  4. [How can the patient's home be changed into a work place for the nurse? Interaction theoretical note on the role of the professional nurse in ambulatory care].

    PubMed

    Wiese, M

    1995-09-01

    In home-care-situations nurses are confronted with the special problem of changing the house of the patients into a nurse's place of work and to play at this "stage" the role of professional nurses. The role-theory of Goffman is the background to outline some structural barriers for the performance of this role. In such and other care-giving-situations the nurse must be able to keep a necessary amount of role-distance, to regain professional autonomy.

  5. Predictors of exercise participation in ambulatory and non-ambulatory older people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Chelsea; Wallack, Elizabeth M.; Drodge, Olivia; Beaulieu, Serge; Mayo, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Exercise at moderate intensity may confer neuroprotective benefits in multiple sclerosis (MS), however it has been reported that people with MS (PwMS) exercise less than national guideline recommendations. We aimed to determine predictors of moderate to vigorous exercise among a sample of older Canadians with MS who were divided into ambulatory (less disabled) and non-ambulatory (more disabled) groups. Methods. We analysed data collected as part of a national survey of health, lifestyle and aging with MS. Participants (n = 743) were Canadians over 55 years of age with MS for 20 or more years. We identified ‘a priori’ variables (demographic, personal, socioeconomic, physical health, exercise history and health care support) that may predict exercise at moderate to vigorous intensity (>6.75 metabolic equivalent hours/week). Predictive variables were entered into stepwise logistic regression until best fit was achieved. Results. There was no difference in explanatory models between ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups. The model predicting exercise included the ability to walk independently (OR 1.90, 95% CI [1.24–2.91]); low disability (OR 1.50, 95% CI [1.34–1.68] for each 10 point difference in Barthel Index score), perseverance (OR 1.17, 95% CI [1.08–1.26] for each additional point on the scale of 0–14), less fatigue (OR 2.01, 95% CI [1.32–3.07] for those in the lowest quartile), fewer years since MS diagnosis (OR 1.58, 95% CI [1.11–2.23] below the median of 23 years) and fewer cardiovascular comorbidities (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.02–2.35] one or no comorbidities). It was also notable that the factors, age, gender, social support, health care support and financial status were not predictive of exercise. Conclusions. This is the first examination of exercise and exercise predictors among older, more disabled PwMS. Disability is a major predictor of exercise participation (at moderate to vigorous levels) in both ambulatory and non-ambulatory

  6. Predictors of exercise participation in ambulatory and non-ambulatory older people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ploughman, Michelle; Harris, Chelsea; Wallack, Elizabeth M; Drodge, Olivia; Beaulieu, Serge; Mayo, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Exercise at moderate intensity may confer neuroprotective benefits in multiple sclerosis (MS), however it has been reported that people with MS (PwMS) exercise less than national guideline recommendations. We aimed to determine predictors of moderate to vigorous exercise among a sample of older Canadians with MS who were divided into ambulatory (less disabled) and non-ambulatory (more disabled) groups. Methods. We analysed data collected as part of a national survey of health, lifestyle and aging with MS. Participants (n = 743) were Canadians over 55 years of age with MS for 20 or more years. We identified 'a priori' variables (demographic, personal, socioeconomic, physical health, exercise history and health care support) that may predict exercise at moderate to vigorous intensity (>6.75 metabolic equivalent hours/week). Predictive variables were entered into stepwise logistic regression until best fit was achieved. Results. There was no difference in explanatory models between ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups. The model predicting exercise included the ability to walk independently (OR 1.90, 95% CI [1.24-2.91]); low disability (OR 1.50, 95% CI [1.34-1.68] for each 10 point difference in Barthel Index score), perseverance (OR 1.17, 95% CI [1.08-1.26] for each additional point on the scale of 0-14), less fatigue (OR 2.01, 95% CI [1.32-3.07] for those in the lowest quartile), fewer years since MS diagnosis (OR 1.58, 95% CI [1.11-2.23] below the median of 23 years) and fewer cardiovascular comorbidities (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.02-2.35] one or no comorbidities). It was also notable that the factors, age, gender, social support, health care support and financial status were not predictive of exercise. Conclusions. This is the first examination of exercise and exercise predictors among older, more disabled PwMS. Disability is a major predictor of exercise participation (at moderate to vigorous levels) in both ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups suggesting

  7. Awareness of the Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad Program and Education Regarding Pharmaceutical Advertising: A National Survey of Prescribers in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Aikin, Kathryn J; Geisen, Emily; Betts, Kevin R; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad program educates health care professionals about false or misleading advertising and marketing and provides a pathway to report suspect materials. To assess familiarity with this program and the extent of training about pharmaceutical marketing, a sample of 2,008 health care professionals, weighted to be nationally representative, responded to an online survey. Approximately equal numbers of primary care physicians, specialists, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners answered questions concerning Bad Ad program awareness and its usefulness, as well as their likelihood of reporting false or misleading advertising, confidence in identifying such advertising, and training about pharmaceutical marketing. Results showed that fewer than a quarter reported any awareness of the Bad Ad program. Nonetheless, a substantial percentage (43%) thought it seemed useful and 50% reported being at least somewhat likely to report false or misleading advertising in the future. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants expressed more openness to the program and reported receiving more training about pharmaceutical marketing. Bad Ad program awareness is low, but opportunity exists to solicit assistance from health care professionals and to help health care professionals recognize false and misleading advertising. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants are perhaps the most likely contributors to the program.

  8. Awareness of the Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad Program and Education Regarding Pharmaceutical Advertising: A National Survey of Prescribers in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Aikin, Kathryn J; Geisen, Emily; Betts, Kevin R; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad program educates health care professionals about false or misleading advertising and marketing and provides a pathway to report suspect materials. To assess familiarity with this program and the extent of training about pharmaceutical marketing, a sample of 2,008 health care professionals, weighted to be nationally representative, responded to an online survey. Approximately equal numbers of primary care physicians, specialists, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners answered questions concerning Bad Ad program awareness and its usefulness, as well as their likelihood of reporting false or misleading advertising, confidence in identifying such advertising, and training about pharmaceutical marketing. Results showed that fewer than a quarter reported any awareness of the Bad Ad program. Nonetheless, a substantial percentage (43%) thought it seemed useful and 50% reported being at least somewhat likely to report false or misleading advertising in the future. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants expressed more openness to the program and reported receiving more training about pharmaceutical marketing. Bad Ad program awareness is low, but opportunity exists to solicit assistance from health care professionals and to help health care professionals recognize false and misleading advertising. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants are perhaps the most likely contributors to the program. PMID:26176326

  9. Provider practice models in ambulatory oncology practice: analysis of productivity, revenue, and provider and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Lori A; Ponte, Patricia Reid; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2009-07-01

    Physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants often work in teams to deliver cancer care in ambulatory oncology practices. This is likely to become more prevalent as the demand for oncology services rises, and the number of providers increases only slightly.

  10. [Nursing care of clients in an abortion clinic].

    PubMed

    Corstiaensen, J; Kruiswijk, C

    1981-08-25

    The nursing care of clients visiting an abortion clinic for induced abortion is discussed. Generally good care of patients, psychosocially as well as somatically, is essential. For clients in an abortion clinic it is important that psychosocial care is optimal and technical procedures are medically responsible. The initial contact is very important to the client because first impressions of the clinic can be significant in the further course of the entire treatment. Both nurse and doctor are usually involved in the admission interview and preliminary examination. After the physician's anamnesis and internal examination to determine gestational age, patient and doctor determine future contraception. Both abortion and contraception problems are discussed and the treatment procedure explained. It is important to recognize possible patient coercion or ambivalence in which case the client is sometimes advised to think things over. The actual intervention is generally fairly short, from 5 to 15 minutes. The abortion can be emotionally taxing for the client. The nurse's role in providing reassurance and understanding is important. 30 to 60 minutes following intervention the patient can go home. Follow-up, usually 3-5 weeks after intervention, is the final phase of treatment. During this check-up and internal examination the client can discuss her experience and progress in contraception. Case studies are included giving insight into the background of abortion seekers. Abortion clinic nurses must possess specific characteristics and attitudes, such as: 1) a nonjudgmental attitude towards sexuality and induced abortion; 2) empathy in her relationship with clients; 3) personal warmth and ability to help client overcome fear; 4) ability to discuss sexuality and abortion sympathetically; 5) assessment of possible interpersonal relational problems of client; 6) ability to relate to and understand different ethnic groups; 7) be informed on contraceptive methods and agents; and 8

  11. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on preoperative selection of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea scheduled for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Girish P; Ankichetty, Saravanan P; Gan, Tong J; Chung, Frances

    2012-11-01

    The suitability of ambulatory surgery for a patient with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains controversial because of concerns of increased perioperative complications including postdischarge death. Therefore, a Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia task force on practice guidelines developed a consensus statement for the selection of patients with OSA scheduled for ambulatory surgery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Although the studies evaluating perioperative outcome in OSA patients undergoing ambulatory surgery are sparse and of limited quality, they do provide useful information that can guide clinical practice. Patients with a known diagnosis of OSA and optimized comorbid medical conditions can be considered for ambulatory surgery, if they are able to use a continuous positive airway pressure device in the postoperative period. Patients with a presumed diagnosis of OSA, based on screening tools such as the STOP-Bang questionnaire, and with optimized comorbid conditions, can be considered for ambulatory surgery, if postoperative pain can be managed predominantly with nonopioid analgesic techniques. On the other hand, OSA patients with nonoptimized comorbid medical conditions may not be good candidates for ambulatory surgery. What other guidelines are available on this topic? The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) practice guidelines for management of surgical patients with OSA published in 2006. Why was this guideline developed? The ASA guidelines are outdated because several recent studies provide new information such as validated screening tools for clinical diagnosis of OSA and safety of ambulatory laparoscopic bariatric surgery in OSA patients. Therefore, an update on the selection of patients with OSA undergoing ambulatory surgery is warranted. How does this guideline differ from existing guidelines? Unlike the ASA guidelines, this

  12. Surgical Site Infections Following Pediatric Ambulatory Surgery: An Epidemiologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rinke, Michael L; Jan, Dominique; Nassim, Janelle; Choi, Jaeun; Choi, Steven J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify surgical site infection (SSI) rates following pediatric ambulatory surgery, SSI outcomes and risk factors, and sensitivity and specificity of SSI administrative billing codes. DESIGN Retrospective chart review of pediatric ambulatory surgeries with International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for SSI, and a systematic random sampling of 5% of surgeries without SSI ICD-9 codes, all adjudicated for SSI on the basis of an ambulatory-adapted National Healthcare Safety Network definition. SETTING Urban pediatric tertiary care center April 1, 2009-March 31, 2014. METHODS SSI rates and sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 codes were estimated using sampling design, and risk factors were analyzed in case-rest of cohort, and case-control, designs. RESULTS In 15,448 pediatric ambulatory surgeries, 34 patients had ICD-9 codes for SSI and 25 met the adapted National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. One additional SSI was identified with systematic random sampling. The SSI rate following pediatric ambulatory surgery was 2.9 per 1,000 surgeries (95% CI, 1.2-6.9). Otolaryngology surgeries demonstrated significantly lower SSI rates compared with endocrine (P=.001), integumentary (P=.001), male genital (P<.0001), and respiratory (P=.01) surgeries. Almost half of patients with an SSI were admitted, 88% received antibiotics, and 15% returned to the operating room. No risk factors were associated with SSI. The sensitivity of ICD-9 codes for SSI following ambulatory surgery was 55.31% (95% CI, 12.69%-91.33%) and specificity was 99.94% (99.89%-99.97%). CONCLUSIONS SSI following pediatric ambulatory surgery occurs at an appreciable rate and conveys morbidity on children. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:931-938.

  13. Dignity in care in the clinical setting: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yea-Pyng; Watson, Roger; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2013-03-01

    This review aimed to explore nursing literature and research on dignity in care of inpatients and to evaluate how the care patients received in the hospital setting was related to perceived feelings of being dignified or undignified. Studies conducted between 2000 and 2010 were considered, using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and MEDLINE, and the search terms 'patient dignity', 'dignity in care', 'human dignity and nursing' and 'dignity and nursing ethics'. Findings revealed, from the perspectives of nurses and patients, that dignity in care in the hospital setting is seen to be influenced by physical environment, staff attitude and behaviour, organisational culture and patient independence. This review can help nurses to better understand dignity in care, and for policy makers, there are implications about determining the physical environment, staff attitude and behaviour and organisational culture needed to promote patient dignity in nursing. By identifying the most important factors from patients' and nurses' perspectives that contribute to dignity in care, nursing interventions, such as campaigns and education in clinical practice, can be developed.

  14. The impact of remifentanil on incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a university hospital-based ambulatory surgery center: a retrospective observation study

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Risa; Sato, Masami; Tanabe, Hiroko; Yazawa, Tomoko; Habara, Toshie; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Ambulatory surgery, including short-stay surgery, has become a common choice in clinical practice. For the success of ambulatory surgery, perioperative care with safe and effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, which can reduce the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), is essential. The effect of remifentanil on the occurrence and severity of PONV has not been thoroughly examined, particularly, in an ambulatory surgery setting. Here, we investigate whether remifentanil influences the occurrence and severity of PONV in a university hospital-based ambulatory unit. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a total of 1,765 cases of patients who had undergone general anesthesia at our ambulatory surgery unit. Parameters, such as occurrence and severity of nausea, vomiting or retching, use of antiemetic drugs, amount of postoperative analgesic and patient satisfaction, were extracted from the records and analyzed between the groups that received and not received remifentanil. Results Within 565 patients of the RF group, 39 patients (6.6%) experienced nausea, 7 patients (1.2%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 10 patients (1.8%) were given antiemetic; in addition, the maximum VAS value for nausea was 12.1 mm. In 1,200 patients of the non RF group, 102 patients (8.5%) experienced nausea, 19 patients (1.6%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 34 patients (2.8%) were given antiemetic, and the maximum VAS value was 13.2 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions Our results indicate that remifentanil did not increase the occurrence of PONV in patients within the ambulatory surgery unit. PMID:24023997

  15. Treating Addictions: Harm Reduction in Clinical Care and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Ernest; Anderson, Kenneth; Haemmig, Robert; Heimer, Robert; Small, Dan; Walley, Alex; Wood, Evan; van Beek, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the role of clinical practitioners and clinical researchers internationally in establishing the utility of harm-reduction approaches to substance use. It thus illustrates the potential for clinicians to play a pivotal role in health promoting structural interventions based on harm-reduction goals and public health models. Popular media images of drug use as uniformly damaging, and abstinence as the only acceptable goal of treatment, threaten to distort clinical care away from a basis in evidence, which shows that some ways of using drugs are far more harmful than others and that punitive approaches and insistence on total abstinence as the only goal of treatment often increases the harms of drug use rather than reducing drug use. Therefore the leadership and scientific authority of clinicians who understand the health impact of harm-reduction strategies is needed. Through a review of harm-reduction interventions in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, we identify three ways that clinicians have helped to achieve a paradigm shift from punitive approaches to harm-reduction principles in clinical care and in drug policy: (1) through clinical research to provide data establishing the effectiveness and feasibility of harm-reduction approaches, (2) by developing innovative clinical programmes that employ harm reduction, and thereby (3) changing the standard of care to include routine use of these evidence-based (but often misunderstood) approaches in their practices. We argue that through promotion of harm-reduction goals and methods, clinicians have unique opportunities to improve the health outcomes of vulnerable populations. PMID:27112489

  16. Do Automated Peritoneal Dialysis and Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Have the Same Clinical Outcomes? A Ten-year Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Fang, Te-Chao; Huang, Siao-Yuan; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Chia-Chen; Sue, Yuh-Mou

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive comparison for mortality and technique failure rates between automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in Taiwan. A propensity-score matched cohort study was conducted by retrieving APD and CAPD patients identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2001 and 2010. The main outcomes were the 5-year mortality and technique failure rates. Further analyses were then carried out based upon the first (2001–2004), second (2005–2007), and third (2008–2010) sub-periods. Similar baseline characteristics were identified for APD (n = 2,287) and CAPD (n = 2,287) patients. The proportion on APD therapy increased rapidly in the second sub-period. As compared to CAPD patients of this sub-period, APD patients had a significantly higher risk of mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI 1.09–1.72; p < 0.01) and technique failure (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.10–1.86; p < 0.01), particularly in the first year after peritoneal dialysis commencement. However, APD patients had similar mortality and technique failure rates to those of CAPD patients throughout the full sample period and the first and third sub-periods. These findings do not suggest the presence of a clear advantage of CAPD over APD. Differences observed between these two modalities might be attributed to specials circumstances of sub-periods. PMID:27388055

  17. Stories Patients Tell: The Role of Interpersonal Communication in Patients' Narratives on Memorable Health Care Encounters and Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    A content analysis examined the narratives of 3,868 patients at 6 health care institutions, who described critical incidents during hospitalization and ambulatory health care. Results indicated that from the patient perspective, assessments of quality have less to do with clinical and administrative quality, than with providers' communication…

  18. Ambulatory Monitoring in the Genetics of Psychosomatic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Patrick H.; Tennen, Howard; Thoemmes, Felix; Zautra, Alex J.; Davis, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychosomatic disorders are comprised of an array of psychological, biological, and environmental features. The existing evidence points to a role for genetic factors in explaining individual differences in the development and maintenance of a variety of disorders, but studies to date have not shown consistent and replicable effects. As such, the attempt to uncover individual differences in the expression of psychosomatic disorders as a function of genetic architecture requires careful attention to their phenotypic architecture, or the various intermediate phenotypes that make up a heterogeneous disorder. Ambulatory monitoring offers a novel approach to measuring time-variant and situation-dependent intermediate phenotypes. Recent examples of the use of ambulatory monitoring in genetic studies of stress reactivity, chronic pain, alcohol use disorders, and psychosocial resilience are reviewed in an effort to highlight the benefits of ambulatory monitoring for genetic study designs. PMID:22582332

  19. Challenges of pain control and the role of the ambulatory pain specialist in the outpatient surgery setting.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Kai, Alice M; Kodumudi, Vijay; Berger, Jack M

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory surgery is on the rise, with an unmet need for optimum pain control in ambulatory surgery centers worldwide. It is important that there is a proportionate increase in the availability of acute pain-management services to match the rapid rise of clinical patient load with pain issues in the ambulatory surgery setting. Focus on ambulatory pain control with its special challenges is vital to achieve optimum pain control and prevent morbidity and mortality. Management of perioperative pain in the ambulatory surgery setting is becoming increasingly complex, and requires the employment of a multimodal approach and interventions facilitated by ambulatory surgery pain specialists, which is a new concept. A focused ambulatory pain specialist on site at each ambulatory surgery center, in addition to providing safe anesthesia, could intervene early once problematic pain issues are recognized, thus preventing emergency room visits, as well as readmissions for uncontrolled pain. This paper reviews methods of acute-pain management in the ambulatory setting with risk stratification, the utilization of multimodal interventions, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological options, opioids, nonopioids, and various routes with the goal of preventing delayed discharge and unexpected hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery. Continued research and investigation in the area of pain management with outcome studies in acute surgically inflicted pain in patients with underlying chronic pain treated with opioids and the pattern and predictive factors for pain in the ambulatory surgical setting is needed. PMID:27382329

