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Sample records for amendoinzeiro arachis hypogaea

  1. Successful crosses between fungal-resistant wild species of Arachis (section Arachis) and Arachis hypogaea

    PubMed Central

    Fávero, Alessandra Pereira; dos Santos, Rodrigo Furtado; Simpson, Charles E.; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Vello, Natal Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is the fifth most produced oil crop worldwide. Besides lack of water, fungal diseases are the most limiting factors for the crop. Several species of Arachis are resistant to certain pests and diseases. This study aimed to successfully cross the A-genome with B-K-A genome wild species previously selected for fungal disease resistance, but that are still untested. We also aimed to polyplodize the amphihaploid chromosomes; cross the synthetic amphidiploids and A. hypogaea to introgress disease resistance genes into the cultivated peanut; and analyze pollen viability and morphological descriptors for all progenies and their parents. We selected 12 A-genome accessions as male parents and three B-genome species, one K-genome species, and one A-genome species as female parents. Of the 26 distinct cross combinations, 13 different interspecific AB-genome and three AA-genome hybrids were obtained. These sterile hybrids were polyploidized and five combinations produced tetraploid flowers. Next, 16 combinations were crossed between A. hypogaea and the synthetic amphidiploids, resulting in 11 different hybrid combinations. Our results confirm that it is possible to introgress resistance genes from wild species into the peanut using artificial hybridization, and that more species than previously reported can be used, thus enhancing the genetic variability in peanut genetic improvement programs. PMID:26500440

  2. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  3. A Developmental Transcriptome Map for Allotetraploid Arachis hypogaea

    PubMed Central

    Clevenger, Josh; Chu, Ye; Scheffler, Brian; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The advent of the genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis has ushered in a new era for peanut genomics. With the goal of producing a gene atlas for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), 22 different tissue types and ontogenies that represent the full development of peanut were sequenced, including a complete reproductive series from flower to peg elongation and peg tip immersion in the soil to fully mature seed. Using a genome-guided assembly pipeline, a homeolog-specific transcriptome assembly for Arachis hypogaea was assembled and its accuracy was validated. The assembly was used to annotate 21 developmental co-expression networks as tools for gene discovery. Using a set of 8816 putative homeologous gene pairs, homeolog expression bias was documented, and although bias was mostly balanced, there were striking differences in expression bias in a tissue-specific context. Over 9000 alterative splicing events and over 6000 non-coding RNAs were further identified and profiled in a developmental context. Together, this work represents a major new resource for cultivated peanut and will be integrated into peanutbase.org as an available resource for all peanut researchers. PMID:27746793

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  5. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  6. Characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Marcos A; Hoshino, Andrea A; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Palmieri, Dario A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis includes Arachis hypogaea (cultivated peanut) and wild species that are used in peanut breeding or as forage. Molecular markers have been employed in several studies of this genus, but microsatellite markers have only been used in few investigations. Microsatellites are very informative and are useful to assess genetic variability, analyze mating systems and in genetic mapping. The objectives of this study were to develop A. hypogaea microsatellite loci and to evaluate the transferability of these markers to other Arachis species. Results Thirteen loci were isolated and characterized using 16 accessions of A. hypogaea. The level of variation found in A. hypogaea using microsatellites was higher than with other markers. Cross-transferability of the markers was also high. Sequencing of the fragments amplified using the primer pair Ah11 from 17 wild Arachis species showed that almost all wild species had similar repeated sequence to the one observed in A. hypogaea. Sequence data suggested that there is no correlation between taxonomic relationship of a wild species to A. hypogaea and the number of repeats found in its microsatellite loci. Conclusion These results show that microsatellite primer pairs from A. hypogaea have multiple uses. A higher level of variation among A. hypogaea accessions can be detected using microsatellite markers in comparison to other markers, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. The microsatellite primers of A. hypogaea showed a very high rate of transferability to other species of the genus. These primer pairs provide important tools to evaluate the genetic variability and to assess the mating system in Arachis species. PMID:17326826

  7. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Tong-Jen; Howard, Andrew; Kothary, Mahendra H; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yuzhu

    2013-02-20

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will allow a better understanding of the allergenicity of food allergens and their cross-reactivities. The three-dimensional structures of most known food allergens remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the first crystallographic study of a food allergen in the profilin family. The structure of peanut allergen Ara h 5 was determined, and the resolution of the final refined structure was 1.1 Å. Structure alignment revealed that Ara h 5 is more similar to Bet v 2 than to Hev b 8, although sequence alignment suggested that Ara h 5 is more closely related to Hev b 8 than to Bet v 2, indicating that homology-model-based prediction of immunoglobulin E epitopes needs to be interpreted with caution.

  8. [Research advances in cadmium pollution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-rong; Zhang, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oil-bearing crop in the world, and as well, an important resource of plant protein and a main raw material for food processing. With the increasing of its direct human consumption and food processing, the Cd concentration in peanut kernel has aroused great concern in recent years. China is a main country of the production and exportation of peanut, but the Cd enrichment in peanut kernel is the main obstacle for its peanut export trade. In this paper, the research advances in Cd pollution of peanut kernel were reviewed, based on the characteristics and mechanisms of Cd accumulation and distribution in peanut kernel, the intra-specific variation of kernel Cd content, and the measures in controlling kernel Cd content. Two strategies were put forward for controlling Cd pollution of peanut kernel, i.e., to reduce the Cd uptake by main root system of peanut plant, and to control the transference of Cd from root to fruit (kernel). In order to applying the strategies effectively, researches on the mechanisms of Cd accumulation in peanut kernel should be enhanced in three aspects, i.e., root vitality and its relationship with Cd accumulation in kernel, mechanism of fruit Cd absorption and its contribution to kernel Cd content, and mechanism of Cd transference in plants and its effects on kernel Cd content.

  9. Biosynthesis of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol: studies with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.D.; Sastry, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was investigated using groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaf discs and /sup 35/S-labeled precursors. (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 4/(2-) was actively taken up by the leaf discs and rapidly incorporated into SQDG. After 2 h, 1.5% of the (/sup 35/S)SO4(2-) added to the incubation medium was taken up, of which 28% was incorporated into SQDG. The methanol-water phases of the lipid extracts of the leaf discs were analyzed for the /sup 35/S-labeled intermediates. Up to 2 h of incubation, cysteic acid, 3-sulfopyruvate, 3-sulfolactate, 3-sulfolactaldehyde, and sulfoquinovose (SQ) which have been proposed as intermediates were not labeled. Only a negligible amount of radioactivity was observed in these compounds after incubation for 4 h and more. Addition of sodium molybdate inhibited the uptake of (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 4/(2-) as well as its incorporation into SQDG by the leaf discs, suggesting that 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate may be involved in the biosynthesis of SQDG. Addition of unlabeled cysteic acid to the incubation medium enhanced the uptake of (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 4/(2-) but did not affect its incorporation into SQDG. /sup 35/S-labeled cysteic acid was taken up by the leaf discs and metabolized to sulfoacetic acid but not incorporated into SQ or SQDG. These results show that cysteic acid is not an intermediate in SQDG biosynthesis. (/sup 35/S)SQ was taken up by the leaf discs and incorporated into SQDG in a time-dependent manner. (/sup 35/S)Sulfoquinovosylglycerol was also taken up by the leaf discs but not incorporated into SQDG. It is concluded that SQDG is not biosynthesized by the proposed sulfoglycolytic pathway in higher plants.

  10. CO2 and chamber effects on epidermal development in field grown peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, (Arachis hypogaea L.) cvar. C76–16, was grown either in the field, or in open gas exchange chambers under elevated or ambient CO2 concentrations. Stomatal density and other selected epidermal parameters associated with leaf development and gas exchange were measured on recently fully expande...

  11. An integrated genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) constructed from two RIL populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction and improvement of a genetic map for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) continues to be an important task in order to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and the development of tools for marker-assisted breeding. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative integrat...

  12. Biological activity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) phytoalexins and selected natural and synthetic stilbenoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), when infected by a microbial pathogen, is capable of producing stilbene-derived compounds that are considered antifungal phytoalexins. In addition, the potential health benefits of other stilbenoids from peanuts, including resveratrol and pterostilbene have be...

  13. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  14. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  15. QTL analysis of disease resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot (ELS), caused by Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Cercosporidium personatum, and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) result in great losses in yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to these dise...

  16. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto…

  17. Weed Control Systems for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Grown as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has not been utilized as a true oilseed crop, especially for the production of fuel. However, peanut makes a superior feedstock for biodiesel, especially in on-farm or small cooperative business plans, where producers can dictate the cost of making their own fuel. Fiel...

  18. Characterization of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and genetic relationships within cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 709 SSR markers were collected from public database and 556 SSRs passed an initial screen and were used to characterize 16 Arachis hypogaea genotypes. PIC (polymorphism information content) scores and heterozygosity indices were calculated to access the genetic diversity of SSR markers an...

  19. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  20. The biosynthesis of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol: studies with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S D; Sastry, P S

    1988-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was investigated using groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaf discs and 35S-labeled precursors. [35S]SO4(2-) was actively taken up by the leaf discs and rapidly incorporated into SQDG. After 2 h, 1.5% of the [35S]SO4(2-) added to the incubation medium was taken up, of which 28% was incorporated into SQDG. The methanol-water phases of the lipid extracts of the leaf discs were analyzed for the 35S-labeled intermediates. Up to 2 h of incubation, cysteic acid, 3-sulfopyruvate, 3-sulfolactate, 3-sulfolactaldehyde, and sulfoquinovose (SQ) which have been proposed as intermediates [Davies et al. (1966) Biochem. J. 98, 369-373] were not labeled. Only a negligible amount of radioactivity was observed in these compounds after incubation for 4 h and more. Addition of sodium molybdate inhibited the uptake of [35S]SO4(2-) as well as its incorporation into SQDG by the leaf discs, suggesting that 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate may be involved in the biosynthesis of SQDG. Addition of unlabeled cysteic acid to the incubation medium enhanced the uptake of [35S]SO4(2-) but did not affect its incorporation into SQDG. 35S-labeled cysteic acid was taken up by the leaf discs and metabolized to sulfoacetic acid but not incorporated into SQ or SQDG. These results show that cysteic acid is not an intermediate in SQDG biosynthesis. [35S]SQ was taken up by the leaf discs and incorporated into SQDG in a time-dependent manner. [35S]Sulfoquinovosylglycerol was also taken up by the leaf discs but not incorporated into SQDG. It is concluded that SQDG is not biosynthesized by the proposed sulfoglycolytic pathway in higher plants. Though [35S]SQ was converted to SQDG, the rates are much lower compared to [35S]SO4(2-) incorporation, which suggests that a more direct pathway involving sulfonation of a lipid precursor may exist in higher plants.

  1. Utility of EST-derived SSR in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Arachis wild species

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xuanqiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Liu, Haiyan; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Guo, Baozhu

    2009-01-01

    Background Lack of sufficient molecular markers hinders current genetic research in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic research. With the development of peanut EST projects, a vast amount of available EST sequence data has been generated. These data offered an opportunity to identify SSR in ESTs by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 24,238 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 881 SSRs were identified from 780 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.3 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (63.9%) being the most abundant followed by di- (32.7%), tetra- (1.7%), hexa- (1.0%) and penta-nucleotide (0.7%) repeat types. The top six motifs included AG/TC (27.7%), AAG/TTC (17.4%), AAT/TTA (11.9%), ACC/TGG (7.72%), ACT/TGA (7.26%) and AT/TA (6.3%). Based on the 780 SSR-containing ESTs, a total of 290 primer pairs were successfully designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism among 22 genotypes of cultivated peanuts and 16 accessions of wild species. The results showed that 251 primer pairs yielded amplification products, of which 26 and 221 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism among the cultivated and wild species examined, respectively. Two to four alleles were found in cultivated peanuts, while 3–8 alleles presented in wild species. The apparent broad polymorphism was further confirmed by cloning and sequencing of amplified alleles. Sequence analysis of selected amplified alleles revealed that allelic diversity could be attributed mainly to differences in repeat type and length in the microsatellite regions. In addition, a few single base mutations were observed in the microsatellite flanking regions. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of peanut EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in

  2. Use of single-primer DNA amplifications in genetic studies of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Halward, T; Stalker, T; LaRue, E; Kochert, G

    1992-01-01

    A recent approach to detecting genetic polymorphism involves the amplification of genomic DNA using single primers of arbitrary sequence. When separated electrophoretically in agarose gels, the amplification products give banding patterns that can be scored for genetic variation. The objective of this research was to apply these techniques to cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and related wild species to determine whether such an approach would be feasible for the construction of a genetic linkage map in peanut or for systematic studies of the genus. Two peanut cultivars, 25 unadapted germplasm lines of A. hypogaea, the wild allotetraploid progenitor of cultivated peanut (A. monticola), A. glabrata (a tetraploid species from section Rhizomatosae), and 29 diploid wild species of Arachis were evaluated for variability using primers of arbitrary sequence to amplify segments of genomic DNA. No variation in banding pattern was observed among the cultivars and germplasm lines of A. hypogaea, whereas the wild Arachis species were uniquely identified with most primers tested. Bands were scored (+/-) in the wild species and the PAUP computer program for phylogenetic analysis and the HyperRFLP program for genetic distance analysis were used to generate dendrograms showing genetic relationships among the diploid Arachis species evaluated. The two analyses produced nearly identical dendrograms of species relationships. In addition, approximately 100 F2 progeny from each of two interspecific crosses were evaluated for segregation of banding patterns. Although normal segregation was observed among the F2 progeny from both crosses, banding patterns were quite complex and undesirable for use in genetic mapping. The dominant behavior of the markers prevented the differentiation of heterozygotes from homozygotes with certainty, limiting the usefulness of arbitrary primer amplification products as markers in the construction of a genetic linkage map in peanut.

  3. Identification and characterization of a multigene family encoding germin-like proteins in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play diversified roles in plant development and defense response. Here, we identified 36 ESTs encoding GLPs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). After assembly, these ESTs were integrated into eight unigenes, named AhGLP1 to AhGLP8, of which, three (AhGLP1-3) were comprised...

  4. Acclimation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to water stress through exposure to differing periods of early season drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is able to withstand periods of water scarcity either in the early or late periods of the growing season, but suffers significant stress and yield loss during drought periods in mid-season, or the period coinciding with peak flower production and pod maturation. In fact...

  5. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations, and at different soil sulfur levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi), showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across th...

  6. Detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen by Real-time PCR method with internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Ju; Cai, Qin; Guan, Xiao; Chen, Qin

    2015-05-01

    Specific primer sets were designed based on the DNA sequence of Ara h 1, one of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens, and a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was designed by compound primer technology. By choosing 314 copies/PCR as the IAC dosage, a Real-time PCR method with IAC was established for detecting peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA. The method showed high specificity with a detection limit of 0.005% peanut. A series of commercial food products with/without peanut components were tested. Among these products, the peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA could be detected in 12 products labelled containing peanut ingredients, in two without a declaration of peanut and one labelled that was produced in a facility that produced peanut-containing foods. This indicates that the method is highly sensitive for the detection of peanut ingredients in foods.

  7. Thidiazuron promotes high frequency regeneration of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kanyand, M; Dessai, A P; Prakash, C S

    1994-11-01

    Multiple shoots were induced on Valenciatype peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) explants cultured in vitro on a nutrient medium supplemented with thidiazuron. Zygotic embryos excised from mature seeds were germinated on Murashige-Skoog nutrient medium, and the resulting plantlets (8 days-old) were used as a source of explants. When cultured on a nutrient medium with increasing levels of thidiazuron (0.5 to 30 mg/l), expiants from various parts of the peanut plant (except the root) produced multiple shoot primordia which subsequently developed into individual shoots. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants produced shoots in higher numbers than other explants (20 shoots per hypocotyl explant at all thidiazuron concentrations and 15 shoots per cotyledon explant at 30 mg/l). Shoots rooted normally on a basal Murashige-Skoog medium containing charcoal and developed into healthy and fertile plants when planted in soil.

  8. In vitro propagation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by shoot tip culture.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Kaya, Ergun; Lambardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnut, is the most important species of Arachis genus, originating from Brazil and Peru. Peanut seeds contain high seed oil, proteins, amino acids, and vitamin E, and are consumed worldwide as edible nut, peanut butter, or candy, and peanut oil extracted from the seeds. The meal remaining after oil extraction is also used for animal feed. However, its narrow germplasm base, together with susceptibility to diseases, pathogens, and weeds, decreases yield and seed quality and causes great economic losses annually. Hence, the optimization of efficient in vitro propagation procedures would be highly effective for peanut propagation, as it would raise yield and improve seed quality and flavor. Earlier reports on traditional micropropagation methods, based on axillary bud proliferation which guarantees the multiplication of true-to-type plants, are still limited. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol to improve multiple shoot formation from shoot-tip explants by using AgNO(3) in combination with plant growth regulators.

  9. New hybrids from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and synthetic amphidiploid crosses show promise in increasing pest and disease tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fávero, A P; Pádua, J G; Costa, T S; Gimenes, M A; Godoy, I J; Moretzsohn, M C; Michelotto, M D

    2015-12-11

    The primary gene pool of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., allotetraploid AABB) is very narrow for some important characteristics, such as resistance to pests and diseases. However, the Arachis wild diploid species, particularly those from the section Arachis, still have these characteristics. To improve peanut crops, genes from the wild species can be introgressed by backcrossing the hybrids with A. hypogaea. When diploid species whose genomes are similar to those of the cultivated peanut are crossed, sterile hybrids result. Artificially doubling the number of chromosomes of these hybrids results in fertile synthetic polyploids. The objectives of this study were: 1) to obtain progenies by crossing amphidiploids with the cultivated peanut, and 2) to characterize these two groups of materials (amphidiploids and progenies) so that they may be efficiently conserved and used. Using morphological, molecular, and pollen viability descriptors we evaluated one cultivar of A. hypogaea (IAC 503), eight synthetic amphidiploids, and the progenies resulting from four distinct combinations of crossing between IAC 503 and four amphidiploids.

  10. Cloning and characterization of chromosomal markers from a Cot-1 library of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Xu, C; Yu, W

    2012-01-01

    The cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea (AABB, 2n = 40), is an allotetraploid which was probably originated from a hybridization event between 2 ancestors, A. duranensis (A genome) and A. ipaensis (B genome) followed by chromosome doubling. The wild species in the Arachis section are useful genetic resources for genes that confer biotic and abiotic stress resistance for peanut breeding. However, the resource is not well exploited because little information on the genetic, cytogenetic, and phylogenetic relationships between cultivated peanut and its wild relatives is known. Characterization of its chromosome components will benefit the understanding of these issues. But the paucity of information on the DNA sequence and the presence of morphologically similar chromosomes impede the construction of a detailed karyotype for peanut chromosome identification. In our study, a peanut Cot-1 library was constructed to isolate highly and moderately repetitive sequences from the cultivated peanut, and the chromosomal distributions of these repeats were investigated. Both genome and chromosome specific markers were identified that allowed the distinguishing of A and B genomes in tetraploid peanut and a possible karyotyping of peanut chromosomes by FISH. In particular, a 115-bp tandem repetitive sequence was identified to be a possible centromere repetitive DNA, mainly localized in the centromeres of B chromosomes, and a partial retrotransposable element was also identified in the centromeres of B chromosomes. The cloning and characterization of various chromosomal markers is a major step for FISH-based karyotyping of peanut. The FISH markers are expected to provide a reference tool for sequence assembly, phylogenetic studies of peanut and its wild species, and breeding.

  11. Impact of plant development on the rhizobacterial population of Arachis hypogaea: a multifactorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-07-01

    Present study investigates the impact of plant development on the structure and composition of root-associated bacterial community of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plant, an economically important oilseed legume. Relative abundance of total and active bacteria were studied in bulk soil and rhizosphere samples collected from different growth stages of groundnut plant by sequencing PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from soil genomic DNA and reverse-transcribed soil community RNA. Plant growth promoting potential of cultivable rhizobacteria was evaluated using assays for inorganic phosphate solubilization and production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, biofilm, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, laccase, and anti-fungal chemicals. Our study demonstrates that groundnut plant rhizosphere harbors a core microbiome populated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria. A distinct bacterial assemblage at nodulation stage due to predominance of Flavobacteria and Actinobacteria in DNA and RNA derived libraries respectively was also observed. Majority of cultivable isolates exhibiting plant growth promoting activities belonged to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Of them, Pseudomonas indica and Bacillus megaterium were detected in the rhizosphere samples from all the developmental stages of groundnut plant. This polyphasic study establishes the impact of plant development on rhizobacterial population of groundnut and underscores the applicability of soil isolates as a reliable component in sustainable agriculture.

  12. Sensitization of Radioresistant Prostate Cancer Cells by Resveratrol Isolated from Arachis hypogaea Stems

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Min-Chuan; Lo, U-Ging; Lin, Li-Chiung; Lin, Chun-Jung; Chang, Sheau-Jiun; Chen, Chia-Chang; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Lin, Ho; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol (RV, 3,4ʹ,5-trihydroxystilbene) is naturally produced by a wide variety of plants including grapes and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). However, the yield of RV from peanut stem and its potential radiosensitizing effects in prostate cancer (PCa) have not been well investigated. In this study, we characterized RV in peanut stem extract (PSE) for the first time and showed that both RV and PSE dose-dependently induced cell death in DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP)-deficient PCa cells with the radioresistant phenotype. Furthermore, the combination of radiation with either RV or PSE induced the death of radioresistant PCa cells through delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) and prolonged G2/M arrest, which induced apoptosis. The administration of RV and PSE effectively enhanced radiation therapy in the shDAB2IP PCa xenograft mouse model. These results demonstrate the promising synergistic effect of RV and PSE combined with radiation in the treatment of radioresistant PCa. PMID:28081154

  13. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    PubMed Central

    SOBOLEV, VICTOR S.; KHAN, SHABANA I.; TABANCA, NURHAYAT; WEDGE, DAVID E.; MANLY, SUSAN P.; CUTLER, STEPHEN J.; COY, MONIQUE R.; BECNEL, JAMES J.; NEFF, SCOTT A.; GLOER, JAMES B.

    2011-01-01

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), when infected by a microbial pathogen, is capable of producing stilbene-derived compounds that are considered antifungal phytoalexins. In addition, the potential health benefits of other stilbenoids from peanuts, including resveratrol and pterostilbene, have been acknowledged by several investigators. Despite considerable progress in peanut research, relatively little is known about the biological activity of the stilbenoid phytoalexins. This study investigated the activities of some of these compounds in a broad spectrum of biological assays. Since peanut stilbenoids appear to play roles in plant defense mechanisms, they were evaluated for their effects on economically important plant pathogenic fungi of the genera Colletotrichum, Botrytis, Fusarium, and Phomopsis. We further investigated these peanut phytoalexins, together with some related natural and synthetic stilbenoids (a total of 24 compounds) in a panel of bioassays to determine their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities in mammalian cells. Several of these compounds were also evaluated as mammalian opioid receptor competitive antagonists. Assays for adult mosquito and larvae toxicity were also performed. The results of these studies reveal that peanut stilbenoids, as well as related natural and synthetic stilbene derivatives, display a diverse range of biological activities. PMID:21314127

  14. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer.

  15. Biological activity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) phytoalexins and selected natural and synthetic Stilbenoids.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S; Khan, Shabana I; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Manly, Susan P; Cutler, Stephen J; Coy, Monique R; Becnel, James J; Neff, Scott A; Gloer, James B

    2011-03-09

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), when infected by a microbial pathogen, is capable of producing stilbene-derived compounds that are considered antifungal phytoalexins. In addition, the potential health benefits of other stilbenoids from peanuts, including resveratrol and pterostilbene, have been acknowledged by several investigators. Despite considerable progress in peanut research, relatively little is known about the biological activity of the stilbenoid phytoalexins. This study investigated the activities of some of these compounds in a broad spectrum of biological assays. Since peanut stilbenoids appear to play roles in plant defense mechanisms, they were evaluated for their effects on economically important plant pathogenic fungi of the genera Colletotrichum, Botrytis, Fusarium, and Phomopsis. We further investigated these peanut phytoalexins, together with some related natural and synthetic stilbenoids (a total of 24 compounds) in a panel of bioassays to determine their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities in mammalian cells. Several of these compounds were also evaluated as mammalian opioid receptor competitive antagonists. Assays for adult mosquito and larvae toxicity were also performed. The results of these studies reveal that peanut stilbenoids, as well as related natural and synthetic stilbene derivatives, display a diverse range of biological activities.

  16. Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-02-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops.

  17. [Effects of soil type and crop genotype on cadmium accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) kernels].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Shi-Cheng; Cui, Jie-Hua; Li, Bo; Yang, Jing-Jing

    2012-08-01

    Taking burozem and fluvo-aquic soil in the main peanut (Arachis hypogaea) production areas of China as test soil types and selecting three widely cultivated peanut genotypes Baisha 1016, Huayu 22, and Zhanyou 27 as test crops, a pot experiment with no Cd addition (control) and added with 1.5 mg x kg(-1) of Cd was conducted to elucidate the effects of soil type and crop genotype on the cadmimum (Cd) accumulation in peanut kernels. In the control, the Cd concentrations in the kernels of the three peanut genotypes growing on the two soil types were lower than the national food safety standard. In treatment Cd addition, the opposite was observed. For the same soil types, the Cd concentrations in the kernels of the three peanut genotypes were significantly higher in treatment Cd addition than in the control. The Cd accumulation in the kernels of the three peanut genotypes was in the order of Zhanyou 27 > Baisha 1016 > Huayu 22, and the Cd concentrations in the kernels of the peanut genotypes growing on the two soil types were higher on burozem than on fluvo-aquic soil. The values of the Cd bioaccumulation factor for the kernels of the three peanut genotypes were all higher than 1.0 in the control but lower than 1.0 in treatment Cd addition, suggesting that the peanut kernels had a stronger ability in accumulating the Cd from soil, and, when the soil Cd concentration increased, this ability decreased.

  18. Release of soluble protein from peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and its adsorption by activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Randall; Van, Trang; Kim, Ara; Helm, Ricki

    2011-01-12

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. The potential use of activated charcoal (AC) to adsorb and reduce the bioavailability of peanut protein allergens for use in the moderation of hypersensitivity reactions was investigated. The rate and extent of protein release from peanut and the adsorption of the solubilized protein by AC was determined under physiological pH values and confirmed in vivo using a porcine animal model system. Peanut proteins were adsorbed with equal efficiency at pH 2 and 7 and are completely removed from solution by an AC/protein ratio of approximately 80:1. This suggests that AC can bind protein under gastric (pH 2) or intestinal (pH 7) conditions. The rapid adsorption of soluble peanut allergens and the continuous binding of allergens released from peanut particulate material suggest the potential efficacy of using AC for gastric decontamination and possible elimination of a biphasic allergic reaction.

  19. Cloning and characterization of SPL-family genes in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Li, M; Zhao, S Z; Zhao, C Z; Zhang, Y; Xia, H; Lopez-Baltazar, J; Wan, S B; Wang, X J

    2016-02-19

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) proteins play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stressors. The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a globally important oil crop. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of 15 SPLs in the peanut by transcriptome sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and analyzed their genomic DNA sequences. cDNA lengths varied significantly, from 369 to 3102 bp. The SBP domain of the peanut SPL proteins was highly conserved compared to SPLs in other plant species. Based on their sequence similarity to SPLs from other plant species, the peanut SPLs could be grouped into five subgroups. In each subgroup, lengths of individual genes, conserved motif numbers, and distribution patterns were similar. Seven of the SPLs were predicted to be targets of miR156. The SPLs were ubiquitously expressed in the roots, leaves, flowers, gynophores, and seeds, with different expression levels and accumulation patterns. Significant differences in the expression of most of the SPLs were observed between juvenile and adult leaves, suggesting that they are involved in developmental regulation. Dynamic changes occurred in transcript levels at stage 1 (aerial grown green gynophores), stage 2 (gynophores buried in soil for about three days), and stage 3 (gynophores buried in soil for about nine days with enlarged pods). Possible roles that these genes play in peanut pod initiation are discussed.

  20. Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanji; Feng, Suping; Pandey, Manish K; Chen, Xiaoping; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2013-05-01

    Low genetic diversity makes peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) very vulnerable to plant pathogens, causing severe yield loss and reduced seed quality. Several hundred partial genomic DNA sequences as nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes (R) have been identified, but a small portion with expressed transcripts has been found. We aimed to identify resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and to develop polymorphic markers. The protein sequences of 54 known R genes were used to identify homologs from peanut ESTs from public databases. A total of 1,053 ESTs corresponding to six different classes of known R genes were recovered, and assembled 156 contigs and 229 singletons as peanut-expressed RGAs. There were 69 that encoded for NBS-LRR proteins, 191 that encoded for protein kinases, 82 that encoded for LRR-PK/transmembrane proteins, 28 that encoded for Toxin reductases, 11 that encoded for LRR-domain containing proteins and four that encoded for TM-domain containing proteins. Twenty-eight simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from 25 peanut expressed RGAs. One SSR polymorphic marker (RGA121) was identified. Two polymerase chain reaction-based markers (Ahsw-1 and Ahsw-2) developed from RGA013 were homologous to the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) resistance gene. All three markers were mapped on the same linkage group AhIV. These expressed RGAs are the source for RGA-tagged marker development and identification of peanut resistance genes.