  20. Challenges of pain control and the role of the ambulatory pain specialist in the outpatient surgery setting

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Kai, Alice M; Kodumudi, Vijay; Berger, Jack M

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory surgery is on the rise, with an unmet need for optimum pain control in ambulatory surgery centers worldwide. It is important that there is a proportionate increase in the availability of acute pain-management services to match the rapid rise of clinical patient load with pain issues in the ambulatory surgery setting. Focus on ambulatory pain control with its special challenges is vital to achieve optimum pain control and prevent morbidity and mortality. Management of perioperative pain in the ambulatory surgery setting is becoming increasingly complex, and requires the employment of a multimodal approach and interventions facilitated by ambulatory surgery pain specialists, which is a new concept. A focused ambulatory pain specialist on site at each ambulatory surgery center, in addition to providing safe anesthesia, could intervene early once problematic pain issues are recognized, thus preventing emergency room visits, as well as readmissions for uncontrolled pain. This paper reviews methods of acute-pain management in the ambulatory setting with risk stratification, the utilization of multimodal interventions, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological options, opioids, nonopioids, and various routes with the goal of preventing delayed discharge and unexpected hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery. Continued research and investigation in the area of pain management with outcome studies in acute surgically inflicted pain in patients with underlying chronic pain treated with opioids and the pattern and predictive factors for pain in the ambulatory surgical setting is needed. PMID:27382329

  1. Challenges of pain control and the role of the ambulatory pain specialist in the outpatient surgery setting.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Kai, Alice M; Kodumudi, Vijay; Berger, Jack M

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory surgery is on the rise, with an unmet need for optimum pain control in ambulatory surgery centers worldwide. It is important that there is a proportionate increase in the availability of acute pain-management services to match the rapid rise of clinical patient load with pain issues in the ambulatory surgery setting. Focus on ambulatory pain control with its special challenges is vital to achieve optimum pain control and prevent morbidity and mortality. Management of perioperative pain in the ambulatory surgery setting is becoming increasingly complex, and requires the employment of a multimodal approach and interventions facilitated by ambulatory surgery pain specialists, which is a new concept. A focused ambulatory pain specialist on site at each ambulatory surgery center, in addition to providing safe anesthesia, could intervene early once problematic pain issues are recognized, thus preventing emergency room visits, as well as readmissions for uncontrolled pain. This paper reviews methods of acute-pain management in the ambulatory setting with risk stratification, the utilization of multimodal interventions, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological options, opioids, nonopioids, and various routes with the goal of preventing delayed discharge and unexpected hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery. Continued research and investigation in the area of pain management with outcome studies in acute surgically inflicted pain in patients with underlying chronic pain treated with opioids and the pattern and predictive factors for pain in the ambulatory surgical setting is needed.

  2. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on perioperative blood glucose management in diabetic patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Girish P; Chung, Frances; Vann, Mary Ann; Ahmad, Shireen; Gan, Tong J; Goulson, Daniel T; Merrill, Douglas G; Twersky, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    Optimal evidence-based perioperative blood glucose control in patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures remains controversial. Therefore, the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia has developed a consensus statement on perioperative glycemic management in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according the protocol recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. The consensus panel used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system for providing suggestions. It was revealed that there is insufficient evidence to provide strong recommendations for the posed clinical questions. In the absence of high-quality evidence, recommendations were based on general principles of blood glucose control in diabetics, drug pharmacology, and data from inpatient surgical population, as well as clinical experience and judgment. In addition, areas of further research were also identified.

  3. Interprofessional student-run primary health care clinics

    PubMed Central

    Pammett, Robert; Landry, Eric; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Interprofessional student-run primary health care clinics have been a flagship model of health professional education in Canada for many years. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is support for implementing this educational model in the United Kingdom and to highlight the implications for pharmacy education in Scotland. Method: A cross-sectional postal survey of 3000 randomly selected citizens of Aberdeen city and shire, Scotland, aged 18 years and older. Results: Of the 824 questionnaires that were returned (response rate 27.5%), more than half of the respondents (62.4%; n = 514) would consider accessing health care from a student-led, walk-in service. The range of services they expect to see includes general health checks (60%; n = 494), help for sexually transmitted diseases (57.5%; n = 474), weight management (56.8%; n = 468), smoking cessation (54.4%; n = 448) and drug misuse services (47.2%; n = 387). Concerns raised pertained to student ability, suitability for children and accessibility. Many comments pertained to the improvement of the current system by offering after-hours care. Discussion: The positive response from the general public towards an interprofessional student-run primary health care clinic in Aberdeen suggests that this Canadian model of interdisciplinary health professional education would likely be a successful addition to the pharmacy curriculum in Scotland. PMID:26150889

  4. Priority Setting and Influential Factors on Acceptance of Pharmaceutical Recommendations in Collaborative Medication Reviews in an Ambulatory Care Setting – Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (WestGem-Study)

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Olaf; Mennemann, Hugo; John, Carina; Lautenschläger, Marcus; Mertens-Keller, Damaris; Richling, Katharina; Waltering, Isabel; Hamacher, Stefanie; Felsch, Moritz; Herich, Lena; Czarnecki, Kathrin; Schaffert, Corinna; Jaehde, Ulrich; Köberlein-Neu, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication reviews are recognized services to increase quality of therapy and reduce medication risks. The selection of eligible patients with potential to receive a major benefit is based on assumptions rather than on factual data. Acceptance of interprofessional collaboration is crucial to increase the quality of medication therapy. Objective The research question was to identify and prioritize eligible patients for a medication review and to provide evidence-based criteria for patient selection. Acceptance of the prescribing general practitioner to implement pharmaceutical recommendations was measured and factors influencing physicians’ acceptance were explored to obtain an impression on the extent of collaboration in medication review in an ambulatory care setting. Methods Based on data of a cluster-randomized controlled study (WestGem-study), the correlation between patient parameters and the individual performance in a medication review was calculated in a multiple logistic regression model. Physician’s acceptance of the suggested intervention was assessed using feedback forms. Influential factors were analyzed. Results The number of drugs in use (p = 0.001), discrepancies between prescribed and used medicines (p = 0.014), the baseline Medication Appropriateness Index score (p<0.001) and the duration of the intervention (p = 0.006) could be identified as influential factors for a major benefit from a medication review, whereas morbidity (p>0.05) and a low kidney function (p>0.05) do not predetermine the outcome. Longitudinal patient care with repeated reviews showed higher interprofessional acceptance and superior patient benefit. A total of 54.9% of the recommendations in a medication review on drug therapy were accepted for implementation. Conclusions The number of drugs in use and medication reconciliation could be a first rational step in patient selection for a medication review. Most elderly, multimorbid patients with polymedication

  5. Video capture of clinical care to enhance patient safety.

    PubMed

    Weinger, M B; Gonzales, D C; Slagle, J; Syeed, M

    2004-04-01

    Experience from other domains suggests that videotaping and analyzing actual clinical care can provide valuable insights for enhancing patient safety through improvements in the process of care. Methods are described for the videotaping and analysis of clinical care using a high quality portable multi-angle digital video system that enables simultaneous capture of vital signs and time code synchronization of all data streams. An observer can conduct clinician performance assessment (such as workload measurements or behavioral task analysis) either in real time (during videotaping) or while viewing previously recorded videotapes. Supplemental data are synchronized with the video record and stored electronically in a hierarchical database. The video records are transferred to DVD, resulting in a small, cheap, and accessible archive. A number of technical and logistical issues are discussed, including consent of patients and clinicians, maintaining subject privacy and confidentiality, and data security. Using anesthesiology as a test environment, over 270 clinical cases (872 hours) have been successfully videotaped and processed using the system.

  6. Clinical features and multidisciplinary approaches to dementia care

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Jacob HG; Caspar, Sienna; MacDonald, Stuart WS

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome of widespread progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities and normal daily functioning. These cognitive and behavioral impairments pose considerable challenges to individuals with dementia, along with their family members and caregivers. Four primary dementia classifications have been defined according to clinical and research criteria: 1) Alzheimer’s disease; 2) vascular dementias; 3) frontotemporal dementias; and 4) dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s disease dementia. The cumulative efforts of multidisciplinary healthcare teams have advanced our understanding of dementia beyond basic descriptions, towards a more complete elucidation of risk factors, clinical symptoms, and neuropathological correlates. The characterization of disease subtypes has facilitated targeted management strategies, advanced treatments, and symptomatic care for individuals affected by dementia. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge and directions of dementia research and clinical practice. We provide a description of the risk factors, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis of dementia. A summary of multidisciplinary team approaches to dementia care is outlined, including management strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairments, functional deficits, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The needs of individuals with dementia are extensive, often requiring care beyond traditional bounds of medical practice, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management interventions. Finally, advanced research on the early prodromal phase of dementia is reviewed, with a focus on change-point models, trajectories of cognitive change, and threshold models of pathological burden. Future research goals are outlined, with a call to action for social policy initiatives that promote preventive lifestyle behaviors, and healthcare programs that will support the growing number of individuals affected by

  7. Characterizing Primary Care Visit Activities at Veterans Health Administration Clinics.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jennifer C; Terwiesch, Christian; Pelak, Mary; Pettit, Amy R; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Medical home models seek to increase efficiency and maximize the use of resources by ensuring that all care team members work at the top of their licenses. We sought to break down primary care office visits into measurable activities to better under stand how primary care providers (PCPs) currently spend visit time and to provide insight into potential opportunities for revision or redistribution of healthcare tasks. We videotaped 27 PCPs during office visits with 121 patients at four Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Based on patterns emerging from the data, we identified a taxonomy of 12 provider activity categories that enabled us to quantify the frequency and duration of activities occurring during routine primary care visits. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine associations between visit characteristics and provider and clinic characteristics. We found that PCPs spent the greatest percentage of their visit time discussing existing conditions (20%), discussing new conditions (18%), record keeping (13%), and examining patients (13%). Providers spent the smallest percentage of time on preventive care and coordination of care. Mean visit length was 22.9 minutes (range 7.9-58.0 minutes). Site-level ratings of medical home implementation were not associated with differences in how visit time was spent. These data provide a window into how PCPs are spending face-to-face time with patients. The methodology and taxonomy presented here may prove useful for future quality improvement and research endeavors, particularly those focused on opportunities to increase nonappointment care and to ensure that team members work at the top of their skill level.

  8. Clinical governance: bridging the gap between managerial and clinical approaches to quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Buetow, S. A.; Roland, M.

    1999-01-01

    Clinical governance has been introduced as a new approach to quality improvement in the UK national health service. This article maps clinical governance against a discussion of the four main approaches to measuring and improving quality of care: quality assessment, quality assurance, clinical audit, and quality improvement (including continuous quality improvement). Quality assessment underpins each approach. Whereas clinical audit has, in general, been professionally led, managers have driven quality improvement initiatives. Quality assurance approaches have been perceived to be externally driven by managers or to involve professional inspection. It is discussed how clinical governance seeks to bridge these approaches. Clinical governance allows clinicians in the UK to lead a comprehensive strategy to improve quality within provider organisations, although with an expectation of greatly increased external accountability. Clinical governance aims to bring together managerial, organisational, and clinical approaches to improving quality of care. If successful, it will define a new type of professionalism for the next century. Failure by the professions to seize the opportunity is likely to result in increasingly detailed external control of clinical activity in the UK, as has occurred in some other countries. PMID:10847876

  9. Volunteering for Clinical Trials Can Help Improve Health Care for Everyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Volunteering for Clinical Trials Can Help Improve Health Care for Everyone Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of ... Research / Volunteering for Clinical Trials Can Help Improve Health Care for Everyone Fall 2010 Issue: Volume 5 Number ...

  10. Impact of patient satisfaction ratings on physicians and clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Miller, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although patient satisfaction ratings often drive positive changes, they may have unintended consequences. Objective The study reported here aimed to evaluate the clinician-perceived effects of patient satisfaction ratings on job satisfaction and clinical care. Methods A 26-item survey, developed by a state medical society in 2012 to assess the effects of patient satisfaction surveys, was administered online to physician members of a state-level medical society. Respondents remained anonymous. Results One hundred fifty five physicians provided responses (3.9% of the estimated 4,000 physician members of the state-level medical society, or approximately 16% of the state’s emergency department [ED] physicians). The respondents were predominantly male (85%) and practicing in solo or private practice (45%), hospital (43%), or academia (15%). The majority were ED (57%), followed by primary care (16%) physicians. Fifty-nine percent reported that their compensation was linked to patient satisfaction ratings. Seventy-eight percent reported that patient satisfaction surveys moderately or severely affected their job satisfaction; 28% had considered quitting their job or leaving the medical profession. Twenty percent reported their employment being threatened because of patient satisfaction data. Almost half believed that pressure to obtain better scores promoted inappropriate care, including unnecessary antibiotic and opioid prescriptions, tests, procedures, and hospital admissions. Among 52 qualitative responses, only three were positive. Conclusion These pilot-level data suggest that patient satisfaction survey utilization may promote, under certain circumstances, job dissatisfaction, attrition, and inappropriate clinical care among some physicians. This is concerning, especially in the context of the progressive incorporation of patient satisfaction ratings as a quality-of-care metric, and highlights the need for a rigorous evaluation of the optimal methods

  11. Improving COPD Care in a Medically Underserved Primary Care Clinic: A Qualitative Study of Patient Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Irene; Wang, Fei; Reardon, Jane; Vergara, Cunegundo D; Salvietti, Ralph; Acevedo, Myrtha; Santana, Blanca; Fortunato, Gil

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a focus group study in an urban hospital-based primary care teaching clinic serving an indigent and Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) population in New England in order to learn how patients with Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) perceive their disease, how they experience their medical care, and the barriers they face managing their disease and following medical recommendations. The research team included medical doctors, nurses, a medical anthropologist, a clinical pharmacist, a hospital interpreter, and a systems analyst. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish and English in April and May 2014. The demographic characteristics of the 25 focus group participants closely reflected the demographics of the total COPD clinic patients. The participants were predominantly female (72%) and Hispanic (72%) and had a median age of 63. The major themes expressed in the focus groups included: problems living with COPD; coping with complexities of comorbid illnesses; challenges of quitting smoking and maintaining cessation; dealing with second-hand smoke; beliefs and myths about quitting smoking; difficulty paying for and obtaining medications; positive experiences obtaining and managing medications; difficulties in using sleep machines at home; expressions of disappointment with the departure of their doctors; and overall satisfaction with the clinic health care providers. The study led to the creation of an action plan that addresses the concerns expressed by the focus study participants. The action plan is spearheaded by a designated bilingual and bicultural nurse and is now in operation.

  12. Improving COPD Care in a Medically Underserved Primary Care Clinic: A Qualitative Study of Patient Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Irene; Wang, Fei; Reardon, Jane; Vergara, Cunegundo D; Salvietti, Ralph; Acevedo, Myrtha; Santana, Blanca; Fortunato, Gil

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a focus group study in an urban hospital-based primary care teaching clinic serving an indigent and Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) population in New England in order to learn how patients with Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) perceive their disease, how they experience their medical care, and the barriers they face managing their disease and following medical recommendations. The research team included medical doctors, nurses, a medical anthropologist, a clinical pharmacist, a hospital interpreter, and a systems analyst. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish and English in April and May 2014. The demographic characteristics of the 25 focus group participants closely reflected the demographics of the total COPD clinic patients. The participants were predominantly female (72%) and Hispanic (72%) and had a median age of 63. The major themes expressed in the focus groups included: problems living with COPD; coping with complexities of comorbid illnesses; challenges of quitting smoking and maintaining cessation; dealing with second-hand smoke; beliefs and myths about quitting smoking; difficulty paying for and obtaining medications; positive experiences obtaining and managing medications; difficulties in using sleep machines at home; expressions of disappointment with the departure of their doctors; and overall satisfaction with the clinic health care providers. The study led to the creation of an action plan that addresses the concerns expressed by the focus study participants. The action plan is spearheaded by a designated bilingual and bicultural nurse and is now in operation. PMID:26807853

  13. [Certification of an ambulatory gastroenterologic service fulfilling ISO Law 9001--criteria and national guidelines of the Gastroenterologic Association].

    PubMed

    Birkner, B

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of certification and accreditation are the deployment and examination of quality improvement measures in health care services. The quality management system of the ISO 9001 is created to install measures and tools leading to assured and improved quality in health care. Only some experiences with certification fulfilling ISO 9001 criteria exist in the German health care system. Evidence-based clinical guidelines can serve as references for the development of standards in quality measurement. Only little data exists on the implementation strategy of guidelines and evaluation, respectively. A pilot quality management system in consistence with ISO 9001 criteria was developed for ambulatory, gastroenterological services. National guidelines of the German Society of Gastroenterology and Metabolism and the recommendations of the German Association of Physicians for quality assurance of gastrointestinal endoscopy were included in the documentation and internal auditing. This pilot quality management system is suitable for the first steps in the introduction of quality management in ambulatory health care. This system shows validity for accreditation and certification of gastrointestinal health care units as well.

  14. [Certification of an ambulatory gastroenterologic service fulfilling ISO Law 9001--criteria and national guidelines of the Gastroenterologic Association].

    PubMed

    Birkner, B

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of certification and accreditation are the deployment and examination of quality improvement measures in health care services. The quality management system of the ISO 9001 is created to install measures and tools leading to assured and improved quality in health care. Only some experiences with certification fulfilling ISO 9001 criteria exist in the German health care system. Evidence-based clinical guidelines can serve as references for the development of standards in quality measurement. Only little data exists on the implementation strategy of guidelines and evaluation, respectively. A pilot quality management system in consistence with ISO 9001 criteria was developed for ambulatory, gastroenterological services. National guidelines of the German Society of Gastroenterology and Metabolism and the recommendations of the German Association of Physicians for quality assurance of gastrointestinal endoscopy were included in the documentation and internal auditing. This pilot quality management system is suitable for the first steps in the introduction of quality management in ambulatory health care. This system shows validity for accreditation and certification of gastrointestinal health care units as well. PMID:11084717

  15. Multidisciplinary care in cystic fibrosis: a clinical-nutrition review.

    PubMed

    Haack, A; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R

    2012-01-01

    The multidisciplinary care, at different referral centers of cystic fibrosis, is aimed at monitoring and treating cystic fibrosis patients. Mortality attributed to this hereditary disease is high, since it affects the exocrine glands, involving multiple organs, and evolves in a chronic, progressive way. However, systemized care and the improved, shared understanding of gastroenterologists, nutritionists and pulmonologists, contribute to prolonged survival and abated morbimortality. The aim of this study is to describe the main aspects of clinical and nutritional intervention in cystic fibrosis patients so that monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is optimized and performed as early as possible. The review was carried out on articles indexed in the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Current Contents and Cochrane databases, finding 189 articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with emphasis on articles published between 2000 and 2011. Due to the scientific relevant contribution, some publications before 2000 were included totalized 77 related to the multidisciplinary care. The reviewed studies suggest that multidisciplinary care is essential for knowledge integration in order to impose permanent update of scientific information, thereby contributing to the development of intervention strategies that enhance survival and motivate the development of skills to cope with the complex treatment regimen that is necessary for cystic fibrosis treatment and prevention of related complications.

  16. Multidisciplinary care in cystic fibrosis: a clinical-nutrition review.

    PubMed

    Haack, A; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R

    2012-01-01

    The multidisciplinary care, at different referral centers of cystic fibrosis, is aimed at monitoring and treating cystic fibrosis patients. Mortality attributed to this hereditary disease is high, since it affects the exocrine glands, involving multiple organs, and evolves in a chronic, progressive way. However, systemized care and the improved, shared understanding of gastroenterologists, nutritionists and pulmonologists, contribute to prolonged survival and abated morbimortality. The aim of this study is to describe the main aspects of clinical and nutritional intervention in cystic fibrosis patients so that monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is optimized and performed as early as possible. The review was carried out on articles indexed in the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Current Contents and Cochrane databases, finding 189 articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with emphasis on articles published between 2000 and 2011. Due to the scientific relevant contribution, some publications before 2000 were included totalized 77 related to the multidisciplinary care. The reviewed studies suggest that multidisciplinary care is essential for knowledge integration in order to impose permanent update of scientific information, thereby contributing to the development of intervention strategies that enhance survival and motivate the development of skills to cope with the complex treatment regimen that is necessary for cystic fibrosis treatment and prevention of related complications. PMID:22732957

  17. Caring For Evidence: Research and Care in an Obesity Outpatient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Felder, Kay; Felt, Ulrike; Penkler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in bariatric surgery rates. This form of obesity treatment is often subjected to the critique that it turns patients into passive objects of medical intervention. Similarly, efforts to 'rationalize' medicine, as in evidence-based medicine, are sometimes denounced for imposing a 'one-size-fits-all' approach that neglects patient diversity. We argue that these critiques fail to do justice to the complexities of actual care situations. In our ethnographic study of a project for bariatric pre- and aftercare, we show how research protocols not only close down but also open up spaces for patient-centered care. Despite professional cautions, experiences of stigma and broader imaginations of biomedical care often lead patients to embrace surgery as a treatment conceptualized as a technological fix. We argue that investigations of how research and clinical practice intertwine need to be both empirically grounded and sensitive to wider societal contexts. PMID:26457655

  18. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  19. Exploring the leadership role of the clinical nurse specialist on an inpatient palliative care consulting team.

    PubMed

    Stilos, Kalli; Daines, Pat

    2013-03-01

    Demand for palliative care services in Canada will increase owing to an aging population and the evolving role of palliative care in non-malignant illness. Increasing healthcare demands continue to shape the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role, especially in the area of palliative care. Clinical nurse specialists bring specialized knowledge, skills and leadership to the clinical setting to enhance patient and family care. This paper highlights the clinical leadership role of the CNS as triage leader for a hospital-based palliative care consulting team. Changes to the team's referral and triage processes are emphasized as key improvements to team efficiency and timely access to care for patients and families.

  20. American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical expert statement on cancer survivorship care planning.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Deborah K; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Snyder, Claire F; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2014-11-01

    The seminal report from the Institute of Medicine, "From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition," identified four essential components of survivorship care and recommended that a survivorship care plan (SCP), consisting of a treatment summary and follow-up care plan, be developed and used as a tool to deliver patient-centered care by enhancing communication between the oncology team and the patient as well as communication and coordination of care between the oncology team and the primary care provider (PCP). Nearly a decade ago, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) initiated a series of activities to promote chemotherapy treatment plans and summaries and SCPs. Unfortunately, there has been limited success in implementing SCPs in oncology practice because of barriers including, but not limited to, the time-consuming process of completing an SCP, lack of role clarity, and lack of reimbursement for preparation time. ASCO developed this statement and revised template to provide a framework for completing and sharing SCPs and to set clear expectations for survivorship care planning in the oncology setting. This statement is intended to help clinicians recognize the importance of developing patient-centered SCPs and delivering the information to both the patient and PCP and to identify barriers that may exist in completing and delivering these documents effectively.

  1. Progressing the utilisation of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Trent, Ronald J; Cheong, Pak Leng; Chua, Eng Wee; Kennedy, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    Understanding human genetic variation and how it impacts on gene function is a major focus in genomic-based research. Translation of this knowledge into clinical care is exemplified by pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. The identification of particular gene variants that might influence drug uptake, metabolism, distribution or excretion promises a more effective personalised medicine approach in choosing the right drug or its dose for any particular individual. Adverse drug responses can then be avoided or mitigated. An understanding of germline or acquired (somatic) DNA mutations can also be used to identify drugs that are more likely to be therapeutically beneficial. This represents an area of growing interest in the treatment of cancer.

  2. Preceptors as Teachers: A Guide to Clinical Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Neal A.; Schwenk, Thomas L.

    A preceptorship model of clinical teaching for medical education is presented. Based on the view that physicians use precepting skills in patient care, preceptorship is seen as an opportunity for medical students to learn to practice ambulatory medicine away from the medical center. A model called "Johari Window" is adapted to explain the…

  3. Utilizing ambulatory blood pressure recordings to evaluate antihypertensive drug therapy.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1992-04-30

    Until recently, the efficacy and pharmacodynamics of antihypertensive agents were assessed by resting blood pressure measurements in the doctor's office or a research clinic. The limitations of the office or clinic blood pressure measurement include the lack of representation (from recording only 1 point of time in the dosing schedule), the effects of the doctor's office on the patient's blood pressure, and, perhaps more relevant, observer bias. Ambulatory monitoring of the blood pressure has gained worldwide acceptance as an alternative method to assess antihypertensive drug efficacy and the time-effect relation of a drug. The ambulatory monitoring devices have been refined and are smaller, more precise, and more reliable than earlier recording models. Although there are no reference standards for analysis of ambulatory blood pressure data, international consensus groups are presently addressing this problem. Key roles for ambulatory blood pressure recordings in clinical trials of antihypertensive agents now include determination of the entry criteria for patients, improving the assessment of peak/trough pharmacodynamics in the patient's own environment (including nocturnal/sleep readings), and evaluating efficacy through calculation of the hypertensive burden, or blood pressure load. PMID:1575177

  4. Intelligent artifact classification for ambulatory physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kevin T; Leamy, Darren J; Ward, Tomas E; McLoone, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Connected health represents an increasingly important model for health-care delivery. The concept is heavily reliant on technology and in particular remote physiological monitoring. One of the principal challenges is the maintenance of high quality data streams which must be collected with minimally intrusive, inexpensive sensor systems operating in difficult conditions. Ambulatory monitoring represents one of the most challenging signal acquisition challenges of all in that data is collected as the patient engages in normal activities of everyday living. Data thus collected suffers from considerable corruption as a result of artifact, much of it induced by motion and this has a bearing on its utility for diagnostic purposes. We propose a model for ambulatory signal recording in which the data collected is accompanied by labeling indicating the quality of the collected signal. As motion is such an important source of artifact we demonstrate the concept in this case with a quality of signal measure derived from motion sensing technology viz. accelerometers. We further demonstrate how different types of artifact might be tagged to inform artifact reduction signal processing elements during subsequent signal analysis. This is demonstrated through the use of multiple accelerometers which allow the algorithm to distinguish between disturbance of the sensor relative to the underlying tissue and movement of this tissue. A brain monitoring experiment utilizing EEG and fNIRS is used to illustrate the concept.

  5. [Quality in ambulatory medicine].

    PubMed

    Raetzo, M A

    2001-11-01

    The perspectives of the insurance companies, medical associations and practitioners about quality in outpatient care are different. After a brief discussion of each of these views, a proposal for quality improvement through continuous medical education is presented. It applies to the doctor-patient relationship, the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and the handling of uncertainty. Practically, simulations can help the physicians to understand the theory behind continuous quality improvement and apply it to the process of outpatient care.

  6. Can district nurses and care home staff improve bowel care for older people using a clinical benchmarking tool?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Claire; L Davies, Sue; Norton, Christine; Fader, Mandy; Morris, Jackie; Wells, Mandy; Gage, Heather

    2013-12-01

    A quasi-experimental study tested a clinical benchmarking tool (Essence of Care) to improve bowel-related care for older people living in six care homes. In the intervention care homes, district nurses and care home staff used the clinical benchmarking tool to discuss and plan how to improve bowel care for residents. In the control care homes, staff were provided with detailed information about the residents and continence services contact details. The intervention was acceptable to care home and district nursing staff, and possible to incorporate into existing working patterns. The study did not demonstrate a significant reduction in bowel-related problems, although there was evidence in one care home of reduction in episodes of avoidable faecal incontinence. At an individual level of care, there were observable benefits, and examples of person-centred care were prompted through participating in the intervention and improved staff awareness. Clinical benchmarking tools can be used to structure discussion between district nurses and care home staff to review and plan care for residents. However, it takes time to achieve change and embedding this kind of approach requires either robust pre-existing working relationships or the involvement of a facilitator.

  7. [Ethics in clinical practice and in health care].

    PubMed

    Pintor, S; Mennuni, G; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Giarrusso, P; Serio, A; Fraioli, A

    2015-01-01

    The clinical ethics is the identification, analysis and solution of moral problems that can arise during the care of a patient. Given that when dealing with ethical issues in health care some risks will be encountered (talking about ethics in general, or as a problem overlapped with others in this area, or by delegation to legislative determinations) in the text certain important aspects of the topic are examined. First of all ethics as human quality of the relationship between people for the common good, especially in health services where there are serious problems like the life and the health. It is also necessary a "humanizing relationship" between those who work in these services in order to achieve quality and efficiency in this business. It is important a proper training of health professionals, especially doctors, so that they can identify the real needs and means of intervention. It is also important that scientific research must respect fundamental ethical assumptions. In conclusion, ethics in health care is not a simple matter of "cookbook" rules, but involves the responsibility and consciousness of individual operators.

  8. Quality-of-care standards for early arthritis clinics.

    PubMed

    Ivorra, José Andrés Román; Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lázaro, Pablo; Navarro, Federico; Fernandez-Nebro, Antonio; de Miguel, Eugenio; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loreto

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of early arthritis is associated with improved patient outcomes. One way to achieve this is by organising early arthritis clinics (EACs). The objective of this project was to develop standards of quality for EACs. The standards were developed using the two-round Delphi method. The questionnaire, developed using the best-available scientific evidence, includes potentially relevant items describing the dimensions of quality of care in the EAC. The questionnaire was completed by 26 experts (physicians responsible for the EACs in Spain and chiefs of the rheumatology service in Spanish hospitals). Two hundred and forty-four items (standards) describing the quality of the EAC were developed, grouped by the following dimensions: (1) patient referral to the EAC; (2) standards of structure for an EAC; (3) standards of process; (4) relation between primary care physicians and the EAC; (5) diagnosis and assessment of early arthritis; (6) patient treatment and follow-up in the EAC; (7) research and training in an EAC; and (8) quality of care perceived by the patient. An operational definition of early arthritis was also developed based on eight criteria. The standards developed can be used to measure/establish the requirements, resources, and processes that EACs have or should have to carry out their treatment, research, and educational activities. These standards may be useful to health professionals, patient associations, and health authorities.

  9. Quality-of-care standards for early arthritis clinics.

    PubMed

    Ivorra, José Andrés Román; Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lázaro, Pablo; Navarro, Federico; Fernandez-Nebro, Antonio; de Miguel, Eugenio; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loreto

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of early arthritis is associated with improved patient outcomes. One way to achieve this is by organising early arthritis clinics (EACs). The objective of this project was to develop standards of quality for EACs. The standards were developed using the two-round Delphi method. The questionnaire, developed using the best-available scientific evidence, includes potentially relevant items describing the dimensions of quality of care in the EAC. The questionnaire was completed by 26 experts (physicians responsible for the EACs in Spain and chiefs of the rheumatology service in Spanish hospitals). Two hundred and forty-four items (standards) describing the quality of the EAC were developed, grouped by the following dimensions: (1) patient referral to the EAC; (2) standards of structure for an EAC; (3) standards of process; (4) relation between primary care physicians and the EAC; (5) diagnosis and assessment of early arthritis; (6) patient treatment and follow-up in the EAC; (7) research and training in an EAC; and (8) quality of care perceived by the patient. An operational definition of early arthritis was also developed based on eight criteria. The standards developed can be used to measure/establish the requirements, resources, and processes that EACs have or should have to carry out their treatment, research, and educational activities. These standards may be useful to health professionals, patient associations, and health authorities. PMID:23568381

  10. Evidence based dental care: integrating clinical expertise with systematic research.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Agarwal, Nupur; Upadhyay, Nitin; Alok, Abhijeet

    2014-02-01

    Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the "gold standard" in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21(st) century, more and more practitioners are joining the train, more education on the subject is being provided to elucidate the knotty areas and there is increasing advocacy for the emergence of the field into a specialty discipline. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD), if endorsed by the dental profession, including the research community, may well- influence the extent to which society values dental research. Hence, dental researchers should understand the precepts of EBD, and should also recognize the challenges it presents to the research community to strengthen the available evidence and improve the processes of summarizing the evidence and translating it into practice This paper examines the concept of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), including some of the barriers and will discuss about clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24701551

  11. Patient engagement: an investigation at a primary care clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Preetinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background Engaged employees are an asset to any organization. They are instrumental in ensuring good commercial outcomes through continuous innovation and incremental improvement. A health care facility is similar to a regular work setting in many ways. A health care provider and a patient have roles akin to a team leader and a team member/stakeholder, respectively. Hence it can be argued that the concept of employee engagement can be applied to patients in health care settings in order to improve health outcomes. Methods Patient engagement data were collected using a survey instrument from a primary care clinic in the northern Indian state of Punjab. Canonical correlation equations were formulated to identify combinations which were strongly related to each other. In addition, the cause-effect relationship between patient engagement and patient-perceived health outcomes was described using structural equation modeling. Results Canonical correlation analysis showed that the first set of canonical variables had a fairly strong relationship, ie, a magnitude > 0.80 at the 95% confidence interval, for five dimensions of patient engagement. Structural equation modeling analysis yielded a β ≥ 0.10 and a Student’s t statistic ≥ 2.96 for these five dimensions. The threshold Student’s t statistic was 1.99. Hence it was found the β values were significant at the 95% confidence interval for all census regions. Conclusion A scaled reliable survey instrument was developed to measured patient engagement. Better patient engagement is associated with better patient-perceived health outcomes. This study provides preliminary evidence that patient engagement has a causal relationship with patient-perceived health outcomes. PMID:23515133

  12. [Ambulatory operations in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Roth, P

    1995-07-20

    Outpatient surgery in orthopedics, which ist becoming increasingly popular and is promoted by present-day health care legislation, is associated with a whole range of ifs and buts. Patient-related factors, including age, readiness and ability to cooperate, and home care, need just as much consideration as physician-related factors (experience of the surgeon, anesthesist und surgical team). Architectural and equipment-related facilities need to be investigated. Not every intervention that is theoretically possible on an outpatient basis can be recommended--for example if intensive aftercare, which is better performed on an inpatient basis, should be necessary. The usual postoperative risks (e.g. thrombosis) must be taken into account, and in such cases, proper care must be guaranteed. PMID:7557801

  13. A Lean Neck Mass Clinic Model: Adding Value to Care

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Brittny N.; Glazer, Tiffany A.; Ray, Amrita; Brenner, J. Chad; Spector, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate that ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) with on-site cytopathologic analysis eliminates unnecessary diagnostic testing, return visits, repeat procedures and optimizes quality of care. Study Design Retrospective Cohort Methods 61 new patients (28 female; 33 male; age range 19-85) were seen in our dedicated neck mass clinic over a one-year period. All patients underwent USFNA of masses located in neck levels I-VI (40), parotid gland (20), or parapharyngeal space (1). Each patient underwent two USFNA passes followed by on-site cytopathologic analysis with additional passes if required for diagnosis. Results Diagnosis was made in 93.4% (57) of patients allowing for counseling and treatment planning at the first visit. In order to obtain a diagnosis, more than half (57.4%, 35) of our patients required additional passes which implies that they would have required an additional visit without on-site cytopathologic analysis. Treatment included: Observation in 42.6% (26) of patients, surgery in 32.8 % (20) of patients and nonsurgical treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, other) in 24.6% (15) of patients. The average time from check-in to checkout including the clinic visit, biopsy and treatment counseling was 103 minutes, and the average round trip mileage traveled per patient was 127.6 miles. Conclusion The adult neck mass is a commonly encountered scenario in otolaryngology. For the patient this can be a stressful situation in which timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. A dedicated lean neck mass clinic model with USFNA and on-site cytopathologic analysis can be both an efficient part of one's practice and a valuable addition to patient care. PMID:26256915

  14. Health system support and health system strengthening: two key facilitators to the implementation of ambulatory tuberculosis treatment in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Stefan; Asadov, Damin Abdurakhimovich; Bründer, Andreas; Healy, Sean; Khamraev, Atadjan Karimovich; Sergeeva, Natalia; Tinnemann, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Uzbekistan inherited a hospital-based health system from the Soviet Union. We explore the health system-related challenges faced during the scale-up of ambulatory (outpatient) treatment for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants of the TB services, the ministries of health and finance, and their TB control partners. Structural challenges and resource needs were both discussed as obstacles to the expansion of ambulatory TB treatment. Respondents stated need for revising the financing mechanisms of the TB services to incentivize referral to ambulatory TB treatment. An increased workload and need for transportation in ambulatory TB care were also pointed out by respondents, given the quickly rising outpatient numbers but per capita financing of outpatient care. Policy makers showed strong interest in good practice examples for financing ambulatory-based management of TB in comparable contexts and in guidance for revising the financing of the TB services in a way that strengthens ambulatory TB treatment. To facilitate changing the model of care, TB control strategies emphasizing ambulatory care in hospital-oriented health systems should anticipate health system support and strengthening needs, and provide a plan of action to resolve both. Addressing both types of needs may require not only involving TB control and health financing actors, but also increasing knowledge about viable and tested financing mechanisms that incentivize the adoption of new models of care for TB. PMID:27406392

  15. Managed Care and the Evolving Role of the Clinical Social Worker in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses developments for practitioners in mental health care with the advent of managed care. With managed care's influence and new cost-containment strategies, the roles of clinical social workers, clinical psychologists, and psychiatrists are evolving, creating role conflict and competition. This article outlines the changes that have occurred…

  16. Proteomics and Ovarian Cancer: Integrating Proteomics Information Into Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Hays, John L.; Kim, Geoffrey; Giuroiu, Iulia; Kohn, Elise C.