  1. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Bi, Yu-Ping; Liu, Wei; Xia, Han; Su, Lei; Zhao, Chuan-Zhi; Wan, Shu-Bo; Wang, Xing-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, biotechnological based improvement of peanut is far behind many other crops. It is critical and urgent to establish the biotechnological platform for peanut germplasm innovation. In this study, a peanut seed cDNA library was constructed to establish the biotechnological platform for peanut germplasm innovation. About 17,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced and used for further investigation. Among which, 12.5% were annotated as metabolic related and 4.6% encoded transcription or post-transcription factors. ESTs encoding storage protein and enzymes related to protein degradation accounted for 28.8% and formed the largest group of the annotated ESTs. ESTs that encoded stress responsive proteins and pathogen-related proteins accounted for 5.6%. ESTs that encoded unknown proteins or showed no hit in the GenBank nr database accounted for 20.1% and 13.9%, respectively. A total number of 5066 EST sequences were selected to make a cDNA microarray. Expression analysis revealed that these sequences showed diverse expression patterns in peanut seeds, leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and gynophores. We also analyzed the gene expression pattern during seed development. Genes that were upregulated (≥twofold) at 15, 25, 35, and 45 days after pegging (DAP) were found and compared with 70 DAP. The potential value of these genes and their promoters in the peanut gene engineering study is discussed.

  2. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  3. The role of amyloplasts during gravity perception in gynophores of the peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, E; Feldman, L J

    1999-12-01

    Gravitropic perception and response are essential for the completion of the reproductive life cycle of the peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.). The developing seeds are buried in the soil by a specialized organ, the gynophore, allowing the fruit to mature underground. Controversy exists about the site of graviperception in the gynophore: previous workers suggested that the intercalary meristem was the zone where gravity was perceived. Taking the starch statolith hypothesis for graviperception as a framework, we explored the possibility that the starch-grain filled plastids (amyloplasts) in the starch sheath of the gynophore may be acting as gravisensors. We show that these amyloplasts sediment readily with respect to the gravity vector within 30 min of reorientation, and before there is a measurable gravitropic response. Gynophore explants were incubated with gibberellic acid and kinetin, in darkness, to remove starch from the amyloplasts. Destarching the gynophores did not inhibit overall growth of the organ, but reduced the gravitropic response curvature by 82% compared to water-treated controls. In addition, gynophores placed on a rotating clinostat (without hormone treatment) also showed a reduced gravitropic response. In conclusion, the evidence presented in this work strongly suggests that the amyloplasts of the starch sheath are responsible for gravitropic perception in the peanut gynophore. A model for graviperception in the gynophore is presented.

  4. Cloning of Acyl-ACP Thioesterase FatA from Arachis hypogaea L. and Its Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gao; Peng, Zhen-ying; Shan, Lei; Xuan, Ning; Tang, Gui-ying; Zhang, Yan; Li, Lan; He, Qing-fang; Bi, Yu-ping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a full-length cDNA of the acyl-ACP thioesterase, AhFatA, was cloned from developing seeds of Arachis hypogaea L. by 3′-RACE. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame encodes a peptide of 372 amino acids and has 50–70% identity with FatA from other plants. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that AhFatA was expressed in all tissues of A. hypogaea L., but most strongly in the immature seeds harvested at 60 days after pegging. Heterologous expression of AhFatA in Escherichia coli affected bacterial growth and changed the fatty acid profiles of the membrane lipid, resulting in directed accumulation towards palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. These results indicate that AhFatA is at least partially responsible for determining the high palmitoleic acid and oleic acid composition of E. coli. PMID:23093853

  5. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  6. An integrated genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) constructed from two RIL populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Feng, Suping; Chen, Charles; Guo, Yufang; Knapp, Steven; Culbreath, Albert; He, Guohao; Wang, Ming Li; Zhang, Xinyou; Holbrook, C Corley; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Guo, Baozhu

    2012-03-01

    Construction and improvement of a genetic map for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) continues to be an important task in order to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and the development of tools for marker-assisted breeding. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative integrated map from two cultivated × cultivated recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping populations and to apply in mapping Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance trait in peanut. A total of 4,576 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from three sources: published SSR markers, newly developed SSR markers from expressed sequence tags (EST) and from bacterial artificial chromosome end-sequences were used for screening polymorphisms. Two cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were also included to differentiate ahFAD2A alleles and ahFAD2B alleles. A total of 324 markers were anchored on this integrated map covering 1,352.1 cM with 21 linkage groups (LGs). Combining information from duplicated loci between LGs and comparing with published diploid maps, seven homoeologous groups were defined and 17 LGs (A1-A10, B1-B4, B7, B8, and B9) were aligned to corresponding A-subgenome or B-subgenome of diploid progenitors. One reciprocal translocation was confirmed in the tetraploid-cultivated peanut genome. Several chromosomal rearrangements were observed by comparing with published cultivated peanut maps. High consistency with cultivated peanut maps derived from different populations may support this integrated map as a reliable reference map for peanut whole genome sequencing assembling. Further two major QTLs for TSWV resistance were identified for each RILs, which illustrated the application of this map.

  7. Rhizobium pakistanensis sp. nov., isolated from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) nodules grown in rainfed Pothwar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Rabia; Zhang, Yu Jing; Ali, Safdar; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Amara, Ummay; Chen, Wen Xin; Hayat, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-negative, white, non-motile, rod shaped bacterial strain BN-19(T) was isolated from a root nodule of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain BN-19(T) formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176(T), Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) and Rhizobium tarimense PL-41(T) with sequence similarities of 97.5, 97.3, 97.2 and 97.1 % respectively. Sequence analysis of housekeeping genes atpD, glnII and recA (with sequence similarities of ≤92 %) confirmed the unique position of BN-19(T) in the genus Rhizobium. DNA-DNA relatedness between the strain BN-19(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), R. vignae CCBAU 05176(T), R. huautlense SO2(T) and R. tarimense PL-41(T) were 20.6, 22.5, 15.9 and 20.5 % respectively, further confirming that BN-19(T) represents a novel species in the genus Rhizobium. The DNA G + C content was 60.1 mol%. The dominant fatty acids of strain BN-19(T) were C19:0 cyclo ω8c, summed feature 2 (C14:0 3OH and/or C16:1 iso I) and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c). Some phenotypic features also differentiate the strain BN-19(T) from the related species. On the basis of these results, strain BN-19(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BN-19(T) (=LMG 27895(T) = CCBAU 101086(T)).

  8. Arachis hypogaea L. produces mimic and inhibitory quorum sensing like molecules.

    PubMed

    Nievas, F; Vilchez, L; Giordano, W; Bogino, P

    2017-03-29

    A wide variety of plant-associated soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) communicate with each other by quorum sensing (QS). Plants are able to detect and produce mimics and inhibitor molecules of the QS bacterial communicative process. Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) establishes a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. These bacteria use a QS mechanism dependent on the synthesis of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Given the relevance that plant-rhizobacteria interactions have at the ecological level, this work addresses the involvement of peanut in taking part in the QS mechanism. By using biosensor bacterial strains capable of detecting AHLs, a series of standard and original bioassays were performed in order to determine both (i) the production of QS-like molecules in vegetal materials and (ii) the expression of the QS mechanism throughout plant-bacteria interaction. Mimic QS-like molecules (mQS) linked to AHLs with long acyl chains (lac-AHL), and inhibitor QS-like molecules (iQS) linked to AHLs with short acyl chains (sac-AHL) were detected in seed and root exudates. The results revealed that synthesis of specific signaling molecules by the plant (such as mQS and iQS) probably modulates the function and composition of the bacterial community established in its rhizosphere. Novel bioassays of QS detection during peanut-Bradyrhizobium interaction showed an intense production of QS signals in the contact zone between root and bacteria. It is demonstrated that root exudates stimulate the root colonization and synthesis of lac-AHL by Bradyrhizobium strains in the plant rhizosphere, which leads to the early stages of the development of beneficial plant-bacteria interactions.

  9. The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Bezabih, Melkamu; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Rahman, Altafur

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 466 g/kg DM). Moreover, peanut hay was rich in Ca (12 g/kg DM) and P (1.7 g/kg DM). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of substituting wheat straw with peanut hay on nutrient intake, digestibility, and N utilization. Four adult Ramghani (Kaghani × Rambouillet) wethers (60 ± 2.5 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four rations were formulated on isonitrogenous and isocaloric bases and differed in the proportion (in grams per kilogram DM) of wheat straw/peanut hay, i.e., 700:0, 460:240, 240:460, and 0:700. The replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay increased the intakes of DM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), and N (P < 0.001). Moreover, apparent in vivo digestibility of DM, NDF, and CP increased (P < 0.001) with the increasing proportion of peanut hay in the ration. Nitrogen retention in the body increased (P < 0.01; 3.2 to 8.1 g/day) with the replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay. These findings showed that substitution of wheat straw with peanut hay can improve DM and nutrients intake, digestibility, and N retention in sheep.

  10. Cadmium re-distribution from pod and root zones and accumulation by peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Song, Ningning; Zhao, Qiaoqiao; van der Zee, S E A T M

    2016-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes may differ greatly with regard to cadmium (Cd) accumulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the key factors that may contribute to Cd re-distribution and accumulation in peanut genotypes with different Cd accumulating patterns, a split-pot soil experiment was conducted with three common Chinese peanut cultivars (Fenghua-6, Huayu-20, and Huayu-23). The growth medium was separated into pod and root zones with varied Cd concentrations in each zone to determine the re-distribution of Cd after it is taken up via different routes. The peanut cultivars were divided into two groups based on Cd translocation efficiency as follows: (1) high internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivar (Fenghua-6) and (2) low internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivars (Huayu-20 and Huayu-23). Compared with Fenghua-6, low Cd translocation cultivars Huayu-20 and Huayu-23 showed higher biomass production, especially in stems and leaves, leading to dilution of metal concentrations. Results also showed that Cd concentration in roots increased significantly with increasing Cd concentrations in soils when Cd was applied in the root zone. However, there were no significant differences in the root Cd concentrations between different pod zone Cd treatments and the control, suggesting that root uptake, rather than pod uptake, is responsible for Cd accumulation in the roots of peanuts. Significant differences of Cd distribution were observed between pod and root zone Cd exposure treatments. The three peanut cultivars revealed higher kernel over total Cd fractions for pod than for root zone Cd exposure if only extra applied Cd was considered. This suggests that uptake through peg and pod shell might, at least partially, be responsible for the variation in Cd re-distribution and accumulation among peanut cultivars. Cd uptake by plants via two routes (i.e., via roots and via pegs and pods, respectively) and internal Cd translocation

  11. [Differential expression of genes related to bacterial wilt resistance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)].

    PubMed

    Peng, Wen-Fang; Lv, Jian-Wei; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Li; Zhao, Xin-Yan; Wen, Qi-Gen; Jiang, Hui-Fang

    2011-04-01

    Peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating diseases for peanut production in the world. It is believed that breeding and subsequent planting BW-resistant cultivars of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) should represent the most effective and economic means of controlling the disease. To illustrate the molecular mechanism of peanut resistant to BW, a BW-resistant cultivar, 'Yuanza 9102', and a BW-sensitive one, 'Zhonghua 12', were infected with Ralstonia solanacearum and differential expression of the genes related to BW-resistance was analyzed using complementary DNA amplified length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. The infected 3-leaflet seedlings were followed for 48 h and root samples were taken at 0, 2, 10, 24 and 48 h after inoculation, respectively. A total of 12596 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were amplified with 256 primer combinations, including 709 differential expressed TDFs, which were generated from 119 primer combinations. Ninety-eight TDFs were randomly chosen for DNA sequence analysis. BLASTx analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that 40 TDFs encoded gene products associated with energy, transcription, signal transduction, defense, metabolism, cell growth, cell structure or/and protein synthesis. Analysis of the expression of four genes by qRT-PCR verified the results from cDNA-AFLP. Strikingly, one of the identified TDFs, 32-54-1, occurred for 47 times in a known BW-resistant SSH library. These results suggest that resistance to BW in peanut involves multifaceted biochemical and physiological reactions, including regulation of the genes involved in different pathways, such as defense, singal transduction, metabolism, transcription and abiotic stresses. The TDF 32-54-1 was predicted to be closely related to BW resistance in peanut.

  12. Response of progeny bred from Bolivian and North American cultivars in integrated management systems for leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora arachidicola, and late leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercosporidium personatum, are major yield-reducing diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southeastern U.S. Effective control of both leaf spots can be reached with integrated disease man...

  13. Phenotypic evaluation of the Chinese mini-mini core collection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and assessment for resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to utilize the germplasm more efficiently for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genetic improvement, a core collection of 576 accessions and a primary mini core collection of 298 accessions was developed previously from a collection of 6,839 cultivated peanut lines stored at the Oil Crops Resear...

  14. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue.

  15. A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has and continues to be an important research goal to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection in breeding. Even though a few maps have been developed, they were constructed using diploid or interspecific tetraploid populations. The most recently published intra-specific map was constructed from the cross of cultivated peanuts, in which only 135 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were sparsely populated in 22 linkage groups. The more detailed linkage map with sufficient markers is necessary to be feasible for QTL identification and marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Results Three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations were constructed from three crosses with one common female parental line Yueyou 13, a high yielding Spanish market type. The four parents were screened with 1044 primer pairs designed to amplify SSRs and 901 primer pairs produced clear PCR products. Of the 901 primer pairs, 146, 124 and 64 primer pairs (markers) were polymorphic in these populations, respectively, and used in genotyping these RIL populations. Individual linkage maps were constructed from each of the three populations and a composite map based on 93 common loci were created using JoinMap. The composite linkage maps consist of 22 composite linkage groups (LG) with 175 SSR markers (including 47 SSRs on the published AA genome maps), representing the 20 chromosomes of A. hypogaea. The total composite map length is 885.4 cM, with an average marker density of 5.8 cM. Segregation distortion in the 3 populations was 23.0%, 13.5% and 7.8% of the markers, respectively. These

  16. QTL mapping for bacterial wilt resistance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Chong; Chen, Hua; Yuan, Mei; Nipper, Rick; Prakash, C S; Zhuang, Weijian; He, Guohao

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious, global, disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), but it is especially destructive in China. Identification of DNA markers linked to the resistance to this disease will help peanut breeders efficiently develop resistant cultivars through molecular breeding. A F2 population, from a cross between disease-resistant and disease-susceptible cultivars, was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the resistance to this disease in the cultivated peanut. Genome-wide SNPs were identified from restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing tags using next-generation DNA sequencing technology. SNPs linked to disease resistance were determined in two bulks of 30 resistant and 30 susceptible plants along with two parental plants using bulk segregant analysis. Polymorphic SSR and SNP markers were utilized for construction of a linkage map and for performing the QTL analysis, and a moderately dense linkage map was constructed in the F2 population. Two QTL (qBW-1 and qBW-2) detected for resistance to BW disease were located in the linkage groups LG1 and LG10 and account for 21 and 12 % of the bacterial wilt phenotypic variance. To confirm these QTL, the F8 RIL population with 223 plants was utilized for genotyping and phenotyping plants by year and location as compared to the F2 population. The QTL qBW-1 was consistent in the location of LG1 in the F8 population though the QTL qBW-2 could not be clarified due to fewer markers used and mapped in LG10. The QTL qBW-1, including four linked SNP markers and one SSR marker within 14.4-cM interval in the F8, was closely related to a disease resistance gene homolog and was considered as a candidate gene for resistance to BW. QTL identified in this study would be useful to conduct marker-assisted selection and may permit cloning of resistance genes. Our study shows that bulk segregant analysis of genome-wide SNPs is a useful approach to expedite the

  17. Evaluating pH-induced gastrointestinal aggregation of Arachis hypogaea 1 fragments as potential components of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Khan, I John; Di, Rong; Patel, Priyesh; Nanda, Vikas

    2013-09-04

    The seed storage glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea (Ara h) 1 is a major allergen found in peanuts. The biochemical resistance of food proteins to protease digestion contributes to their allergenicity. The rapid proteolysis of Ara h 1 under gastric conditions challenges this model. Biophysical and in vitro digestion experiments were carried out to identify how Ara h 1 epitopes might survive digestion, despite their facile degradation. The bicupin core of Ara h 1 can be unfolded at low pH and reversibly folded at higher pH. Additionally, peptide fragments from simulated gastric digestion predominantly form noncovalent aggregates when transferred to base. Disulfide cross-links within these aggregates occur as intermediates in relatively low amounts only at early times and play no role in shielding peptides from degradation. It is proposed that peptide fragments which survive gastric conditions form large aggregates in basic environments such as the small intestine, making epitopes available for triggering an allergic response.

  18. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Weed Plants

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, R.; Simas, N. K.

    2017-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides.

  19. Growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by weed management practices and Rhizobium inoculation.

    PubMed

    Jhala, A; Rathod, P H; Patel, K C; Van Damme, P

    2005-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) productivity in India is low, because of many problems beset in its cultivation. One of the serious problems are weeds. Groundnut yield losses due to weeds have been estimated as high as 24 to 70 percent. This has created a scope for using herbicides in groundnut crop. A field investigation was carried out during kharif (rainy) season of 2001-2002 on a sandy loam soil at College Agronomy Farm, B.A. College of Agriculture, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, India to study the effect of weed management practices and Rhizobium inoculation on growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ten weed control treatments, comprising four treatments of sole application of fluchloralin, pendimethalin, butachlor and metolachlor, respectively each applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1); four treatments comprising of an application of the same herbicides at the same levels coupled with one hand weeding at 30 DAS; one weed-free treatment (hand weedings at 15, 30, 45 DAS); and one unweeded control. All 10 treatmets were combined with and without Rhizobium inoculation (i.e. a total of 20 treatment combinations) under a factorial randomized complete block design (FRBD) with four replications. Minimum weed dry matter accumulation (70 kg/ha) with higher weed control efficiency (90.70%) was recorded under an integrated method i.e. pendimethalin at 1.0 kg ha(-1) + hand weeding at 30 DAS, which also resulted in maximum pod yield (1773.50 kg ha(-1)). This treatment was comparable to fluchloralin applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) combined with hand- weeding at 30 DAS. Weedy conditions in the unweeded control treatment reduced pod yield by 29.90-35.95% as compared to integrated method. Significantly higher pod yield was obtained with Rhizobium inoculation than the mean value of all treatments without inoculation. For most agronomical parameters examined, Rhizobium inoculation and weed control treatments were independent in their effect.

  20. Distribution of Lectins in the Jumbo Virginia and Spanish Varieties of the Peanut, Arachis hypogaea L 1

    PubMed Central

    Pueppke, Steven G.

    1979-01-01

    Peanut lectin was purified from seed meal of the Spanish and Jumbo Virginia varieties of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by affinity chromatography on lactose coupled to Sepharose 4B. Polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing resolved the lectin preparation from Jumbo Virginia seeds into seven isolectins (pI 5.7, 5.9, 6.0, 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, and 6.7). Seed meal from the Spanish variety contained six isolectins which were indistinguishable from the pI 5.7, 5.9, 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, and 6.7 isolectins from Jumbo Virginia. Quantitative, lactose-specific hemagglutination was used to examine the lectins in tissues of both peanut varieties. In young (3- to 9-day-old) seedlings of each variety, more than 90% of the total amount of lectins detected in the plants was in the cotyledons. Most of the remainder was in hypocotyls, stems, and leaves; young roots contained no more than 4 micrograms of lectin per plant. Lectins were present in all nonroot tissues of 21- to 30-day-old seedlings, except 27-day-old Spanish hypocotyls. As cotyledons of each variety senesced, several of the more basic isolectins decreased to undetectable levels, but the acidic isolectins remained until at least 15 days after planting. Some of the seed isolectins and several apparently new lactose-binding lectins were also identified in affinity-purified extracts of 5-day-old roots and hypocotyls. Rabbit antibodies raised against the Jumbo Virginia seed isolectin preparation reacted with seed, cotyledon, and hypocotyl lectin preparations from both varieties. Analysis of seed lectin preparations from seven varieties of A. hypogaea and of a related species (A. villosulicarpa) indicated that isolectin composition in Arachis may be a characteristic of both the species and the subspecies (botanical type) to which the variety belongs. Images PMID:16661012

  1. Arachis batizocoi: a study of its relationship to cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea) and its potential for introgression of wild genes into the peanut crop using induced allotetraploids

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Santos, Silvio P.; Dantas, Karinne M.; Inglis, Peter W.; Nielen, Stephan; Araujo, Ana C. G.; Silva, Joseane P.; Cavalcante, Uiara; Guimarães, Patricia M.; Brasileiro, Ana Cristina M.; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Cook, Douglas; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Bertioli, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Arachis batizocoi is a wild relative of cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea), an allotetraploid with an AABB genome. Arachis batizocoi was once considered the ancestral donor of the peanut B genome, but cytogenetics and DNA phylogenies have indicated a new genome classification, ‘K’. These observations seem inconsistent with genetic studies and breeding that have shown that A. batizocoi can behave as a B genome. Methods The genetic behaviour, genome composition and phylogenetic position of A. batizocoi were studied using controlled hybridizations, induced tetraploidy, whole-genome in situ fluorescent hybridization (GISH) and molecular phylogenetics. Key Results Sterile diploid hybrids containing AK genomes were obtained using A. batizocoi and the A genome species A. duranensis, A. stenosperma, A. correntina or A. villosa. From these, three types of AAKK allotetraploids were obtained, each in multiple independent polyploidy events. Induced allotetraploids were vigorous and fertile, and were hybridized to A. hypogaea to produce F1 hybrids. Even with the same parental combination, fertility of these F1 hybrids varied greatly, suggesting the influence of stochastic genetic or epigenetic events. Interestingly, hybrids with A. hypogaea ssp. hypogaea were significantly more fertile than those with the subspecies fastigiata. GISH in cultivated × induced allotetraploids hybrids (harbouring AABK genomes) and a molecular phylogeny using 16 intron sequences showed that the K genome is distinct, but more closely related to the B than to the A genome. Conclusions The K genome of A. batizocoi is more related to B than to the A genome, but is distinct. As such, when incorporated in an induced allotetraploid (AAKK) it can behave as a B genome in crosses with peanut. However, the fertility of hybrids and their progeny depends upon the compatibility of the A genome interactions. The genetic distinctness of A. batizocoi makes it an important source of allelic

  2. Genetic diversity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and its wild relatives based on the analysis of hypervariable regions of the genome

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Marcio de Carvalho; Hopkins, Mark S; Mitchell, Sharon E; Kresovich, Stephen; Valls, Jose Francisco Montenegro; Ferreira, Marcio Elias

    2004-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis is native to a region that includes Central Brazil and neighboring countries. Little is known about the genetic variability of the Brazilian cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, genome AABB) germplasm collection at the DNA level. The understanding of the genetic diversity of cultivated and wild species of peanut (Arachis spp.) is essential to develop strategies of collection, conservation and use of the germplasm in variety development. The identity of the ancestor progenitor species of cultivated peanut has also been of great interest. Several species have been suggested as putative AA and BB genome donors to allotetraploid A. hypogaea. Microsatellite or SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers are co-dominant, multiallelic, and highly polymorphic genetic markers, appropriate for genetic diversity studies. Microsatellite markers may also, to some extent, support phylogenetic inferences. Here we report the use of a set of microsatellite markers, including newly developed ones, for phylogenetic inferences and the analysis of genetic variation of accessions of A. hypogea and its wild relatives. Results A total of 67 new microsatellite markers (mainly TTG motif) were developed for Arachis. Only three of these markers, however, were polymorphic in cultivated peanut. These three new markers plus five other markers characterized previously were evaluated for number of alleles per locus and gene diversity using 60 accessions of A. hypogaea. Genetic relationships among these 60 accessions and a sample of 36 wild accessions representative of section Arachis were estimated using allelic variation observed in a selected set of 12 SSR markers. Results showed that the Brazilian peanut germplasm collection has considerable levels of genetic diversity detected by SSR markers. Similarity groups for A. hypogaea accessions were established, which is a useful criteria for selecting parental plants for crop improvement. Microsatellite marker transferability

  3. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  4. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers and their application for diversity assessment in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Cuc, Luu M; Mace, Emma S; Crouch, Jonathan H; Quang, Vu D; Long, Tran D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6%) followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%). The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2%) primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2%) primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm and therefore would be

  5. Genetic mapping of yield traits using RIL population derived from Fuchuan Dahuasheng and ICG6375 of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuning; Ren, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yanli; Zhou, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Yan, Liying; Jiao, Yongqing; Chen, Weigang; Huang, Shunmou; Wan, Liyun; Lei, Yong; Liao, Boshou; Huai, Dongxin; Wei, Wenhui; Jiang, Huifang

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture determinants of yield traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are poorly understood. In the present study, an effort was made to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield traits using recombinant inbred lines (RIL). A genetic linkage map was constructed containing 609 loci, covering a total of 1557.48 cM with an average distance of 2.56 cM between adjacent markers. The present map exhibited good collinearity with the physical map of diploid species of Arachis. Ninety-two repeatable QTLs were identified for 11 traits including height of main stem, total branching number, and nine pod- and seed-related traits. Of the 92 QTLs, 15 QTLs were expressed across three environments and 65 QTLs were newly identified. Twelve QTLs for the height of main stem and the pod- and seed-related traits explaining more than 10 % of phenotypic variation showed a great potential for marker-assisted selection in improving these traits. The trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed 33 consensus QTLs. The consensus QTLs and other QTLs were further integrated into 29 pleiotropic unique QTLs with the confidence interval of 1.86 cM on average. The significant co-localization of QTLs was consistent with the significant phenotypic correlations among these traits. The complexity of the genetic architecture of yield traits was demonstrated. The present QTLs for pod- and seed-related traits could be the most fundamental genetic factors contributing to the yield traits in peanut. The results provide a good foundation for fine mapping, cloning and designing molecular breeding of favorable genes in peanut.

  6. A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the

  7. Influence of cadmium on the symbiotic interaction established between peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and sensitive or tolerant bradyrhizobial strains.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Eliana; Furlan, Ana; Rivadeneira, Jesica; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Tordable, María del Carmen; Fabra, Adriana; Hernández, Luis E; Castro, Stella

    2013-11-30

    Heavy metals in soil are known to affect rhizobia-legume interaction reducing not only rhizobia viability, but also nitrogen fixation. In this work, we have compared the response of the symbiotic interaction established between the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and a sensitive (Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144) or a tolerant (Bradyrhizobium sp. NLH25) strain to Cd under exposure to this metal. The addition of 10 μM Cd reduced nodulation and nitrogen content in both symbiotic associations, being the interaction established with the sensitive strain more affected than that with the tolerant one. Plants inoculated with the sensitive strain accumulated more Cd than those inoculated with the tolerant strain. Nodules showed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production when exposed to Cd. The histological structure of the nodules exposed to Cd revealed a deposit of unknown material on the cortex and a significant reduction in the infection zone diameter in both strains, and a greater number of uninfected cells in those nodules occupied by the sensitive strain. In conclusion, Cd negatively impacts on peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction, irrespective of the tolerance of the strains to this metal. However, the inoculation of peanut with Bradyrhizobium sp. NLH25 results in a better symbiotic interaction suggesting that the tolerance observed in this strain could limit Cd accumulation by the plant.

  8. Synergic actions of polyphenols and cyanogens of peanut seed coat (Arachis hypogaea) on cytological, biochemical and functional changes in thyroid.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chakraborty, Arijit; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2015-03-01

    In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5'-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents.

  9. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation.

  10. Diversity characterization and association analysis of agronomic traits in a Chinese peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huifang; Huang, Li; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Youlin; Huang, Jiaquan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Wan, Liyun; Liao, Boshou

    2014-02-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular basis of phenotypic variations in plants. A peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection in China comprising 298 accessions was genotyped using 109 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which identified 554 SSR alleles and phenotyped for 15 agronomic traits in three different environments, exhibiting abundant genetic and phenotypic diversity within the panel. A model-based structure analysis assigned all accessions to three groups. Most of the accessions had the relative kinship of less than 0.05, indicating that there were no or weak relationships between accessions of the mini-core collection. For 15 agronomic traits in the peanut panel, generally the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives compared to the Q model and the general linear model-simple model. In total, 89 SSR alleles were identified to be associated with 15 agronomic traits of three environments by the Q + K model-based association analysis. Of these, eight alleles were repeatedly detected in two or three environments, and 15 alleles were commonly detected to be associated with multiple agronomic traits. Simple sequence repeat allelic effects confirmed significant differences between different genotypes of these repeatedly detected markers. Our results demonstrate the great potential of integrating the association analysis and marker-assisted breeding by utilizing the peanut mini-core collection.

  11. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations and at different soil sulfur levels.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Manju; Chu, Ye; Maleki, Soheila J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-02-18

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi) showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across three generations (T3, T4, and T5) under field conditions. Different soil sulfur levels (0.012, 0.3, and 3.0 mM) differentially impacted sulfur-rich (Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) versus sulfur-poor (Ara h 1) proteins in non-transgenic versus transgenic peanut. The sulfur level had no effect on Ara h 1, whereas low sulfur led to a significant reduction of Ara h 3 in transgenic and non-transgenic seeds and Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in non-transgenic but not in transgenic peanuts because these proteins already were reduced by gene silencing. These results demonstrate stability of transgene expression and the potential utility of RNAi in allergen manipulation.

  12. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry screening for phytochemical 4-desmethylsterols accumulated during development of Tunisian peanut kernels (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Cherif, Aicha O; Trabelsi, Hajer; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kâabi, Belhassen; Pellerin, Isabelle; Boukhchina, Sadok; Kallel, Habib; Pepe, Claude

    2010-08-11

    4-Desmethylsterols, the main component of the phytosterol fraction, have been analyzed during the development of Tunisian peanut kernels ( Arachis hypogaea L.), Trabelsia (AraT) and Chounfakhi (AraC), which are monocultivar species, and Arbi (AraA), which is a wild species, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature wild peanut (AraA) showed the highest contents of beta-sitosterol (554.8 mg/100 g of oil), campesterol (228.6 mg/100 g of oil), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (39.0 mg/100 g of oil) followed by peanut cultivar AraC with beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and Delta(5)-avenasterol averages of 267.7, 92.1, and 28.6 mg/100 g of oil, respectively, and similarly for AraT 309.1, 108.4, and 27.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively, were found. These results suggest that, in immature stages, phytosterol contents can be important regulator factors for the functional quality of peanut oil for the agro-industry chain from plant to nutraceuticals.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of rhizobia isolated from root nodules of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in Moroccan soils.