    2010-01-01

    The power of proteomics allows unparalleled opportunity to query the molecular mechanisms of a malignant cell and the tumor microenvironment in patients with ovarian cancer and other solid tumors. This information has given us insight into the perturbations of signaling pathways within tumor cells and has aided the discovery of new drug targets for the tumor and possible prognostic indicators of outcome and disease response to therapy. Proteomics analysis of serum and ascites has also given us sources with which to discover possible early markers for the presence of new disease and for the progression of established cancer throughout the course of treatment. Unfortunately, this wealth of information has yielded little to date in changing the clinical care of these patients from a diagnostic, prognostic, or treatment perspective. The rational examination and translation of proteomics data in the context of past clinical trials and the design of future clinical trials must occur before we can march forward into the future of personalized medicine. PMID:20561909

  17. Replacing Ambulatory Surgical Follow-Up Visits With Mobile App Home Monitoring: Modeling Cost-Effective Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Semple, John L; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Background Women’s College Hospital (WCH) offers specialized surgical procedures, including ambulatory breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy breast cancer patients. Most patients receiving ambulatory surgery have low rates of postoperative events necessitating clinic visits. Increasingly, mobile monitoring and follow-up care is used to overcome the distance patients must travel to receive specialized care at a reduced cost to society. WCH has completed a feasibility study using a mobile app (QoC Health Inc, Toronto) that suggests high patient satisfaction and adequate detection of postoperative complications. Objective The proposed cost-effectiveness study models the replacement of conventional, in-person postoperative follow-up care with mobile app follow-up care following ambulatory breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy breast cancer patients. Methods This is a societal perspective cost-effectiveness analysis, wherein all costs are assessed irrespective of the payer. The patient/caregiver, health care system, and externally borne costs are calculated within the first postoperative month based on cost information provided by WCH and QoC Health Inc. The effectiveness of telemedicine and conventional follow-up care is measured as successful surgical outcomes at 30-days postoperative, and is modeled based on previous clinical trials containing similar patient populations and surgical risks. Results This costing assumes that 1000 patients are enrolled in bring-your-own-device (BYOD) mobile app follow-up per year and that 1.64 in-person follow-ups are attended in the conventional arm within the first month postoperatively. The total cost difference between mobile app and in-person follow-up care is $245 CAD ($223 USD based on the current exchange rate), with in-person follow-up being more expensive ($381 CAD) than mobile app follow-up care ($136 CAD). This takes into account the total of health care system, patient, and external borne costs. If we examine

  18. Clinical Effectiveness of Online Training in Palliative Care of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Agra-Varela, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary care physicians (PCPs) have a major responsibility in the management of palliative patients. Online palliative care (PC) education has not been shown to have a clinical impact on patients that is equal or different to traditional training. Objective This study tested the clinical effectiveness of online PC education of physicians through impact on symptom control, quality of life (QOL), caregiver satisfaction, and knowledge-attitude of physicians at 18 months of the intervention. Methods We conducted a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 169 physicians randomly assigned to receive the online model or traditional training. Consecutive patients with advanced cancer requiring PC were included. Physicians and patients completed the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS), and patients the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL) twice, 7 to 10 days apart. Caregivers completed the SERVQUAL. Physicians' level of knowledge-attitude was measured at 18 months. Results Sixty-seven physicians enrolled 117 patients. The intervention group had reduced scores for pain, symptoms, and family anxiety. The global RSCL scale showed a difference between groups. There was no significant difference in the questionnaires used. Caregiver satisfaction was comparable between groups. Physicians in the intervention group significantly increased their knowledge without any differences in attitude. Online training was completed by 86.6% in the intervention group, whereas 13.4% in the control group accessed traditional training. Conclusions Participation in an online PC education program by PCPs improved patient scores for some symptoms and family anxiety on the POS and also showed improved global QOL. Significant differences were found in physicians' knowledge at short and long term. PMID:23987657

  19. Assessing the Proximity Relationship of Walk-in Clinics and Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alissa; Revere, Lee; Ramphul, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    This article evaluates the spatial relationship between primary care provider clinics and walk-in clinics. Using ZIP code level data from Harris County, Texas, the results suggest that primary care physicians and walk-in clinics are similarly located at lower rates in geographic areas with populations of lower socioeconomic status. Although current clinic location choices effectively broaden the gap in primary care access for the lower income population, the growing number of newly insured individuals may make it increasingly attractive for walk-in clinics to locate in geographic areas with populations of lower socioeconomic status and less competition from primary care physicians. PMID:27576053

  20. The role of clinical governance as a strategy for quality improvement in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Stephen M; Sweeney, Grace M

    2002-01-01

    This power considers the process of implementing clinical governance in primary care and its impact on quality improvement. It discuss how clinical governance is being implemented both at the level of Primary Care Organisations and general practices, and the challenges to implementing clinical governance. It also suggests a model for promoting the factors that will help clinical governance improve quality of care. The experience of implementing clinical governance is broadly positive to date. However, the government needs to match its commitment to a ten-year programme of change with realistic timetables to secure the cultural and organisational changes needed to improve quality of care. PMID:12389764

  1. [HOLDING OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATIONS FOR ANESTHESIOLOGY AND INTENSIVE CARE CLINICAL RESIDENCY IN STATE GRADUATES CERTIFICATION].

    PubMed

    Schegolev, A V; Andreenko, A A; Ershov, E N; Lahin, R E; Makarenko, E P

    2016-01-01

    The modern system of medical education requires objective methods to assess clinical competence of medical specialists. Application of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) during the final certification of graduates of clinical residency allows to evaluate the theoretical knowledge, manual skills. Enabling simulation scenarios in the program makes it possible to objectively evaluate the important non-technical skills of anesthesiologists, identify gaps in the system of training and modify it. The experience of the objective structured clinical examination as part of the state certification of graduates of clinical residency of the Department ofAnesthesiology and Intensive Care, Military MedicalAcademy after C M Kirov allows us to consider this technique in an objective way a comprehensive assessment of the competence of health professionals. Students confirmed its highly realistic, they have revealed the presence of emotional stress during the simulation sessions, the majority agreed that the simulation session increased the level of their readiness to address these situations in clinical practice. Staff of the department is planning to testing and introduction rating scales into a system of assessment, to improved exam program, increasing the number of clinical scenarios for simulation sessions. PMID:27192861

  2. Publicly Funded Clinical Trials and the Future of Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Publicly sponsored trials, conducted primarily by cooperative groups sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, and commercially sponsored trials are necessary to create new knowledge, improve the care of oncology patients, and develop new drugs and devices. Commercial sponsors launch clinical trials that will result in drug approval, label extension, expansion of market share, and an increase in shareholder value. Conversely, publicly sponsored trials seek to optimize therapy for a particular disease, create new knowledge, and improve public health; these trials can also result in label extension of a drug and even in initial drug approval. Publicly sponsored trials may combine and/or compare drugs developed by different commercial sponsors, develop multimodality therapies (e.g., the combination of chemotherapy and radiation), or develop novel treatment schedules or routes of drug administration (e.g., intraperitoneal chemotherapy). Publicly sponsored trials are more likely to focus on therapies for rare diseases and to study survivorship and quality of life; these areas may not be a priority for commercial entities. Screening and prevention strategies have been developed almost exclusively by the public sector given the large sample size and long follow-up period needed to complete the trial and, therefore, the lack of short-term commercial gain. Finally, given the public nature of the funding, clinical investigators are expected to publish their results even if the outcomes are unfavorable for the investigational therapy. With the ongoing reorganization of the cooperative groups to form a national clinical trials network, opportunities exist to create a robust platform for biomarker discovery and validation through the expanded collection of well-annotated biospecimens obtained from clinical trial participants. Thus, publicly funded trials are vital to developing and refining new cancer treatments and disseminating results to the medical community and the

  3. Wearable technology as a booster of clinical care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, Stephan; Hannig, Andreas; Spreckelsen, Cord; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2014-03-01

    Wearable technology defines a new class of smart devices that are accessories or clothing equipped with computational power and sensors, like Google Glass. In this work, we propose a novel concept for supporting everyday clinical pathways with wearable technology. In contrast to most prior work, we are not focusing on the omnipresent screen to display patient information or images, but are trying to maintain existing workflows. To achieve this, our system supports clinical staff as a documenting observer, only intervening adequately if problems are detected. Using the example of medication preparation and administration, a task known to be prone to errors, we demonstrate the full potential of the new devices. Patient and medication identifier are captured with the built-in camera, and the information is send to a transaction server. The server communicates with the hospital information system to obtain patient records and medication information. The system then analyses the new medication for possible side-effects and interactions with already administered drugs. The result is sent to the device while encapsulating all sensitive information respecting data security and privacy. The user only sees a traffic light style encoded feedback to avoid distraction. The server can reduce documentation efforts and reports in real-time on possible problems during medication preparation or administration. In conclusion, we designed a secure system around three basic principles with many applications in everyday clinical work: (i) interaction and distraction is kept as low as possible; (ii) no patient data is displayed; and (iii) device is pure observer, not part of the workflow. By reducing errors and documentation burden, our approach has the capability to boost clinical care.

  4. The Point-of-Care Laboratory in Clinical Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel; Michel-Lepage, Audrey; Boyer, Sylvie; Raoult, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) laboratories that deliver rapid diagnoses of infectious diseases were invented to balance the centralization of core laboratories. POC laboratories operate 24 h a day and 7 days a week to provide diagnoses within 2 h, largely based on immunochromatography and real-time PCR tests. In our experience, these tests are conveniently combined into syndrome-based kits that facilitate sampling, including self-sampling and test operations, as POC laboratories can be operated by trained operators who are not necessarily biologists. POC laboratories are a way of easily providing clinical microbiology testing for populations distant from laboratories in developing and developed countries and on ships. Modern Internet connections enable support from core laboratories. The cost-effectiveness of POC laboratories has been established for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections in both developed and developing countries. PMID:27029593

  5. Emergence of infection control surveillance in alternative health care settings.

    PubMed

    Clark, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, health care delivery has undergone enormous changes. The nationwide growth in managed care organizations and the changing methods of provider reimbursement are restructuring the entire health care system. Diversification and integration strategies have blurred historical separations between the activities of hospitals, nursing homes, physicians, and other providers. Services are being offered in and shifting to less costly settings, such as ambulatory clinics, work sites, and homes. Many factors have contributed to the increasing trend of health care delivery outside hospitals. This presentation will provide insight to the management and surveillance of infection prevention in these health care settings.

  6. Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2007

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results Patients in the United States made an estimated 1.2 billion visits to physician offices and ... shows data on injury visits. There were an estimated 156.8 million injury visits in 2007, or ...

  7. Improved Prevention Counseling by HIV Care Providers in a Multisite, Clinic-Based Intervention: Positive STEPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrun, Mark; Cook, Paul F.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; O'Daniels, Christine; Raffanti, Stephen; Thompson, Melanie; Golin, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that HIV care clinics incorporate prevention into clinical practice. This report summarizes HIV care providers' attitudes and counseling practices before and after they received training to deliver a counseling intervention to patients. Providers at seven HIV clinics received training…

  8. Clinical Instructor Characteristics, Behaviors and Skills in Allied Health Care Settings: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Linda S.; Sexton, Patrick; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Guyer, M. Susan; Gardner, Greg; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to compare both clinical instructor and student perceptions of helpful and hindering clinical instructor characteristics, behaviors and skills in athletic training and allied health care settings. Clinical education in athletic training is similar to that of other allied health care professions. Clinical…

  9. A Feminine Care Clinical Research Program Transforms Women's Lives.

    PubMed

    Tzeghai, Ghebre E; Ajayi, Funmilayo O; Miller, Kenneth W; Imbescheid, Frank; Sobel, Jack D; Farage, Miranda A

    2015-01-01

    Feminine hygiene products and menstruation education have transformed the lives of women throughout the world. The P&G Feminine Care Clinical Innovation Research Program has played a key role by expanding scientific knowledge as well as developing technical insights and tools for the development of feminine hygiene products. The aim has been to meet the needs of women throughout their life stages, advancing their urogenital health beyond just menstruation, as well as helping to understand the role of sex hormones in various important health issues that women face. This review article highlights key contributions and research findings in female hygiene products, urogenital health research, and method development. The clinical research team focused on utilizing the results of clinical safety studies to advance the acceptance of feminine hygiene products world-wide. Key findings include that perception of skin sensitivity is not limited to the facial area, but is also relevant to the body and the genital area. Also, they shed light on the role of estrogen in autoimmune diseases as well as premenstrual syndrome. Efforts in the method development area focused on innovative tools that are reliable, predictive of clinical trial results and capable of measuring wear comfort, genital skin health, and the impact of product use on the consumer's quality of life. A novel method, behind-the-knee (BTK) test, developed to model irritation under normal wear conditions, was the first to account for both chemical and mechanical sources of irritation. The method has been accepted by the FDA as a substitute in clinical trials in some cases, and by American Society for Testing and Materials as a global standard test method. Additional proprietary methods were developed to enhance visual grading of irritation using cross-polarized light, to measure the amount of lotion transferred from sanitary pads, and to evaluate the skin mildness. Finally, the Farage Quality of Life tool was created

  10. A Feminine Care Clinical Research Program Transforms Women's Lives.

    PubMed

    Tzeghai, Ghebre E; Ajayi, Funmilayo O; Miller, Kenneth W; Imbescheid, Frank; Sobel, Jack D; Farage, Miranda A

    2015-01-01

    Feminine hygiene products and menstruation education have transformed the lives of women throughout the world. The P&G Feminine Care Clinical Innovation Research Program has played a key role by expanding scientific knowledge as well as developing technical insights and tools for the development of feminine hygiene products. The aim has been to meet the needs of women throughout their life stages, advancing their urogenital health beyond just menstruation, as well as helping to understand the role of sex hormones in various important health issues that women face. This review article highlights key contributions and research findings in female hygiene products, urogenital health research, and method development. The clinical research team focused on utilizing the results of clinical safety studies to advance the acceptance of feminine hygiene products world-wide. Key findings include that perception of skin sensitivity is not limited to the facial area, but is also relevant to the body and the genital area. Also, they shed light on the role of estrogen in autoimmune diseases as well as premenstrual syndrome. Efforts in the method development area focused on innovative tools that are reliable, predictive of clinical trial results and capable of measuring wear comfort, genital skin health, and the impact of product use on the consumer's quality of life. A novel method, behind-the-knee (BTK) test, developed to model irritation under normal wear conditions, was the first to account for both chemical and mechanical sources of irritation. The method has been accepted by the FDA as a substitute in clinical trials in some cases, and by American Society for Testing and Materials as a global standard test method. Additional proprietary methods were developed to enhance visual grading of irritation using cross-polarized light, to measure the amount of lotion transferred from sanitary pads, and to evaluate the skin mildness. Finally, the Farage Quality of Life tool was created

  11. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Parsell, Bradley W.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Habel, Melissa A.; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S.; Gift, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. Methods. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Results. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Conclusions. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients. PMID:26447908

  12. Challenges in Translating GWAS Results to Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B.; Schmidlen, Tara J.; Gerry, Norman P.; Christman, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical genetic testing for Mendelian disorders is standard of care in many cases; however, it is less clear to what extent and in which situations clinical genetic testing may improve preventive efforts, diagnosis and/or prognosis of complex disease. One challenge is that much of the reported research relies on tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to act as proxies for assumed underlying functional variants that are not yet known. Here we use coronary artery disease and melanoma as case studies to evaluate how well reported genetic risk variants tag surrounding variants across population samples in the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 data. We performed a simulation study where we randomly assigned a “functional” variant and evaluated how often this simulated functional variant was correctly tagged in diverse population samples. Our results indicate a relatively large error rate when generalizing increased genetic risk of complex disease across diverse population samples, even when generalizing within geographic regions. Our results further highlight the importance of including diverse populations in genome-wide association studies. Future work focused on identifying functional variants will eliminate the need for tag SNPs; however, until functional variants are known, caution should be used in the interpretation of genetic risk for complex disease using tag SNPs. PMID:27527156

  13. Challenges in Translating GWAS Results to Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Schmidlen, Tara J; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Clinical genetic testing for Mendelian disorders is standard of care in many cases; however, it is less clear to what extent and in which situations clinical genetic testing may improve preventive efforts, diagnosis and/or prognosis of complex disease. One challenge is that much of the reported research relies on tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to act as proxies for assumed underlying functional variants that are not yet known. Here we use coronary artery disease and melanoma as case studies to evaluate how well reported genetic risk variants tag surrounding variants across population samples in the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 data. We performed a simulation study where we randomly assigned a "functional" variant and evaluated how often this simulated functional variant was correctly tagged in diverse population samples. Our results indicate a relatively large error rate when generalizing increased genetic risk of complex disease across diverse population samples, even when generalizing within geographic regions. Our results further highlight the importance of including diverse populations in genome-wide association studies. Future work focused on identifying functional variants will eliminate the need for tag SNPs; however, until functional variants are known, caution should be used in the interpretation of genetic risk for complex disease using tag SNPs. PMID:27527156

  14. A new system for ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure recording

    PubMed Central

    Simon, J; Gibbs, R; MacLachlan, Donald; Fox, Kim M

    1992-01-01

    Objective—To develop a complete system for the measurement, recording, and analysis of ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure. Design—The new system consists of a pulmonary artery catheter, an ambulatory recorder, and a desktop computer. Pulmonary artery pressure is measured by a micromanometer tipped catheter with an in vivo calibration system to allow correction for zero drift. This catheter is plugged into a small battery powered recorder. The recorder has two input channels, one for pressure and one for an event marker. The pressure wave is sampled 32 times/s, processed by an in built computer, compressed, and stored in semiconductor memory. On completion of a recording, data is transferred from the ambulatory recorder through a serial data link to an Acorn Archimedes desktop computer on which further data processing, statistical analysis, graphics, and printouts can be obtained. Results—The system has been used in 18 patients, with technically successful recording in 14, less than 15 minutes of data loss in three, and 12 hours of data loss in one. Conclusions—A new system for ambulatory pulmonary artery monitoring has been developed and used clinically with success. It may provide new perspectives on the pathophysiology of disease as it applies to everyday life. PMID:1389746

  15. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker cadres with little pre

  16. Clinically assisted hydration and the Liverpool Care Pathway: Catholic ethics and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Nowarska, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP), a framework introduced for providing comfortable care at the last stage of life, has recently become highly contentious. Among the most serious allegations levelled against it, has been that the LCP may be used as a covert form of euthanasia by withdrawal of clinically assisted hydration (CAH). This concern has been raised, in particular by a number of Catholic medical professionals, who have asserted that the LCP is incompatible with Catholic ethics. This paper examines the key Catholic ethical principles relevant to treatment and care towards the end of life (the sanctity/inviolability of life principle, the distinction between ordinary and extraordinary means). Relevant current clinical evidence regarding CAH in relation to terminal thirst, dehydration, prolongation of life and possible negative impacts on the dying is also scrutinised. It is argued that for some patients at the very end of life it may be permissible and even desirable to withhold or withdraw it. Thus, as administration of CAH may become extraordinary, forgoing it in some situations is fully compatible with Catholic ethics. The article therefore concludes that the stance of the LCP in respect of provision of CAH is fully in alignment with Catholic teaching.

  17. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lecroq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their

  18. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-05-12

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a "Mayo Model" of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings.

  19. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  20. 75 FR 21301 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Elder Care Initiative Long-Term Care Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Elder Care Initiative Long-Term Care Grant Program Announcement Type: New. Funding Announcement Number: HHS-2010-IHS-EHC-0001... Service (IHS) announces the availability of up to $600,000 for competitive grants through the Elder...

  1. Home-based clinical video teleconferencing care: Clinical considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Morland, Leslie A; Poizner, Jeffrey M; Williams, Kathryn E; Masino, Tonya T; Thorp, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical video teleconferencing (CVT) is a treatment delivery modality that can be used to provide services to clinical populations that experience barriers to accessing mental health care. Recently, home-based CVT (HBCVT) has been developed in order to deliver treatment via CVT to patients in their homes. A number of clinical considerations, including the appropriate clinical population and individual patient factors, need to be taken into account when delivering CVT. Particular challenges can exist when setting up the home environment for HBCVT. Concerns about maintaining patient privacy while living in shared spaces, ensuring adequate CVT technology in the patient's home, and conducting risk management remotely are important to consider when delivering treatment via CVT. Since treatments delivered via CVT are often conducted across state lines, novel ethical and legal issues such as privacy laws, licensing of providers, prescribing practices, and insurance reimbursements need to be addressed when conducting services via these modalities. Future research on HBCVT will provide researchers and clinicians with information regarding which patients are most appropriate for treatment delivered via this modality and help further develop evidence for the cost-effectiveness of CVT and HBCVT clinical practice guidelines.

  2. HW 02-3 AMBULATORY CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE: WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE FOR VALIDATION?

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Validation of a medical device measuring a biomarker is a complex process, involving technical aspects (What is actually measured by the device, and how is this done ? Is the measurement reproducible ? Is there a gold standard for measurement of the particular biomarker ? If yes, how accurate and how precise are the measurements by the device, compared to the gold standard ?) and clinical aspects (Do the measurements predict outcome ? If yes, is there added value, when standard clinical parameters are considered ? Is there a treatment strategy, based on the mesurements of the novel device ? Is this strategy cost-effective ?). When ambulatory central blood pressure is considered, which technical steps are necessary to perform the measurements ? First, waveforms need to be acquired, which can be done with a regular high-quality cuff at the brachial artery or with a wrist-watch-like tonometer at the radial artery. These waveforms need calibration with brachial blood pressure, which can be systolic / diastolic or mean / diastolic pressure. Then, an algorithm (for example, a transfer-function, a n-point moving average filter, ...) is used to convert brachial into central systolic pressure (or, in case of transfer functions, central waveforms). All of these steps have to be carefully validated (waveform acquisition, brachial pressures, transfer functions,...). When the entire system is to be tested, invasive validation studies are performed, typically in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for clinical indications, using pressure-sensor-tipped (preferred) or fluid-filled catheters. In these studies, it appears that the most important source of error is calibration with non-invasive brachial blood pressure, whereas waveform acquisitions and transfer functions in general are quite robust. We recently observed that the use of mean and diastolic pressure for calibration (instead of systolic and diastolic pressure) may improve accuracy. This may be explained by the

  3. Building a pediatric neurocritical care program: a multidisciplinary approach to clinical practice and education from the intensive care unit to the outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Mark S; Grimason, Michele; Goldstein, Joshua; Smith, Craig M; Amlie-Lefond, Catherine; Revivo, Gadi; Noah, Zehava L; Harris, Zena L; Epstein, Leon G

    2014-12-01

    We describe our 10-year experience developing the Ruth D. & Ken M. Davee Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The neurocritical care team includes intensivists, neurologists, and an advanced practice nurse who have expertise in critical care neurology and who continue care in long-term follow-up of intensive care unit patients in a dedicated neurocritical care outpatient clinic. Brain-directed critical care requires collaboration between intensivists and neurologists with specific expertise in neurocritical care, using protocol-directed consistent care, and physiological measures to protect brain function. The heterogeneity of neurologic disorders in the pediatric intensive care unit requires a background in the relevant basic science and pathophysiology that is beyond the scope of standard neurology or critical care fellowships. To address this need, we also created a fellowship in neurocritical care for intensivists, neurologists, and advanced practice nurses. Last, we discuss the implications for pediatric neurocritical care from the experience of management of pediatric stroke and the development of stroke centers.

  4. Ambulatory prescribing errors among community-based providers in two states

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David W; Jenter, Chelsea; Volk, Lynn A; Barrón, Yolanda; Quaresimo, Jill; Seger, Andrew C; Burdick, Elisabeth; Simon, Steven; Kaushal, Rainu

    2011-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the frequency and types of prescribing errors in the ambulatory setting among community-based, primary care providers. Therefore, the rates and types of prescribing errors were assessed among community-based, primary care providers in two states. Material and Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study was conducted of 48 providers in New York and 30 providers in Massachusetts, all of whom used paper prescriptions, from September 2005 to November 2006. Using standardized methodology, prescriptions and medical records were reviewed to identify errors. Results 9385 prescriptions were analyzed from 5955 patients. The overall prescribing error rate, excluding illegibility errors, was 36.7 per 100 prescriptions (95% CI 30.7 to 44.0) and did not vary significantly between providers from each state (p=0.39). One or more non-illegibility errors were found in 28% of prescriptions. Rates of illegibility errors were very high (175.0 per 100 prescriptions, 95% CI 169.1 to 181.3). Inappropriate abbreviation and direction errors also occurred frequently (13.4 and 4.2 errors per 100 prescriptions, respectively). Reviewers determined that the vast majority of errors could have been eliminated through the use of e-prescribing with clinical decision support. Discussion Prescribing errors appear to occur at very high rates among community-based primary care providers, especially when compared with studies of academic-affiliated providers that have found nearly threefold lower error rates. Illegibility errors are particularly problematical. Conclusions Further characterizing prescribing errors of community-based providers may inform strategies to improve ambulatory medication safety, especially e-prescribing. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00225576. PMID:22140209

  5. Remote Ambulatory Management of Veterans with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Barry G.; Behari, Pratima Pathak; McCloskey, Susan; True, Gala; Richardson, Diane; Thomasson, Arwin; Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Davies, Keith; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite significant medical sequelae of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the condition remains undiagnosed and untreated in many affected individuals. We explored the feasibility of a comprehensive, telemedicine-based OSA management pathway in a community-based Veteran cohort. Methods: This prospective, parallel-group randomized pilot study assessed feasibility of a telemedicine-based pathway for OSA evaluation and management in comparison to a more traditional, in-person care model. The study included 60 Veterans at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center and two affiliated community-based outpatient clinics. Telemedicine pathway feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes were assessed through a variety of quantitative (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, dropout rates, positive airway pressure [PAP] adherence rates, participant satisfaction ratings) and qualitative (verbal feedback) metrics. Results: There was no significant difference in functional outcome changes, patient satisfaction, dropout rates, or objectively measured PAP adherence between groups after 3 months of treatment. Telemedicine participants showed greater improvement in mental health scores, and their feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that telemedicine-based management of OSA patients is feasible in terms of patient functional outcomes and overall satisfaction with care. Future studies should include larger populations to further elucidate these findings while assessing provider- and patient-related cost effectiveness. Citation: Fields BG, Behari PP, McCloskey S, True G, Richardson D, Thomasson A, Korom-Djakovic D, Davies K, Kuna ST. Remote ambulatory management of veterans with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(3):501–509. PMID:26446115

  6. Economic disparities in treatment costs among ambulatory Medicaid cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, C. Daniel; Snyder, Stephen E.; Wang, Junling; Cooke, Jesse L.; Baquet, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and a major contributor to healthcare expenditure. There are few studies examining disparities in treatment costs. Studies that do exist are dominated by the cost of hospital care. METHODS: Utilizing Maryland Medicaid administrative claims data, a retrospective cohort, design was employed to examine disparities in ambulatory treatment costs of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer treatment by region, race and gender. We report mean and median results by each demographic category and test for the statistical significance of each. Lorenz curves are plotted and Gini coefficients calculated for each type of cancer. RESULTS: We do not find a consistent trend in ambulatory costs across the three cancers by traditional demographic variables. Lorenz curves indicate highly unequal distributions of costs. Gini coefficients are 0.687 for breast cancer, 0.757 for colorectal cancer and 0.774 for prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: Significant variation in nonhospital-based expenditures exists for breast, colorectal and prostate cancers in a population of homogeneous socioeconomic status and uniform insurance entitlement. Observed individual-level disparities are not consistent across cancers by region, race or gender, but the majority of this low-income population receives very little ambulatory care. Images Figure 2 PMID:15622686

  7. Ambulatory pressure monitoring in the assessment of antihypertensive therapy.

    PubMed

    Coats, A J; Conway, J; Somers, V K; Isea, J E; Sleight, P

    1989-06-01

    A low-cost, ambulatory blood-pressure monitor has been calibrated and validated against a random zero sphygmomanometer. The repeatability of ambulatory pressure recordings after a placebo month in 44 mild to moderate untreated hypertensives was assessed. Systolic blood pressure showed a mean difference over 1 month of 2.0 mmHg, with a standard deviation of differences of 9.3 mmHg. The diastolic blood pressure mean difference was 0.1 mmHg (SD = 6.3 mmHg). This variability was much less than for clinic readings (SD = 17.3 mmHg) or for single home pressure readings (SD = 19.7 mmHg). Using ambulatory monitoring to detect a drop in pressure of 8/5 mmHg with a power of 0.9, the number of subjects needed in a parallel group trial is reduced from 360 to 68, and in a crossover study from 88 to 16 subjects. The usefulness of ambulatory pressure monitoring is demonstrated in a placebo-controlled comparison of atenolol, nifedipine retard, or their combination in random order. Eleven subjects, 21-60 years, with initial average blood pressures of 166.5/104.7 mmHg, showed a reduction in pressure with atenolol 50 mg a day of 15.1/10.0 mmHg, with nifedipine retard 20 mg b.i.d. of 21.0/11.6 mmHg, and with atenolol 50 mg and nifedipine retard 20 mg once a day of 26.2/16.8 mmHg. Ambulatory monitoring of pressure improved the accuracy of the trial and demonstrated a reduction in the alerting response with atenolol. PMID:2487802

  8. Clinical Profile of Cerebral Malaria at a Secondary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Jency Maria; Koshy, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most common causes for non-traumatic encephalopathy in the world. It affects both the urban and rural population. It is a challenge to treat these patients in a resource limited setting; where majority of these cases present. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out from September 2005 to December 2006 at Jiwan Jyoti Christian Hospital in Eastern Uttar Pradesh in India. This is a secondary level care with limited resources. We studied the clinical profile, treatment and outcome of all the patients above the age of 14 years diagnosed with CM. Results: There were a total of 53 patients with CM of which 38 (71.7%) of them were females. Among them, 35 (66%) patients were less than 30 years of age. The clinical features noted were seizure (39.62%), anemia (84.9%), icterus (16.98%), hypotension (13.2%), bleeding (3.7%), hepatomegaly (5.66%), splenomegaly (5.66%), non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (16.98%) and renal dysfunction (37.36%). Co-infection with Plasmodium vivax was present in 13 (24.53%) of them. Treatment received included artesunin compounds or quinine. Median time of defervescence was 2 (interquartile range1-3). Complete recovery was achieved in 43 (81%) of them. Two (3.7%) of them died. Conclusion: CM, once considered to be a fatal disease has shown remarkable improvement in the outcome with the wide availability of artesunin and quinine components. To combat the malaria burden, physicians in resource limited setting should be well trained to manage these patients especially in the endemic areas. The key to management is early diagnosis and initiation of treatment based on a high index of suspicion. Anticipation and early recognition of the various complications are crucial. PMID:24791238

  9. An ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca catheter technique does not impair ambulatory ability within a clinical pathway for total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mudumbai, Seshadri C.; Kim, T. Edward; Howard, Steven K.; Giori, Nicholas J.; Woolson, Steven; Ganaway, Toni; Kou, Alex; King, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Both neuraxial and peripheral regional analgesic techniques offer postoperative analgesia for total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients. While no single technique is preferred, quadriceps muscle weakness from peripheral nerve blocks may impede rehabilitation. We designed this study to compare postoperative ambulation outcome in THA patients who were treated with a new ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca catheter (FIC) technique or intrathecal morphine (ITM). Methods We reviewed the electronic health records of a sequential series of primary unilateral THA patients who were part of a standardized clinical pathway; apart from differences in regional analgesic technique, all other aspects of the pathway were the same. Our primary outcome was total ambulation distance (meters) combined for postoperative days 1 and 2. Secondary outcomes included daily opioid consumption (morphine milligram equivalents) and analgesic-related side effects. We examined the association between the primary outcome and analgesic technique by performing crude and adjusted ordinary least-squares linear regression. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically-significant. Results The study analyzed the records of 179 patients (fascia iliaca, n = 106; intrathecal, n = 73). The primary outcome (total ambulation distance) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.08). Body mass index (BMI) was the only factor (β = -1.7 [95% CI -0.5 to -2.9], P < 0.01) associated with ambulation distance. Opioid consumption did not differ, while increased pruritus was seen in the intrathecal group (P < 0.01). Conclusions BMI affects postoperative ambulation outcome after hip arthroplasty, whereas the type of regional analgesic technique used does not. An ultrasound-guided FIC technique offers similar analgesia with fewer side effects when compared with ITM. PMID:27482314

  10. Adolescents with Special Needs: Clinical Challenges in Reproductive Health Care.

    PubMed

    Quint, Elisabeth H

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents with special needs have unique reproductive health care needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. This review discusses some of the most common concerns that are encountered in clinical practice, as the clinician will partner with the adolescent and her family to guide her through the pubertal transition and to help navigate the risks and rights of reproduction. Families often seek anticipatory guidance before menarche on menstrual hygiene, abuse risk and sexuality and can be reassured that most teens with special needs do very well with menstruation. The clinician needs to evaluate the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well her risk for abuse and coercion and her ability to consent to sexual activity, if she requests contraception. Menstrual management is mostly based on the impact of the menstrual cycles on the teenager's life and activities. The adolescents may have a decreased ability to tolerate menses or pain, or experience changes in seizure pattern or altered mood. Hormonal treatment is often used to assist with menstrual hygiene, cyclical mood changes or dysmenorrhea. The goal of treatment can be complete amenorrhea, alleviate pain or regulate and decrease menstrual flow. The unique risks and benefits of hormonal treatment for this special population are highlighted.

  11. Cardiovascular diseases and other evidence for primary care clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This issue includes several articles about various cardiovascular illnesses.(1-4) and another on a disease with increased risk for heart disease: hereditary hemochromatosis.(5) Yet another explores some myth busting about mortality and diabetes.(6) Two articles provide data with the support of patient and/or family organizations (Parent Heart Watch(1) and the Iron Disorders Institute(5)). Another 2 articles address maternal-child health, one considers treatment of hyperbilirubinemia,(7) and one describes an innovative team structure for pre-, post-, and intrapartum care.(8) We also provide preliminary data on azithromycin for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pop quiz: What is the common contaminant with cocaine that causes serious side effects? What are these side effects? And another: What nonliver disease should be considered for children with elevated transaminase levels? (See the brief reports for answers.) Two reviews provide up-to-the minute practical facts for vaccinations and treatment-resistant hypertension that can be immediately incorporated into clinical practice. We also have an update on physician perspectives after 2 years of electronic medical record use and another with insights about the satisfaction of family physicians who are working in health centers in the first few years out of their residency. PMID:22773706

  12. Evolving Systems of Care with Total Clinical Outcomes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John S.; Epstein, Richard A.; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The current article proposes that further specification of the system of care concept is required. Based on the assertions that the system of care concept (a) refers to an ideal as opposed to an observable phenomenon, and (b) is engaged in offering transformational experiences, the authors propose that the system of care definition must be…

  13. Clinical review: Sleep measurement in critical care patients: research and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Richard S; Minelli, Cosetta; Mills, Gary H; Kandler, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in critically ill patients and have been characterised by numerous studies using polysomnography. Issues regarding patient populations, monitoring duration and timing (nocturnal versus continuous), as well as practical problems encountered in critical care studies using polysomnography are considered with regard to future interventional studies on sleep. Polysomnography is the gold standard in objectively measuring the quality and quantity of sleep. However, it is difficult to undertake, particularly in patients recovering from critical illness in an acute-care area. Therefore, other objective (actigraphy and bispectral index) and subjective (nurse or patient assessment) methods have been used in other critical care studies. Each of these techniques has its own particular advantages and disadvantages. We use data from an interventional study to compare agreement between four of these alternative techniques in the measurement of nocturnal sleep quantity. Recommendations for further developments in sleep monitoring techniques for research and clinical application are made. Also, methodological problems in studies validating various sleep measurement techniques are explored. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN47578325. PMID:17764582

  14. Depression Care for Low-Income, Minority, Safety Net Clinic Populations with Comorbid Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ell, Kathleen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Xie, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Increasingly, mental health care is provided within the general health care sector. Accompanying this significant change is the demand for evidence-based as well as cost-effective or cost-neutral care models. Method: The authors present a pooled analysis of three large randomized clinical trials in which social workers provide…

  15. The Learners' Perceptions Survey—Primary Care: Assessing Resident Perceptions of Internal Medicine Continuity Clinics and Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, John M.; Chang, Barbara K.; Gilman, Stuart C.; Keitz, Sheri A.; Kaminetzky, Catherine P.; Aron, David C.; Baz, Sam; Cannon, Grant W.; Zeiss, Robert A.; Holland, Gloria J.; Kashner, T. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented a national patient-centered care initiative that organized primary care into interdisciplinary teams of health care professionals to provide patient-centered, continuous, and coordinated care. Objective We assessed the discriminate validity of the Learners' Perceptions Survey—Primary Care (LPS-PC), a tool designed to measure residents' perceptions about their primary and patient-centered care experiences. Methods Between October 2010 and June 2011, the LPS-PC was administered to Loma Linda University Medical Center internal medicine residents assigned to continuity clinics at the VA Loma Linda Healthcare System (VALLHCS), a university setting, or the county hospital. Adjusted differences in satisfaction ratings across settings and over domains (patient- and family-centered care, faculty and preceptors, learning, clinical, work and physical environments, and personal experience) were computed using a generalized linear model. Results Our response rate was 86% (77 of 90). Residents were more satisfied with patient- and family-centered care at the VALLHCS than at either the university or county (P < .001). However, faculty and preceptors (odds ratio [OR]  =  1.53), physical (OR  =  1.29), and learning (OR  =  1.28) environments had more impact on overall resident satisfaction than patient- and family-centered care (OR  =  1.08). Conclusions The LPS-PC demonstrated discriminate validity to assess residents' perceptions of their patient-centered clinical training experience across outpatient primary care settings at an internal medicine residency program. The largest difference in scores was the patient- and family-centered care domain, in which residents rated the VALLHCS much higher than the university or county sites. PMID:24455006

  16. Toward a pediatric subacute care model: clinical and administrative features.

    PubMed

    Grebin, B; Kaplan, S C

    1995-12-01

    Subacute care, like our health care system generally, is designed primarily to meet the needs of the adult patient. Emphasis on the adult patient, however, ignores the children who could be appropriately and cost-effectively treated at a subacute level of care. These children offer the most persuasive argument yet for broadening our perspective on subacute care beyond the adult model, but to do so means considering the special needs of children, particularly in the areas of family-centered and age-appropriate care. In this article, we draw upon experience at 2 pediatric subacute care facilities to (1) identify specific treatment programs for children; (2) identify essential features of program delivery; (3) discuss how the typical adult-centered model needs to be modified for children; and (4) offer amendments that make the current adult-centered definitions of subacute care more responsive to children's needs.