    PubMed

    El-Akhal, M Rabie; Rincon, Ana; Mourabit, Nourdin El; Pueyo, Jose J; Barrijal, Said

    2009-10-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic characterization of sixty-two rhizobial isolates obtained from nodules of Arachis hypogaea in north-western Morocco was performed. Their physiological and biochemical properties revealed a great deal of diversity among them. Isolates were classified into two major groups based on the numerical analysis of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Isolates in the first group were alkali- and salt-sensitive, slow or extra-slow growers; they did not use disaccharides as carbon source and varied in the use of amino acids. ARDRA analysis of the 16S rDNA region grouped them together with reference strains belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. In the second group, isolates were fast growers, acid-sensitive, and alkali- and salt-tolerant; they used both mono and disaccharides as carbon sources, and methionine was the only amino acid they could metabolize as a nitrogen source. ARDRA analysis grouped them with fast-growing reference strains. Both groups exhibited a range of variability in tolerance to heavy metals. The Intergenic Spacer (IGS)-PCR fingerprinting analysis confirmed a high genotypic diversity at the strain level. This characterization provides a basis for the selection of peanut-nodulating rhizobia which may have applications in formulating appropriate inocula for improving peanut crop yield on Moroccan soils, including saline and acidic marginal areas.

  14. Analysis of crude protein and allergen abundance in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea cv. Walter) from three growing regions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Nicole E; Smith, Penelope M C; Tovey, Euan; Wright, Graeme C; Fleischfresser, Dayle B; Roberts, Thomas H

    2013-04-17

    The effects of plant growth conditions on concentrations of proteins, including allergens, in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) kernels are largely unknown. Peanuts (cv. Walter) were grown at five sites (Taabinga, Redvale, Childers, Bundaberg, and Kairi) covering three commercial growing regions in Queensland, Australia. Differences in temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation during the growing season were evaluated. Kernel yield varied from 2.3 t/ha (Kairi) to 3.9 t/ha (Childers), probably due to differences in solar radiation. Crude protein appeared to vary only between Kairi and Childers, whereas Ara h 1 and 2 concentrations were similar in all locations. 2D-DIGE revealed significant differences in spot volumes for only two minor protein spots from peanuts grown in the five locations. Western blotting using peanut-allergic serum revealed no qualitative differences in recognition of antigens. It was concluded that peanuts grown in different growing regions in Queensland, Australia, had similar protein compositions and therefore were unlikely to show differences in allergenicity.

  15. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars grown in China by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoping; Jiang, Huifang; Yan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Lei, Yong; Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Qi, Yue; Wei, Wenhui; Liao, Boshou

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 196 peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) cultivars which had been extensively planted in different regions in China. These SSR markers amplified 440 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.99, and the average gene diversity index was 0.11. Eighty-six rare alleles with a frequency of less than 1% were identified in these cultivars. The largest Fst or genetic distance was found between the cultivars that adapted to the south regions and those to the north regions in China. A neighbor-joining tree of cultivars adapted to different ecological regions was constructed based on pairwise Nei's genetic distances, which showed a significant difference between cultivars from the south and the north regions. A model-based population structure analysis divided these peanut cultivars into five subpopulations (P1a, P1b, P2, P3a and P3b). P1a and P1b included most the cultivars from the southern provinces including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. P2 population consisted of the cultivars from Hubei province and parts from Shandong and Henan. P3a and P3b had cultivars from the northern provinces including Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and the Yangtze River region including Sichuan province. The cluster analysis, PCoA and PCA based on the marker genotypes, revealed five distinct clusters for the entire population that were related to their germplasm regions. The results indicated that there were obvious genetic variations between cultivars from the south and the north, and there were distinct genetic differentiation among individual cultivars from the south and the north. Taken together, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of Chinese peanut cultivars.

  17. Mining tissue-specific contigs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for promoter cloning by deep transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters.

  18. Chryseobacterium arachidiradicis sp. nov., isolated from the geocarposphere (soil around the peanut) of very immature peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-07-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, 91A-612(T), isolated from the geocarposphere (soil around the peanut) of very immature peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Alabama, USA, was studied for its taxonomic position. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with the sequences of the type strains of the most closely related species showed that the strain belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium, showing the highest sequence similarities to the type strains of Chryseobacterium molle (98.4%), C. pallidum (98.3%) and C. hominis (97.8%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of all other species of the genus Chryseobacterium were below 97.0%. The fatty acid profile of strain 91A-612(T) consisted of the major fatty acids iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH/C16 : 1ω7c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Major compounds in the polar lipid profile were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids, including two lipids that did not contain a sugar moiety, an amino group or a phosphate group (L3, L8), and an aminolipid (AL1). The quinone system was composed mainly of MK-6. The polyamine pattern contained sym-homospermidine as the major compound and moderate amounts of spermidine and spermine. DNA-DNA hybridizations between strain 91A-612(T) and the type strains of C. molle, C. pallidum and C. hominis resulted in relatedness values well below 70%. These data and the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed that isolate 91A-612(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which we propose the name Chryseobacterium arachidiradicis sp. nov. (type strain 91A-612(T) = LMG 27814(T)= CCM 8490(T) = CIP 110647(T)).

  19. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  20. Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Salinas, Irma Leticia; Matías-Pérez, Diana; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.

  1. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K.; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  2. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut.

  3. Identification of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) chromosomes using a fluorescence in situ hybridization system reveals multiple hybridization events during tetraploid peanut formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Laining; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tian, Li; Chen, Lei; Yu, Weichang

    2016-09-01

    The cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea (AABB) is thought to have originated from the hybridization of Arachis duranensis (AA) and Arachis ipaënsis (BB) followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. In this study, we cloned and analyzed chromosome markers from cultivated peanut and its wild relatives. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping cocktail was developed with which to study the karyotypes and chromosome evolution of peanut and its wild relatives. Karyotypes were constructed in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors using our FISH-based karyotyping system. Comparative karyotyping analysis revealed that chromosome organization was highly conserved in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors, especially in the B genome chromosomes. However, variations existed between A. duranensis and the A genome chromosomes in cultivated peanut, especially for the distribution of the interstitial telomere repeats (ITRs). A search of additional A. duranensis varieties from different geographic regions revealed both numeric and positional variations of ITRs, which were similar to the variations in tetraploid peanut varieties. The results provide evidence for the origin of cultivated peanut from the two diploid ancestors, and also suggest that multiple hybridization events of A. ipaënsis with different varieties of A. duranensis may have occurred during the origination of peanut.

  4. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  5. The Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Genome Is Processed Differentially in its Plant Host Arachis hypogaea and its Thrips Vector Frankliniella fusca

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephen J.; Shrestha, Anita; Peters, Jonathan R.; Carroll, Bernard J.; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Pappu, Hanu R.; Mitter, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Thrips-transmitted tospoviruses are economically important viruses affecting a wide range of field and horticultural crops worldwide. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type member of the Tospovirus genus with a broad host range of more than 900 plant species. Interactions between these viruses and their plant hosts and insect vectors via RNAi pathways are likely a key determinant of pathogenicity. The current investigation, for the first time, compares biogenesis of small RNAs between the plant host and insect vector in the presence or absence of TSWV. Unique viral small interfering RNA (vsiRNA) profiles are evident for Arachis hypogaea (peanut) and Frankliniella fusca (thrips vector) following infection with TSWV. Differences between vsiRNA profiles for these plant and insect species, such as the relative abundance of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs and locations of alignment hotspots, reflect the diverse siRNA biosynthesis pathways of their respective kingdoms. The presence of unique vsiRNAs in F. fusca samples indicates that vsiRNA generation takes place within the thrips, and not solely through uptake via feeding on vsiRNAs produced in infected A. hypogaea. The study also shows key vsiRNA profile differences for TSWV among plant families, which are evident in the case of A. hypogaea, a legume, and members of Solanaceae (S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana benthamiana). Distinctively, overall small RNA (sRNA) biogenesis in A. hypogaea is markedly affected with an absence of the 24 nt sRNAs in TSWV-infected plants, possibly leading to wide-spread molecular and phenotypic perturbations specific to this species. These findings add significant information on the host–virus–vector interaction in terms of RNAi pathways and may lead to better crop and vector specific control strategies. PMID:27656190

  6. Identification of rapidly induced genes in the response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to water deficit and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop, but droughts often affect peanut production. There is a lack of genomic information available for peanut; therefore, little is known about the molecular basis of its drought stress response. Results Previously, we found that peanut stomata close rapidly during water deficit and in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, and many genes show changes in their expression levels. To screen for candidate genes involved in the water deficit response, we used the Illumina HiSeq2000/MiSeq sequencing platform to conduct a global transcriptome analysis of peanut seedlings under water deficit with or without an ABA pretreatment. Three peanut tissues (leaves, roots, and stems) collected at each of three developmental stages (four-leaf, flowering, and podding stages) were used to construct sequence libraries. Then, 4.96 × 107 raw sequence reads were generated and the high quality reads were assembled into 47,842 unigenes. We analyzed these sequence libraries to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under water deficit with or without ABA pretreatment. In total, 621 genes were induced rapidly (≥1.5 fold change compared with control) under water deficit, 2,665 genes were induced rapidly under water deficit + ABA pretreatment, and 279 genes overlapped between water deficit and water deficit + ABA pretreatment. Of the 279 overlapping genes, 264 showed the same expression pattern and 15 showed opposite expression patterns. Among the DEGs, 257 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit + ABA pretreatment, while 19 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit alone. The genes induced under water deficit + ABA pretreatment included 100 putative transcription factor (TF) genes, while those induced under water deficit alone included only 22 putative TF genes. To validate the transcriptome results, we conducted quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to quantify the transcript levels of nine

  7. Molecular marker development from transcript sequences and germplasm evaluation for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Peng, Ze; Gallo, Maria; Tillman, Barry L; Rowland, Diane; Wang, Jianping

    2016-02-01

    Molecular markers are important tools for genotyping in genetic studies and molecular breeding. The SSR and SNP are two commonly used marker systems developed from genomic or transcript sequences. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assemble and annotate the publicly available ESTs in Arachis and the in-house short reads, (2) develop and validate SSR and SNP markers, and (3) investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the peanut breeding lines and the U.S. peanut mini core collection using developed SSR markers. An NCBI EST dataset with 252,951 sequences and an in-house 454 RNAseq dataset with 288,701 sequences were assembled separately after trimming. Transcript sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested that peanut is closer to cowpea and scarlet bean than to soybean, common bean and Medicago. From these two datasets, 6455 novel SSRs and 11,902 SNPs were identified. Of the discovered SSRs, 380 representing various SSR types were selected for PCR validation. The amplification rate was 89.2 %. Twenty-two (6.5 %) SSRs were polymorphic between at least one pair of four genotypes. Sanger sequencing of PCR products targeting 110 SNPs revealed 13 true SNPs between tetraploid genotypes and 193 homoeologous SNPs within genotypes. Eight out of the 22 polymorphic SSR markers were selected to evaluate the genetic diversity of Florida peanut breeding lines and the U.S. peanut mini core collection. This marker set demonstrated high discrimination power by displaying an average polymorphism information content value of 0.783, a combined probability of identity of 10(-11), and a combined power of exclusion of 0.99991. The structure analysis revealed four sub-populations among the peanut accessions and lines evaluated. The results of this study enriched the peanut genomic resources, provided over 6000 novel SSR markers and the credentials for true peanut SNP marker development, and demonstrated the power of newly developed SSR markers in

  8. Cloning, characterization and differential expression of a Bowman-Birk inhibitor during progressive water deficit and subsequent recovery in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Dramé, Khady Nani; Passaquet, Chantal; Repellin, Anne; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2013-01-15

    Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) genes encode serine protease inhibitors well known for their anticarcinogenic properties and roles in plant defense against insects and pathogens. Here we investigated the expression of a BBI gene in response to water deficit, recovery and phytohormones. A full length cDNA encoding a novel BBI (AhBBI) was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) leaves. The deduced protein is a polypeptide of 11.5kDa containing a signal peptide of 20 amino acids which is missing from peanut seed full-length BBI. Sequence analysis showed that AhBBI presents the characteristic features of BBIs but its first inhibitory loop is unique among the Fabaceae species. Real-time PCR analyses indicated that in peanut leaves, AhBBI is upregulated by water deficit and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) but repressed by abscissic acid (ABA) after 24h of treatment. The transcripts accumulation patterns during water deficit differed between two cultivars studied in relation to their tolerance levels to drought. AhBBI transcripts accumulated earlier and stronger in the tolerant cultivar (cv. Fleur11) compared to the susceptible one (cv. 73-30) suggesting that BBI genes are involved in drought stress tolerance. Subsequent rehydration reversed the accumulation of AhBBI transcripts in both cultivars but at different levels. The overall role of BBI in abiotic stress tolerance and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed.

  9. Relationship between biomass, seed components and seed Cd concentration in various peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars grown on Cd-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gangrong; Su, Gengqiang; Lu, Ziwei; Liu, Caifeng; Wang, Xvming

    2014-12-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) exhibit high genotypic variations in seed Cd accumulation, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to reveal the main factors that determine Cd concentration in peanut seeds. The biomasses and Cd accumulation in plant tissues as well as the Cd distribution in the seeds of 15 peanut cultivars were analyzed in a pot experiment at 4mgkg(-1) Cd (treatment) and 0mgkg(-1) Cd (control). Peanuts exhibited large variations among cultivars in terms of Cd accumulation and distribution at the whole-plant and seed levels. The peanut cultivars were divided into three groups based on [Cd]embryos as follows: (i) high Cd accumulators (Zhenghong 3 and Haihua 1), (ii) low Cd accumulators (Qishan 208, Luhua 8, and Yuhua 15), and (iii) intermediate Cd accumulators (10 remaining cultivars). [Cd]embryos was significantly correlated with [Cd]testae and [Cd]oils at control conditions, whereas in the 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatment, [Cd]embryos was negatively correlated with plant biomass, total Cd and its proportion in vegetative organs, and seed oil contents. [Cd]embryos was positively correlated with protein contents, [Cd]oils, and proportion of Cd in protein extracts at 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatments. The attenuation of Cd by high biomass of vegetative tissues and Cd-binding proteins in seeds mainly determined the Cd concentration in peanut seeds.

  10. Calcium dependent protein kinase (CDPK) expression during fruit development in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under Ca²⁺-sufficient and -deficient growth regimens.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Pathak, Bhuvan P; Harmon, Alice C; Tillman, Barry L; Gallo, Maria

    2011-12-15

    Adequate soil calcium (Ca²⁺) levels are crucial for sustained reproductive development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). A role for calcium dependent protein kinase was evaluated during peanut fruit development under sufficient and deficient soil Ca²⁺ conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR and protein gel blot analyses confirmed transcriptional upregulation of CDPK in seeds developing under inadequate soil Ca²⁺ regimen, as well as spatiotemporal regulation of CDPK expression during early mitotic growth and later during the storage phase of seed development. However, a consistent basal level of CDPK was present during similar developmental stages of pod tissue, irrespective of the soil Ca²⁺ status. Immunolocalization data showed CDPK decoration primarily in the outer most cell layers of the pericarp and around vascular bundles linked by lateral connections in developing pods, as well as the single vascular trace supplying nutrients to the developing seed. Finally, carbohydrate analyses and qRT-PCR data are provided for peanut genes encoding enzymes involved in sucrose cleavage (orthologs of Vicia faba, VfCWI1 and VfCWI2) and utilization (AhSuSy and AhSpS), and oleosin gene transcripts (AhOleo17.8 and AhOleo18.5) validating a role for CDPK in the establishment and maintenance of sink strength, and subsequent onset of storage product biosynthetic phase during seed maturation.

  11. Identification of genes differentially expressed during early interactions between the stem rot fungus (Sclerotium rolfsii) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars with increasing disease resistance levels.

    PubMed

    Jogi, Ansuya; Kerry, John W; Brenneman, Timothy B; Leebens-Mack, James H; Gold, Scott E

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii, a destructive soil-borne fungal pathogen causes stem rot of the cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes associated with peanut resistance and fungal virulence. Four peanut cultivars (A100-32, Georgia Green, GA-07W and York) with increasing resistance levels were inoculated with a virulent S. rolfsii strain to study the early plant-pathogen interaction. 454 sequencing was performed on RNAs from infected tissue collected at 4 days post inoculation, generating 225,793 high-quality reads. Normalized read counts and fold changes were calculated and statistical analysis used to identify differentially expressed genes. Several genes identified as differential in the RNA-seq experiment were selected based on functions of interest and real-time PCR employed to corroborate their differential expression. Expanding the analysis to include all four cultivars revealed a small but interesting set of genes showing colinearity between cultivar resistance and expression levels. This study identified a set of genes possibly related to pathogen response that may be useful marker assisted selection or transgenic disease control strategies. Additionally, a set of differentially expressed genes that have not been functionally characterized in peanut or other plants and warrant additional investigation were identified.

  12. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using cotyledonary node as explant and a promoterless gus::nptII fusion gene based vector.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, T Swathi; Jami, S K; Datla, R S; Kirti, P B

    2006-06-01

    We have generated putative promoter tagged transgenic lines in Arachis hypogaea cv JL-24 using cotyledonary node (CN) as an explant and a promoterless gus::nptII bifunctional fusion gene mediated by Agrobacterium transformation. MS medium fortified with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 4mg/l in combination with 0.1 mg/l alpha -napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was the most effective out of the various BAP and NAA combinations tested in multiple shoot bud formation. Parameters enhancing genetic transformation viz. seedling age, Agrobacterium genetic background and co-cultivation periods were studied by using the binary vector p35SGUSINT. Genetic transformation with CN explants from 6-day-old seedlings co-cultivated with Agrobacterium GV2260 strain for 3 days resulted in high kanamycin resistant shoot induction percentage (45%); approximately 31% transformation frequency was achieved with p35S GUSINT in beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays. Among the in vivo GUS fusions studied with promoterless gus::nptII construct, GUS-positive sectors occupied 38% of the total transient GUS percentage. We have generated over 141 putative T 0 plants by using the promoterless construct and transferred them to the field. Among these, 82 plants survived well in the green house and 5 plants corresponding to 3.54% showed stable integration of the fusion gene as evidenced by GUS, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Twenty-four plants were positive for GUS showing either tissue-specific expression or blue spots in at least one plant part. The progeny of 15 T 0 plants indicated Mendelian inheritance pattern of segregation for single-copy integration. The tissue-specific GUS expression patterns were more or less similar in both T 0 and corresponding T 1 progeny plants. We present the differential patterns of GUS expression identified in the putative promoter-tagged transgenic lines in the present communication.

  13. Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E and eIFiso4E Are Both Required for Peanut stripe virus Infection in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Manlin; Xie, Hongfeng; Wu, Juxiang; Xie, Lianhui; Yang, Jinguang; Chi, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Peanut stripe virus (PStV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is the most important viral pathogen of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4E, and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E, play key roles during virus infection in plants, particularly Potyvirus. In the present study, we cloned the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E homologs in peanut and named these as PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these two genes were expressed during all growth periods and in all peanut organs, but were especially abundant in young leaves and roots. These also had similar expression levels. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PStV multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) and viral protein genome-linked (VPg) both interacted with PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that there was an interaction between HC-Pro and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the cytoplasm and between VPg and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the nucleus. Silencing either PeaeIF4E or PeaeIF(iso)4E using a virus-induced gene silencing system did not significantly affect PStV accumulation. However, silencing both PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E genes significantly weakened PStV accumulation. The findings of the present study suggest that PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E play important roles in the PStV infection cycle and may potentially contribute to PStV resistance.

  14. Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E and eIFiso4E Are Both Required for Peanut stripe virus Infection in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Manlin; Xie, Hongfeng; Wu, Juxiang; Xie, Lianhui; Yang, Jinguang; Chi, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Peanut stripe virus (PStV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is the most important viral pathogen of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4E, and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E, play key roles during virus infection in plants, particularly Potyvirus. In the present study, we cloned the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E homologs in peanut and named these as PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these two genes were expressed during all growth periods and in all peanut organs, but were especially abundant in young leaves and roots. These also had similar expression levels. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PStV multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) and viral protein genome-linked (VPg) both interacted with PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that there was an interaction between HC-Pro and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the cytoplasm and between VPg and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the nucleus. Silencing either PeaeIF4E or PeaeIF(iso)4E using a virus-induced gene silencing system did not significantly affect PStV accumulation. However, silencing both PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E genes significantly weakened PStV accumulation. The findings of the present study suggest that PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E play important roles in the PStV infection cycle and may potentially contribute to PStV resistance. PMID:28344571

  15. Construction, expression, and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana 4CL and Arachis hypogaea RS fusion gene 4CL::RS in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erhao; Guo, Xuefeng; Meng, Zhifen; Wang, Jin; Sun, Jia; Yao, Xi; Xun, Hang

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is an important antioxidant that confers several beneficial effects on human health. 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL) and resveratrol synthase (RS) are key rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol. Using gene fusion technology, the fusion gene, 4CL::RS, was constructed by the 4CL gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and RS gene from Arachis hypogaea. DNAMAN analysis showed that the fusion gene encoded a 964-amino acid protein with an approximate weight of 104.7 kDa and a pI of 5.63. A prokaryotic expression vector containing Nco-I and EcoR-I restriction sites, pET-30a/4CL::RS, was identified by liquid culture bacterial PCR, enzyme digestion, and sequencing, and then used in the induction of expression. Subsequently, a biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol was constructed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) that harbored pET-30a/4CL::RS. The recombinant strains were induced to express the fusion protein at 28 °C for 8 h. After bacterial cells were disrupted by hypothermic ultrasonication, the 4CL::RS fusion protein was thoroughly separated from tags using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and then detected by SDS-PAGE analysis. When the recombinant strains expressed the fusion protein, the precursor, p-coumaric acid, was converted to resveratrol. In the present study, the final concentration of resveratrol derived from 1 mM p-coumaric acid was 80.524 mg/L, with a 35.28 % (mol/mol) conversion yield.

  16. An efficient method of agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration in local Indian cultivar of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) using grafting.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an industrial crop used as a source of edible oil and nutrients. In this study, an efficient method of regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is reported for a local cultivar GG-20 using de-embryonated cotyledon explant. A high regeneration 52.69 ± 2.32 % was achieved by this method with 66.6 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), while the highest number of shoot buds per explant, 17.67 ± 3.51, was found with 20 μM BAP and 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The bacterial culture OD, acetosyringone and L-cysteine concentration were optimized as 1.8, 200 μM and 50 mg L(-1), respectively, in co-cultivation media. It was observed that the addition of 2,4-D in co-cultivation media induced accumulation of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The optimized protocol exhibited 85 % transformation efficiency followed by 14.65 ± 1.06 % regeneration, of which 3.82 ± 0.6 % explants were survived on hygromycin after selection. Finally, 14.58 ± 2.95 % shoots (regenerated on survived explants) were rooted on rooting media (RM3). In grafting method, regenerated shoots (after hygromycin selection) were grafted on the non-transformed stocks with 100 % survival and new leaves emerged in 3 weeks. The putative transgenic plants were then confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay. The reported method is efficient and rapid and can also be applied to other crops which are recalcitrant and difficult in rooting.

  17. Negative feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis in peanut (Arachis hypogaea): a transcription factor complex inhibits AhNCED1 expression during water stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Meijuan; Su, Liangchen; Ge, Kui; Li, Limei; Li, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a key plant stress-signaling hormone, is produced in response to drought and counteracts the effects of this stress. The accumulation of ABA is controlled by the enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). In Arabidopsis, NCED3 is regulated by a positive feedback mechanism by ABA. In this study in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), we demonstrate that ABA biosynthesis is also controlled by negative feedback regulation, mediated by the inhibitory effect on AhNCED1 transcription of a protein complex between transcription factors AhNAC2 and AhAREB1. AhNCED1 was significantly down-regulated after PEG treatment for 10 h, at which time ABA content reached a peak. A ChIP-qPCR assay confirmed AhAREB1 and AhNAC2 binding to the AhNCED1 promoter in response to ABA. Moreover, the interaction between AhAREB1 and AhNAC2, and a transient expression assay showed that the protein complex could negatively regulate the expression of AhNCED1. The results also demonstrated that AhAREB1 was the key factor in AhNCED1 feedback regulation, while AhNAC2 played a subsidiary role. ABA reduced the rate of AhAREB1 degradation and enhanced both the synthesis and degradation rate of the AhNAC2 protein. In summary, the AhAREB1/AhNAC2 protein complex functions as a negative feedback regulator of drought-induced ABA biosynthesis in peanut. PMID:27892506

  18. Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lokesh; Kumar, Roy Ashwani; Ghanshyam, Tiwari; Rajesh, Dhuria; Garg, Rajeev

    2012-10-01

    The effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters was studied using nine male dromedary camels of Bikaneri breeds (637.5 kg average body weight; 8-9 years of age). Groundnut haulms (GNH) and cluster bean straw (CBS) were fed in one of three ratios, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 in treatments T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively. In all treatments, concentrate mixture was fed as per requirement of the camels. The groundnut haulms were more nutritive as compared to the cluster bean straw. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre and acid detergent fibre was better in T(1) than T(2) and T(3). Likewise, the CP, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient contents were significantly higher in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). There was non-significant affect on average daily gain of camels. However, dry matter intake, digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrients were better in T(1) as compared to T(2) and T(3). The total water intake per kilogram of dry matter intake (litres) was 2.98, 2.89 and 2.68, respectively, in T(1), T(2) and T(3). The camels in all the treatments were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance. The treatments had a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase and creatinine. The results may conclude that feeding of higher proportion of groundnut haulms as compared to cluster bean straw has pronounced improvement in nutritional utilisation by the camels.

  19. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  20. Simultaneous expression of abiotic stress responsive transcription factors, AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3 improves salinity and drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Pruthvi, Vittal; Narasimhan, Rama; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2014-01-01

    Drought, salinity and extreme temperatures are the most common abiotic stresses, adversely affecting plant growth and productivity. Exposure of plants to stress activates stress signalling pathways that induce biochemical and physiological changes essential for stress acclimation. Stress tolerance is governed by multiple traits, and importance of a few traits in imparting tolerance has been demonstrated. Under drought, traits linked to water mining and water conservation, water use efficiency and cellular tolerance (CT) to desiccation are considered to be relevant. In this study, an attempt has been made to improve CT in drought hardy crop, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., cv. TMV2) by co-expressing stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs), AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3, associated with downstream gene expression. Transgenic plants simultaneously expressing these TFs showed increased tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stresses compared to wild type, with an increase in total plant biomass. The transgenic plants exhibited improved membrane and chlorophyll stability due to enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by proline synthesis under stress. The improvement in stress tolerance in transgenic lines were associated with induced expression of various CT related genes like AhGlutaredoxin, AhAldehyde reductase, AhSerine threonine kinase like protein, AhRbx1, AhProline amino peptidase, AhHSP70, AhDIP and AhLea4. Taken together the results indicate that co-expression of stress responsive TFs can activate multiple CT pathways, and this strategy can be employed to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

  1. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of total size ~2.7 Gb. This makes assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. Here we report genome sequences of cultivated peanut’s diploid ancestors (A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis). We show they...

  2. Abundant Microsatellite Diversity and Oil Content in Wild Arachis Species

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Xiao, Yingjie; Zhao, Xinyan; Tang, Mei; Huang, Jiaquan; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Liao, Boshou

    2012-01-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil crop. Breeding for high oil content is becoming increasingly important. Wild Arachis species have been reported to harbor genes for many valuable traits that may enable the improvement of cultivated Arachis hypogaea, such as resistance to pests and disease. However, only limited information is available on variation in oil content. In the present study, a collection of 72 wild Arachis accessions representing 19 species and 3 cultivated peanut accessions were genotyped using 136 genome-wide SSR markers and phenotyped for oil content over three growing seasons. The wild Arachis accessions showed abundant diversity across the 19 species. A. duranensis exhibited the highest diversity, with a Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 0.35. A total of 129 unique alleles were detected in the species studied. A. rigonii exhibited the largest number of unique alleles (75), indicating that this species is highly differentiated. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation between the wild Arachis species. The majority of SSR alleles were detected exclusively in the wild species and not in A. hypogaea, indicating that directional selection or the hitchhiking effect has played an important role in the domestication of the cultivated peanut. The 75 accessions were grouped into three clusters based on population structure and phylogenic analysis, consistent with their taxonomic sections, species and genome types. A. villosa and A. batizocoi were grouped with A. hypogaea, suggesting the close relationship between these two diploid wild species and the cultivated peanut. Considerable phenotypic variation in oil content was observed among different sections and species. Nine alleles were identified as associated with oil content based on association analysis, of these, three alleles were associated with higher oil content but were absent in the cultivated peanut. The results demonstrated that there is great

  3. A large scale analysis of resistance gene homologues in Arachis.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, D J; Leal-Bertioli, S C M; Lion, M B; Santos, V L; Pappas, G; Cannon, S B; Guimarães, P M

    2003-10-01

    Arachis hypogaea L., commonly known as the peanut or groundnut, is an important and widespread food legume. Because the crop has a narrow genetic base, genetic diversity in A. hypogaea is low and it lacks sources of resistance to many pests and diseases. In contrast, wild diploid Arachis species are genetically diverse and are rich sources of disease resistance genes. The majority of known plant disease resistance genes encode proteins with a nucleotide binding site domain (NBS). In this study, degenerate PCR primers designed to bind to DNA regions encoding conserved motifs within this domain were used to amplify NBS-encoding regions from Arachis spp. The Arachis spp. used were A. hypogaea var. Tatu and wild species that are known to be sources of disease resistance: A. cardenasii, A. duranensis, A. stenosperma and A. simpsonii. A total of 78 complete NBS-encoding regions were isolated, of which 63 had uninterrupted ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arachis NBS sequences derived in this study and other NBS sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago trunculata, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and Phaseolus vulgaris that are available in public databases This analysis indicates that most Arachis NBS sequences fall within legume-specific clades, some of which appear to have undergone extensive copy number expansions in the legumes. In addition, NBS motifs from A. thaliana and legumes were characterized. Differences in the TIR and non-TIR motifs were identified. The likely effect of these differences on the amplification of NBS-encoding sequences by PCR is discussed.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing of diverse peanut (arachis) wild species and the cultivated species reveals a wealth of untapped genetic variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing technologies and improved bioinformatics methods have provided opportunities to study sequence variability in complex polyploid transcriptomes. In this study, we used a diverse panel of twenty-two Arachis accessions representing seven Arachis hypogaea market classes, A-, B...