  17. Evidence On The Chronic Care Model In The New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Katie; Austin, Brian T.; Brach, Cindy; Wagner, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Developed more than a decade ago, the Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a widely adopted approach to improving ambulatory care that has guided clinical quality initiatives in the United States and around the world. We examine the evidence of the CCM’s effectiveness by reviewing articles published since 2000 that used one of five key CCM papers as a reference. Accumulated evidence appears to support the CCM as an integrated framework to guide practice redesign. Although work remains to be done in areas such as cost-effectiveness, these studies suggest that redesigning care using the CCM leads to improved patient care and better health outcomes. PMID:19124857

  18. ClinicalKey 2.0: Upgrades in a Point-of-Care Search Engine.

    PubMed

    Huslig, Mary Ann; Vardell, Emily

    2015-01-01

    ClinicalKey 2.0, launched September 23, 2014, offers a mobile-friendly design with a search history feature for targeting point-of-care resources for health care professionals. Browsing is improved with searchable, filterable listings of sources highlighting new resources. ClinicalKey 2.0 improvements include more than 1,400 new Topic Pages for quick access to point-of-care content. A sample search details some of the upgrades and content options.

  19. Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional α-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3–5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. PMID:25061796

  20. An ambulatory trial of guanfacine

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Stewart; Craig, Michael W. Millar; Melville, Donald I.; Cashman, Peter M. M.; Raftery, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects of acute and long-term treatment with guanfacine on ambulatory BP were studied. 2 The first day of therapy with guanfacine 1 mg produced a small reduction in BP whereas chronic therapy with doses up to 6gm given once daily produced a substantial smooth reduction throughout the whole 24 hours. 3 There were no noticeable symptoms or rebound effects on withdrawal of the drug; side-effects, were, however, prominent during therapy. 4 The drug reduced BP during dynamic exercise but did little during isometric exercise; no postural hypotension was noted during tilting. PMID:6994762

  1. Teaching Dance to Children with Ambulatory Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stran, Margaret; Hardin, Brent

    2002-01-01

    Presents various instructional techniques and examples of dances teachers can use to accommodate and integrate students with ambulatory disabilities, reviewing basic inclusion principles as they relate to dance and providing a suggested progression for teaching dance when including children with ambulatory disabilities. The article illustrates…

  2. Diabetes Information Technology: Designing Informatics Systems to Catalyze Change in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lester, William T.; Zai, Adrian H.; Chueh, Henry C.; Grant, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Current computerized reminder and decision support systems intended to improve diabetes care have had a limited effect on clinical outcomes. Increasing pressures on health care networks to meet standards of diabetes care have created an environment where information technology systems for diabetes management are often created under duress, appended to existing clinical systems, and poorly integrated into the existing workflow. After defining the components of diabetes disease management, the authors present an eight-step conceptual framework to guide the development of more effective diabetes information technology systems for translating clinical information into clinical action. PMID:19885355

  3. Student perceptions of the care of children: impacts of pre-clerkship pediatric and primary care clinical teaching

    PubMed Central

    Karras, Beverley; Selvaraj, Saumya; McConnell, Athena; Andres, Deirdre; Trinder, Krista; McKague, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric clinical skills teaching sessions provide an early opportunity for students to be exposed to the medical care of children. This report describes second and third year medical students’ perceptions of and attitudes towards working with children before and after the pediatric clinical skills teaching sessions, and the experiences of those students precepted by pediatricians only compared to those students working with a combination of pediatricians and family physicians. Method A 13 question survey was voluntarily completed before and after teaching sessions. Written reflective assignments were qualitatively analyzed for key themes. Response rate averaged 68% with class sizes of 84 and 85 students. Results Students’ perceptions of the care of children were generally very positive. Some differences were found based on gender, phase of study and prior clinical exposure to pediatric care. Pre and post responses were similar, regardless of preceptor specialty. Students with family physician preceptors identified the themes of prevention, health promotion and multidisciplinary care in their reflections. Conclusions Students had already formed positive attitudes toward the medical care of children and intended to care for children in their future practice. Further research is needed into the effects of pre-clerkship experiences in the care of children on choice of medical specialty. PMID:26451220

  4. Sequencing of Simulation and Clinic Experiences in an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, Emily; DeSevo Bellottie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine how the intrasemester sequencing of a simulation component, delivered during an ambulatory care introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE), affects student performance on a series of 3 assessments delivered during the second professional (P2) year. Design. At the Jefferson College of Pharmacy (JCP), P2 student pharmacists were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of simulation activities, followed by 6 weeks on site at an ambulatory care clinic or vice versa during either the fall or spring semesters. At the end of each semester, these students completed 3 skills-based assessments: answering a series of drug information (DI) questions; conducting medication adherence counseling; and conducting a medication history. The 2 groups’ raw scores on assessment rubrics were compared. Assessment. During academic years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, 180 P2 student pharmacists participated in the required ambulatory care IPPE. Ninety experienced simulation first, while the other 90 experienced the clinic first. Students assessed over a 2-year time span performed similarly on each of 3 skills-based assessments, regardless of how simulation experiences were sequenced within the IPPE. Conclusion. The lack of significant difference in student performance suggests that schools of pharmacy may have flexibility with regard to how they choose to incorporate simulation into clinical ambulatory care IPPEs. PMID:26688585

  5. A multidisciplinary stroke clinic for outpatient care of veterans with cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Arlene A; Kapoor, John R; Miech, Edward J; Kuehn, Deborah; Dallas, Mary I; Kerns, Robert D; Lo, Albert C; Concato, John; Phipps, Michael S; Couch, Cody D; Moran, Eileen; Williams, Linda S; Goble, Layne A; Bravata, Dawn M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Managing cerebrovascular risk factors is complex and difficult. The objective of this program evaluation was to assess the effectiveness of an outpatient Multidisciplinary Stroke Clinic model for the clinical management of veterans with cerebrovascular disease or cerebrovascular risk factors. Methods: The Multidisciplinary Stroke Clinic provided care to veterans with cerebrovascular disease during a one-half day clinic visit with interdisciplinary evaluations and feedback from nursing, health psychology, rehabilitation medicine, internal medicine, and neurology. We conducted a program evaluation of the clinic by assessing clinical care outcomes, patient satisfaction, provider satisfaction, and costs. Results: We evaluated the care and outcomes of the first consecutive 162 patients who were cared for in the clinic. Patients had as many as six clinic visits. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased: 137.2 ± 22.0 mm Hg versus 128.6 ± 19.8 mm Hg, P = 0.007 and 77.9 ± 14.8 mm Hg versus 72.0 ± 10.2 mm Hg, P = 0.004, respectively as did low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (101.9 ± 23.1 mg/dL versus 80.6 ± 25.0 mg/dL, P = 0.001). All patients had at least one major change recommended in their care management. Both patients and providers reported high satisfaction levels with the clinic. Veterans with stroke who were cared for in the clinic had similar or lower costs than veterans with stroke who were cared for elsewhere. Conclusion: A Multidisciplinary Stroke Clinic model provides incremental improvement in quality of care for complex patients with cerebrovascular disease at costs that are comparable to usual post-stroke care. PMID:21594062

  6. Clinical pharmacy should adopt a consistent process of direct patient care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ila M; Phillips, Beth; Boyce, Eric; Griesbach, Sara; Hope, Charlene; Sanoski, Cynthia; Sokos, Denise; Wargo, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    Although the application of a consistent process of care serves as a foundational principle for most health care professions, this is not true for the discipline of clinical pharmacy. Without an explicit, reproducible process of care, it is not possible to demonstrate to patients, caregivers, or health professionals the ways in which the clinical pharmacist can reliably contribute to improved medication-related outcomes. A consistent patient care process should describe the key steps that all clinical pharmacists will follow when they encounter a patient, regardless of the type of practice, the clinical setting, or the medical conditions or medications involved. Four essential elements serve as the cornerstones of the clinical pharmacist's patient care process: assess the patient and his or her medication therapy, develop a plan of care, implement the plan, and evaluate the outcomes of the plan. Despite the fact that several processes of care have been advocated for clinical pharmacists, none has been adopted by the clinical pharmacy discipline. In addition, numerous publications evaluate outcomes related to clinical pharmacy services, but it is difficult to determine what process of patient care was used in most of these studies. In our view, a consistent process of direct patient care that includes the four essential elements should be adopted by the clinical pharmacy discipline. This process should be clear, straightforward and intuitive, readily documentable, and applicable to all practice settings. Once adopted, the process should be implemented across practice settings, taught in professional degree programs, integrated into students' clinical rotations, refined during residency training, and used as a foundation for future large-scale studies to rigorously study the effects of the clinical pharmacist on patients' medication-related outcomes.

  7. Staff training and ambulatory tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a cluster randomized controlled trial in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Simon; Dick, Judy; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Lombard, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether adding a training intervention for clinic staff to the usual DOTS strategy (the internationally recommended control strategy for tuberculosis (TB)) would affect the outcomes of TB treatment in primary care clinics with treatment success rates below 70%. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted from July 1996 to July 2000 in nurse-managed ambulatory primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinics with successful TB treatment completion rates of less than 70% and annual adult pulmonary TB loads of more than 40 patients per year were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 12) or control (n = 12) groups. All clinics completed follow-up. Treatment outcomes were measured in cohorts of adult, pulmonary TB patients before the intervention (n = 1200) and 9 months following the training (n = 1177). The intervention comprised an 18-hour experiential, participatory in-service training programme for clinic staff delivered by nurse facilitators and focusing on patient centredness, critical reflection on practice, and quality improvement. The main outcome measure was successful treatment, defined as patients who were cured and those who had completed tuberculosis treatment. FINDINGS: The estimated effect of the intervention was an increase in successful treatment rates of 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): -5.5% to 15.2%) and in bacteriological cure rates of 10.4% (CI: -1.2% to 22%). A treatment effect of 10% was envisaged, based on the views of policy-makers on the minimum effect size for large-scale implementation. CONCLUSION: This is the first evidence from a randomized controlled trial on the effects of experiential, participatory training on TB outcomes in primary care facilities in a developing country. Such training did not appear to improve TB outcomes. However, the results were inconclusive and further studies are required. PMID:15868015

  8. Predictors of static balance in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donna K; Huang, Min H; Rodda, Becky J

    2016-03-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a high rate of falls and have decreased static and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine best predictors of static standing balance, as measured by a single limb stance (SLS) timed test, in ambulatory persons with MS (PwMS) from among commonly used medical and rehabilitation clinical tests. Ambulatory PwMS participated in a single test session. Medical exam data gathered included the Function System (FS) neurologic exam and Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). A variety of commonly administered rehabilitation clinical tests addressing static balance, dynamic balance, gait endurance, functional lower extremity strength, abdominal and respiratory muscle strength were completed. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations, and forward step-wise linear regressions were calculated. Twenty-eight ambulatory PwMS completed this study. Mean age was 54.74 years. Mean SLS score was 14.6 s. Pyramidal, sensory, bowel/bladder, and visual FS scores and the EDSS were significantly correlated with SLS. Maximal step length scores were significantly correlated with SLS at P less than 0.05 and the Functional Stair Test (FST) and 6-min walk test were correlated with SLS at P less than 0.10. Medical exam data EDSS and FS sensory explain 72.1% of the variance in SLS scores. Rehabilitation exam data FS sensory and FST explain 68.8% of the variance. The FS sensory, EDSS, and FST together explain 73.3% of the variance. PMID:26579696

  9. OpenClinical: Promoting Knowledge Management for Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Richard; Fox, John

    2001-01-01

    OpenClinical (www.openclinical.org) is a non-profit web resource centred on knowledge technologies for healthcare. OpenClinical showcases advances in decision support, intelligent protocols and guidelines, clinical workflow tools etc. OpenClinical seeks to promote awareness of these technologies in the medical and commercial communities and their wider adoption in routine clinical practice. The site supports a variety of information services and resources for anyone interested in this area.

  10. [Clinical study on ambulatory surgery for thyroid].

    PubMed

    Mao, Linfeng; Yuan, Zhengtai; Liu, Xu; Jiang, Xiaolin; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Liu, Weidong; Li, Ping; Chang, Shi

    2016-03-28

    目的:探讨甲状腺日间手术的优点及临床应用前景。方法:回顾性分析中南大学湘雅医院2014年6月至2015年4月按日间手术标准收治的66例患者(包括分化型甲状腺癌 16例,甲状腺良性肿块50例)作为实验组,在同时期住院病历中,选取同样符合日间手术标准的133例(包括分化型甲状腺癌50例,甲状腺良性肿块83例)作为对照组,两组患者的手术均由同一医生及其团队完成,并对两组患者术中情况、术后并发症发生情况、人均住院时间、人均住院费用、再入院率、患者满意度等方面进行比较。结果:两组间手术时间与术中出血量差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05);两组在术中放置引流管及手术切除范围方面,实验组手术切除范围较对照组小(P<0.05),放置引流管患者明显较对照组少(P<0.05);在手术方式的选择上,实验组患者选择腔镜手术的比例较对照组大(P<0.05);两组间术后并发症发生率以及再入院率差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05);实验组人均住院时间较对照组明显缩短(P<0.05),人均住院费用较对照组明显降低(P<0.05)。实验组患者满意度较对照组患者高(P<0.05)。结论:甲状腺日间手术在严格控制适应证的情况下,具有安全高效、方便快捷的特点,能明显降低住院时间和住院费用,是一种合理的选择,甲状腺腔镜手术的选择和日间手术的选择无冲突。.

  11. Educating Asthmatic Children in European Ambulatory Pediatrics: Facts and Insights

    PubMed Central

    Robberecht, Marie Noëlle; Beghin, Laurent; Deschildre, Antoine; Hue, Valérie; Reali, Laura; Plevnik-Vodušek, Vesna; Moretto, Marilena; Agustsson, Sigurlaug; Tockert, Emile; Jäger-Roman, Elke; Deplanque, Dominique; Najaf-Zadeh, Abolfazl; Martinot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of European ambulatory pediatricians in caring for asthmatic children, especially in terms of their therapeutic education. We developed a survey that was observational, declarative, retrospective and anonymous in nature. 436 ambulatory pediatricians in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and Slovenia were asked to participate in the survey providing information on three children over 6 years old suffering from persistent asthma, who had been followed for at least 6 months. We considered the pediatricians’ profile, and their role in the therapeutic education of children. 277 pediatricians (64%) responded: 81% were primary care pediatricians; 46% participated in networks; 4% had specific training in Therapeutic Patient Education; 69% followed more than 5 asthmatic children per month, and over long periods (7 ± 4 years). The profiles of 684 children were assessed. Answers diverged concerning the provision of a Personalized Action Plan (60–88%), training the child to measure and interpret his Peak Expiratory Flow (31–99%), and the prescription of pulmonary function tests during the follow-up programme of consultations (62–97%). Answers converged on pediatricians’ perception of their role in teaching children about their condition and its treatment (99%), about inhalation techniques (96%), and in improving the children’s ability to take preventive measures when faced with risk situations (97%). This study highlights the role of European pediatricians in caring for asthmatic children, and their lack of training in Therapeutic Patient Education. Programmes and tools are required in order to train ambulatory pediatricians in Therapeutic Patient Education, and such resources should be integrated into primary health care, and harmonized at the European level. PMID:26061153

  12. Minnesota clinics' adoption, use and exchange of electronic health information.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, Karen; Laventure, Marty

    2013-09-01

    In 2007, Minnesota passed a law requiring all health care providers in the state to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR) system by January 1, 2015. Since then, the Minnesota Department of Health has been monitoring progress each year by surveying hospitals, clinics and other health and health care facilities about their EHR use. This article summarizes findings from the 2013 survey of ambulatory clinics. Those results show Minnesota clinics are well on the way to achieving the state's goals for using EHRs to exchange information: 87% of clinics have adopted EHRs, 80% routinely use medication guides and alerts, and 36% exchange health information with unaffiliated settings.