  5. Characterization and Transferable Utility of Microsatellite Markers in the Wild and Cultivated Arachis Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Weigang; Zheng, Yanli; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Lei, Yong; Liao, Boshou; Jiang, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) is one of the most widely distributed molecular markers that have been widely utilized to assess genetic diversity and genetic mapping for important traits in plants. However, the understanding of microsatellite characteristics in Arachis species and the currently available amount of high-quality SSR markers remain limited. In this study, we identified 16,435 genome survey sequences SSRs (GSS-SSRs) and 40,199 expressed sequence tag SSRs (EST-SSRs) in Arachis hypogaea and its wild relative species using the publicly available sequence data. The GSS-SSRs had a density of 159.9–239.8 SSRs/Mb for wild Arachis and 1,015.8 SSR/Mb for cultivated Arachis, whereas the EST-SSRs had the density of 173.5–384.4 SSR/Mb and 250.9 SSRs/Mb for wild and cultivated Arachis, respectively. The trinucleotide SSRs were predominant across Arachis species, except that the dinucleotide accounted for most in A. hypogaea GSSs. From Arachis GSS-SSR and EST-SSR sequences, we developed 2,589 novel SSR markers that showed a high polymorphism in six diverse A. hypogaea accessions. A genetic linkage map that contained 540 novel SSR loci and 105 anchor SSR loci was constructed by case of a recombinant inbred lines F6 population. A subset of 82 randomly selected SSR markers were used to screen 39 wild and 22 cultivated Arachis accessions, which revealed a high transferability of the novel SSRs across Arachis species. Our results provided informative clues to investigate microsatellite patterns across A. hypogaea and its wild relative species and potentially facilitate the germplasm evaluation and gene mapping in Arachis species. PMID:27243460

  6. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Do; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut.

  7. An analysis of synteny of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago sheds new light on the structure, stability and evolution of legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most agriculturally important legumes fall within the phaseoloids (containing beans) and galegoids (containing peas and clovers). A notable exception is peanut (Arachis hypogaea) which comes from a basally diverged tropical lineage. To improve our understanding of the Arachis genome, single-copy g...

  8. Integrated consensus map of cultivated peanut and wild relatives reveals structures of the A and B genomes of Arachis and divergence of the legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex, tetraploid genome structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has obstructed advances in genetics and genomics in the species. The aim of this study is to understand the genome structure of Arachis by developing a high-density integrated consensus map. Three recombinant inbred line populatio...

  9. A preliminary pachytene analysis of two species of Arachis L.

    PubMed

    Jahnavi, M R; Murty, U R

    1985-05-01

    The morphology of pachytene chromosomes was studied in A. glabrata Benth. and A. pusilla Benth. belonging respectively to the sections Rhizomatosae and Triseminale. These two species can not be crossed with the cultivated groundnut A. hypogaea L. All 20 chromosomes of A. glabrata could be identified individually and further classified into 5 basic types. The features that enabled the identification of chromosomes were: total length, arm ratios, nucleolus attachment and position and extent of heterochromatin. A simple key has been proposed for classifying different chromosomes to facilitate their easy identification. The genomes of A. glabrata did not resemble those of A. hypogaea except for the presence of an 'A' chromosome, 2 euchromosomes and 2 nucleolus organisers. A. glabrata did not appear to be an amphidiploid but rather an allopolyploid hybrid. The genome of A. pusilla contained chromosomes unlike those of any other species of section Arachis. It was concluded that both these species are quite unrelated to other species of the section Arachis.

  10. The use of the diploid Arachis genomes to aid introgression of wild segments into peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases are important reducers of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) yield. Wild species generally harbor greater levels of resistance and even apparent immunity. Genomic regions confering resistance to foliar diseases and root knot nematodes have been identified in populations involving the wild progenitor...

  11. Cultivar specific changes in peanut (Arachis hypogae L.) yield, biomass, and allergenicity in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intraspecific variation in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], could, potentially, be used as a means to begin selection for improved quantitative or qualitative characteristics for a given crop. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a leguminous crop of global importance;...

  12. Employing microsatellite and SNP markers to track functional mutations and evaluate genetic diversity in the USDA Arachis germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein and other phytochemicals such as folic acid, tocopherol, and antioxidants; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit mai...

  13. Identification of Fungus Resistant Wild Accessions and Interspecific Hybrids of the Genus Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Michelotto, Marcos Doniseti; Barioni, Waldomiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Godoy, Ignácio José; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Fávero, Alessandra Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., is a protein-rich species consumed worldwide. A key improvement to peanut culture involves the development of cultivars that resist fungal diseases such as rust, leaf spot and scab. Over three years, we evaluated fungal resistance under field conditions of 43 wild accessions and three interspecific hybrids of the genus Arachis, as well as six A. hypogaea genotypes. In the first year, we evaluated resistance to early and late leaf spot, rust and scab. In the second and third years, we evaluated the 18 wild species with the best resistance scores and control cultivar IAC Caiapó for resistance to leaf spot and rust. All wild accessions displayed greater resistance than A. hypogaea but differed in their degree of resistance, even within the same species. We found accessions with as good as or better resistance than A. cardenasii, including: A. stenosperma (V15076 and Sv 3712), A. kuhlmannii (V 6413), A. kempff-mercadoi (V 13250), A. hoehnei (KG 30006), and A. helodes (V 6325). Amphidiploids and hybrids of A. hypogaea behaved similarly to wild species. An additional four accessions deserve further evaluation: A. magna (V 13751 and KG 30097) and A. gregoryi (V 14767 and V 14957). Although they did not display as strong resistance as the accessions cited above, they belong to the B genome type that is crucial to resistance gene introgression and pyramidization in A. hypogaea. PMID:26090811

  14. Identification of Fungus Resistant Wild Accessions and Interspecific Hybrids of the Genus Arachis.

    PubMed

    Michelotto, Marcos Doniseti; Barioni, Waldomiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Godoy, Ignácio José; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Fávero, Alessandra Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., is a protein-rich species consumed worldwide. A key improvement to peanut culture involves the development of cultivars that resist fungal diseases such as rust, leaf spot and scab. Over three years, we evaluated fungal resistance under field conditions of 43 wild accessions and three interspecific hybrids of the genus Arachis, as well as six A. hypogaea genotypes. In the first year, we evaluated resistance to early and late leaf spot, rust and scab. In the second and third years, we evaluated the 18 wild species with the best resistance scores and control cultivar IAC Caiapó for resistance to leaf spot and rust. All wild accessions displayed greater resistance than A. hypogaea but differed in their degree of resistance, even within the same species. We found accessions with as good as or better resistance than A. cardenasii, including: A. stenosperma (V15076 and Sv 3712), A. kuhlmannii (V 6413), A. kempff-mercadoi (V 13250), A. hoehnei (KG 30006), and A. helodes (V 6325). Amphidiploids and hybrids of A. hypogaea behaved similarly to wild species. An additional four accessions deserve further evaluation: A. magna (V 13751 and KG 30097) and A. gregoryi (V 14767 and V 14957). Although they did not display as strong resistance as the accessions cited above, they belong to the B genome type that is crucial to resistance gene introgression and pyramidization in A. hypogaea.

  15. Integrated Consensus Map of Cultivated Peanut and Wild Relatives Reveals Structures of the A and B Genomes of Arachis and Divergence of the Legume Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Bertioli, David J.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Moretzsohn, Marcio C.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K.; Rami, Jean-Francois; Foncéka, Daniel; Gowda, Makanahally V. C.; Qin, Hongde; Guo, Baozhu; Hong, Yanbin; Liang, Xuanqiang; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    The complex, tetraploid genome structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has obstructed advances in genetics and genomics in the species. The aim of this study is to understand the genome structure of Arachis by developing a high-density integrated consensus map. Three recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between the A genome diploid species, Arachis duranensis and Arachis stenosperma; the B genome diploid species, Arachis ipaënsis and Arachis magna; and between the AB genome tetraploids, A. hypogaea and an artificial amphidiploid (A. ipaënsis × A. duranensis)4×, were used to construct genetic linkage maps: 10 linkage groups (LGs) of 544 cM with 597 loci for the A genome; 10 LGs of 461 cM with 798 loci for the B genome; and 20 LGs of 1442 cM with 1469 loci for the AB genome. The resultant maps plus 13 published maps were integrated into a consensus map covering 2651 cM with 3693 marker loci which was anchored to 20 consensus LGs corresponding to the A and B genomes. The comparative genomics with genome sequences of Cajanus cajan, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula revealed that the Arachis genome has segmented synteny relationship to the other legumes. The comparative maps in legumes, integrated tetraploid consensus maps, and genome-specific diploid maps will increase the genetic and genomic understanding of Arachis and should facilitate molecular breeding. PMID:23315685

  16. Integrated consensus map of cultivated peanut and wild relatives reveals structures of the A and B genomes of Arachis and divergence of the legume genomes.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Bertioli, David J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Moretzsohn, Marcio C; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K; Rami, Jean-Francois; Foncéka, Daniel; Gowda, Makanahally V C; Qin, Hongde; Guo, Baozhu; Hong, Yanbin; Liang, Xuanqiang; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko

    2013-04-01

    The complex, tetraploid genome structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has obstructed advances in genetics and genomics in the species. The aim of this study is to understand the genome structure of Arachis by developing a high-density integrated consensus map. Three recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between the A genome diploid species, Arachis duranensis and Arachis stenosperma; the B genome diploid species, Arachis ipaënsis and Arachis magna; and between the AB genome tetraploids, A. hypogaea and an artificial amphidiploid (A. ipaënsis × A. duranensis)(4×), were used to construct genetic linkage maps: 10 linkage groups (LGs) of 544 cM with 597 loci for the A genome; 10 LGs of 461 cM with 798 loci for the B genome; and 20 LGs of 1442 cM with 1469 loci for the AB genome. The resultant maps plus 13 published maps were integrated into a consensus map covering 2651 cM with 3693 marker loci which was anchored to 20 consensus LGs corresponding to the A and B genomes. The comparative genomics with genome sequences of Cajanus cajan, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula revealed that the Arachis genome has segmented synteny relationship to the other legumes. The comparative maps in legumes, integrated tetraploid consensus maps, and genome-specific diploid maps will increase the genetic and genomic understanding of Arachis and should facilitate molecular breeding.

  17. Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis spp. Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. C.; Simpson, C. E.; Starr, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Field and greenhouse evaluations of 116 wild Arachis spp. genotypes demonstrated the presence of resistance to reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria race 1. Resistance in greenhouse tests was based on test lines having ≤ 2.5% of the number of eggs per gram of roots as did the susceptible A. hypogaea cv. Tamnut 74. In field tests, resistant genotypes were identified on the basis of having lower (P = 0.05) final nematode population densities than did Tamnut 74. Resistance was identified in genotypes from 11 of 15 wild species tested and in 10 of 20 genotypes belonging to undescribed species. Results of field and greenhouse experiments were similar; 26 of 31 genotypes common to both tests gave similar responses in both tests. Resistance to M. arenaria was identified in the complex hybrid TP-135, which was derived from A. hypogaea cv. Florunner x (A. batizocoi K 9484 x [A. cardenasii GKP 10017 x A. chacoensis GKP 10602])⁴x. In a single greenhouse test, three of six genotypes resistant to M. arenaria were also resistant to M. hapla. These data indicate that the Arachis spp. germplasm contains several sources of resistance to M. arenaria and possibly M. hapla. Some of this resistance is in germplasm that is genetically compatible with A. hypogaea. The complex hybrid TP-135 incorporates resistance from wild species into the genetic background of A. hypogaea. On the basis of these data, we believe it may be possible to develop peanut cultivars with high levels of resistance to M. arenaria and M. hapla. PMID:19287667

  18. Genetic relationships among seven sections of genus Arachis studied by using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis, originated in South America, is divided into nine taxonomical sections comprising of 80 species. Most of the Arachis species are diploids (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid species (2n = 2x = 40) are found in sections Arachis, Extranervosae and Rhizomatosae. Diploid species have great potential to be used as resistance sources for agronomic traits like pests and diseases, drought related traits and different life cycle spans. Understanding of genetic relationships among wild species and between wild and cultivated species will be useful for enhanced utilization of wild species in improving cultivated germplasm. The present study was undertaken to evaluate genetic relationships among species (96 accessions) belonging to seven sections of Arachis by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Arachis hypogaea genomic library and gene sequences from related genera of Arachis. Results The average transferability rate of 101 SSR markers tested to section Arachis and six other sections was 81% and 59% respectively. Five markers (IPAHM 164, IPAHM 165, IPAHM 407a, IPAHM 409, and IPAHM 659) showed 100% transferability. Cluster analysis of allelic data from a subset of 32 SSR markers on 85 wild and 11 cultivated accessions grouped accessions according to their genome composition, sections and species to which they belong. A total of 109 species specific alleles were detected in different wild species, Arachis pusilla exhibited largest number of species specific alleles (15). Based on genetic distance analysis, the A-genome accession ICG 8200 (A. duranensis) and the B-genome accession ICG 8206 (A. ipaënsis) were found most closely related to A. hypogaea. Conclusion A set of cross species and cross section transferable SSR markers has been identified that will be useful for genetic studies of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, germplasm analysis, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences

  19. Spermidine and Flavonoid conjugates from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new triamide has been isolated from peanut flowers and identified as di-p-(EE)-coumaroylacetylspermidine on the basis of detailed analysis of NMR, MS, and UV data. Two other spermidine conjugates, N1, N5, N10-tri-p-(EEE)-coumaroylspermidine and di-p-(EE)-coumaroylspermidine, as well as four flavon...

  20. Newly identified natural high oleate mutant from Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural genetic variation exists in animals and plants. Mining and utilizing this variation may provide benefits for new breed/cultivar development. From screening over 4,000 cultivated peanut germplasm accessions, we identified two natural mutant lines with 80% oleic acid by gas chromatography anal...

  1. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K.; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W.; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J.; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A. V. S.; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-01-01

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45–56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis. For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity. PMID:27247390

  2. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A V S; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Paterson, Andrew H; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-06-14

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45-56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity.

  3. A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia) evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC) and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago and Glycine revealed

  4. Comparative analysis of NBS-LRR genes and their response to Aspergillus flavus in Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Changsheng; Han, Suoyi; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Xia, Han; Bi, Yuping; Guo, Baozhu; Zhang, Xinyou

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NBS–LRR) genes respond to pathogen attack in plants. Characterization of NBS–LRR genes in peanut is not well documented. The newly released whole genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis have allowed a global analysis of this important gene family in peanut to be conducted. In this study, we identified 393 (AdNBS) and 437 (AiNBS) NBS–LRR genes from A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis, respectively, using bioinformatics approaches. Full-length sequences of 278 AdNBS and 303 AiNBS were identified. Fifty-one orthologous, four AdNBS paralogous, and six AiNBS paralogous gene pairs were predicted. All paralogous gene pairs were located in the same chromosomes, indicating that tandem duplication was the most likely mechanism forming these paralogs. The paralogs mainly underwent purifying selection, but most LRR 8 domains underwent positive selection. More gene clusters were found in A. ipaënsis than in A. duranensis, possibly owing to tandem duplication events occurring more frequently in A. ipaënsis. The expression profile of NBS–LRR genes was different between A. duranensis and A. hypogaea after Aspergillus flavus infection. The up-regulated expression of NBS–LRR in A. duranensis was continuous, while these genes responded to the pathogen temporally in A. hypogaea. PMID:28158222

  5. A linkage map for the B-genome of Arachis (Fabaceae) and its synteny to the A-genome

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Alves-Freitas, Dione MT; Teixeira, Cristiane; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Lopes, Catalina R; Cavallari, Marcelo M; Valls, José FM; Bertioli, David J; Gimenes, Marcos A

    2009-01-01

    Background Arachis hypogaea (peanut) is an important crop worldwide, being mostly used for edible oil production, direct consumption and animal feed. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid species with two different genome components, A and B. Genetic linkage maps can greatly assist molecular breeding and genomic studies. However, the development of linkage maps for A. hypogaea is difficult because it has very low levels of polymorphism. This can be overcome by the utilization of wild species of Arachis, which present the A- and B-genomes in the diploid state, and show high levels of genetic variability. Results In this work, we constructed a B-genome linkage map, which will complement the previously published map for the A-genome of Arachis, and produced an entire framework for the tetraploid genome. This map is based on an F2 population of 93 individuals obtained from the cross between the diploid A. ipaënsis (K30076) and the closely related A. magna (K30097), the former species being the most probable B genome donor to cultivated peanut. In spite of being classified as different species, the parents showed high crossability and relatively low polymorphism (22.3%), compared to other interspecific crosses. The map has 10 linkage groups, with 149 loci spanning a total map distance of 1,294 cM. The microsatellite markers utilized, developed for other Arachis species, showed high transferability (81.7%). Segregation distortion was 21.5%. This B-genome map was compared to the A-genome map using 51 common markers, revealing a high degree of synteny between both genomes. Conclusion The development of genetic maps for Arachis diploid wild species with A- and B-genomes effectively provides a genetic map for the tetraploid cultivated peanut in two separate diploid components and is a significant advance towards the construction of a transferable reference map for Arachis. Additionally, we were able to identify affinities of some Arachis linkage groups with Medicago

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of Wild Arachis from Water-Limited Environments Uncovers Drought Tolerance Candidate Genes.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Ana C M; Morgante, Carolina V; Araujo, Ana C G; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Silva, Amanda K; Martins, Andressa C Q; Vinson, Christina C; Santos, Candice M R; Bonfim, Orzenil; Togawa, Roberto C; Saraiva, Mario A P; Bertioli, David J; Guimaraes, Patricia M

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume cultivated mostly in drought-prone areas where its productivity can be limited by water scarcity. The development of more drought-tolerant varieties is, therefore, a priority for peanut breeding programs worldwide. In contrast to cultivated peanut, wild relatives have a broader genetic diversity and constitute a rich source of resistance/tolerance alleles to biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study takes advantage of this diversity to identify drought-responsive genes by analyzing the expression profile of two wild species, Arachis duranensis and Arachis magna (AA and BB genomes, respectively), in response to progressive water deficit in soil. Data analysis from leaves and roots of A. duranensis (454 sequencing) and A. magna (suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)) stressed and control complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries revealed several differentially expressed genes in silico, and 44 of them were selected for further validation by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). This allowed the identification of drought-responsive candidate genes, such as Expansin, Nitrilase, NAC, and bZIP transcription factors, displaying significant levels of differential expression during stress imposition in both species. This is the first report on identification of differentially expressed genes under drought stress and recovery in wild Arachis species. The generated transcriptome data, besides being a valuable resource for gene discovery, will allow the characterization of new alleles and development of molecular markers associated with drought responses in peanut. These together constitute important tools for the peanut breeding program and also contribute to a better comprehension of gene modulation in response to water deficit and rehydration.

  7. Tetrasomic Recombination Is Surprisingly Frequent in Allotetraploid Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya; Shirasawa, Kenta; Abernathy, Brian; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Chavarro, Carolina; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Jackson, Scott; Bertioli, David

    2015-01-01

    Arachis hypogaea L. (cultivated peanut) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) with an AABB genome type. Based on cytogenetic studies it has been assumed that peanut and wild-derived induced AABB allotetraploids have classic allotetraploid genetic behavior with diploid-like disomic recombination only between homologous chromosomes, at the exclusion of recombination between homeologous chromosomes. Using this assumption, numerous linkage map and quantitative trait loci studies have been carried out. Here, with a systematic analysis of genotyping and gene expression data, we show that this assumption is not entirely valid. In fact, autotetraploid-like tetrasomic recombination is surprisingly frequent in recombinant inbred lines generated from a cross of cultivated peanut and an induced allotetraploid derived from peanut’s most probable ancestral species. We suggest that a better, more predictive genetic model for peanut is that of a “segmental allotetraploid” with partly disomic, partly tetrasomic genetic behavior. This intermediate genetic behavior has probably had a previously overseen, but significant, impact on the genome and genetics of cultivated peanut. PMID:25701284

  8. Comparisons of de novo transcriptome assemblers in diploid and polyploid species using peanut (Arachis spp.) RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Farmer, Andrew; Mudge, Joann; Simpson, Charles E; Burow, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The narrow genetic base and limited genetic information on Arachis species have hindered the process of marker-assisted selection of peanut cultivars. However, recent developments in sequencing technologies have expanded opportunities to exploit genetic resources, and at lower cost. To use the genetic information for Arachis species available at the transcriptome level, it is important to have a good quality reference transcriptome. The available Tifrunner 454 FLEX transcriptome sequences have an assembly with 37,000 contigs and low N50 values of 500-751 bp. Therefore, we generated de novo transcriptome assemblies, with about 38 million reads in the tetraploid cultivar OLin, and 16 million reads in each of the diploids, A. duranensis K38901 and A. ipaënsis KGBSPSc30076 using three different de novo assemblers, Trinity, SOAPdenovo-Trans and TransAByss. All these assemblers can use single kmer analysis, and the latter two also permit multiple kmer analysis. Assemblies generated for all three samples had N50 values ranging from 1278-1641 bp in Arachis hypogaea (AABB), 1401-1492 bp in Arachis duranensis (AA), and 1107-1342 bp in Arachis ipaënsis (BB). Comparison with legume ESTs and protein databases suggests that assemblies generated had more than 40% full length transcripts with good continuity. Also, on mapping the raw reads to each of the assemblies generated, Trinity had a high success rate in assembling sequences compared to both TransAByss and SOAPdenovo-Trans. De novo assembly of OLin had a greater number of contigs (67,098) and longer contig length (N50 = 1,641) compared to the Tifrunner TSA. Despite having shorter read length (2 × 50) than the Tifrunner 454FLEX TSA, de novo assembly of OLin proved superior in comparison. Assemblies generated to represent different genome combinations may serve as a valuable resource for the peanut research community.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of expansin superfamily in wild Arachis discloses a stress-responsive expansin-like B gene.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Larissa Arrais; Mota, Ana Paula Zotta; Araujo, Ana Claudia Guerra; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Pereira, Bruna Medeiros; de Passos Saraiva, Mario Alfredo; Silva, Raquel Bispo; Danchin, Etienne G J; Guimaraes, Patricia Messenberg; Brasileiro, Ana Cristina Miranda

    2017-02-27

    Expansins are plant cell wall-loosening proteins involved in adaptive responses to environmental stimuli and various developmental processes. The first genome-wide analysis of the expansin superfamily in the Arachis genus identified 40 members in A. duranensis and 44 in A. ipaënsis, the wild progenitors of cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea). These expansins were further characterized regarding their subfamily classification, distribution along the genomes, duplication events, molecular structure, and phylogeny. A RNA-seq expression analysis in different Arachis species showed that the majority of these expansins are modulated in response to diverse stresses such as water deficit, root-knot nematode (RKN) infection, and UV exposure, with an expansin-like B gene (AraEXLB8) displaying a highly distinct stress-responsive expression profile. Further analysis of the AraEXLB8 coding sequences showed high conservation across the Arachis genotypes, with eight haplotypes identified. The modulation of AraEXLB8 expression in response to the aforementioned stresses was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis in distinct Arachis genotypes, whilst in situ hybridization revealed transcripts in different root tissues according to the stress imposed. The overexpression of AraEXLB8 in soybean (Glycine max) composite plants remarkably decreased the number of galls in transformed hairy roots inoculated with RKN. This study improves the current understanding of the molecular evolution, divergence, and gene expression of expansins in Arachis, and provides molecular and functional insights into the role of expansin-like B, the less-studied plant expansin subfamily.

  10. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae) and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small “A chromosomes” characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter. PMID:21637581

  11. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut.

    PubMed

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Roberts, Philip A; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Borba, Tereza C O; Valdisser, Paula A; Vianello, Rosana P; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Guimarães, Patricia M; Bertioli, David J

    2015-12-12

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs.

  12. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Roberts, Philip A.; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Borba, Tereza C. O.; Valdisser, Paula A.; Vianello, Rosana P.; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Guimarães, Patricia M.; Bertioli, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs. PMID:26656152

  13. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Genes from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Mingna; Chen, Na; Pan, Lijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Quanfu; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final and only committed acylation step in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, three novel AhDGATs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhDGAT1-2 transcript was more abundant in roots, seeds, and cotyledons, whereas the transcript abundances of AhDGAT1-1 and AhDGAT3-3 were higher in flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, transcript levels of AhDGAT1-1 remained relatively low during the initial developmental stage but increased gradually during later stages, peaking at 50 days after pegging (DAP). Levels of AhDGAT1-2 transcripts were higher at 10 and 60 DAPs and much lower during other stages, whereas AhDGAT3-3 showed higher expression levels at 20 and 50 DAPs. In addition, AhDGAT transcripts were differentially expressed following exposure to abiotic stresses or abscisic acid. The activity of the three AhDGAT genes was confirmed by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant. The recombinant yeasts restored lipid body formation and TAG biosynthesis, and preferentially incorporated unsaturated C18 fatty acids into lipids. The present study provides significant information useful in modifying the oil deposition of peanut through molecular breeding. PMID:25181516

  14. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) genome contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  15. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) expressed sequence tag (EST) project: Progress and application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from several hundred plant species have been deposited in public EST databases. Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research commu...

  16. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  17. Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut is an important source of protein and oil. However, low genetic diversity makes peanut vulnerable to many diseases. Several hundred of partial genomic DNA sequences targeting nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance (R) genes have been reported. Only a small...

  18. (22)Na influx is significantly lower in salt tolerant groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Smitharani, J A; Sowmyashree, M L; Vasantha, K M; Srivastava, M; Sashidhar, V R

    2014-01-01

    Distinct varieties differing in salt tolerance were initially identified from two separate green house experiments using two systems; solution as well as soil culture. The first screening involved a diverse group of 27 cultivars. Several physiological traits; Chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI), Salt Tolerance Index (STI) and ion content were determined to screen the cultivars for differences in salt tolerance using solution culture in the first experiment. A set of six varieties (three tolerant and three susceptible) were selected from this experiment and then subjected again to salt stress adopting a natural soil system in the second experiment which involved a screening approach essentially similar to that of the first experiment. In the third experiment using two distinct cultivars differing in salt tolerance selected from experiment II, (22)Na influx rate was determined in the root and shoot at the end of a 24 h salt imposition in Hoagland's nutrient system containing 180 KBq of (22)Na. The results suggested that there were distinct differences in (22)Na influx rate into root and concurrently in the shoot. The salt tolerant Spanish improved and one of the moderately tolerant Trombay variety TAG 24, showed good regulation of (22)Na influx resulting in low (22)Na concentration. The salt susceptible variety JSP39 had nearly 7-8 fold higher root (22)Na content as compared to the tolerant and moderately tolerant cultivars. The results have highlighted the importance of Na exclusion as an important determinant of salt tolerance in groundnut.

  19. Influence of Application Variables on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Response to Prohexadione Calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive vegetative growth of peanut reduces row visibility during the digging and inversion process. Prohexadione calcium retards vegetative growth, improves row visibility, and in some instances reduces pod shed and increases pod yield compared with non-treated peanut. However, prohexadione cal...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of chemical control of aflatoxin production in unshelled peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Calori-Domingues, M A; Fonseca, H

    1995-01-01

    Propionic acid (ammonium salt) at 3000 mg/kg (PA1) and 5000 mg/kg (PA2) of unshelled peanuts (UP); grapefruit seed extract at 5000 mg/kg (GF1) and 10,000 mg/kg (GF2); sodium orthophenylphenate at 2500 mg/kg (SOP1) and 5000 mg/kg (SOP2); thiabendazole 1000 mg/kg (TBZ1) and 5000 mg/kg (TBZ2) were studied in the laboratory, to verify their efficiency in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin (AF) production on moist UP (16-18% moisture content). Moist UP were put into polyethylene bags with cotton plugs and incubated at 30 +/- 2 degrees C for 28 days. Treatments were considered efficient when the AF content (B1 + G1) remained under 30 micrograms/kg. PA1 treatment was efficient till 14 days of incubation and PA2 during the whole incubation period (28 days). All other treatments were not efficient, showing AF contents from 150 to 108,333 micrograms/kg during the incubation periods. Propionic acid, used as ammonium propionate, at 5000 mg/kg shows promise in controlling aflatoxin production when applied to moist unshelled peanuts.

  1. Cloning and functional analysis of three diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Ruibo; Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Mingna; Chen, Na; Pan, Lijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Quanfu; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final and only committed acylation step in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, three novel AhDGATs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhDGAT1-2 transcript was more abundant in roots, seeds, and cotyledons, whereas the transcript abundances of AhDGAT1-1 and AhDGAT3-3 were higher in flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, transcript levels of AhDGAT1-1 remained relatively low during the initial developmental stage but increased gradually during later stages, peaking at 50 days after pegging (DAP). Levels of AhDGAT1-2 transcripts were higher at 10 and 60 DAPs and much lower during other stages, whereas AhDGAT3-3 showed higher expression levels at 20 and 50 DAPs. In addition, AhDGAT transcripts were differentially expressed following exposure to abiotic stresses or abscisic acid. The activity of the three AhDGAT genes was confirmed by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant. The recombinant yeasts restored lipid body formation and TAG biosynthesis, and preferentially incorporated unsaturated C18 fatty acids into lipids. The present study provides significant information useful in modifying the oil deposition of peanut through molecular breeding.

  2. Dynamic succession of soil bacterial community during continuous cropping of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant-microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age.

  3. Sequence and expression analysis of putative Arachis hypogaea (peanut) Nod factor perception proteins.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Fernando; Angelini, Jorge; Figueredo, María Soledad; Muñoz, Vanina; Tonelli, María Laura; Fabra, Adriana

    2015-07-01

    Peanut, like most legumes, develops a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia to overcome nitrogen limitation. Rhizobial infection of peanut roots occurs through a primitive and poorly characterized intercellular mechanism. Knowledge of the molecular determinants of this symbiotic interaction is scarce, and little is known about the molecules implicated in the recognition of the symbionts. Here, we identify the LysM extracellular domain sequences of two putative peanut Nod factor receptors, named AhNFR1 and AhNFP. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that they correspond to LjNFR1 and LjNFR5 homologs, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that, unlike LjNFR5, AhNFP expression was not induced at 8 h post bradyrhizobial inoculation. Further examination of AhNFP showed that the predicted protein sequence is identical to GmNFR5 in two positions that are crucial for Nod factor perception in other legumes. Analysis of the AhNFP LysM2 tridimensional model revealed that these two amino acids are very close, delimiting a zone of the molecule essential for Nod factor recognition. These data, together with the analysis of the molecular structure of Nod factors of native peanut symbionts previously reported, suggest that peanut and soybean could share some of the determinants involved in the signalling cascade that allows symbiosis establishment.

  4. Production of phytoalexins in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed elicited by selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S

    2013-02-27

    Under favorable conditions, the peanut plant demonstrates appreciable resistance to fungal invasion by producing and accumulating phytoalexins, antimicrobial stilbenoids. This mechanism for resistance is little understood, yet it is crucial for breeding and genetically modifying peanut plants to develop new cultivars with fungal resistance. The dynamics of phytoalexin production in peanut seeds and embryos challenged by selected important fungi and bacteria was investigated. Different biotic agents selectively elicited production of major peanut stilbenoids, resveratrol, arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and SB-1. Aspergillis species, compared to other biotic agents, were more potent elicitors of stilbenoids. Embryos demonstrated significantly higher production of stilbenoids compared to cotyledons and may serve as a convenient source of genetic material in isolating genes for peanut plant defense enhancement.

  5. Regulation of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway: A Mechanism of Selenium Tolerance in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Wu, Liying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Wenjia; Zhang, Mengmeng; Li, Xiaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2016-05-11

    To clarify the mechanisms of selenium (Se) tolerance in peanut seedlings, we grew peanut seedlings with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L), and investigated the phenylpropanoids metabolism in seedling roots. The results showed that selenite up-regulated the expression of genes and related enzyme activities involving in the phenylpropanoids biosynthesis cascade, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, trans-cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase. Selenite significantly increased phenolic acids and flavonoids, which contributed to the alleviation of selenite-induced stress. Moreover, selenite enhanced the formation of endodermis in roots, which may be attributed to the up-regulation of lignin biosynthesis mediated by the selenite-induced changes of H2O2 and NO, which probably regulated the selenite uptake from an external medium. Accumulation of polyphenolic compounds via the phenylpropanoid pathway may be one of the mechanisms of the increasing selenite tolerance in plants, by which peanut seedlings survived in seleniferous soil, accompanied by accumulation of Se.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment.

  7. New dimeric stilbenoids from fungal-challenged peanut ( Arachis hypogaea) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S; Neff, Scott A; Gloer, James B

    2010-01-27

    The peanut plant can resist fungal attacks by producing stilbene-derived phytoalexins. Once understood, such a natural phytoalexin-based mechanism of peanut resistance could be potentially manipulated to obtain fungal-resistant peanut breeding lines. Several simple stilbenoid phytoalexins from peanuts have been reported. However, more complex stilbenoid derivatives such as those that have been reported from other sources and considered important factors in plant defense have not been found in peanuts. The purpose of this research was to isolate and characterize further new oligomeric peanut stilbenoids that may act as phytoalexins. Two new prenylated stilbene dimers named arahypin-6 (3) and arahypin-7 (4) have been isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus caelatus strain. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of NMR, MS, and UV spectroscopic data. Together with other known peanut stilbenoids that were also produced in the challenged seeds, these new compounds may play a defensive role against invasive fungi.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of annexin genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    He, MeiJing; Yang, XinLei; Cui, ShunLi; Mu, GuoJun; Hou, MingYu; Chen, HuanYing; Liu, LiFeng

    2015-08-15

    Annexin, Ca(2+) or phospholipid binding proteins, with many family members are distributed throughout all tissues during plant growth and development. Annexins participate in a number of physiological processes, such as exocytosis, cell elongation, nodule formation in legumes, maturation and stress response. Six different full-length cDNAs and two partial-length cDNAs of peanut, (AnnAh1, AnnAh2, AnnAh3, AnnAh5, AnnAh6, AnnAh7, AnnAh4 and AnnAh8) encoding annexin proteins, were isolated and characterized using a RT-PCR/RACE-PCR based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these annexins were 36.0kDa with acidic pIs of 5.97-8.81. ANNAh1, ANNAh2, ANNAh3, ANNAh5, ANNAh6 and ANNAh7 shared sequence similarity from 35.76 to 66.35% at amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis revealed their evolutionary relationships with corresponding orthologous sequences in soybean and deduced proteins in various plant species. Real-time quantitative assays indicated that these genes were differentially expressed in various organs. Transcript level analysis for six annexin genes under stress conditions showed that these genes were regulated by drought, salinity, heavy metal stress, low temperature and hormone. Additionally, the prediction of cis-regulatory element suggested that different cis-responsive elements including stress- and hormone-responsive-related elements could respond to various stress conditions. These results indicated that members of AnnAhs family may play important roles in the adaptation of peanut to various environmental stresses.

  9. Transcriptome-wide sequencing provides insights into geocarpy in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Qingli; Li, Haifen; Li, Heying; Hong, Yanbin; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Zhu, Fanghe; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Mingna; Liu, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Erhua; Wang, Tong; Zhong, Ni; Wang, Mian; Liu, Hong; Wen, Shijie; Li, Xingyu; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Wu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-05-01

    A characteristic feature of peanut is the subterranean fructification, geocarpy, in which the gynophore ('peg'), a specialized organ that transitions from upward growth habit to downward outgrowth upon fertilization, drives the developing pod into the soil for subsequent development underground. As a step towards understanding this phenomenon, we explore the developmental dynamics of the peanut pod transcriptome at 11 successive stages. We identified 110 217 transcripts across developmental stages and quantified their abundance along a pod developmental gradient in pod wall. We found that the majority of transcripts were differentially expressed along the developmental gradient as well as identified temporal programs of gene expression, including hundreds of transcription factors. Thought to be an adaptation to particularly harsh subterranean environments, both up- and down-regulated gene sets in pod wall were enriched for response to a broad array of stimuli, like gravity, light and subterranean environmental factors. We also identified hundreds of transcripts associated with gravitropism and photomorphogenesis, which may be involved in the geocarpy. Collectively, this study forms a transcriptional baseline for geocarpy in peanut as well as provides a considerable body of evidence that transcriptional regulation in peanut aerial and subterranean fruits is complex.

  10. New Monomeric Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seeds Challenged by an Aspergillus flavus Strain.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S; Krausert, Nicole M; Gloer, James B

    2016-01-27

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B, which has not been previously reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid reported previously only as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of (1)H and (13)C NMR, HRESIMS, MS(n), and UV data. The new stilbenoids were named arahypin-13 (21), arahypin-14 (22), and arahypin-15 (23). Together with other known bioactive peanut stilbenoids that were also produced in the challenged seeds, these new compounds may play a defensive role against invasive fungi.

  11. Transcriptome profiles reveal gene regulation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ze; Liu, Fengxia; Wang, Liping; Zhou, Hai; Paudel, Dev; Tan, Lubin; Maku, James; Gallo, Maria; Wang, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of symbiosis in cultivated peanut with a ‘crack entry’ infection process are largely understudied. In this study, we investigated the root transcriptional profiles of two pairs of non-nodulating (nod−) and nodulating (nod+) sister inbred peanut lines, E4/E5 and E7/E6, and their nod+ parents, F487A and PI262090 during rhizobial infection and nodule initiation by using RNA-seq technology. A total of 143, 101, 123, 215, 182, and 289 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in nod− E4, E7 and nod+ E5, E6, F487A, and PI262090 after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. Different deficiencies at upstream of symbiotic signaling pathway were revealed in the two nod− genotypes. DEGs specific in nod+ genotypes included orthologs to some known symbiotic signaling pathway genes, such as NFR5, NSP2, NIN, ERN1, and many other novel and/or functionally unknown genes. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of nod+ specific DEGs revealed 54 significantly enriched GO terms, including oxidation-reduction process, metabolic process, and catalytic activity. Genes related with plant defense systems, hormone biosynthesis and response were particularly enriched. To our knowledge, this is the first report revealing symbiosis-related genes in a genome-wide manner in peanut representative of the ‘crack entry’ species. PMID:28059169

  12. Identification of stress-related small RNA's in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several classes of small RNAs have been studied in plants with the most extensively studied class being microRNAs (miRNAs). microRNAs (miRNAs) are an endogenous class of 20-25 nucleotide noncoding RNAs that are thought to play an important role in regulating gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cl...

  13. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms controlling seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehens...

  14. Reassociation Kinetics and Cytophotometric Characterization of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) DNA 1

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Sukhraj S.; Rake, Adrian V.; Miksche, Jerome P.

    1980-01-01

    The base composition of peanut (var. NC-17) DNA determined from thermal denaturation profiles showed an average guanine plus cystosine content of 34% which was in close approximation to 36% guanine plus cytosine calculated from the buoyant density. Buoyant density also indicated the absence of satellite DNA. The genome size, 2.0 × 109 base pairs, as determined by reassociation kinetics of the single copy DNA was close to the genome size determined by cytophotometry, 2.1 × 109 base pairs. Peanut DNA averaging 450 to 600 base pairs long, reassociated in phosphate buffer and fractionated by hydroxylapatite, indicated a DNA genome composition of 36% nonrepetitive or single copy DNA; reassociation in formamide and followed by optical methods indicated the repetitive DNA possesses highly repeated, intermediately repeated and rarely repeated components of DNA with DNA sequences repeated on the average about 38,000, 6,700, and 200 times each. Different criteria of reassociation in formamide revealed further subdivisions of these four separate components of DNA. The DNA of above mentioned NC-17 variety compared to Florigiant variety showed no differences in thermal denaturation profiles, buoyant density, or in genome size. PMID:16661344

  15. A SSR-based genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to construct a molecular linkage map of cultivated tetraploid peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Three recombinant inbre...

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  17. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-11

    derivatives 11-24 (with the exception of 20 and 23) were previously studied in assays against the wood - decaying fungi , C. versicolor, G. trabeum, and P...and related derivatives against wood -destroying fungi . Recent Res. Dev. Agric. Food Chem. 1997, 1, 289–299. (9) Pont, V.; Pezet, R. Relation between...mechanisms,3 the stilbenoids (Figure 1) were evaluated first for their antifungal effects against plant pathogenic fungi . The fungal species tested are

  18. Evaluation of yield and reproductive efficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under different available soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Cap...

  19. Trichoderma viride induces pathogenesis related defense response against rot pathogen infection in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Savaliya, Disha D; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2015-08-01

    The study examine induction of defense enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of pathogenesis related proteins in rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) challenged groundnut seedlings in response to Trichoderma viride JAU60. Seeds of five groundnut varieties differing in collar rot susceptibility were sown under non-infested, pathogen infested and pathogen+T. viride JAU60 seed treatment. Collar rot disease evident between 31.0% (J-11, GG-2) and 67.4% (GG-20) in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infested which was significantly reduced from 58.1% (J-11, GG-2) to 51.6% (GG-20) by Trichoderma treatment. The specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) and β-1,3 glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) elevated 3.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively, at 3 days; phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) evident 1.6-fold higher at 6 days; and chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) sustained 2.3-2.8 folds up to 9 days in Trichoderma treated+pathogen infested seedlings of tolerant varieties (J-11, GG-2) compared with moderate and susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20). T. viride JAU60 induces defense enzymes in a different way for tolerant and susceptible varieties to combat the disease. This study indicates the synergism activation of defense enzymes under the pathogenic conditions or induced resistance by T. viride JAU60 in a different groundnut varieties susceptible to collar rot disease.

  20. [Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis on peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) plants under calcium deficiency stress].

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Li; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Han, Ya; Liu, Zi-Fei; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Hilman; Liu, Rong-Le; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to reveal different tolerance of peanut plants to Ca deficiency by determining Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared spectral (FTIR) differences of two peanut cultivars grown in nutrition solution. Peanut cultivars LH11 and YZ9102 were selected. Seedlings at the first leaf stage were cultivated for 28 days in nutrient solution with 0, 0.01 and 2.0 mmol x L(-1) Ca treatments, respectively. The results showed that under 0 and 0.01 mmol x L(-1) Ca supply, YZ9102 did not show Ca deficiency symptoms and the plant biomass did not change, whereas LH11 exhibited shoot-tip necrosis, smaller plant size, more lateral branches, and plant dry matter weights decreased significantly. YZ9102 had higher plant Ca concentration and Ca accumulation than LH11. Besides, for LH11, Ca was mainly accumulated in roots, while for YZ9102 mainly in leaves. As compared with plants cultivated in 2.0 mol x L(-1) Ca nutrition, root, stem and leaf of LH11 plants under Ca deficiency stress showed higher transmittance at peaks 1 060, 1 380, 1 655, 2 922, and 3 420 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra, indicating that the contents of protein, sugar and lipid decreased obviously in LH11 plants in condition that Ca supply was limited. However, the FTIR spectra of YZ9102 were less affected by Ca deficiency. It is suggested that YZ9102 might be more tolerant to Ca deficiency.

  1. Interaction of flumioxazin with dimethenamid or metolachlor in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in various peanut growing regions of Texas and Georgia to study peanut response to flumioxazin alone or in combination with dimethenamid or metolachlor. In southern Texas during 1997, flumioxazin plus metolachlor resulted in greater than 45% peanut stunt, while flumioxaz...

  2. Recent advances in molecular genetic linkage maps of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. Narrow genetic diversity and deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers have severely h...

  3. Allergens of Arachis hypogaea and the effect of processing on their detection by ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Amjad; Shah, Farooq; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Hussain, Anwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are an emerging public health problem in industrialized areas of the world. They represent a considerable health problem in these areas because of the relatively high number of reported cases. Usually, food allergens are proteins or glycoproteins with a molecular mass ranging from 10 to 70 kDa. Among the food allergies, peanut is accounted to be responsible for more than 50% of the food allergy fatalities. Threshold doses for peanut allergenic reactions have been found to range from as low as 100 µg to 1 g of peanut protein, which equal to 400 µg to 4 g peanut meal. Allergens from peanut are mainly seed storage proteins that are composed of conglutin, vicilin, and glycinin families. Several peanut proteins have been identified to induce allergic reactions, particularly Ara h 1–11. This review is mainly focused on different classes of peanut allergens, the effect of thermal and chemical treatment of peanut allergens on the IgY binding and detectability of these allergens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to provide knowledge for food industry. PMID:26931300

  4. Impact of crossing conditions on the success of artificial hybridization of Arachis hypogaea L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to protect peanut yield and quality under dynamic farming conditions, pyramiding desirable traits from multiple lines has been the major task for peanut breeders. In addition, dissecting genetic components of heritable traits also relies on the development of large mapping populations. Ar...

  5. New monomeric stilbenoids from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B that has not been reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid that has been known as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were d...

  6. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Shah-E-Alam, Md.; Hamid, Md. Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Malek, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A study was performed using 6 × 6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca) indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants. PMID:24737982

  7. Reduction of IgE immunoreactivity of whole peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) after pulsed light illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed light (PL), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown in literature to reduce allergen levels on peanut, soybean, almond, and shrimp protein extracts. This study investigated how PL affected the immunoreactivity of whole peanut kernels at two sample-to-lamp distance...

  8. Comparison of gene expression profiles in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under strong artificial selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past five decades, cultivated peanut in China has been subjected to strong artificial selection in breeding programs. To investigate the impact of artificial selection on expression diversity, we compared gene expression profiles in pod and leaf of five widespread cultivars in Southern Chin...

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing of Diverse Peanut (Arachis) Wild Species and the Cultivated Species Reveals a Wealth of Untapped Genetic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Simpson, Charles E.; Chagoya, Jennifer; Mudge, Joann; Burow, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the cultivated peanut species possesses almost no molecular variability, we sequenced a diverse panel of 22 Arachis accessions representing Arachis hypogaea botanical classes, A-, B-, and K- genome diploids, a synthetic amphidiploid, and a tetraploid wild species. RNASeq was performed on pools of three tissues, and de novo assembly was performed. Realignment of individual accession reads to transcripts of the cultivar OLin identified 306,820 biallelic SNPs. Among 10 naturally occurring tetraploid accessions, 40,382 unique homozygous SNPs were identified in 14,719 contigs. In eight diploid accessions, 291,115 unique SNPs were identified in 26,320 contigs. The average SNP rate among the 10 cultivated tetraploids was 0.5, and among eight diploids was 9.2 per 1000 bp. Diversity analysis indicated grouping of diploids according to genome classification, and cultivated tetraploids by subspecies. Cluster analysis of variants indicated that sequences of B genome species were the most similar to the tetraploids, and the next closest diploid accession belonged to the A genome species. A subset of 66 SNPs selected from the dataset was validated; of 782 SNP calls, 636 (81.32%) were confirmed using an allele-specific discrimination assay. We conclude that substantial genetic variability exists among wild species. Additionally, significant but lesser variability at the molecular level occurs among accessions of the cultivated species. This survey is the first to report significant SNP level diversity among transcripts, and may explain some of the phenotypic differences observed in germplasm surveys. Understanding SNP variants in the Arachis accessions will benefit in developing markers for selection. PMID:27729436

  10. Advances in Arachis through genomics and biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 5th International Conference of the peanut research community met in Brasilia, Brazil from June 13 through 16, 2011 to discuss “Advances in Arachis through genomics and biotechnology”. Over 100 participated from many countries such as United States, Japan, China, India, Brazil, Argentina, with ...

  11. Characterization of a pathogen induced thaumatin-like protein gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a wild peanut.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P B

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants.

  12. Differential gene expression in Arachis diogoi upon interaction with peanut late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata and characterization of a pathogen induced cyclophilin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2011-03-01

    The wild relatives of peanut are resistant to various economically important diseases including late leaf spot (LLS) caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata, compared with the susceptible cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The interaction of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata and the highly resistant, diploid peanut wild species, Arachis diogoi was analyzed at the molecular level by differential gene expression studies. Genes up-regulated with in 48 h of pathogen challenge were isolated as partial cDNAs. Some of the isolated genes, which are shown to be involved in the first line of defense in plants, were further characterized with respect to their transcriptional regulation in response to pathogen. Among the isolated clones, two were found to encode cyclophilin like proteins. One of the two isolated partial cDNAs encoding cyclophilin like proteins was extended using 5' RACE. The full length cDNA, designated as AdCyp, was 886 bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 172 amino acids. Southern hybridization suggests that AdCyp is possibly coded by a single gene and at least one more identical gene is present in Arachis diogoi genome. AdCyp exhibits evolutionary conservation across the kingdoms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AdCyp belongs to the subgroup I of Group I in cyclophilins. A translational fusion of GFP-AdCyp was found to localize to both cytosol and nucleus. AdCyp transcripts were found to accumulate in response to the treatments with pathogen as well as phytohormones. Constitutive heterologous expression of AdCyp resulted in enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and reduced susceptibility towards Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae in transgenic tobacco and the resistance was associated with higher transcript levels of various defense related genes.

  13. Growth analysis and yield of two varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by different weed control methods.

    PubMed

    Olayinka, Bolaji U; Etejere, Emmanuel O

    Field trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of seven weed management strategies on the growth and yield of two groundnut varieties (Samnut 10 and MK 373) for two successive seasons (2010-2011). The experimental layout was a split plot complete randomized block design with three replications. The two groundnut varieties showed identical pattern of results for leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate as well as yield. All the weed control treatments significantly enhanced the growth and yield compared with the weedy check. The weed free check had the highest growth but the highest yield was recorded from rice straw mulch at 0.1 m depth + one hand weeding at 6 weeks after sowing (WAS) due to increase in number of matured pods per plant, seed weight per plant and 100-seed weight. The results showed that rice straw mulch at 0.1 m depth + one hand weeding at 6 WAS was better agronomical practice for enhancing growth and yield of groundnut. This enhancement could be as a result of its positive influence on physiological parameters such as leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate. Its use is also ecofriendly as it limits the need for synthetic herbicide.

  14. Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

  15. Primed acclimation of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through the use of deficit irrigation timed to crop developmental periods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-deficits and high temperatures are the predominant factors limiting peanut production across the U.S., either because of regional aridity or untimely rainfall events during crucial crop developmental periods. In the southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico, low average annual ...

  16. Primed acclimation of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through the use of deficit irrigation timed to crop developmental periods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-deficits and high temperatures are primary factors limiting peanut production across the U.S., either because of regional aridity or untimely rainfall events during the growing season. In the southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico, low natural rainfall (450 mm) necessitates...

  17. Identification and Characterization of Multi-gene Family Encoding Germin-like Proteins in Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) play diversified roles in plant development and basic defense. In this study, 36 EST-clones encoding GLPs were identified. Sequence similarity analysis demonstrated that the peanut genome possessed multi-gene family encoding at least 8 GLPs, named AhGLP1 to Ah...

  18. Histochemical specificity of beta-galactose binding lectins from Arachis hypogaea (peanut) and Ricinus communis (castor bean).

    PubMed

    Hennigar, L M; Hennigar, R A; Schulte, B A

    1987-09-01

    Previous histochemical studies have demonstrated disparities in the binding of two lectins with a nominal specificity for terminal beta-D-galactose. Biochemical studies have shown that the most complementary structure for binding peanut agglutinin (PNA) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, whereas the most complementary structure for binding Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. However, it is not known if only these differences in affinity account for the different histochemical staining reactions observed on tissue sections. In the present study we compared the staining patterns of PNA and RCA I by inhibiting in situ the binding of each lectin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with increasing concentrations of unlabeled PNA or RCA I. The PNA-HRP conjugate did not stain most tissue sites suspected of containing an abundance of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. Moreover, unlabeled PNA failed to significantly inhibit strong RCA I-HRP staining in these sites. In loci thought to contain variable amounts of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, unlabeled RCA I decreased PNA-HRP reactivity only slightly or not at all, whereas weak to strong RCA I-HRP staining was diminished or abolished by unlabeled PNA. The results suggest that PNA staining is restricted to glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc. RCA I apparently reacts most strongly with glycoconjugates having the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc, but also stains sites containing a moderate to abundant amount of glycoconjugates with the terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc sequence.

  19. Genetic Dissection of Novel QTLs for Resistance to Leaf Spots and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Wang, Hui; Khera, Pawan; Vishwakarma, Manish K.; Kale, Sandip M.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Wang, Xingjun; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2017-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop, economically and nutritiously, but high production cost is a serious challenge to peanut farmers as exemplified by chemical spray to control foliar diseases such as leaf spots and thrips, the vectors of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The objective of this research was to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in one recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population of “Tifrunner × GT-C20” for identification of linked markers for marker-assisted breeding. Here, we report the improved genetic linkage map with 418 marker loci with a marker density of 5.3 cM/loci and QTLs associated with multi-year (2010–2013) field phenotypes of foliar disease traits, including early leaf spot (ELS), late leaf spot (LLS), and TSWV. A total of 42 QTLs were identified with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) from 6.36 to 15.6%. There were nine QTLs for resistance to ELS, 22 QTLs for LLS, and 11 QTLs for TSWV, including six, five, and one major QTLs with PVE higher than 10% for resistance to each disease, respectively. Of the total 42 QTLs, 34 were mapped on the A sub-genome and eight mapped on the B sub-genome suggesting that the A sub-genome harbors more resistance genes than the B sub-genome. This genetic linkage map was also compared with two diploid peanut physical maps, and the overall co-linearity was 48.4% with an average co-linearity of 51.7% for the A sub-genome and 46.4% for the B sub-genome. The identified QTLs associated markers and potential candidate genes will be studied further for possible application in molecular breeding in peanut genetic improvement for disease resistance. PMID:28197153

  20. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings.

  1. Comparison of the concentrations of long-chain alcohols (policosanol) in three Tunisian peanut varieties (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Cherif, Aicha O; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kaabi, Belhassen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Pepe, Claude; Kallel, Habib

    2010-12-08

    Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic primary alcohols. Literature about the contents and compositions of PC derived from peanut varieties is scarce. Total PC composition and content in whole peanut grain samples from three varieties of peanut (two cultivars, AraC and AraT, and a wild one, AraA) were identified using a gas chromatograph system coupled with a mass spectrophotometer. The results show that, qualitatively, 21 components of peanut aliphatic alcohols were identified (C14-C30). Besides (C18=), the results exhibited a previously unreported mixture of PC compositions in the peanuts: the unsaturated PC (UPC), which are (C20=), (C21=), (C22=), and (C24=). The main components of total PC in Tunisian peanut kernels are docosanol (C22), (Z)-octadec-9-en-1-ol (C18=), hexadecanol (C16), and octadecanol (C18). Quantitatively, the total PC content of the whole peanut samples varied from 11.18 to 54.19 mg/100 g of oil and was higher than those of beeswax and whole sugar cane, which are sources of dietary supplements containing policosanol.

  2. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-03-17

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were.

  3. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of water-deficit-stressed midmature peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed.

    PubMed

    Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A; Payton, Paxton

    2013-11-01

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. A comprehensive understanding of seed metabolism and the effects of water-deficit stress on the incorporation of the main storage reserves in seeds, such as proteins, fatty acids, starch, and secondary metabolites, will enhance our ability to improve seed quality and yield through molecular breeding programs. In the present study, we employed a label-free quantitative proteomics approach to study the functional proteins altered in the midmature (65-70 days postanthesis) peanut seed grown under water-deficit stress conditions. We created a pod-specific proteome database and identified 93 nonredundant, statistically significant, and differentially expressed proteins between well-watered and drought-stressed seeds. Mapping of these differential proteins revealed three candidate biological pathways (glycolysis, sucrose and starch metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism) that were significantly altered due to water-deficit stress. Differential accumulation of proteins from these pathways provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed physiological changes, which include reductions in pod yield and biomass, reduced germination, reduced vigor, decreased seed membrane integrity, increase in storage proteins, and decreased total fatty acid content. Some of the proteins encoding rate limiting enzymes of biosynthetic pathways could be utilized by breeders to improve peanut seed production during water-deficit conditions in the field. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000308.

  4. Next-generation transcriptome sequencing, SNP discovery and validation in four market classes of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Farmer, Andrew; Mudge, Joann; Simpson, Charles E; Wilkins, Thea A; Baring, Michael R; Puppala, Naveen; Chamberlin, Kelly D; Burow, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which can be identified in the thousands or millions from comparisons of transcriptome or genome sequences, are ideally suited for making high-resolution genetic maps, investigating population evolutionary history, and discovering marker-trait linkages. Despite significant results from their use in human genetics, progress in identification and use in plants, and particularly polyploid plants, has lagged. As part of a long-term project to identify and use SNPs suitable for these purposes in cultivated peanut, which is tetraploid, we generated transcriptome sequences of four peanut cultivars, namely OLin, New Mexico Valencia C, Tamrun OL07 and Jupiter, which represent the four major market classes of peanut grown in the world, and which are important economically to the US southwest peanut growing region. CopyDNA libraries of each genotype were used to generate 2 × 54 paired-end reads using an Illumina GAIIx sequencer. Raw reads were mapped to a custom reference consisting of Tifrunner 454 sequences plus peanut ESTs in GenBank, compromising 43,108 contigs; 263,840 SNP and indel variants were identified among four genotypes compared to the reference. A subset of 6 variants was assayed across 24 genotypes representing four market types using KASP chemistry to assess the criteria for SNP selection. Results demonstrated that transcriptome sequencing can identify SNPs usable as selectable DNA-based markers in complex polyploid species such as peanut. Criteria for effective use of SNPs as markers are discussed in this context.