  13. Clinical Practice Strategies outside the Realm of Managed Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walfish, Steven

    While more and more psychologists criticize managed care companies, most must depend upon them in order to maintain their practices. In this study, psychologists were surveyed and asked to identify activities in their own independent practice that fall outside of the purview of managed care. A total of 180 specific activities were identified that…

  14. A collaborative clinical and population-based curriculum for medical students to address primary care needs of the homeless in New York City shelters : Teaching homeless healthcare to medical students.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Naderi, Ramesh; Gaughran, Margaret; Sckell, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    Background Millions of Americans experience homelessness annually. Medical providers do not receive adequate training in primary care of the homeless.Methods Starting in 2012, a comprehensive curriculum was offered to medical students during their family medicine or ambulatory clerkship, covering clinical, social and advocacy, population-based, and policy aspects. Students were taught to: elicit specific social history, explore health expectations, and assess barriers to healthcare; evaluate clinical conditions specific to the homeless and develop plans for care tailored toward patients' medical and social needs; collaborate with shelter staff and community organizations to improve disease management and engage in advocacy efforts. A mixed methods design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills including pre- and post-curriculum surveys, debriefing sessions, and observed clinical skills.Results The mean age of the students (n = 30) was 26.5 years; 55 % were female. The overall scores improved significantly in knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy domains using paired t‑test (p < 0.01). Specific skills in evaluating mental health, substance abuse, and risky behaviours improved significantly (p < 0.05). In evaluation of communication skills, the majority were rated as having 'outstanding rapport with patients.'Conclusions Comprehensive and ongoing clinical component in shelter clinics, complementary teaching, experienced faculty, and working relationship and collaboration with community organizations were key elements. PMID:27277430

  15. Infant mortality and prenatal care: contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Paula Pereira de; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Pimpão, Fernanda Demutti

    2012-01-01

    This review study aimed to verify how studies conducted in Brazil have related infant mortality to prenatal care and to present contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault for qualification of the care. An integrative literature review was conducted from searches in the databases SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE and BDENF for the period 2000 to 2009. The relationship between infant mortality and prenatal care is related to the insufficient number of consultations or to the quality of the care provided. Even when the number of and routine consultations in the prenatal care were adequate, avoidable deaths were present. For the qualification of prenatal care, it is suggested that the clinical knowledge and other elements that comprise the process of human living are considered, in order that the clinical view is enlarged and articulated to the technologies available in the health system and, together, they are able to contribute to the reduction of infant mortality in Brazil.

  16. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of an electronic health record integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR) randomized trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) represent well-validated but underutilized evidence-based medicine tools at the point-of-care. To date, an inability to integrate these rules into an electronic health record (EHR) has been a major limitation and we are not aware of a study demonstrating the use of CPR's in an ambulatory EHR setting. The integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR) trial integrates two CPR's in an EHR and assesses both the usability and the effect on evidence-based practice in the primary care setting. Methods A multi-disciplinary design team was assembled to develop a prototype iCPR for validated streptococcal pharyngitis and bacterial pneumonia CPRs. The iCPR tool was built as an active Clinical Decision Support (CDS) tool that can be triggered by user action during typical workflow. Using the EHR CDS toolkit, the iCPR risk score calculator was linked to tailored ordered sets, documentation, and patient instructions. The team subsequently conducted two levels of 'real world' usability testing with eight providers per group. Usability data were used to refine and create a production tool. Participating primary care providers (n = 149) were randomized and intervention providers were trained in the use of the new iCPR tool. Rates of iCPR tool triggering in the intervention and control (simulated) groups are monitored and subsequent use of the various components of the iCPR tool among intervention encounters is also tracked. The primary outcome is the difference in antibiotic prescribing rates (strep and pneumonia iCPR's encounters) and chest x-rays (pneumonia iCPR only) between intervention and control providers. Discussion Using iterative usability testing and development paired with provider training, the iCPR CDS tool leverages user-centered design principles to overcome pervasive underutilization of EBM and support evidence-based practice at the point-of-care. The ongoing trial will determine if this collaborative process will lead to

  17. Design, construction and evaluation of an ambulatory device for screening of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Tiihonen, P; Pääkkönen, A; Mervaala, E; Hukkanen, T; Töyräs, J

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a major public health problem. The golden reference for diagnosing OSAS is the sleep-laboratory based polysomnography (PSG). However, screening of population for OSAS may be practical and cost efficient only through ambulatory home recordings. In this work we aimed to design, construct and evaluate a novel ambulatory device for these recordings. The device was designed to record breathing movements, nasal and oral flow, position, snore, blood oxygen saturation and heart rate. The first part of clinical evaluation was done by recording 19 patients simultaneously with the novel device and with clinical reference instrumentation at a sleep laboratory. In the simultaneous recordings, no statistically significant difference was detected in the apnea-hypopnea index. All patients were correctly diagnosed, as compared to the reference instrumentation, with the novel ambulatory device. The second part of clinical evaluation was conducted through 323 ambulatory home recordings of which 275 (193 males and 82 females) were of diagnostically acceptable quality. A total of 106 and 169 recordings were successfully conducted with the novel device and a commercial ambulatory device, respectively. Both devices showed similar diagnostic capability in detecting sleep apnea. The novel device was found clinically applicable, technically reliable and sensitive for the diagnostics of OSAS.

  18. An interdisciplinary memory clinic: a novel practice setting for pharmacists in primary care.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H; Patel, Tejal; Lee, Linda

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacists have developed innovative practices in various settings as singular providers or as members of multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary teams. Examples include pharmacists practicing in heart failure, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia clinics. There is a paucity of literature describing pharmacists in interdisciplinary memory clinics and specifically pharmacists practicing in interdisciplinary, primary care-based memory clinics. New practice models should be disseminated to guide others in the development of similar models given the complexity of this population. Patients with dementia are more difficult to manage because of cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms, the common presence of multiple comorbidities, and related polypharmacy and caregiver issues. These challenges require expertise in neurodegenerative disorders and geriatrics. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of clinical pharmacists providing care to patients with cognitive complaints in a primary care-based, interdisciplinary memory clinic, with a focus on how the pharmacist practices and is integrated in this collaborative care setting. Patients are assessed using an interdisciplinary approach, with team consensus for assessment and planning of care. Pharmacists' activities include assessment of (1) appropriateness of medications based on frailty, (2) medications that can impair cognition and/or function, (3) medication adherence and management skills, and (4) vascular risk factor control. Pharmacists provide education regarding medications and diseases, ensure appropriate transitions in care, and conduct home visits. Pharmacist participation in this clinic represents a novel opportunity to advance pharmacy practice in primary care, interdisciplinary models. Work is ongoing to describe outcomes attributable to pharmacist participation in this clinic.

  19. "Youth friendly" clinics: considerations for linking and engaging HIV-infected adolescents into care.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amanda E; Philbin, Morgan M; Duval, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-02-01

    Linkage and engagement in care are critical corollaries to the health of HIV-infected adolescents. The adolescent HIV epidemic and adolescents' unique barriers to care necessitates innovation in the provision of care, including the consideration of the clinical experience. Little research has addressed how "youth friendly" clinics may influence care retention for HIV-infected youth. We conducted 124 interviews with providers, outreach workers, and case managers, at 15 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network clinics. Photographs of each clinic documented the characteristics of the physical space. Constant comparison and content and visual narrative methods were utilized for data analysis. Three elements of youth friendliness were identified for clinics serving HIV-infected youth, including: (1) role of target population (e.g., pediatric, adolescent, HIV); (2) clinics' physical environment; and (3) clinics' social environment. Working to create 'youth friendly' clinics through changes in physical (e.g., space, entertainment, and educational materials) and social (e.g., staff training related to development, gender, sexual orientation) environments may help reduce HIV-infected adolescents' unique barriers to care engagement. The integration of clinic design and staff training within the organization of a clinical program is helpful in meeting the specialized needs of HIV-infected youth.

  20. An issue tracking system to facilitate the enhancement of clinical data quality in the clinical breast care project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Weihong; Gutchell, Emily M; Hu, Hai; Liebman, Michael N; Shriver, Craig D; Mural, Richard J

    2007-10-11

    An online issue tracking (QAIT) system was developed to support the QA of questionnaire-based clinical data and tissue banking in the Clinical Breast Care Project (CBCP). The web-based system provides a centralized storage and management of QA issues and role-based access to related information and functions via internet. The QAIT system greatly improved the QA process for the CBCP clinical data and tissue banking and can be easily adapted to other applications.

  1. Genes, race, and culture in clinical care: racial profiling in the management of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda M; Truesdell, Nicole D; Kreiner, Meta J

    2013-06-01

    Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals.

  2. Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Lori J; Van Haren, Frank; Lopez, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered amongst intensive care patients and has significant psychophysiological effects, which protract recovery and increases mortality. Bio-physiological monitoring of intensive care patients reveal alterations in sleep architecture, with reduced sleep quality and continuity. The etiological causes of sleep disturbance are considered to be multifactorial, although environmental stressors namely, noise, light and clinical care interactions have been frequently cited in both subjective and objective studies. As a result, interventions are targeted towards modifiable factors to ameliorate their impact. This paper reviews normal sleep physiology and the impact that sleep disturbance has on patient psychophysiological recovery, and the contribution that the clinical environment has on intensive care patients' sleep.

  3. Providing pastoral care services in a clinical setting to veterans at-risk of suicide.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Marek S

    2013-09-01

    The value of enhanced spiritual wellbeing has largely been overlooked as part of suicide prevention efforts in Veterans. The aim of this qualitative study is to examine the clinical pastoral care services provided by VA Chaplains to Veterans at-risk of suicide. This study was conducted using in-depth interviews with five Chaplains affiliated with a medical center located in upstate New York. This study was able to show that some at-risk individuals do actively seek out pastoral care, demonstrating a demand for such services. In conclusion, a pastoral care framework may already exist in some clinical settings, giving at-risk Veterans the opportunity to access spiritual care.

  4. Evolving systems of care with total clinical outcomes management.

    PubMed

    Lyons, John S; Epstein, Richard A; Jordan, Neil

    2010-02-01

    The current article proposes that further specification of the system of care concept is required. Based on the assertions that the system of care concept (a) refers to an ideal as opposed to an observable phenomenon, and (b) is engaged in offering transformational experiences, the authors propose that the system of care definition must be expanded to include measurement and outcomes monitoring strategies that extend beyond current quality improvement initiatives. The authors propose that communication across multiple levels is essential if the goal of offering transformational experiences to children and families is to be realized.

  5. [Positioning of registered clinical laboratories in proper health care].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takeshi

    2003-09-01

    "Proper Health Care" is deemed to mean "Patient-conscious Health Care". On this basis, we have four tasks to achieve. They are: improvement in testing precision (quality control), heightened sense of medical ethics, satisfying the needs of medical institutions to outsource laboratory tests, and increased contribution to community health care. We are certainly aware that these tasks cannot be achieved overnight, however, we are determined to do our very best to reach our goal through day-to-day efforts in providing our customers with consistent and reliable services.

  6. Marketing retail health clinics: challenges and controversies arising from a health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cheryl-Ann N; Khanfar, Nile M; Harrington, Catherine; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding in 2000, retail-based health care clinics, also called convenient care clinics, have flourished but continue to generate controversy. This article examines the literature with respect to the industry's background, establishment of industry standards, types of services offered, marketing of retail health clinics, industry growth with new target markets, and patient demographics. It also examines the growing relationship with insurers and third-party payers, quality-of-care concerns by medical associations, and legal regulations and their potential impact on industry growth nationwide.

  7. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  8. Exemplary Care and Learning Sites: A Model for Achieving Continual Improvement in Care and Learning in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in diabetes for the assessment and control of vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Moyá, Ana; Ayala, Diana E

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis of hypertension and the clinical decisions regarding its treatment are usually based on daytime clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements. However, the correlation between BP levels and target organ damage, cardiovascular (CV) risk, and long-term prognosis, is higher for ambulatory (ABPM) than clinic measurements, both in the general population as well as in patients with diabetes. Moreover, there is consistent evidence in numerous studies that the asleep BP better predicts CV events than either the awake or 24h means. The prevalence of abnormal BP pattern and sleep-time hypertension is extensive in diabetes, often leading to inaccurate diagnoses of hypertension and its therapeutic control in the absence of complete and careful assessment of the entire 24h, i.e., daytime and night-time, BP pattern. Accordingly, ABPM should be the preferred method to comprehensively assess and decide the optimal clinical management of patients with diabetes directed to properly reduce elevated sleep-time BP, which might also lead to a significant reduction of CV events.

  10. The primary care clinic as a setting for continuing medical education: program description.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cuevas, R; Reyes, H; Guiscafré, H; Juárez-Díaz, N; Oviedo, M; Flores, S; Muñoz, O

    2000-11-14

    The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) is Mexico's Largest state-financed health care system, providing care to 50 million people. This system comprises 1450 family medicine clinics staffed by 14,000 family physicians, as well as 240 secondary care hospitals and 10 tertiary care medical centres. We developed a program of continuing medical education (CME) for IMSS family physicians. The program had 4 stages, which were completed over a 7-month period: development of clinical guidelines, training of clinical instructors, an educational intervention (consisting of interactive workshops, individual tutorials and peer group sessions), and evaluation of both physicians' performance and patients' health status. The pilot study was conducted in an IMSS family medicine clinic providing care to 45,000 people; 20 family physicians and 4 clinical instructors participated. The 2 main reasons for visits to IMSS family medicine clinics are acute respiratory infections and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, patients being treated at the clinic for either of these illnesses were included in the study. The sources of data were interviews with physicians and patients, clinical records and written prescriptions. A 1-group pretest-posttest design was used to compare physicians' performance in treating the 2 illnesses of interest. We found that the daily activities of the clinic could be reorganized to accommodate the CME program and that usual provision of health care services was maintained. Physicians accepted and participated actively in the program, and their performance improved over the course of the study. We conclude that this CME strategy is feasible, is acceptable to family physicians and may improve the quality of health care provided at IMSS primary care facilities. The effectiveness and sustainability of the strategy should be measured through an evaluative study.

  11. Clinic-wide intervention lowers financial risk and improves revenue to HIV clinics through fewer missed primary care visits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lytt I; Marks, Gary; Wilson, Tracey E; Giordano, Thomas P; Sullivan, Meg; Raper, James L; Rodriguez, Allan E; Keruly, Jeanne; Malitz, Faye

    2015-04-01

    : We calculated the financial impact in 6 HIV clinics of a low-effort retention in care intervention involving brief motivational messages from providers, patient brochures, and posters. We used a linear regression model to calculate absolute changes in kept primary care visits from the preintervention year (2008-2009) to the intervention year (2009-2010). Revenue from patients' insurance was also assessed by clinic. Kept visits improved significantly in the intervention year versus the preintervention year (P < 0.0001). We found a net-positive effect on clinic revenue of +$24,000/year for an average-size clinic (7400 scheduled visits/year). We encourage HIV clinic administrators to consider implementing this low-effort intervention.

  12. Care of the elderly program at the University of Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Lesley; Dobbs, Bonnie; Triscott, Jean; McKay, Rhianne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed The population is aging rapidly and there are implications for health care delivery in the face of few physicians specializing in care of the elderly (COE). Objective of program To train physicians wishing to provide COE services. Program description The COE program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton is an enhanced skills diploma program lasting 6 months to 1 year, with core program requirements including geriatric inpatient care, geriatric psychiatry, ambulatory care, continuing care, and outreach. There is a longitudinal clinic component and a research project requirement. The program is designed to cover the 85 core competencies in the CanMEDS– Family Medicine roles. Conclusion There is a need for COE physicians to provide clinical care as well as fill educational, administrative, and research roles to meet the health care needs of medically complex seniors. These physicians require alternative funding and a departmental home within a university if they are to provide an academic service. PMID:25551143

  13. Utilizing clinical pharmacists to improve delivery of evidence-based care for depression and anxiety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Amanda; Kamo, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Access to mental health providers has become an increasingly common challenge for many patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Primary care providers often manage this gap in care and currently provide solo care without the assistance of other team members. In order to provide quality care that aligns with best practice, we developed a depression and anxiety disorder treatment pathway utilizing a multidisciplinary team based on each members' individual skill set, or skill-task alignment. The main change to treatment implemented by the pathway was the addition of a clinical pharmacist in the management of patient care. This pathway was trialed over five months targeting two adult primary care teams (approximately 34 physicians and Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioners [ARNPs]) while the other five teams continued with current practice standards. Post-implementation metrics indicated that clinical pharmacists successfully contacted 55% (406 of 738) of patients started on medication or who had a medication changed. Of these patients reached, 82 (20%) had an intervention completed. In addition, all physician leaders on the planning team (n=6) stated the new pathway was well received and delivered positive feedback from team members. PMID:27493753

  14. Utilizing clinical pharmacists to improve delivery of evidence-based care for depression and anxiety in primary care.

    PubMed

    Locke, Amanda; Kamo, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Access to mental health providers has become an increasingly common challenge for many patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Primary care providers often manage this gap in care and currently provide solo care without the assistance of other team members. In order to provide quality care that aligns with best practice, we developed a depression and anxiety disorder treatment pathway utilizing a multidisciplinary team based on each members' individual skill set, or skill-task alignment. The main change to treatment implemented by the pathway was the addition of a clinical pharmacist in the management of patient care. This pathway was trialed over five months targeting two adult primary care teams (approximately 34 physicians and Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioners [ARNPs]) while the other five teams continued with current practice standards. Post-implementation metrics indicated that clinical pharmacists successfully contacted 55% (406 of 738) of patients started on medication or who had a medication changed. Of these patients reached, 82 (20%) had an intervention completed. In addition, all physician leaders on the planning team (n=6) stated the new pathway was well received and delivered positive feedback from team members. PMID:27493753

  15. The genome clinic: a multidisciplinary approach to assessing the opportunities and challenges of integrating genomic analysis into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Bowdin, Sarah; Ray, Peter N; Cohn, Ronald D; Meyn, M Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Our increasing knowledge of how genomic variants affect human health and the falling costs of whole-genome sequencing are driving the development of individualized genetic medicine. This new clinical paradigm uses knowledge of an individual's genomic variants to guide health care decisions throughout life, to anticipate, diagnose, and manage disease. While individualized genetic medicine offers the promise of transformative change in health care, it forces us to reconsider existing ethical, scientific, and clinical paradigms. The potential benefits of presymptomatic identification of at risk individuals, improved diagnostics, individualized therapy, accurate prognosis, and avoidance of adverse drug reactions coexist with the potential risks of uninterpretable results, psychological harm, outmoded counseling models, and increased health care costs. Here, we review the challenges of integrating genomic analysis into clinical practice and describe a prototype for implementing genetic medicine. Our multidisciplinary team of bioinformaticians, health economists, ethicists, geneticists, genetic counselors, and clinicians has designed a "Genome Clinic" research project that addresses multiple challenges in genomic medicine-ranging from the development of bioinformatics tools for the clinical assessment of genomic variants and the discovery of disease genes to health policy inquiries, assessment of clinical care models, patient preference, and the ethics of consent.