  5. An electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry screening of triacylglycerols in developing cultivated and wild peanut kernels (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Cherif, Aicha O; Leveque, Nathalie; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kallel, Habib; Moussa, Fathi

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of triacylglycerols during the development of three varieties of peanuts was monitored in two Tunisian cultivated peanut (Trabelsia (AraT) and Chounfakhi (AraC)) and one wild Tunisian peanut (Arbi (AraA)). The presence of TAGs composed of rare fatty acid residues such as hexacosanoic acid (C(23:0)) and heneicosanoic acid (C(21:0)) among the triacylglycerols C(23:0) LL, C(23:0) OO and C(21:0) LL was noted. The major molecular species of triacylglycerol detected in the three peanut varieties were dioleoyl linoleoyl (OOL), 1,2,3-trioleyl (OOO), 1,2-dioleyl-3-palmitoyl (POO), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-oleyl (OLL) and 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-linolenoyl (OLLn). The TAG composition and content were significantly different among the three peanut varieties. The three major TAGs were OOL (20.6%), OOO (15.6%) and OLLn (13.2%) in AraA; OOL (21.4%), OOO (20.1%) and POO (17.5%) in AraC and finally OLL (20.7%), OOO (19.8%) and OLL (17.7%) in AraT.

  6. Identification of 30 MYB transcription factor genes and analysis of their expression during abiotic stress in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Yang, Qingli; Pan, Lijuan; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Mingna; Hu, Dongqing; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    The MYB superfamily constitutes one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors and plays central roles in developmental processes and defense responses in plants. In the work described in this article, 30 unique peanut MYB genes that contained full-length cDNA sequences were isolated. The 30 genes were grouped into three categories: one R1R2R3-MYB, nine R2R3-MYBs and 20 MYB-related members. The sequence composition of the R2 and R3 repeats was conserved among the nine peanut R2R3-MYB proteins. Phylogenetic comparison of the members of this superfamily between peanut and Arabidopsis revealed that the putative functions of some peanut MYB proteins were clustered into the Arabidopsis functional groups. Expression analysis during abiotic stress identified a group of MYB genes that responded to at least one stress treatment. This is the first comprehensive study of the MYB gene family in peanut.

  7. De novo assembly of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed transcriptome revealed candidate unigenes for oil accumulation pathways.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

    2013-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops.

  8. Expressed sequence tags in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea): discovery of genes in seed development and response to Ralstonia solanacearum challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Lei, Yong; Jiang, Huifang; Ren, Xiaoping; Liao, Boshou

    2012-11-01

    Although an important oil crop, peanut has only 162,030 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) publicly available, 86,943 of which are from cultivated plants. More ESTs from cultivated peanuts are needed for isolation of stress-resistant, tissue-specific and developmentally important genes. Here, we generated 63,234 ESTs from our 5 constructed peanut cDNA libraries of Ralstonia solanacearum challenged roots, R. solanacearum challenged leaves, and unchallenged cultured peanut roots, leaves and developing seeds. Among these ESTs, there were 14,547 unique sequences with 7,961 tentative consensus sequences and 6,586 singletons. Putative functions for 47.8 % of the sequences were identified, including transcription factors, tissue-specific genes, genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and oil formation regulation, and resistance gene analogue genes. Additionally, differentially expressed genes, including those involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signal transduction pathways, from both peanut leaves and roots, were identified in R. solanacearum challenged samples. This large expression dataset from different peanut tissues will be a valuable source for marker development and gene expression analysis. It will also be helpful for finding candidate genes for fatty acid synthesis and oil formation regulation as well as for studying mechanisms of interactions between the peanut host and R. solanacearum pathogen.

  9. Next-generation transcriptome sequencing, SNP discovery, and SNP validation in four market classes of peanut, arachis hypogaea L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms are ideally suited for making high-resolution genetic maps, investigating population evolutionary history, and discovering marker–trait linkages. With advances in sequencing technologies, it is possible to identify thousands or millions of SNPs from transcriptomes or ...

  10. Next-generation transcriptome sequencing, SNP discovery, and SNP validation in four market classes of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms are ideally suited for making high-resolution genetic maps, investigating population evolutionary history, and discovering marker–trait linkages. With advances in sequencing technologies, it is possible to identify thousands or millions of SNPs from transcriptomes or ...

  11. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  12. Start codon targeted polymorphism for evaluation of functional genetic variation and relationships in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Faqian; Zhong, Ruichun; Han, Zhuqiang; Jiang, Jing; He, Liangqiong; Zhuang, Weijian; Tang, Ronghua

    2011-06-01

    Cultivated peanut possesses an extremely narrow genetic basis. Polymorphism is considerably difficult to identify with the use of conventional biochemical and molecular tools. For the purpose of obtaining considerable DNA polymorphisms and fingerprinting cultivated peanut genotypes in a convenient manner, start codon targeted polymorphism technique was used to study genetic diversity and relatedness among 20 accessions of four major botanical varieties of peanut. Of 36 primers screened, 18 primers could produce unambiguous and reproducible bands. All 18 primers generated a total of 157 fragments, with a mean of 8.72 ranging from 4 to 17 per primer. Of 157 bands, 60 (38.22%) were polymorphic. One to seven polymorphic bands were amplified per primer, with 3.33 polymorphic bands on average. Polymorphism per primer ranged from 14.29 to 66.67%, with an average of 36.76%. The results revealed that not all accessions of the same variety were grouped together and high genetic similarity was detected among the tested genotypes based on cluster analysis and genetic distance analysis, respectively. Further, accession-specific markers were observed in several accessions. All these results demonstrated the following: (1) start codon targeted polymorphism technique can be utilized to identify DNA polymorphisms and fingerprint cultivars in domesticated peanut, and (2) it possesses considerable potential for studying genetic diversity and relationships among peanut accessions.

  13. An efficient method for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Madhurima; Prasad, Kalyani; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran K

    2010-05-01

    Recombinant genes conferring resistance to antibiotics or herbicides are widely used as selectable markers in plant transformation for selecting the primary transgenic events. However, these become redundant once the transgenic plants have been developed and identified. Although, there is no evidence that the selectable marker genes are unsafe for consumers and the environment, it would be desirable if the marker genes can be eliminated from the final transgenic events. The availability of efficient transformation methods can enable the possibility of developing transgenic events that are devoid of the marker gene/s upfront. Taking advantage of the high and consistent transformation potential of peanut, we report a technique for developing its transgenics without the use of any selectable marker gene. Marker-free binary vectors harboring either the phytoene synthase gene from maize (Zmpsy1) or the chitinase gene from rice (Rchit) were constructed and used for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of peanut. The putative transgenic events growing in vitro were initially identified by PCR and further confirmed for gene integration and expression by dot blots assays, Southern blots, and RT-PCR where they showed a transformation frequency of over 75%. This system is simple, efficient, rapid, and does not require the complex segregation steps and analysis for selection of the transgenic events. This approach for generation of marker-free transgenic plants minimizes the risk of introducing unwanted genetic changes, allows stacking of multiple genes and can be applicable to other plant species that have high shoot regeneration efficiencies.

  14. Enhanced expression of AtNHX1, in transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improves salt and drought tolerence.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad Ahsan; Zafar, Yusuf; Iqbal, Javaid; Iqbal, Muhammad Munir; Rashid, Umer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad; Arif, Anjuman; Nazir, Farhat

    2011-11-01

    Salinity and drought are main threat to agriculture productivity, to avoid further losses it is necessary to improve the genetic material of crops against these stresses In this present study, AtNHX1, a vacuolar type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene driven by 35S promoter was introduced into groundnut using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system. The stable integration of the AtNHX1 gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern blot analysis. It was found that transgenic plants having AtNHX1 gene are more resistant to high concentration of salt and water deprivation than the wild type plants. Salt and proline level in the leaves of the transgenic plants were also much higher than that of wild type plants. The results showed that overexpression of AtNHX1 gene not only improved salt tolerance but also drought tolerance in transgenic groundnut. Our results suggest that these plants could be cultivated in salt and drought-affected soils.

  15. De novo next-generation sequencing, assembling and annotation of Arachis hypogaea L. Spanish botanical type whole plant transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ning; Matand, Kanyand; Wu, Huijuan; Li, Baoming; Li, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoli; He, Zheng; Qian, Jialin; Liu, Xu; Conley, Stephan; Bailey, Marshall; Acquaah, George

    2013-05-01

    Peanut is a major agronomic crop within the legume family and an important source of plant oil, proteins, vitamins, and minerals for human consumption, as well as animal feed, bioenergy, and health products. Peanut genomic research effort lags that of other legumes of economic importance, mainly due to the shortage of essential genomic infrastructure, tools, resources, and the complexity of the peanut genome. This is a pioneering study that explored the peanut Spanish Group whole plant transcriptome and culminated in developing unigenes database. The study applied modern technologies, such as, normalization and next-generation sequencing. It overall sequenced 8,308,655,800 nucleotides and generated 26,048 unigenes amongst which 12,302 were annotated and 8,817 were characterized. The remainder, 13,746 (52.77 %) unigenes, had unknown functions. These results will be applied as the reference transcriptome sequences for expanded transcriptome sequencing of the remaining three peanut botanical types (Valencia, Runner, and Virginia), which is currently in progress, RNA-seq, exome identification, and genomic markers development. It will also provide important tools and resources for other legumes and plant species genomic research.

  16. A comparison of methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cheap source of protein compared to cheese and red meat and a good source of essential vitamins and minerals and are thus a common component of many oil and food products. The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that the onset of ra...

  17. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  18. Lipids, proteins, phenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of seeds of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea l) cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Sebei, Khaled; Gnouma, Asma; Herchi, Wahid; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of peanut seed oil in four varieties cultivated in Tunisia showed that linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16) acids account for more than 84% for Chounfakhi and Massriya and for more than 85% of the total fatty acids of Trabilsia and Sinya seed oil respectively. Seed oil contents were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) and did not exceed 48%. The study of total phenolics revealed that Chounfakhi contained more total phenolics (2.1 mg GAE/g DW), followed by the Massriya and Sinya cultivars (1.35 mg GAE/g DW for each); Trabilsia presented the lowest total phenolic content with 1 mg GAE/g DW. Considerable antiradical ability was found, especially in the Trabilsia peanut seed cultivar (IC50 = 1550 μg/ml), the Massriya and Sinya cultivars had, respectively, 720 and 820 mg/ml IC50. In the Massriya variety the sterol fraction showed antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii, Listeria inocua, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus hirae and Bacillus cereus.

  19. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  20. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut.

  1. Improvement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) transformation efficiency and determination of transgene copy number by relative quantitative real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biolistic method is reliable for delivering genes of interest into various species. Low transformation efficiency has been a limiting factor for its application. The DNA coating agent protamine was shown to improve transformation efficiency in rice, while a reduction of plasmid DNA in the bomb...

  2. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  3. Construction and use of saturated genetic map for identification of QTLs associated with disease resistance, oil quality, morphological descriptors, and yield components in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut production and consumer acceptability are adversely affected by several biotic/abiotic stresses and poor oil quality. In order to deal with these concerns, the developed genetic map from one peanut population derived from SunOleic 97R × NC94022 by Qin et al. (2012) using 190 subset with 172 m...

  4. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  5. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture.

  6. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Late Leaf Spot Resistance and Plant-Type-Related Traits in Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Multi-Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Youlin; Liao, Junhua; Liu, Kede; Li, Qiang; Dong, Yang; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Huang, Li; Liao, Boshou; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Jiang, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Late leaf spot (LLS) is one of the most serious foliar diseases affecting peanut worldwide leading to huge yield loss. To understand the genetic basis of LLS and assist breeding in the future, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for LLS and three plant-type-related traits including height of main stem (HMS), length of the longest branch (LLB) and total number of branches (TNB). Significant negative correlations were observed between LLS and the plant-type-related traits in multi-environments of a RIL population from the cross Zhonghua 5 and ICGV 86699. A total of 20 QTLs were identified for LLS, of which two QTLs were identified in multi-environments and six QTLs with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) more than 10%. Ten, seven, fifteen QTLs were identified for HMS, LLB and TNB, respectively. Of these, one, one, two consensus QTLs and three, two, three major QTLs were detected for HMS, LLB and TNB, respectively. Of all 52 unconditional QTLs for LLS and plant-type-related traits, 10 QTLs were clustered in five genetic regions, of which three clusters including five robust major QTLs overlapped between LLS and one of the plant-type-related traits, providing evidence that the correlation could be genetically constrained. On the other hand, conditional mapping revealed different numbers and different extent of additive effects of QTLs for LLS conditioned on three plant-type-related traits (HMS, LLB and TNB), which improved our understanding of interrelationship between LLS and plant-type-related traits at the QTL level. Furthermore, two QTLs, qLLSB6-7 and qLLSB1 for LLS resistance, were identified residing in two clusters of NB-LRR—encoding genes. This study not only provided new favorable QTLs for fine-mapping, but also suggested that the relationship between LLS and plant-type-related traits of HMS, LLB and TNB should be considered while breeding for improved LLS resistance in peanut. PMID:27870916

  7. Comparing genome guided assembly and phased variants based assembly approach to separate the homoeolog transcripts in tetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoeologous copies of transcripts are abundant in many self-pollinating species including tetraploid peanut, and can impose a challenge to build a transcriptome reference without the merging of homoeologs. De novo transcriptome assembly of tetraploid OLin with single kmer and multiple kmer approach...

  8. Commercial lateral flow devices for rapid detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cross-contamination in the industrial production of cookies.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are qualitative immunochromatographic tests for the rapid and specific detection of target analytes. We investigated commercially available LFDs for their ability to detect potentially allergenic peanut and hazelnut in raw cookie dough and chocolate, two important food matrices in the industrial production of cookies. Each three commercial LFDs for the detection of hazelnut and peanut were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions. All LFDs had comparably satisfactory specificity that was investigated with a variety of characteristic foods and food ingredients used in the production of cookies. In concordance with hazelnut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), walnut was the most cross-reactive food for hazelnut-specific LFD. The sensitivity was verified in raw cookie doughs and chocolates that were either spiked with peanut or hazelnut between 1 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. Two hazelnut-specific LFDs detected hazelnut at a level of 3.5 mg/kg in both matrices, whereas the third LFD detected hazelnut at a level of 3.9 mg/kg in dough and 12.5 mg/kg in chocolate. Two peanut-specific LFDs detected peanut at a level of 1 mg/kg in both matrices. The third LFD detected peanut at a level of 14.2 mg/kg in chocolate and 4 mg/kg in dough. In conclusion, specific and sensitive LFD were identified for each hazelnut and peanut, having a level of sensitivity that is comparable to commercial ELISA for the investigated matrices. Such sensitive, specific, and rapid tests are useful analytical tools for allergen screening and sanitation in the industrial manufacture of foods.

  9. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  10. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients’ IgE repertoires may mean that some patients’ IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  11. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred Tolerance to Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P; Dobaria, Jentilal R

    2016-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, is gaining priority for the development of drought tolerant genotypes in recent times, since the area under drought is constantly on the rise. To achieve this, one of the important strategies is to genetically engineer the ruling peanut varieties using transcription factor regulating the expression of several downstream, abiotic-stress responsive gene(s). In this study, eight independent transgenic peanut (cv. GG20) lines were developed using AtDREB1A gene, encoding for a transcription factor, through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The transgene insertion was confirmed in (T0) using PCR and Dot-blot analysis, while copy-number(s) was ascertained using Southern-blot analysis. The inheritance of AtDREB1A gene in individual transgenic plants (T1 and T2) was confirmed using PCR. In homozygous transgenic plants (T2), under soil-moisture deficit stress, elevated level of AtDREB1A transgene expression was observed by RT-PCR assay. The transgenic plants at 45-d or reproductive growth stage showed tolerance to severe soil-moisture deficit stress. Physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, osmotic potential, relative water content, electrolytic leakage, and total-chlorophyll content were found positively correlated with growth-related traits without any morphological abnormality, when compared to wild-type. qPCR analysis revealed consistent increase in expression of AtDREB1A gene under progressive soil-moisture deficit stress in two homozygous transgenic plants. The transgene expression showed significant correlation with improved physio-biochemical traits. The improvement of drought-stress tolerance in combination with improved growth-related traits is very essential criterion for a premium peanut cultivar like GG20, so that marginal farmers of India can incur the economic benefits during seasonal drought and water scarcity.

  12. The surface glycoproteins of human skin fibroblasts detected after electrophoresis by the binding of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin and Ricinus communis (castor-bean) agglutinin I.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B B; Pena, S D

    1982-11-15

    A new methodology was developed to study the cell-surface glycoproteins of cultured human skin fibroblasts. This was based on the binding of a variety of biotinyl-lectins to nitrocellulose electrophoretic transfers of total fibroblast lysates after separation in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels, followed by reaction with avidin-biotinyl-peroxidase complexes and detection with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. The technique proved to be very sensitive and a large number of glycoproteins were detected by binding of concanavalin A and wheat-germ agglutinin. Binding of peanut agglutinin and to a lesser extent of Ricinus communis agglutinin I were found to be dependent on prior removal of sialic acid residues from the glycoproteins. Since by treatment of intact viable cells with neuraminidase only external sialic acid residues were removed, peanut agglutinin and Ricinus communis agglutinin I could thus be utilized for selective detection of cell-surface glycoproteins. Also, because peanut agglutinin was known to bind preferentially to oligosaccharides of the O-glycosidic type, and Ricinus communis agglutinin I to those of the N-glycosidic type, the two lectins were complementary in displaying the surface glycoproteins and in providing information about their oligosaccharide composition.

  13. An economical and efficient technology for the extraction of resveratrol from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) sprouts by multi-stage countercurrent extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianghua; Bian, Yanhong; Shi, Yingying; Zheng, Shangyong; Gu, Xu; Zhang, Danyan; Zhu, Xiufang; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Dingyun; Xiong, Qingping

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, an economical and efficient technology for the extraction of resveratrol from peanut sprouts by multi-stage countercurrent extraction (MSCE) was investigated based on the alkaline extraction and acid precipitation method (AEAP). Firstly, the MSCE equipment and operation procedures were designed. Then, the optimal parameters of MSCE were obtained by using single-factor experiments and Box-Behnken design (BBD) as follows: extraction temperature of 46.6 °C, CaO to raw material ratio of 6:100, water to raw material ratio of 8.8:1 and extraction time of 51.7 min. Finally, the performance of MSCE was compared against the single pot extraction (SPE) under optimal conditions. The results demonstrated that MSCE was a time-saving, energy-saving, and cost-saving extraction technology for manufacturing resveratrol from peanut sprouts.

  14. Evaluation of insertion-deletion markers suitable for genetic diversity studies and marker-trait correlation analyses in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Meng, S; Yang, X L; Dang, P M; Cui, S L; Mu, G J; Chen, C Y; Liu, L F

    2016-08-12

    Peanut is one of the most important oil crops worldwide. We used insertion-deletion (InDel) markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated peanut. Fifty-four accessions from North China were genotyped using 48 InDel markers. The markers amplified 61 polymorphic loci with 1 to 8 alleles and an average of 2.6 alleles per marker. The polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.0364 to 0.9030, with an average of 0.5038. Population structure and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analyses suggested that all accessions could be divided into four clusters (A1-A4), using the NJ method. Likewise, four subpopulations (G1-G4) were identified using STRUCTURE analysis. A principal component analysis was also used and results concordant with the other analysis methods were found. A multi-linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that 13 InDel markers correlated with five measured agronomical traits. Our results will provide important information for future peanut molecular breeding and genetic research.

  15. Germinating Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings Attenuated Selenite-Induced Toxicity by Activating the Antioxidant Enzymes and Mediating the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2016-02-17

    Selenite can enhance the selenium nutrition level of crops, but excessive selenite may be toxic to plant growth. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of selenite in production and detoxification of oxidative toxicity, peanut seedlings were developed with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L). The effects of selenite on antioxidant capacity, transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, and enzyme activities in hypocotyl were investigated. The CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, GST, and APX gene expression levels and their enzyme activities in selenite treatments were 1.0-3.6-fold of the control. Selenite also significantly increased the glutathione and ascorbate concentrations by mediating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the selenite-induced hydrogen peroxide may act as a second messenger in the signaling pathways. This work has revealed a complex antioxidative response to selenite in peanut seedling. Understanding these mechanisms may help future research in increasing selenite tolerance and selenium accumulation in peanut and other crops.

  16. Exogenous calcium alleviates photoinhibition of PSII by improving the xanthophyll cycle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves during heat stress under high irradiance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca(2+)-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca(2+)-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca(2+) could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca(2+) channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca(2+)/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle.

  17. Overexpression of a pea DNA helicase (PDH45) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) confers improvement of cellular level tolerance and productivity under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Manjulatha, M; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Kumar, A Manoj; Sudhakar, Chinta; Prasad, T G; Tuteja, Narendra; Udayakumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Peanut, a major edible oil seed crop globally is predominantly grown under rainfed conditions and suffers yield losses due to drought. Development of drought-tolerant varieties through transgenic technology is a valid approach. Besides superior water relation traits like water mining, intrinsic cellular level tolerance mechanisms are important to sustain the growth under stress. To achieve this objective, the focus of this study was to pyramid drought adaptive traits by overexpressing a stress responsive helicase, PDH45 in the background of a genotype with superior water relations. PCR, Southern, and RT-PCR analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of the PDH45 gene in peanut transgenics. At the end of T₃ generation, eight transgenic events were identified as promising based on stress tolerance and improvement in productivity. Several transgenic lines showed stay-green phenotype and increased chlorophyll stability under stress and reduced chlorophyll retardation under etherel-induced simulated stress conditions. Stress-induced root growth was also substantially higher in the case of transformants. This was reflected in increased WUE (low Δ¹³C) and improved growth rates and productivity. The transgenics showed 17.2 and 26.75 % increase in yield under non-stress and stress conditions over wild type ascertaining the feasibility of trait pyramiding strategy for the development of drought-tolerant peanut.

  18. Characteristics and pathways of bioactive 4-desmethylsterols, triterpene alcohols and 4α-monomethylsterols, from developing Tunisian cultivars and wild peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Cherif, Aicha O; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kaabi, Belhassen; Pellerin, Isabelle; Boukhchina, Sadok; Kallel, Habib; Pepe, Claude

    2011-07-01

    Seven 4-desmethylsterols, five triterpene alcohols and three 4α-monomethylsterols were identified by GC-MS during the development of wild peanut, which is Arbi (AraA), and cultivars peanut, which are Trabelsia (AraT) and Chounfakhi (AraC). Our results showed that the maximum level of 4-desmethylsterols (881.07 mg/100 g of oil) was reached at 12 days after flowering (DAF) date of peanut plant in AraA, as well as the highest level of triterpene alcohols (31.51 mg/100 g of oil) was reached at 23 DAF in AraA, whilst, the highest level of 4α-monomethylsterols (15.11 mg/100 g of oil) was reached at 41 DAF in AraC. Herein, the level of triterpene alcohols and 4α-monomethylsterols was overwhelmed by the amount of 4-desmethylsterols at each stage of peanut maturity. Differences were observed in each sterol contents among the studied cultivars and wild one especially in immature stage.

  19. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using a wild synthetic and QTL mapping for plant morphology.

    PubMed

    Fonceka, Daniel; Tossim, Hodo-Abalo; Rivallan, Ronan; Vignes, Hélène; Lacut, Elodie; de Bellis, Fabien; Faye, Issa; Ndoye, Ousmane; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Valls, José F M; Bertioli, David J; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Courtois, Brigitte; Rami, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are powerful QTL mapping populations that have been used to elucidate the molecular basis of interesting traits of wild species. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid with limited genetic diversity. Capturing the genetic diversity from peanut wild relatives is an important objective in many peanut breeding programs. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to produce a population of 122 CSSLs from the cross between the wild synthetic allotetraploid (A. ipaënsis×A. duranensis)(4x) and the cultivated Fleur11 variety. The 122 CSSLs offered a broad coverage of the peanut genome, with target wild chromosome segments averaging 39.2 cM in length. As a demonstration of the utility of these lines, four traits were evaluated in a subset of 80 CSSLs. A total of 28 lines showed significant differences from Fleur11. The line×trait significant associations were assigned to 42 QTLs: 14 for plant growth habit, 15 for height of the main stem, 12 for plant spread and one for flower color. Among the 42 QTLs, 37 were assigned to genomic regions and three QTL positions were considered putative. One important finding arising from this QTL analysis is that peanut growth habit is a complex trait that is governed by several QTLs with different effects. The CSSL population developed in this study has proved efficient for deciphering the molecular basis of trait variations and will be useful to the peanut scientific community for future QTL mapping studies.

  20. Understanding genetic control of drought tolerance through meta-QTL analysis for genomics-assisted improvement of drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaeaL.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Majority of peanut is cultivated in the semi-arid tropical regions of the world where abiotic stresses especially drought is a major constraint for crop production. With an objective of undertaking molecular breeding approaches for developing superior lines with enhanced drought tolerance, several Q...

  1. Progress on genetic linkage maps, traits/QTLs, and utilization in two recombinant inbred line populations of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a highly nutritional crop, is used in edible products or crushed for cooking oil, and is susceptible to a range of diseases, including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early and late leaf spot (ELS and LLS). Losses in productivity and quality are also attributable to environmental stresses ...

  2. Development and deployment of a high-density linkage map identified quantitative trait loci for plant height in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Ren, Xiaoping; Wu, Bei; Li, Xinping; Chen, Weigang; Zhou, Xiaojing; Chen, Yuning; Pandey, Manish K.; Jiao, Yongqing; Luo, Huaiyong; Lei, Yong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liao, Boshou; Jiang, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is one of the most important architecture traits in crop plants. In peanut, the genetic basis of plant height remains ambiguous. In this context, we genotyped a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 140 individuals developed from a cross between two peanut varieties varying in plant height, Zhonghua 10 and ICG 12625. Genotyping data was generated for 1,175 SSR and 42 transposon polymorphic markers and a high-density genetic linkage map was constructed with 1,219 mapped loci covering total map length of 2,038.75 cM i.e., accounted for nearly 80% of the peanut genome. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using genotyping and phenotyping data for three environments identified 8 negative-effect QTLs and 10 positive-effect QTLs for plant height. Among these QTLs, 8 QTLs had a large contribution to plant height that explained ≥10% phenotypic variation. Two major-effect consensus QTLs namely cqPHA4a and cqPHA4b were identified with stable performance across three environments. Further, the allelic recombination of detected QTLs proved the existence of the phenomenon of transgressive segregation for plant height in the RIL population. Therefore, this study not only successfully reported a high-density genetic linkage map of peanut and identified genomic region controlling plant height but also opens opportunities for further gene discovery and molecular breeding for plant height in peanut. PMID:27995991

  3. Heritability of, and genetoypic correlations between, aflatoxin traits and physiological traits for drought tolerance under end of season drought of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More rapid progress in breeding peanut for reduced aflatoxin contamination should be achieved with a better understanding of the inheritance of aflatoxin traits and physiological traits that are associated with reduced contamination. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of...

  4. Controlled release study on microencapsulated mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos for the management of white grubs (Holotrichia parallela) in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Daibin; Li, Guangxing; Yan, Xiaojing; Yuan, Huizhu

    2014-11-05

    This study was conducted to determine the release dynamics of a microencapsulated mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos in peanut fields and its efficacy against white grubs. The results indicated that microencapsulation significantly stabilized this mixture against degradation in the environment so that a single dose of this microencapsulated formulation applied through seed treatment effectively controlled white grubs throughout the entire growing season. During the experimental course, the concentration of chlorpyrifos in the soil with the microencapsulated formulation was 13.6 ± 9.9 (n = 6) times that of the conventional formulation, and the concentration of fipronil was at least 2.2 times that of the conventional formulation in the soil and peanut roots. However, the residue risks of chlorpyrifos and fipronil in the kernels were different. At harvest, there was a low risk that the residual chlorpyrifos in the kernels exceeded the MRLs (maximum residue limit). In contrast, the amount of residual fipronil in some kernel samples reached the statutory MRL set by the European Union, which suggested that a higher application rate or the repeated application of the microencapsulated fipronil formulation would not be acceptable.

  5. Identification of low Ca(2+) stress-induced embryo apoptosis response genes in Arachis hypogaea by SSH-associated library lift (SSHaLL).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Cai, Tie Cheng; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Shuangbiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Ma, Shiwei; Tang, Ronghua; Varshney, Rajeev K; Zhuang, Weijian

    2016-02-01

    Calcium is a universal signal in the regulation of wide aspects in biology, but few are known about the function of calcium in the control of early embryo development. Ca(2+) deficiency in soil induces early embryo abortion in peanut, producing empty pods, which is a general problem; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, embryo abortion was characterized to be caused by apoptosis marked with cell wall degradation. Using a method of SSH cDNA libraries associated with library lift (SSHaLL), 62 differentially expressed genes were isolated from young peanut embryos. These genes were classified to be stress responses, catabolic process, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, embryo morphogenesis, regulation, etc. The cell retardation with cell wall degradation was caused by up-regulated cell wall hydrolases and down-regulated cellular synthases genes. HsfA4a, which was characterized to be important to embryo development, was significantly down-regulated under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions from 15 days after pegging (DAP) to 30 DAP. Two AhCYP707A4 genes, encoding abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylases, key enzymes for ABA catabolism, were up-regulated by 21-fold under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions upstream of HsfA4a, reducing the ABA level in early embryos. Over-expression of AhCYP707A4 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed a phenotype of low ABA content with high numbers of aborted embryos, small pods and less seeds, which confirms that AhCYP707A4 is a key player in regulation of Ca(2+) deficiency-induced embryo abortion via ABA-mediated apoptosis. The results elucidated the mechanism of low Ca(2+) -induced embryo abortion and described the method for other fields of study.