  16. Clinical review: The Israeli experience: conventional terrorism and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Aschkenasy-Steuer, Gabriella; Shamir, Micha; Rivkind, Avraham; Mosheiff, Rami; Shushan, Yigal; Rosenthal, Guy; Mintz, Yoav; Weissman, Charles; Sprung, Charles L; Weiss, Yoram G

    2005-01-01

    Over the past four years there have been 93 multiple-casualty terrorist attacks in Israel, 33 of them in Jerusalem. The Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center is the only Level I trauma center in Jerusalem and has therefore gained important experience in caring for critically injured patients. To do so we have developed a highly flexible operational system for managing the general intensive care unit (GICU). The focus of this review will be on the organizational steps needed to provide operational flexibility, emphasizing the importance of forward deployment of intensive care unit personnel to the trauma bay and emergency room and the existence of a chain of command to limit chaos. A retrospective review of the hospital's response to multiple-casualty terror incidents occurring between 1 October 2000 and 1 September 2004 was performed. Information was assembled from the medical center's trauma registry and from GICU patient admission and discharge records. Patients are described with regard to the severity and type of injury. The organizational work within intensive care is described. Finally, specific issues related to the diagnosis and management of lung, brain, orthopedic and abdominal injuries, caused by bomb blast events associated with shrapnel, are described. This review emphasizes the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in caring for these patients. PMID:16277738

  17. Teamwork in obstetric critical care

    PubMed Central

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Segel, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Whether seeing a patient in the ambulatory clinic environment, performing a delivery or managing a critically ill patient, obstetric care is a team activity. Failures in teamwork and communication are among the leading causes of adverse obstetric events, accounting for over 70% of sentinel events according to the Joint Commission. Effective, efficient and safe care requires good teamwork. Although nurses, doctors and healthcare staff who work in critical care environments are extremely well trained and competent medically, they have not traditionally been trained in how to work well as part of a team. Given the complexity and acuity of critical care medicine, which often relies on more than one medical team, teamwork skills are essential. This chapter discusses the history and importance of teamwork in high-reliability fields, reviews key concepts and skills in teamwork, and discusses approaches to training and working in teams. PMID:18701352

  18. Teamwork in obstetric critical care.

    PubMed

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Segel, Sally

    2008-10-01

    Whether seeing a patient in the ambulatory clinic environment, performing a delivery or managing a critically ill patient, obstetric care is a team activity. Failures in teamwork and communication are among the leading causes of adverse obstetric events, accounting for over 70% of sentinel events according to the Joint Commission. Effective, efficient and safe care requires good teamwork. Although nurses, doctors and healthcare staff who work in critical care environments are extremely well trained and competent medically, they have not traditionally been trained in how to work well as part of a team. Given the complexity and acuity of critical care medicine, which often relies on more than one medical team, teamwork skills are essential. This chapter discusses the history and importance of teamwork in high-reliability fields, reviews key concepts and skills in teamwork, and discusses approaches to training and working in teams.

  19. [Embracing Jean Watson's theory of Human Caring through a reflective practice within a clinical situation].

    PubMed

    Cara, Chantal; O'Reilly, Louise

    2008-12-01

    Essentially based on humanistic values of respect, collaboration, and uniqueness rather than on objectification, control, and categorization of the person cared-for, a professional's practice rooted in caring is aimed at helping individuals and their families, which can only be carried out through respect for human dignity. If we are to consider caring as the core of nursing, nurses will undoubtedly have to make a conscious effort to preserve human caring within their clinical practice (Cara, 2004b; O'Reilly, 2008, Watson, 2002). However, to support this endeavour, caring theories, such as the one proposed by Jean Watson, are essential. Inspired by Cara's (2003) continuing education paper, this reflection paper takes a pragmatic approach to promote the understanding of key elements involved in Watson's caring theory through a process of reflective practice within a rehabilitation clinical situation.

  20. Primary care satellite clinics and improved access to general and mental health services.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheck, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the implementation of community-based primary care clinics and improved access to general health care and/or mental health care, in both the general population and among people with disabling mental illness. STUDY SETTING: The 69 new community-based primary care clinics in underserved areas, established by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between the last quarter of FY 1995 and the second quarter of FY 1998, including the 21 new clinics with a specialty mental health care component. DATA SOURCES: VA inpatient and outpatient workload files, 1990 U.S. Census data, and VA Compensation and Pension files were used to determine the proportion of all veterans, and the proportion of disabled veterans, living in each U.S. county who used VA general health care services and VA mental health services before and after these clinics began operation. DESIGN: Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes, from late FY 1995 through early FY 1998, in access to VA services in counties in which new primary care clinics were located, in counties in which clinics that included specialized mental health components were located, and for comparison, in other U.S. counties, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. KEY FINDINGS: Counties in which new clinics were located showed a significant increase from the FY 1995-FY 1998 study dates in the proportion of veterans who used general VA health care services. This increase was almost twice as large as that observed in comparison counties (4.2% vs. 2.5%: F = 12.6, df = 1,3118, p = .0004). However, the introduction of these clinics was not associated with a greater use of specialty VA mental health services in the general veteran population, or of either general health care services or mental health services among veterans who received VA compensation for psychiatric disorders. In contrast, in counties with new clinics that included a mental health component the proportion of

  1. Walking the Walk in Team-Based Education: The Crimson Care Collaborative Clinic in Family Medicine.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, Kirsten; Wohler, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Effective implementation of robust team-based care in the United States requires significant training for all team members. This education is integral to creating a culture of collaboration and respect among interprofessional members of the health care team. The lack of interprofessional clinical educational experiences contributes to a "hidden curriculum" that reinforces the problematic view that medicine is at the top of a hierarchy among health professions. However, learners themselves have started resisting this view by integrating cross-disciplinary team-based training into their own education. One example of learner-based leadership in interprofessional team care is the Crimson Care Collaborative at Cambridge Health Alliance, a student-faculty collaborative family medicine clinic. This successful clinic demonstrates that high-quality interprofessional clinical education can be accomplished through partnerships between educational institutions and existing patient-centered medical homes. PMID:27669136

  2. Clinic, hospital try to fulfill vision of coordinated care with joint venture company.

    PubMed

    2000-09-01

    Coordinated Care Services Inc., a joint venture of Carle Foundation and Carle Clinic Association in Urbana, IL, shares its initial successes and ongoing challenges after one year of operation. The biggest barrier to further improvements remains insufficient information management capability.

  3. Health Care Rationing in a Just Society: The Clinical Effectiveness Model.

    PubMed

    Weisleder, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    Representing 18% of gross domestic product, and projected to increase to 20% by 2022, health care costs in the United States are an unsustainable expense. The clinical effectiveness model of cost containment is an ethical and self-sustaining paradigm that can assist bending the health care-cost curve. As envisioned by Buyx et al, clinically effective care is aimed at making the practice of medicine more explicitly evidence based with the goals of improving clinical success, efficiency, and value. I provide a vision for applying the clinical effectiveness model to the American health care system. I illustrate its use with 2 examples from the practice of child neurology: DOC-band (helmet therapy) for the treatment of positional plagiocephaly-relatively inexpensive but ineffective, and adrenocorticotropic hormone for the treatment of infantile spasms-expensive but effective.

  4. Criteria for clinical audit of women friendly care and providers' perception in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; van den Broek, Nynke

    2008-01-01

    Background There are two dimensions of quality of maternity care, namely quality of health outcomes and quality as perceived by clients. The feasibility of using clinical audit to assess and improve the quality of maternity care as perceived by women was studied in Malawi. Objective We sought to (a) establish standards for women friendly care and (b) explore attitudinal barriers which could impede the proper implementation of clinical audit. Methods We used evidence from Malawi national guidelines and World Health Organisation manuals to establish local standards for women friendly care in three districts. We equally conducted a survey of health care providers to explore their attitudes towards criterion based audit. Results The standards addressed different aspects of care given to women in maternity units, namely (i) reception, (ii) attitudes towards women, (iii) respect for culture, (iv) respect for women, (v) waiting time, (vi) enabling environment, (vii) provision of information, (viii) individualised care, (ix) provision of skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care, (x) confidentiality, and (xi) proper management of patient information. The health providers in Malawi generally held a favourable attitude towards clinical audit: 100.0% (54/54) agreed that criterion based audit will improve the quality of care and 92.6% believed that clinical audit is a good educational tool. However, there are concerns that criterion based audit would create a feeling of blame among providers (35.2%), and that manager would use clinical audit to identify and punish providers who fail to meet standards (27.8%). Conclusion Developing standards of maternity care that are acceptable to, and valued by, women requires consideration of both the research evidence and cultural values. Clinical audit is acceptable to health professionals in Malawi although there are concerns about its negative implications to the providers. PMID:18647388

  5. [Critical issues in clinical practice guidelines for geriatric care].

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Ermellina

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia(BPSD) are one of the most disturbing issues in the management of patients, both for caregivers and health care personnel. Aim of this paper is to critically appraise the available guidelines on the non pharmacological management of BPSD. Some effective interventions such as person centred care, communication skills e dementia care mapping are not mentioned while interventions of dubious efficacy (aromatherapy, per therapy, light therapy or music therapy) are proposed. The variability in the expression of behavioral disorders and the different causes suggest an accurate tailoring of the interventions, based on the assessment of the patient, the organization and the environment. Further studies are necessary to improve the implementation of the non drug strategies for the management of BPSDs. PMID:25532924

  6. [Critical issues in clinical practice guidelines for geriatric care].

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Ermellina

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia(BPSD) are one of the most disturbing issues in the management of patients, both for caregivers and health care personnel. Aim of this paper is to critically appraise the available guidelines on the non pharmacological management of BPSD. Some effective interventions such as person centred care, communication skills e dementia care mapping are not mentioned while interventions of dubious efficacy (aromatherapy, per therapy, light therapy or music therapy) are proposed. The variability in the expression of behavioral disorders and the different causes suggest an accurate tailoring of the interventions, based on the assessment of the patient, the organization and the environment. Further studies are necessary to improve the implementation of the non drug strategies for the management of BPSDs.

  7. Twenty-Four Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Getting Started

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzari, Margaret; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Carey, Dennis E.; Fort, Pavel; Kreitzer, Paula M.; Frank, Graeme R.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is a valuable tool in the pediatric and adolescent population with type 1 diabetes. It provides useful information not readily available from sporadic clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements and a more reliable estimation of the subject's BP over an extended period of time. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is gaining popularity with clinicians and investigators alike. The American Heart Association has recently issued recommendations for the use of ABPM in children and adolescents. We have incorporated ABPM into our adolescent diabetes practice and present useful information for clinicians planning to initiate 24 h ABPM in their clinical practice. PMID:19885297

  8. 75 FR 14606 - Medicare Program; Request for Nominations to the Advisory Panel on Ambulatory Payment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...; Center for Medicare Management, Hospital & Ambulatory Policy Group, Division of Outpatient Care; 7500... components of the Medicare hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS). The Charter requires that... consist of a chair and up to 15 members who are full- time employees of hospitals, hospital systems,...

  9. 77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition as a national accrediting... Notice On June 22, 2012, we published a proposed notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 37678) entitled...), AAAHC revised its standards to ensure patients have the right to ``voice grievances regarding...

  10. The Ambulatory Experience for Junior Medical Students at the Medical College of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; Albritton, T. Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The Medical College of Georgia's third-year medicine clerkship includes a one-month ambulatory care block rotation in internal medicine, medicine, and dermatology. Students present topics and participate in case discussions in daily and weekly conferences. Program success is resulting in expansion. (MSE)

  11. “Youth friendly” clinics: Considerations for linking and engaging HIV-infected adolescents into care

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Amanda E.; Philbin, Morgan M.; Duval, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Linkage and engagement in care are critical corollaries to the health of HIV-infected adolescents. The adolescent HIV epidemic and adolescents’ unique barriers to care necessitates innovation in the provision of care, including the consideration of the clinical experience. Little research has addressed how “youth friendly” clinics may influence care retention for HIV-infected youth. We conducted 124 interviews with providers, outreach workers, and case managers, at 15 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network clinics. Photographs of each clinic documented the characteristics of the physical space. Constant comparison and content and visual narrative methods were utilized for data analysis. Three elements of youth friendliness were identified for clinics serving HIV-infected youth, including: (1) role of target population (e.g., pediatric, adolescent, HIV); (2) clinics’ physical environment; and (3) clinics’ social environment. Working to create ‘youth friendly’ clinics through changes in physical (e.g., space, entertainment, and educational materials) and social (e.g., staff training related to development, gender, sexual orientation) environments may help reduce HIV-infected adolescents’ unique barriers to care engagement. The integration of clinic design and staff training within the organization of a clinical program is helpful in meeting the specialized needs of HIV-infected youth. PMID:23782040

  12. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  13. Rural Health Clinics and Diabetes-Related Primary Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkbride, Kelly; Wallace, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study assessed whether Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) were associated with higher rates of recommended primary care services for adult beneficiaries diagnosed with diabetes in Oregon's Medicaid program, the Oregon Health Plan (OHP). Methods: OHP claims data from 2002 to 2003 were used to assess quality of diabetic care for…

  14. Opening the Black Box of Clinical Collaboration in Integrated Care Models for Frail, Elderly Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Stampa, Matthieu; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard; Novella, Jean-Luc; Lechowski, Laurent; Ankri, Joel; Lapointe, Liette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand better the clinical collaboration process among primary care physicians (PCPs), case managers (CMs), and geriatricians in integrated models of care. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study with semistructured interviews. A purposive sample of 35 PCPs, 7 CMs, and 4 geriatricians was selected in…

  15. Developing Memory Clinics in Primary Care: An Evidence-Based Interprofessional Program of Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Primary care is challenged to meet the needs of patients with dementia. A training program was developed to increase capacity for dementia care through the development of Family Health Team (FHT)-based interprofessional memory clinics. The interprofessional training program consisted of a 2-day workshop, 1-day observership, and 2-day…

  16. The Promise Clinic: a service learning approach to increasing access to health care.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel; Tan-Billet, Jennifer; Babineau, John; Jimenez, Jennifer Endres; Billet, Todd; Flash, Charlene; Levin, Steven; West, Bernadette; Tallia, Alfred

    2008-08-01

    The goal of the Promise Clinic (a project of an academic medical center and a local social services group) is to increase access to primary care for an underserved population while addressing deficiencies in medical education. Students manage common primary care problems, creating access for this mostly uninsured population.

  17. Primary care patients in psychiatric clinical trials: a pilot study using videoconferencing

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet BW; Ellis, Amy; Middleton, Arthur; Kobak, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    Background While primary care physicians play a pivotal role in the treatment of depression, collaboration between primary care and psychiatry in clinical research has been limited. Primary care settings provide unique opportunities to improve the methodology of psychiatric clinical trials, by providing more generalizable and less treatment-resistant patients. We examined the feasibility of identifying, recruiting, screening and assessing primary care patients for psychiatric clinical trials using high-quality videoconferencing in a mock clinical trial. Methods 1329 patients at two primary care clinics completed a self-report questionnaire. Those screening positive for major depression, panic, or generalized anxiety were given a diagnostic interview via videoconference. Those eligible were provided treatment as usual by their primary care physician, and had 6 weekly assessments by the off-site clinician via videoconferencing. Results 45 patients were enrolled over 22 weeks, with 36 (80%) completing the six-week study with no more than two missed appointments. All diagnostic groups improved significantly; 94% reported they would participate again, 87% would recommend participation to others, 96% felt comfortable communicating via videoconference, and 94% were able to satisfactorily communicate their feelings via video. Conclusion Results showed that primary care patients will enroll, participate in and complete psychiatric research protocols using remote interviews conducted via videoconference. PMID:17916254

  18. Clinical Effectiveness Research in Managed-care Systems: Lessons from the Pediatric Asthma Care PORT

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Lozano, Paula; Streiff, Kachen A; Arduino, Kelly E; Sisk, Cynthia A; Wagner, Edward H; Weiss, Kevin B; Inui, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    Objective To highlight the unique challenges of evaluative research on practice behavior change in the “real world” settings of contemporary managed-care organizations, using the experience of the Pediatric Asthma Care PORT (Patient Outcomes Research Team). Study Setting The Pediatric Asthma Care PORT is a five-year initiative funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to study strategies for asthma care improvement in three managed-care plans in Chicago, Seattle, and Boston. At its core is a randomized trial of two care improvement strategies compared with usual care: (1) a targeted physician education program using practice based Peer Leaders (PL) as change agents, (2) adding to the PL intervention a “Planned Asthma Care Intervention” incorporating joint “asthma check-ups” by nurse-physician teams. During the trial, each of the participating organizations viewed asthma care improvement as an immediate priority and had their own corporate improvement programs underway. Data Collection Investigators at each health plan described the organizational and implementation challenges in conducting the PAC PORT randomized trial. These experiences were reviewed for common themes and “lessons” that might be useful to investigators planning interventional research in similar care-delivery settings. Conclusions Randomized trials in “real world” settings represent the most robust design available to test care improvement strategies. In complex, rapidly changing managed-care organizations, blinding is not feasible, corporate initiatives may complicate implementation, and the assumption that a “usual care” arm will be static is highly likely to be mistaken. Investigators must be prepared to use innovative strategies to maintain the integrity of the study design, including: continuous improvement within the intervention arms, comanagement by researchers and health plan managers of condition-related quality improvement initiatives, procedures

  19. Setting up of ambulatory hysteroscopy service.

    PubMed

    Kolhe, Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    There is an obvious trend towards developing ambulatory procedures in gynaecology with ambulatory hysteroscopy as its mainstay. In the recent years, the fast pace of modern technological advances in gynaecologic endoscopy, and particularly in the field of hysteroscopy, have been both thrilling and spectacular. Despite this, the uptake of operative hysteroscopy in ambulatory settings has been relatively slow. There is some apprehension amongst gynaecologists to embark on therapeutic outpatient hysteroscopy, and an organisational change is required to alter the mindset. Although there are best practice guidelines for outpatient hysteroscopy, there are unresolved issues around adequate training and accreditation of future hysteroscopists. Virtual-reality simulation training for operative hysteroscopy has shown promising preliminary results, and it is being aggressively evaluated and validated. This review article is an attempt to provide a useful practical guide to all those who wish to implement ambulatory hysteroscopy services in their outpatient departments. PMID:25979350

  20. Instinctive Clinical Teaching: Erasing the Mental Boundary Between Clinical Education and Patient Care to Promote Natural Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yih-Ming; Kim, Christopher H.; Briones, Michael A.; Hilinski, Joseph A.; Greenwald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Effective clinical teaching is essential in physician education, yet faculty members rarely receive formal training in clinical teaching. Formal models for training clinical educators are often tedious and require significant time and effort. Instinctive clinical teaching allows clinicians to seamlessly integrate and promote effective teaching into their clinical practice. The approach is guided by similarities between the components of Kolb's experiential learning cycle—concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation—and the elements of the patient care process—history and physical, initial assessment, differential, hypothesis, final diagnosis, management, and follow-up. Externalization of these clinical thought processes allows for inclusion of learners and promotes effective clinical teaching. PMID:26279765