  6. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred Tolerance to Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P.; Dobaria, Jentilal R.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, is gaining priority for the development of drought tolerant genotypes in recent times, since the area under drought is constantly on the rise. To achieve this, one of the important strategies is to genetically engineer the ruling peanut varieties using transcription factor regulating the expression of several downstream, abiotic-stress responsive gene(s). In this study, eight independent transgenic peanut (cv. GG20) lines were developed using AtDREB1A gene, encoding for a transcription factor, through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The transgene insertion was confirmed in (T0) using PCR and Dot-blot analysis, while copy-number(s) was ascertained using Southern-blot analysis. The inheritance of AtDREB1A gene in individual transgenic plants (T1 and T2) was confirmed using PCR. In homozygous transgenic plants (T2), under soil-moisture deficit stress, elevated level of AtDREB1A transgene expression was observed by RT-PCR assay. The transgenic plants at 45-d or reproductive growth stage showed tolerance to severe soil-moisture deficit stress. Physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, osmotic potential, relative water content, electrolytic leakage, and total-chlorophyll content were found positively correlated with growth-related traits without any morphological abnormality, when compared to wild-type. qPCR analysis revealed consistent increase in expression of AtDREB1A gene under progressive soil-moisture deficit stress in two homozygous transgenic plants. The transgene expression showed significant correlation with improved physio-biochemical traits. The improvement of drought-stress tolerance in combination with improved growth-related traits is very essential criterion for a premium peanut cultivar like GG20, so that marginal farmers of India can incur the economic benefits during seasonal drought and water scarcity. PMID:27446163

  7. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022') and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20') were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  8. Thermal Oxidation Induces Lipid Peroxidation and Changes in the Physicochemical Properties and β-Carotene Content of Arachis Oil

    PubMed Central

    Falade, Ayodeji Osmund

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of thermal oxidation on the physicochemical properties, malondialdehyde, and β-carotene content of arachis oil. Pure arachis oil was heated for 20 mins with a corresponding temperature of 220°C. Thereafter, changes in the physicochemical properties (acid, iodine, and peroxide values) of the oil samples were determined. Subsequently, the level of lipid peroxidation was determined using change in malondialdehyde content. Then, the total carotenoid and β-carotene contents were evaluated using spectrophotometric method and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results of the study revealed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the acid and peroxide values and malondialdehyde concentration of the heated oil when compared with the fresh arachis oil. In contrast, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) was observed in the iodine value, total carotenoid, 13-cis-, 15-cis-, trans-, and 9-cis-β-carotene, and total β-carotene content of the heated oil. Hence, thermal oxidation induced lipid peroxidation and caused changes in the physicochemical properties and carotenoid contents of arachis oil, thereby reducing its nutritive value and health benefit. Therefore, cooking and frying with arachis oil for a long period might not be appropriate as this might lead to a loss of significant amount of the insignificant β-carotene in arachis oil. PMID:26904665

  9. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections. PMID:21637613

  10. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Darío A; Bechara, Marcelo D; Curi, Rogério A; Monteiro, Jomar P; Valente, Sérgio E S; Gimenes, Marcos A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections.

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of an at-rich satellite DNA and its contribution to karyotype differentiation in wild diploid Arachis species.

    PubMed

    Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Robledo, Germán; Bertioli, David; Seijo, José Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component of the heterochromatic regions of eukaryote genomes and usually shows a high evolutionary dynamic, even among closely related species. Section Arachis (genus Arachis) is composed of species belonging to six different genomes (A, B, D, F, G and K). The most distinguishing features among these genomes are the amount and distribution of the heterochromatin in the karyotypes. With the objective of gaining insight into the sequence composition and evolutionary dynamics of the heterochromatin fraction in Arachis, we investigated here the sequence diversity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of a satDNA family (ATR-2) among seven diploid species of section Arachis. All of the isolated sequences were AT-rich and highly conserved at both intraspecific and interspecific levels, without any species-specific polymorphism. Pairwise comparisons of isolated ATR-2 monomers revealed that most of the nucleotide sites were in the first two transitional stages of Strachan's model. However, the abundance of ATR-2 was significantly different among genomes according to the 'library hypothesis'. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that ATR-2 is a main component of the DAPI(+) centromeric heterochromatin of the A, F, and K genomes. Thus, the evolution of the different heterochromatin patterns observed in Arachis genomes can be explained, at least in part, by the differential representation of ATR-2 among the different species or even among the chromosomes of the same complement. These findings are the first to demonstrate the participation of satDNA sequences in the karyotype diversification of wild diploid Arachis species.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships in genus Arachis based on ITS and 5.8S rDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis comprises 80 species and it is subdivided into nine taxonomic sections (Arachis, Caulorrhizae, Erectoides, Extranervosae, Heteranthae, Procumbentes, Rhizomatosae, Trierectoides, and Triseminatae). This genus is naturally confined to South America and most of its species are native to Brazil. In order to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeny of 45 species using the variation observed on nucleotide sequences in internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8 S of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Results Intraspecific variation was detected, but in general it was not enough to place accessions of the same species in different clades. Our data support the view that Arachis is a monophyletic group and suggested Heteranthae as the most primitive section of genus Arachis. The results confirmed the circumscriptions of some sections (Caulorrhizae, Extranervosae), but raised questions about others. Sections Erectoides, Trierectoides and Procumbentes were not well defined, while sections Arachis and Rhizomatosae seem to include species that could be moved to different sections. The division of section Arachis into A and B genome species was also observed in the phylogenetic tree and these two groups of species may not have a monophyletic origin. The 2n = 2x = 18 species of section Arachis (A. praecox, A. palustris and A. decora) were all placed in the same clade, indicating they are closely related to each other, and their genomes are more related to B genome than to the A genome. Data also allowed insights on the origin of tetraploid A. glabrata, suggesting rhizome appeared twice within the genus and raising questions about the placement of that species in section Rhizomatosae. Conclusion The main clades established in this study in general agreed with many other studies that have used other types of evidences and sets of species, being some of them included in our study and some not. Thus

  13. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Langsdorffia hypogaea-Rhizosphere-Host Biological Interface: A Neglected Model of Bacterial Prospection.

    PubMed

    Felestrino, Érica B; Santiago, Iara F; Freitas, Luana da Silva; Rosa, Luiz H; Ribeiro, Sérvio P; Moreira, Leandro M

    2017-01-01

    Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). The aim of this study was to prospect the bacterial microbiota of holoparasitic plant L. hypogaea, its plant host and corresponding rhizosphere of IQ soil, and to analyze the potential of these isolates as PGPB. We obtained samples of 11 individuals of L. hypogaea containing fragments of host and rhizosphere remnants, resulting in 81 isolates associated with Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. The ability to produce siderophores, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), nitrogen (N2) fixation, hydrolytic enzymes secretion and inhibition of enteropathogens, and phytopathogens were evaluated. Of the total isolates, 62, 86, and 93% produced, respectively, siderophores, IAA, and were able to fix N2. In addition, 27 and 20% of isolates inhibited the growth of enteropathogens and phytopathogens, respectively, and 58% were able to produce at least one hydrolytic activity investigated. The high number of isolates that produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid suggests that this microbiota may be important for adaptation of plants to IQ. The results demonstrate for the first time the biological importance of Brazilian IQ species as reservoirs of specific microbiotas that might be used as PGPB on agricultural land or antropized soils that needs to be reforested.

  14. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Langsdorffia hypogaea-Rhizosphere-Host Biological Interface: A Neglected Model of Bacterial Prospection

    PubMed Central

    Felestrino, Érica B.; Santiago, Iara F.; Freitas, Luana da Silva; Rosa, Luiz H.; Ribeiro, Sérvio P.; Moreira, Leandro M.

    2017-01-01

    Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). The aim of this study was to prospect the bacterial microbiota of holoparasitic plant L. hypogaea, its plant host and corresponding rhizosphere of IQ soil, and to analyze the potential of these isolates as PGPB. We obtained samples of 11 individuals of L. hypogaea containing fragments of host and rhizosphere remnants, resulting in 81 isolates associated with Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. The ability to produce siderophores, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), nitrogen (N2) fixation, hydrolytic enzymes secretion and inhibition of enteropathogens, and phytopathogens were evaluated. Of the total isolates, 62, 86, and 93% produced, respectively, siderophores, IAA, and were able to fix N2. In addition, 27 and 20% of isolates inhibited the growth of enteropathogens and phytopathogens, respectively, and 58% were able to produce at least one hydrolytic activity investigated. The high number of isolates that produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid suggests that this microbiota may be important for adaptation of plants to IQ. The results demonstrate for the first time the biological importance of Brazilian IQ species as reservoirs of specific microbiotas that might be used as PGPB on agricultural land or antropized soils that needs to be reforested. PMID:28239369

  15. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glaburata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have higher levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa. Higher RUP can result in more efficient utilization of nitrogen by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmen...

  16. The United States Arachis germplasm collection: a valuable genetic resource for mining useful traits to improve peanut quality and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit maintains the second largest peanut germplasm collection in the world consisting of both cultivated and wild germplasm with a total of 9,924 Arachis accessions. A cultivated core (831 accessions) and mini core (112 accessions) collections were esta...

  17. Genome-Wide Dissection of the Heat Shock Transcription Factor Family Genes in Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Song, Hui; Li, Changsheng; Li, Pengcheng; Li, Aiqin; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Wang, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are important transcription factors (TFs) in protecting plants from damages caused by various stresses. The released whole genome sequences of wild peanuts make it possible for genome-wide analysis of Hsfs in peanut. In this study, a total of 16 and 17 Hsf genes were identified from Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, respectively. We identified 16 orthologous Hsf gene pairs in both peanut species; however HsfXs was only identified from A. ipaensis. Orthologous pairs between two wild peanut species were highly syntenic. Based on phylogenetic relationship, peanut Hsfs were divided into groups A, B, and C. Selection pressure analysis showed that group B Hsf genes mainly underwent positive selection and group A Hsfs were affected by purifying selection. Small scale segmental and tandem duplication may play important roles in the evolution of these genes. Cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, and HSE, were found in the promoters of most Arachis Hsf genes. Five AdHsfs and two AiHsfs contained fungal elicitor responsive elements suggesting their involvement in response to fungi infection. These genes were differentially expressed in cultivated peanut under abiotic stress and Aspergillus flavus infection. AhHsf2 and AhHsf14 were significantly up-regulated after inoculation with A. flavus suggesting their possible role in fungal resistance. PMID:28220134

  18. Organogenesis and plant regeneration of Arachis villosa Benth. (Leguminosae) through leaf culture.

    PubMed

    Fontana, María Laura; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Rey, Hebe Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    With the aim of developing an efficient plant regeneration protocol, leaflet explants of three accessions of Arachis villosa Benth. (S2866, S2867 and L97) were cultured on basic Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different combinations of plant growth regulators: alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and thidiazuron. The accession L97 was the only one able to differentiate buds through indirect organogenesis. The most suitable combination for bud regeneration was the basic medium added with 13.62 microM thidiazuron and 4.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine. These results show the important role of the genotype in morphogenetic responses and the organogenetic effect of thidiazuron in Arachis villosa accession L97. A thidiazuron lacking media (only 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, 13.95 microM kinetin and 13.32 microM 6-benzylaminopurine were added) promoted the elongation of the regenerated buds. Adventitious rooting was achieved 90 days after the isolated shoots were transferred to a rooting medium containing 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid.

  19. Host plant resistance against tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its impact on susceptibility to the virus, virus population genetics, and vector feeding behavior and survival.

    PubMed

    Sundaraj, Sivamani; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely affects peanut production in the southeastern United States. Breeding efforts over the last three decades resulted in the release of numerous peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV. The degree of field resistance in these genotypes has steadily increased over time, with recently released genotypes exhibiting a higher degree of field resistance than older genotypes. However, most new genotypes have never been evaluated in the greenhouse or laboratory against TSWV or thrips, and the mechanism of resistance is unknown. In this study, TSWV-resistant and -susceptible genotypes were subjected to TSWV mechanical inoculation. The incidence of TSWV infection was 71.7 to 87.2%. Estimation of TSWV nucleocapsid (N) gene copies did not reveal significant differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Parsimony and principal component analyses of N gene nucleotide sequences revealed inconsistent differences between virus isolates collected from resistant and susceptible genotypes and between old (collected in 1998) and new (2010) isolates. Amino acid sequence analyses indicated consistent differences between old and new isolates. In addition, we found evidence for overabundance of nonsynonymous substitutions. However, there was no evidence for positive selection. Purifying selection, population expansion, and differentiation seem to have influenced the TSWV populations temporally rather than positive selection induced by host resistance. Choice and no-choice tests indicated that resistant and susceptible genotypes differentially affected thrips feeding and survival. Thrips feeding and survival were suppressed on some resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes. These findings reveal how TSWV resistance in peanut could influence evolution, epidemiology, and management of TSWV.

  20. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci of Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and Leaf Spots in a Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from SunOleic 97R and NC94022

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Qiao, Lixian; Culbreath, Albert K.; Kale, Sandip; Wang, Jianping; Holbrook, C. Corley; Zhuang, Weijian; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots which will cause significant yield loss. The most sustainable, economical and eco-friendly solution for managing peanut diseases is development of improved cultivars with high level of resistance. We developed a recombinant inbred line population from the cross between SunOleic 97R and NC94022, named as the S-population. An improved genetic linkage map was developed for the S-population with 248 marker loci and a marker density of 5.7 cM/loci. This genetic map was also compared with the physical map of diploid progenitors of tetraploid peanut, resulting in an overall co-linearity of about 60% with the average co-linearity of 68% for the A sub-genome and 47% for the B sub-genome. The analysis using the improved genetic map and multi-season (2010–2013) phenotypic data resulted in the identification of 48 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) from 3.88 to 29.14%. Of the 48 QTLs, six QTLs were identified for resistance to TSWV, 22 QTLs for early leaf spot (ELS) and 20 QTLs for late leaf spot (LLS), which included four, six, and six major QTLs (PVE larger than 10%) for each disease, respectively. A total of six major genomic regions (MGR) were found to have QTLs controlling more than one disease resistance. The identified QTLs and resistance gene-rich MGRs will facilitate further discovery of resistance genes and development of molecular markers for these important diseases. PMID:27427980

  1. QTL mapping & quantitative disease resistance to TSWV and leaf spots in a recombinant inbred line population SunOleic 97R and C94022 of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is susceptible to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early leaf spot (ELS) and late leaf spot (LLS). Breeding line NC94022 has been identified with the highest resistance to TSWV in the field. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a highly effective approach fo...

  2. Registration of ‘AU-1101’ peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AU-1101’ (Reg. No. CV-xxx, PI 661498) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with high yield and medium maturity, uniform pod size and shape, high grade, superior shelling characters, low oil content, normal oleic acid content, and good flavor. AU-...

  3. Registration of 'VENUS' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VENUS is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. VENUS is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for optimal performance in the South...

  4. Release of Lariat Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lariat is a high-oleic runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Red River Runner. Lariat (experimental designation ARSOK-R35) is the result of a cross between cultivar Red River Ru...

  5. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  6. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Methods Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. Key Results The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S–26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Conclusions Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms

  7. Under the volcano: phylogeography and evolution of the cave-dwelling Palmorchestia hypogaea (Amphipoda, Crustacea) at La Palma (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Villacorta, Carlos; Jaume, Damià; Oromí, Pedro; Juan, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Background The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands) and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave habitats. A surface-dwelling closely related species (Palmorchestia epigaea) lives in the humid laurel forest on the same island. Previous studies have suggested that an ancestral littoral Orchestia species colonized the humid forests of La Palma and that subsequent drought episodes in the Canaries reduced the distribution of P. epigaea favouring the colonization of lava tubes through an adaptive shift. This was followed by dispersal via the hypogean crevicular system. Results P. hypogaea and P. epigaea did not form reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial DNA clades. They showed geographically highly structured and genetically divergent populations with current gene flow limited to geographically close surface locations. Coalescence times using Bayesian estimations assuming a non-correlated relaxed clock with a normal prior distribution of the age of La Palma, together with the lack of association of habitat type with ancestral and recent haplotypes, suggest that their adaptation to cave life is relatively ancient. Conclusion The data gathered here provide evidence for multiple invasions of the volcanic cave systems that have acted as refuges. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the extant species of Palmorchestia is needed, as the division of the two species by habitat and ecology is unnatural. The information obtained here, and that from previous studies on hypogean fauna, shows the importance of factors such as the uncoupling of morphological and genetic evolution, the role of climatic change and regressive evolution as key processes in leading to subterranean biodiversity. PMID:18234125

  8. Effects of Perennial Peanut (Arachis glabrata) Ground Cover on Nematode Communities in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Macchia, E. T.; McSorley, R.; Duncan, L. W.; Syvertsen, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) ground cover on the nematode community in a citrus orchard were examined. Samples were taken from two different ground cover treatments (perennial peanut or bare ground) at each of three distances from the tree trunk. Richness, measured as total numbers of nematode genera per sample, and total numbers of nematodes were greatest in the perennial peanut treatment (P < 0.05). Abundance of many genera of bacterivores, fungivores, and omnivores were increased by the perennial peanut ground cover. Total numbers of plant parasites were greater in perennial peanut treatments on three of the five sampling dates (P < 0.05), mainly due to trends in numbers of Mesocriconema. Distance from a tree trunk and the interaction of ground cover treatments and proximity to a tree trunk were most influential for Belonolaimus and Hoplolaimus. Although differences among treatments were observed for nematode genera and trophic groups, ecological indices were not consistently sensitive to treatments. Among several ecological indices evaluated, richness was most often affected by ground cover treatment. PMID:19262779

  9. Effects of Perennial Peanut (Arachis glabrata) Ground Cover on Nematode Communities in Citrus.

    PubMed

    Macchia, E T; McSorley, R; Duncan, L W; Syvertsen, J S

    2003-12-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) ground cover on the nematode community in a citrus orchard were examined. Samples were taken from two different ground cover treatments (perennial peanut or bare ground) at each of three distances from the tree trunk. Richness, measured as total numbers of nematode genera per sample, and total numbers of nematodes were greatest in the perennial peanut treatment (P < 0.05). Abundance of many genera of bacterivores, fungivores, and omnivores were increased by the perennial peanut ground cover. Total numbers of plant parasites were greater in perennial peanut treatments on three of the five sampling dates (P < 0.05), mainly due to trends in numbers of Mesocriconema. Distance from a tree trunk and the interaction of ground cover treatments and proximity to a tree trunk were most influential for Belonolaimus and Hoplolaimus. Although differences among treatments were observed for nematode genera and trophic groups, ecological indices were not consistently sensitive to treatments. Among several ecological indices evaluated, richness was most often affected by ground cover treatment.

  10. Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, CA; Srinivas, K; Rao, Vum; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient). PMID:23437971

  11. Wild peanut Arachis duranensis are nodulated by diverse and novel Bradyrhizobium species in acid soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing Yu; Gu, Jun; Wang, En Tao; Ma, Xing Xian; Kang, Shi Tong; Huang, Ling Zi; Cao, Xue Ping; Li, Liang Bing; Wu, Yan Ling

    2014-10-01

    Aiming at learning the microsymbionts of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut, genetic and symbiotic characterization of 32 isolates from root nodules of this plant grown in its new habitat Guangzhou was performed. Based upon the phylogeny of 16S rRNA, atpD and recA genes, diverse bacteria belonging to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium iriomotense and four new lineages of Bradyrhizobium (19 isolates), Rhizobium/Agrobacterium (9 isolates), Herbaspirillum (2 isolates) and Burkholderia (2 isolates) were defined. In the nodulation test on peanut, only the bradyrhizobial strains were able to induce effective nodules. Phylogeny of nodC divided the Bradyrhizobium isolates into four lineages corresponding to the grouping results in phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes, suggesting that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. These results demonstrate that A. duranensis is a promiscuous host preferred the Bradyrhizobium species with different symbiotic gene background as microsymbionts, and that it might have selected some native rhizobia, especially the novel lineages Bradyrhizobium sp. I and sp. II, in its new habitat Guangzhou. These findings formed a basis for further study on adaptation and evolution of symbiosis between the introduced legumes and the indigenous rhizobia.

  12. Impact of elevated CO₂ on tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on peanut, Arachis hypogea.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Rao, V U M; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO(2) (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO(2) levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO(2) on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO(2) compared with ambient CO(2). Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO(2). The present results indicate that elevated CO(2) levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient).

  13. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance.

  14. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips and apical meristems of the forage legume Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Rey, Hebe Y; Faloci, Mirta; Medina, Ricardo; Dolce, Natalia; Mroginski, Luis; Engelmann, Florent

    2009-01-01

    A cryopreservation protocol using the encapsulation-dehydration procedure was established for shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) and meristems (0.3-0.5 mm) sampled from in vitro plantlets of diploid and triploid cytotypes of Arachis pintoi. The optimal protocol was the following: after dissection, explants were precultured for 24 h on establishment medium (EM), encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and pretreated in liquid EM medium with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 M) and desiccated to 22-23 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). Explants were frozen using slow cooling (1 C per min from 25C to -30C followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen), thawed rapidly and post-cultured in liquid EM medium enriched with daily decreasing sucrose concentrations (0.75, 0.50, 0.1 M). Explants were then transferred to solid EM medium in order to achieve shoot regeneration, then on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.05 microM naphthalene acetic acid to induce rooting of shoots. With this procedure, 53 percent and 56 percent of cryopreserved shoot tips of the diploid and triploid cytotypes, respectively, survived and formed plants. However, only 16 percent of cryopreserved meristems of both cytotypes regenerated plants. Using ten isozyme systems and seven RAPD profiles, no modification induced by cryopreservation could be detected in plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved material.

  15. ESTs from a wild Arachis species for gene discovery and marker development

    PubMed Central

    Proite, Karina; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; da Silva, Felipe R; Martins, Natalia F; Guimarães, Patrícia M

    2007-01-01

    Background Due to its origin, peanut has a very narrow genetic background. Wild relatives can be a source of genetic variability for cultivated peanut. In this study, the transcriptome of the wild species Arachis stenosperma accession V10309 was analyzed. Results ESTs were produced from four cDNA libraries of RNAs extracted from leaves and roots of A. stenosperma. Randomly selected cDNA clones were sequenced to generate 8,785 ESTs, of which 6,264 (71.3%) had high quality, with 3,500 clusters: 963 contigs and 2537 singlets. Only 55.9% matched homologous sequences of known genes. ESTs were classified into 23 different categories according to putative protein functions. Numerous sequences related to disease resistance, drought tolerance and human health were identified. Two hundred and six microsatellites were found and markers have been developed for 188 of these. The microsatellite profile was analyzed and compared to other transcribed and genomic sequence data. Conclusion This is, to date, the first report on the analysis of transcriptome of a wild relative of peanut. The ESTs produced in this study are a valuable resource for gene discovery, the characterization of new wild alleles, and for marker development. The ESTs were released in the [GenBank:EH041934 to EH048197]. PMID:17302987

  16. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters, in particular, can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO su...

  17. Evaluating Disulfide Crosslinking and pH-induced Aggregation of Arachis hypogea 1 as Components of Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, I. John; Di, Rong; Patel, Priyesh; Nanda, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    The seed storage glycoprotein Arachis hypogea 1 (Ara h) 1 is a major allergen found in peanuts. The biochemical resistance of food proteins to protease digestion contributes to their allergenicity. The rapid proteolysis of Ara h 1 under gastric conditions challenges this model. Biophysical and in vitro digestion experiments were carried out to identify how Ara h 1 epitopes might survive digestion, despite its facile degradation. The bicupin core of Ara h 1 can be unfolded at low pH and reversibly folded at higher pH. Additionally, peptide fragments from simulated gastric digestion predominantly form non-covalent aggregates when transferred to base. Disulfide crosslinks within these aggregates occur in relatively low amounts only at early times and therefore play no role in shielding peptides from degradation. We propose that peptide fragments which survive gastric conditions form large aggregates in basic environments like the small intestine, making epitopes available for triggering an allergic response. PMID:23926999

  18. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Resistant Host Responses in Arachis diogoi Challenged with Late Leaf Spot Pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dilip; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2015-01-01

    Late leaf spot is a serious disease of peanut caused by the imperfect fungus, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Wild diploid species, Arachis diogoi. is reported to be highly resistant to this disease and asymptomatic. The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular responses of the wild peanut challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen using cDNA-AFLP and 2D proteomic study. A total of 233 reliable, differentially expressed genes were identified in Arachis diogoi. About one third of the TDFs exhibit no significant similarity with the known sequences in the data bases. Expressed sequence tag data showed that the characterized genes are involved in conferring resistance in the wild peanut to the pathogen challenge. Several genes for proteins involved in cell wall strengthening, hypersensitive cell death and resistance related proteins have been identified. Genes identified for other proteins appear to function in metabolism, signal transduction and defence. Nineteen TDFs based on the homology analysis of genes associated with defence, signal transduction and metabolism were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in resistant wild species in comparison with a susceptible peanut genotype in time course experiments. The proteins corresponding to six TDFs were differentially expressed at protein level also. Differentially expressed TDFs and proteins in wild peanut indicate its defence mechanism upon pathogen challenge and provide initial breakthrough of genes possibly involved in recognition events and early signalling responses to combat the pathogen through subsequent development of resistivity. This is the first attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of the response of the resistant genotype to the late leaf spot pathogen, and its defence mechanism. PMID:25646800

  19. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  20. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  1. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  2. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  3. Identification of QTLs for Rust Resistance in the Peanut Wild Species Arachis magna and the Development of KASP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection.

    PubMed

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Cavalcante, Uiara; Gouvea, Ediene G; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Shirasawa, Kenta; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Jackson, Scott A; Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Márcio C

    2015-05-05

    Rust is a major pathogen of the peanut crop. Development and adoption of rust-resistant cultivars is the most cost efficient and effective way to control the spread of the disease and reduce yield losses. Some cultivated peanut germplasm accessions have a degree of resistance, but the secondary gene pool is a source of much stronger resistance alleles. Wild species, however, have undesirable agronomic traits that are a disincentive to their use in breeding. The identification of genomic regions that harbor disease resistance in wild species is the first step in the implementation of marker-assisted selection that can speed the introgression of wild disease resistances and the elimination of linkage drag. In this work, we identify genome regions that control different components of rust resistance in a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Arachis species, the susceptible most probable B genome ancestor of cultivated peanut, Arachis ipaënsis, and an accession of its closest relative, Arachis magna, which is resistant to rust. Quantitative trait loci for several components of resistance were placed in the same position on linkage group B08. Single-nucleotide polymorphism Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for rust resistance region were designed and validated for marker function in both diploid and tetraploid contexts.

  4. Identification of QTLs for Rust Resistance in the Peanut Wild Species Arachis magna and the Development of KASP Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Cavalcante, Uiara; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Shirasawa, Kenta; Guimarães, Patrícia M.; Jackson, Scott A.; Bertioli, David J.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.

    2015-01-01

    Rust is a major pathogen of the peanut crop. Development and adoption of rust-resistant cultivars is the most cost efficient and effective way to control the spread of the disease and reduce yield losses. Some cultivated peanut germplasm accessions have a degree of resistance, but the secondary gene pool is a source of much stronger resistance alleles. Wild species, however, have undesirable agronomic traits that are a disincentive to their use in breeding. The identification of genomic regions that harbor disease resistance in wild species is the first step in the implementation of marker-assisted selection that can speed the introgression of wild disease resistances and the elimination of linkage drag. In this work, we identify genome regions that control different components of rust resistance in a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Arachis species, the susceptible most probable B genome ancestor of cultivated peanut, Arachis ipaënsis, and an accession of its closest relative, Arachis magna, which is resistant to rust. Quantitative trait loci for several components of resistance were placed in the same position on linkage group B08. Single-nucleotide polymorphism Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for rust resistance region were designed and validated for marker function in both diploid and tetraploid contexts. PMID:25943521

  5. Effect of peanut powder (Arachis hypogeae L., 1753) on zootechnic parameters and sex inversion in catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Dougnon T; Elie, Montchowui; Messanvi, Gbeassor

    2015-01-01

    Benin is currently experiencing an overexploitation of piscatorial resources; this requires the research of endogenous means to increase the biomass of fish produced thanks to fish farming activities. The present study intends to improve the zootechnic performances and inverse the sex in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Therefore, 240 larvae obtained from artificial reproduction were used for this study. Three different feed were tested. The control feed (TO) was without peanut powder; contrary, the two experimental feeds were containing the powder at the rates of 10% (T1) and 20% (T2). The best growth of 94.51±27.14 g was recorded with the treatment T2 and 71.32±25.58 g from treatment T1 and finally 54.83±22.19 g from the control group. The sex inversion rate varied from 50% in the control group to 66.13% in lot 1 then 80.13% in lot 2. However, survival rates were low and varied from 26.25% for T2, to 30% in TO then 42.5% in T1. This study permitted to get better results about the zootechnic parameters and the sex inversion in Clarias gariepinus at incorporation rates of 10% and 20% of peanut powder "Arachis hypogeae."

  6. Pathogen-induced SGT1 of Arachis diogoi induces cell death and enhanced disease resistance in tobacco and peanut.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dilip; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to SGT1 in a study of differential gene expression on the resistant wild peanut, Arachis diogoi, upon challenge from the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata, and cloned its full-length cDNA followed by subsequent validation through q-PCR. Sodium nitroprusside, salicylic acid, ethephon and methyl jasmonate induced the expression of AdSGT1, while the treatment with abscisic acid did not elicit its up-regulation. AdSGT1 is localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm. Its overexpression induced hypersensitive-like cell death in tobacco under transient conditional expression using the estradiol system, and this conditional expression of AdSGT1 was also associated with the up-regulation of NtHSR203J, HMGR and HIN1, which have been shown to be associated with hypersensitive response in tobacco in earlier studies. Expression of the cDNA in a susceptible cultivated peanut variety enhanced its resistance against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata, while the heterologous expression in tobacco enhanced its resistance against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, Alternaria alternata var. nicotianae and Rhizoctonia solani. Constitutive expression in peanut was associated with the co-expression of resistance-related genes, CC-NB-LRR and some protein kinases.

  7. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters in particular can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO substrate, caftaric acid (trans-caffeoyl-tartaric acid). Additional compounds were believed to be cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl tartaric acid and cis- and trans-feruloyl-tartaric acid, but lack of standards prevented definitive identifications. Here we characterize enzymatic activities in peanut leaves to understand how caftaric acid and related hydroxycinnamoyl esters are made in this species. We show that peanut leaves contain a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HTT) activity capable of transferring p-coumaroyl, caffeoyl, and feruloyl moieties from CoA to tartaric acid (specific activities of 11 ± 2.8, 8 ± 1.8, 4 ± 0.8 pkat mg(-1) crude protein, respectively). The HTT activity was used to make cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl- and -feruloyl-tartaric acid in vitro. These products allowed definitive identification of the corresponding cis- and trans-hydroxycinnamoyl esters extracted from leaves. We tentatively identified sinapoyl-tartaric acid as another major phenolic compound in peanut leaves that likely participates in secondary reactions with PPO-generated quinones. These results suggest hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters are made by an acyltransferase, possibly a BAHD family member, in perennial peanut. Identification of a gene encoding HTT and further characterization of the enzyme will aid in identifying determinants of donor and acceptor substrate specificity for this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. An HTT gene could also provide a means by genetic engineering for producing caffeoyl- and other hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters in forage crops that lack them.

  8. Performance, carcass yield, and carcass quality characteristics of steers finished on rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata)-tropical grass pasture or concentrate.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L L; Hammond, A C; Williams, M J; Kunkle, W E; Johnson, D D; Preston, R L; Miller, M F

    1995-07-01

    Steers (n = 156) finished on rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.)-tropical grass pasture in Florida and slaughtered at Central Packing, Center Hill were compared with steers (n = 152) finished on a concentrate diet in Texas and slaughtered at Excel, Plainview. Average daily gain during the growing and finishing periods was lower (P < .001) for forage-finished steers (.49 and .94 kg/d, respectively) than for concentrate-finished steers (.78 and 1.33 kg/d, respectively). Forage-finished steers had less fat over the ribeye (8.3 vs 11.4 mm; P < .01), lighter hot carcass weight (280 vs 346 kg; P < .001), and smaller longissimus muscle area (70.8 vs 86.6 cm2; P < .001) than concentrate-finished steers. Yield grade was not different (2.7 vs 2.6; P > .10), but quality grade was slightly better (low Select vs mid Select; P < .01) for concentrate-finished steers. Lean color of forage-finished steers was darker (P < .001) and fat of forage-finished steers had a creamier color (P < .001), but carcasses were not discounted due to yellow fat color. Shear force values were higher (6.8 vs 4.0 kg; P < .001) for forage-finished than for concentrate-finished steers. Off-flavors were detected by trained sensory panelists in 36% of forage-finished and 14% of concentrate-finished carcasses, but all at barely detectable levels. This research indicates that steers can be finished on rhizoma peanut-tropical grass pastures, but with some reduction in quality grade relative to concentrate-finished steers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dilip; Kumar, Sumit; Rampuria, Sakshi; Reddy, Attipalli R.; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants. PMID:26938884

  10. Optimized Extraction of Resveratrol from Arachis repens Handro by Ultrasound and Microwave: A Correlation Study with the Antioxidant Properties and Phenol Contents.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leonardo; Garcia, Renata; Pacheco, Georgia; Sutili, Felipe; Souza, Rodrigo De; Mansur, Elisabeth; Leal, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The vegetal species Arachis repens, commonly known as peanut grass, was studied and, for the first time, we detected the presence of the bioactive compound trans-resveratrol (t-RSV). We compared the efficiency of three different methodologies (conventional maceration [CM], ultrasound-assisted extractions [UAE], and microwave-assisted extractions [MAE]) concerning total phenolics (TP) and resveratrol (t-RSV) content, followed by antioxidant activity (AA) evaluation. By CM, at 1 h, the highest RSV content (1.024 ± 0.036 mg/L) and, correspondingly, the highest DPPH capture (23.90 ± 0.04%) were found. The TP contents, at 1 h, presented the highest value (27.26 ± 0.26 mg/g GAE). By the UAE, the maximum yields of TP (357.18 mg/g GAE) and RSV (2.14 mg/L), as well as, the highest AA (70.95%), were obtained by 5 min after a maceration pretreatment, on the solid-solvent ratio 1 : 40 w/v. For MAE, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied followed by the FFD design in order to evaluate the statistical effects of four independent variables on the extraction of RSV. The optimal conditions established for obtaining the highest recovery (2.516 mg/g) were 20 min; 90% MeOH aq.; 120 rpm; 60°C; and solid-solvent ratio: 1 : 35 w/v. Relevant correlations were established considering the TP and RSV contents, as well as the AA, corroborating obvious advantages of such techniques in terms of high extraction efficiency in shorter times.

  11. Optimized Extraction of Resveratrol from Arachis repens Handro by Ultrasound and Microwave: A Correlation Study with the Antioxidant Properties and Phenol Contents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Leonardo; Garcia, Renata; Sutili, Felipe; Souza, Rodrigo De

    2016-01-01

    The vegetal species Arachis repens, commonly known as peanut grass, was studied and, for the first time, we detected the presence of the bioactive compound trans-resveratrol (t-RSV). We compared the efficiency of three different methodologies (conventional maceration [CM], ultrasound-assisted extractions [UAE], and microwave-assisted extractions [MAE]) concerning total phenolics (TP) and resveratrol (t-RSV) content, followed by antioxidant activity (AA) evaluation. By CM, at 1 h, the highest RSV content (1.024 ± 0.036 mg/L) and, correspondingly, the highest DPPH capture (23.90 ± 0.04%) were found. The TP contents, at 1 h, presented the highest value (27.26 ± 0.26 mg/g GAE). By the UAE, the maximum yields of TP (357.18 mg/g GAE) and RSV (2.14 mg/L), as well as, the highest AA (70.95%), were obtained by 5 min after a maceration pretreatment, on the solid-solvent ratio 1 : 40 w/v. For MAE, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied followed by the FFD design in order to evaluate the statistical effects of four independent variables on the extraction of RSV. The optimal conditions established for obtaining the highest recovery (2.516 mg/g) were 20 min; 90% MeOH aq.; 120 rpm; 60°C; and solid-solvent ratio: 1 : 35 w/v. Relevant correlations were established considering the TP and RSV contents, as well as the AA, corroborating obvious advantages of such techniques in terms of high extraction efficiency in shorter times. PMID:28116343

  12. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dilip; Kumar, Sumit; Rampuria, Sakshi; Reddy, Attipalli R; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants.

  13. Strip tillage for single and twin-row peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil degradation and rising production costs have prompted grower interest in conservation tillage with high residue cover crops for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objective was to evaluate single and twin-row peanut production across three different strip tillage implements with and without a c...

  14. Field evaluations of leaf spot resistance and yield in peanut genotypes in the United States and Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2002-2006 to characterize yield potential and disease resistance to Cercospora arachidicola (early leaf spot) and Cercosporidium personatum (late leaf spot) in the Bolivian peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivar, Bayo Grande, and breeding lines developed from crosses ...

  15. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  16. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region’s water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little publishe...

  17. Greenhouse Screening of Peanut for Resistance to Peanut Rust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Accessions of Arachis hypogaea, A. glabrata , A. monticola, and several other legumes were tested to Puccinia arachidis cultures PR-1-66 (from Puerto...accessions of A. glabrata were immune, six non-peanut legume species were also immune, and one accession of A. monticola produced only small, weakly sporulating pustules when tested to PR-1-66.

  18. Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGA.) from peanut expressed sequence tage (EST.) and development of RGA-SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and oil crop grown in more than 100 countries for providing edible oil and protein. A wide variety of pathogens including fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes severely constrain peanut yield and quality. Therefore, it is very imp...

  19. ESTs are a rich source of polymorphic SSRs for genomics and molecular breeding applications in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Narrow genetic diversity and a deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers have hindered genetic mapping and the application of genomics and molecular breeding approaches in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). We developed and mined a peanut EST database for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), assessed t...

  20. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanuts germplasm of Henan and detection of their elite allelic variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts i...

  1. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanut cultivars and breeding lines revealed by highly informative SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts e...

  2. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important source for edible oil and protein. It is important to identify genetic diversity of peanut for cultivar development. In this study, 111 SSR markers with high polymorphic information content (PIC) were used to assess the genetic variation of 79 peanut cult...

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown throughout the world as a source of oil and protein. A broad genetic base is needed for the genetic improvement of cultivars with quality traits through breeding. In this study, a total of 111 SSR markers with high polymorphic information content (PIC...

  4. Potential nitrogen credits from peanut residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates during decomposition. Following peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, extension currently recommends 22-67 kg N ha-1 credit to subsequent crops, but these recommendations are not supported in the liter...

  5. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...

  6. Crop Yield Response to Increasing Biochar Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  7. Utilization of SNP, SSR, and biochemical data to evaluate genetic and phenotypic diversity in the U.S. peanut germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein, phytochemicals such as resveratrol, and antioxidants such as tocopherol and folic acid; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The genetic diversity and population stru...

  8. Resveratrol Content in Seeds of Peanut Germlasm Quantified by HPLC.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants greatly contributes to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high performance liqui...

  9. Comparison of genetic diversity based on SSR markers between peanut mini core collections from China and ICRISAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mini core collections play an important role in evaluating genetic resources of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). This study aimed at comparing the genetic diversities of domestic and exotic peanut mini core collections and providing basic data for germplasm introduction and peanut breeding. The exoti...

  10. Peanut core collection established in China and compared with ICRISAT mini core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The core collection has been well accepted as a useful way to improve the efficiency of crop germplasm evaluation, conservation and utilization. Around 6390 accessions of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) have been collected in China. In order to characterize and utilize the germplasm more eff...

  11. Registration of high-oleic peanut germplasm line ARSOK-S1 (TX996784) with enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight and pod rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic Spanish peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) germplasm line ARSOK-S1 was developed cooperatively between the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Texas AgriLife Research, and Oklahoma State University, and was released in 2013. ARSOK-S1 (tested early as TX99678...

  12. An Integrated Linkage Map for Cultivated Peanut Derived from Two RILs Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparable integrated map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was constructed from the integration of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in which two runner type cultivars, one Spanish type cultivar and one breeding line derived from a cross of Virginia type and hirsuta type wer...

  13. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  14. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet co...

  15. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of catechins in peanut seed skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are cultivated as a source of edible seed oil and protein. The peanut seed testa or skin that surrounds the seed is typically removed after the shelling process by blanching. Several phenolic compounds such as catechins may be isolated as co-products from peanut seed skins...

  17. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  18. Physiology and proteomics of the water-deficit stress response in three contrasting peanut genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions from the US mini core collection were analyzed for differentially expressed leaf proteins during reproductive stage under water-deficit stress. Accessions showing tolerant and susceptible responses to stress were selected based on a bioassay involving chloroph...

  19. Transcript and Proteome Response to Water-deficit and Thermal Stress in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes from the U.S. mini-core collection were screened for contrasting responses to slow-onset water-deficit and supra-optimal temperature. Seventy accessions were initially screened for basal thermotolerance, photosynthetic response, cellular damage, and recovery f...

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in peanut-cotton farmscapes. ...

  1. An overview on peanut germplasm collection, evaluation, and utilization in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important source of vegetable oil and protein worldwide, with China being the largest producer during the past two decades. Genetic enhancement has been crucial in peanut industry development in China and many other countries. Systematic collection and preservation...

  2. Impact of molecular genetic research on peanut cultivar development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has lagged other crops on use of molecular genetic technology for cultivar development in part due to lack of investment, but also because of low levels of molecular polymorphism among cultivated varieties. Recent advances in molecular genetic technology have allowed res...

  3. Yield and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) and furrow diking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) was installed yearly in conjunction with furrow diking to document yield and economic benefit of these techniques on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). This research was conducted for three years from 2005...

  4. Relationship between root characteristics of peanut in hydroponics and pot studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large root system can be an important character for drought tolerance. Measuring root characteristics in soil medium is tedious, time consuming, and labor intensive. The objective of this study was to determine the association between root characteristics of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Grown in...

  5. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of disease resistance traits in peanut population Tifrunner x GT-C20

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic map of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with 426 SSR markers was constructed using a population of 162 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between ‘Tifrunner’ and ‘GT-C20’. Linkage groups (LGs) were assigned to chromosomes using published peanut reference maps. The total length of the...

  6. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet...

  7. Physiological genomics of abiotic stress responses in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions from the U.S. mini-core collection were independently evaluated for heat and water-deficit stress tolerance using a battery of physiological assays including leaf-level gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence yield, membrane thermostability, leaf sugar content,...

  8. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  9. Herbicide and rye cover crop residue integration affect weed control and yield in strip-tillage peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acreage of reduced tillage peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production is increasing mainly due to reduced production costs and increased environmental and economic benefits compared to conventional systems. Experiments were conducted in Alabama and Georgia to evaluate strip tillage systems, utilizing h...

  10. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress and future perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of maize (Zea mays L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus results in the contamination with carcinogenic mycotoxins known as aflatoxins leading to economic losses as well as a potential health threat to human. The interactio...

  11. Two alleles of ahFAD2B control the high oleic acid trait in cultivated peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high oleic:linoleic acid ratio (O/L) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds is controlled primarily by two recessive genes, ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B (ol1 and ol2). Marker-assisted breeding for high O/L could become routine provided that user-friendly and economical markers could be developed that would...

  12. Endophytic associations and production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section Nigri species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are considered plant pathogens of maize (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) where they can cause similar disease symptoms as Fusarium verticillioides, such as seedling blight. However, the main concern with black aspergi...

  13. Soil organic carbon dynamics in a sod-based rotation on coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A frequently used cropping system in the southeastern Coastal Plain is an annual rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under conventional tillage (CT). The traditional peanut-cotton rotation (TR) often results in erosion and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC). In...

  14. Effects of new field resistant cultivars and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide on tomato spotted wilt of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted at Tifton, Georgia from 2008 to 2014 to determine the effects of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide on severity of tomato spotted wilt (TSW) caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus. Several cultivars, including Fl...

  15. EST-based Microsatellite Marker Data Mining and Characterizing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop for oil production. In the recent years, molecular marker technologies have been widely applied to genetic diversity analysis, genetic mapping, molecular marker-assisted breeding, gene tagging and QTLs analysis. However, it is expensive, labor-intens...

  16. Analysis of Peanut Seed Oil by NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid. The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an...

  17. Effects of seeding rate and cultivar on tomato spotted wilt of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern U.S. Establishment of within row plant densities of 13 or more plants/m of row moderately resistant cultivars is recommended as p...

  18. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

  19. Effects of fertilization, tillage, and phorate on thrips and TSWV incidence in early planted peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips feeding is usually more prevalent in early planted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), which often directly results in higher incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Several management tools are available to reduce thrips feeding and/or the threat of TSWV in early planted peanuts, includin...

  20. Effects of CS Agents on Vegetation. II. Field and Screening Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    10 Brassica rapa L.. turnip 30-50 50-70 Browallia speciosa Hook., browallia 0-10 10-20 Campanula medium L., Canterbury bells 10-20 20-30 Capsicum...Althaea rosea Cay., hollyhock a- 10 10-20 Arachis hypogaea L., peanut 10-20 10-20 Beta ’ulgaris L., beet 10-20 10-20 Brassica oleracea L, cabbage 0-10 0

  1. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Monyo, Emmanuel; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Liang, Xuanquiang; Guimarães, Patricia; Nigam, Shyam N; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Janila, Pasupuleti; Zhang, Xinyou; Guo, Baozhu; Cook, Douglas R; Bertioli, David J; Michelmore, Richard; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-01-01

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to the tetraploid; cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination, and the narrow genetic base of the primary genepool have resulted in low genetic diversity that has remained a major bottleneck for genetic improvement of peanut. Harnessing the rich source of wild relatives has been negligible due to differences in ploidy level as well as genetic drag and undesirable alleles for low yield. Lack of appropriate genomic resources has severely hampered molecular breeding activities, and this crop remains among the less-studied crops. The last five years, however, have witnessed accelerated development of genomic resources such as development of molecular markers, genetic and physical maps, generation of expressed sequenced tags (ESTs), development of mutant resources, and functional genomics platforms that facilitate the identification of QTLs and discovery of genes associated with tolerance/resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses and agronomic traits. Molecular breeding has been initiated for several traits for development of superior genotypes. The genome or at least gene space sequence is expected to be available in near future and this will further accelerate use of biotechnological approaches for peanut improvement.

  2. [Soil and water losses and phosphorus output at the places between ridges in sloping peanut land under different planting modes in Yimeng mountainous area of Shandong Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Hua; Yu, Xing-Xiu; Liu, Qian-Jin; Wu, Yuan-Zhi

    2012-12-01

    Taking the typical land use type, sloping Arachis hypogaea land, in Yimeng mountainous area of Shandong as study object, an in-situ fixed-point field experiment was conducted to study the characteristics of soil and water losses and phosphorus output at the places between ridges in the sloping land under different planting modes (Arachis hypogaea + Cynodon dactylon, I; A. hypogae + Melilotus officinalis, II; A. hypogaea + Lolium multiflorum, III; A. hypogaea + Trifolium repens, IV; A. hypogaea + blank control, V). Planting grasses at the places between ridges could effectively decrease the soil and water losses. The runoff was 55.1%-61.3% of the control, and decreased in the order of II > I > IV> III. The sediment loss was 3.4% -32.3% of the control, and decreased in the order of IV > II > I > 11. A. hypogaea + L. multiflorum was effective in storing water and retaining sediment. During the early period of planting L. multiflorum, the sediment loss was more affected by rainfall and presented a fluctuated variation, but in late period, the sediment loss decreased continuously and performed more stable, and accordingly, the sediment retention increased continuously. Planting grasses effectively decreased the output of phosphorus, with the decrease of total phosphorus (TP) output being 52.8%-75.3% of the control, and was in the order of I > II > IV > III. As compared with the control, planting grasses decreased 27.5% -67.0% of the output of particle phosphorus (PP), but relatively increased the output of dissolvable phosphorus (DP). A. hypogaea + L. multiflorum had the best effect in decreasing the output of phosphorus, with the outputs of TP and PP being 58.4% and 27.5% of the control, respectively. In the growth period of the vegetations, the losses of different phosphorus forms differed, and the dissolvable inorganic phosphorus was the main form of the output of DP during whole rain season. After the peanut harvested, the output of different phosphorus forms in the

  3. Recognition of a CD4+ mouse medullary thymocyte subpopulation by Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Lascurain, R; Chávez, R; Gorocica, P; Pérez, A; Montaño, L F; Zenteno, E

    1994-01-01

    We have used the Gal beta(1-->3)GalNAc-specific Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin to isolate a thymus cell subpopulation which is different from that sorted with Arachis hypogaea lectin. The cells recognized by A. leucocarpus lectin were predominantly CD4+, whereas a minor proportion of CD8+ cells (approximately 11%) were also identified. The A. leucocarpus-positive cells were located in the thymus medulla and the cortico-medullary junction. The cortex was negative for A. leucocarpus cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7835965

  4. Evidence for the Adhesive Function of the Exopolysaccharide of Hyphomonas Strain MHS-3 in Its Attachment to Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, E. J.; Weiner, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Hyphomonas strain MHS-3 (MHS-3) is a marine procaryote with a biphasic life cycle and which has prosthecate stages that adhere to submerged substrata. We found that adherent forms produced an exopolysaccharide (EPS) capsule that bound Glycine max lectin, Arachis hypogaea lectin, and Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPA), each having affinity for N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. It also bound the dye Calcofluor. BPA and Calcofluor were tested for the ability to hinder MHS-3 adhesion to glass surfaces; they reduced attachment by >50 and >85%, respectively. Periodate treatment also reduced attachment (by >80%), but pronase treatment did not. Furthermore, an EPS(sup-) variant, Hyphomonas strain MHS-3 rad, did not attach well to surfaces. These results suggest that the MHS-3 EPS capsule is an adhesin. PMID:16535028

  5. Glycoproteins histochemistry of the gills of Odontesthes bonariensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, A O; García, A M; Escalante, A H; Goldemberg, A L

    2010-11-01

    The histochemistry of glycoproteins (GP) in the mucous cells of the gills of the silverside Odontesthes bonariensis was identified with: (1) oxidizable vicinal diols; (2) sialic acid and some of their chain variants, carbon 7 ((7) C), carbon 8 ((8) C) or carbon 9 ((9) C); (3) sialic acid residues without O-acyl substitution and with O-acyl substitution at (7) C, (8) C or (9) C; (4) carboxyl groups and (5) sulphate groups. A battery of seven biotinylated lectins allowed GPs sugar residues to be distinguished. Mucous cells showed the presence of neutral, sulphated and sialylated GPs. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Glycine max agglutinin (SBA) showed strong positive staining; Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA) showed moderate staining, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) was completely negative.

  6. Histochemical characterization of the lectin-binding sites in the equine vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-young; Kang, Tae-young; Lee, Yong-duk; Shin, Tae-kyun

    2003-04-01

    The binding specificities of various lectins, such as the Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), and the Bandeiraea simplicifolia BS-1 (Isolectin B4), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I) lectins, were studied in the vomeronasal organ of the horse. The microvilli of the vomeronasal sensory epithelium were positive for DBA, SBA, Isolectin B4, WGA, PNA, and UEA-I. The receptor cells showed intense reactivity for DBA and WGA. Lectins were not detected in the supporting cells or basal cells. The Jacobson's glands were positive for WGA and UEA-I, but lectins were absent from the nerve bundles. From these results, we postulate that several lectin-binding carbohydrates on the microvilli and neurosensory cells are associated with chemoreception in the horse. In addition, the differential lectin-binding patterns in the horse suggest that the carbohydrates present in this particular sense organ are species-specific.

  7. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.

  8. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  9. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut

    PubMed Central

    De Waele, D.; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; Basson, Selmaré

    1990-01-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut. PMID:19287723

  10. Nitrogen fixation in peanut nodules during dark periods and detopped conditions with special reference to lipid bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Siddique, A.M.; Bal, A.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), unlike other known legumes, can sustain nitrogen fixation when prolonged periods of darkness or detopping curtail the supply of photosynthate to the nodule. This ability to withstand photosynthate stress is attributed to the presence of lipid bodies in infected nodule cells. In both dark-treated and detopped plants, the lipid bodies show a gradual decrease in numbers, suggesting their utilization as a source of energy and carbon for nitrogen fixation. Lipolytic activity can be localized in the lipid bodies, and the existence of {beta}-oxidation pathway and glyoxylate cycle is shown by the release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from {sup 14}C lineoleoyl coenzyme A by the nodule homogenate.

  11. Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Junling; Sun, Li; Kuppu, Sundaram; Zhang, Yizheng; Burow, Mark; Payton, Paxton; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong

    2011-11-01

    Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot plants. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. Transgenic peanut plants maintained higher photosynthetic rates, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration than wild-type control plants under reduced irrigation conditions. More importantly, transgenic peanut plants produced significantly higher yields than wild-type control plants in the field, indicating a great potential for the development of crops with improved performance and yield in water-limited areas of the world.

  12. Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2010-08-26

    Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

  13. Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme. PMID:2262570

  14. Aging and food source effects on mandibular stylets teeth wear of phytophagous stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Depieri, Rogério A; Siqueira, Fábio; Panizzi, Antônio R

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted to test the effect of age and food sources on wear of the mandibular teeth of the phytophagous pentatomid, Euschistus heros (F.). The total length (µm) of the area bearing the mandibular teeth, the length of the 1st tooth, and the height of the 2nd tooth for teneral (< 1 day-old) adults were significantly greater than that of adults fed on natural [green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris pods, raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, and mature soybean, Glycine max seeds] for 30 or 60 days. Adults fed on artificial dry diet showed, in general, similar results to those of teneral adults. Force (Newtons) required penetrating the natural foods was significantly greater than that required penetrating the artificial diet. The greater hardness of the natural foods caused increased mandibular serration wear.

  15. Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Weaver, C. F.; Robertson, D. G.; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near peanut harvest, were 96-98% lower under bahiagrass than under peanut. In 1987 peanut yields in plots following bahiagrass were 27% higher than in plots under peanut monoculture. Juvenile population densities in bahiagrass-peanut plots were 41% lower than in plots with continuous peanut. Using bahiagrass for reducing population densities of M. arenaria and increasing peanut yield was as effective as using aldicarb at the recommended rates for peanut. PMID:19290315

  16. Interrelationships between Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 in the induced systemic resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii and symbiosis on peanut plants.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Maria Soledad; Tonelli, Maria Laura; Taurian, Tania; Angelini, Jorge; Ibanez, Fernando; Valetti, Lucio; Munoz, Vanina; Anzuay, Maria Soledad; Luduena, Liliana; Fabra, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria are often used to enhance crop yield and for biological control of phytopathogens. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 is a biocontrol agent that induces systemic resistance (ISR) in Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of root and stem wilt. In this work, the effect of the co-inoculation of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and the peanut nodulating strain Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 was studied on induction of both systemic resistance and nodulation processes. Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 did not affect the ability of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to protect peanut plants from S. rolfsii by ISR and the priming in challenged-plants, as evidenced by an increment in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity. Additionally, the capacity of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 to induce nodule formation in pathogen-challenged plants was improved by the presence of Bacillus sp. CHEP5.

  17. Production of resveratrol from p-coumaric acid in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase and stilbene synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Shin, So-Yeon; Han, Nam Soo; Park, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Resveratrol is a well-known polyphenol present in red wine and exerts antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic effects on the human body. To produce resveratrol in a food-grade yeast, the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and stilbene synthase gene (STS) from Arachis hypogaea were cloned and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A. The resveratrol produced was unglycosylated and secreted into the culture medium. A batch culture with 15.3mg/l p-coumaric acid used as precursor resulted in the production of 3.1mg/l resveratrol with 14.4 mol% yield. Deletion of the putative phenyl acrylic acid decarboxylase gene (PAD1) did not enhance resveratrol production.

  18. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  19. A gene-based map of the Nod factor-independent Aeschynomene evenia sheds new light on the evolution of nodulation and legume genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Rivallan, Ronan; Bertioli, David J.; Klopp, Christophe; Gouzy, Jérôme; Courtois, Brigitte; Leleux, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Rami, Jean-François; Gully, Djamel; Parrinello, Hugues; Séverac, Dany; Patrel, Delphine; Fardoux, Joël; Ribière, William; Boursot, Marc; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Czernic, Pierre; Ratet, Pascal; Mournet, Pierre; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a new model legume for the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of an alternative symbiotic process that is independent of the Nod factors. Whereas most of the research on nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, legume genetics and genomics has so far focused on Galegoid and Phaseolid legumes, A. evenia falls in the more basal and understudied Dalbergioid clade along with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). To provide insights into the symbiotic genes content and the structure of the A. evenia genome, we established a gene-based genetic map for this species. Firstly, an RNAseq analysis was performed on the two parental lines selected to generate a F2 mapping population. The transcriptomic data were used to develop molecular markers and they allowed the identification of most symbiotic genes. The resulting map comprised 364 markers arranged in 10 linkage groups (2n = 20). A comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of peanut, indicated blocks of conserved macrosynteny. Altogether, these results provided important clues regarding the evolution of symbiotic genes in a Nod factor-independent context. They provide a basis for a genome sequencing project and pave the way for forward genetic analysis of symbiosis in A. evenia. PMID:27298380

  20. A gene-based map of the Nod factor-independent Aeschynomene evenia sheds new light on the evolution of nodulation and legume genomes.

    PubMed

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Rivallan, Ronan; Bertioli, David J; Klopp, Christophe; Gouzy, Jérôme; Courtois, Brigitte; Leleux, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Rami, Jean-François; Gully, Djamel; Parrinello, Hugues; Séverac, Dany; Patrel, Delphine; Fardoux, Joël; Ribière, William; Boursot, Marc; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Czernic, Pierre; Ratet, Pascal; Mournet, Pierre; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a new model legume for the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of an alternative symbiotic process that is independent of the Nod factors. Whereas most of the research on nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, legume genetics and genomics has so far focused on Galegoid and Phaseolid legumes, A. evenia falls in the more basal and understudied Dalbergioid clade along with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). To provide insights into the symbiotic genes content and the structure of the A. evenia genome, we established a gene-based genetic map for this species. Firstly, an RNAseq analysis was performed on the two parental lines selected to generate a F2 mapping population. The transcriptomic data were used to develop molecular markers and they allowed the identification of most symbiotic genes. The resulting map comprised 364 markers arranged in 10 linkage groups (2n = 20). A comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of peanut, indicated blocks of conserved macrosynteny. Altogether, these results provided important clues regarding the evolution of symbiotic genes in a Nod factor-independent context. They provide a basis for a genome sequencing project and pave the way for forward genetic analysis of symbiosis in A. evenia.

  1. BAC libraries construction from the ancestral diploid genomes of the allotetraploid cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Patricia M; Garsmeur, Olivier; Proite, Karina; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Seijo, Guilhermo; Chaine, Christian; Bertioli, David J; D'Hont, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea is an allotetraploid of recent origin, with an AABB genome. In common with many other polyploids, it seems that a severe genetic bottle-neck was imposed at the species origin, via hybridisation of two wild species and spontaneous chromosome duplication. Therefore, the study of the genome of peanut is hampered both by the crop's low genetic diversity and its polyploidy. In contrast to cultivated peanut, most wild Arachis species are diploid with high genetic diversity. The study of diploid Arachis genomes is therefore attractive, both to simplify the construction of genetic and physical maps, and for the isolation and characterization of wild alleles. The most probable wild ancestors of cultivated peanut are A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis with genome types AA and BB respectively. Results We constructed and characterized two large-insert libraries in Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) vector, one for each of the diploid ancestral species. The libraries (AA and BB) are respectively c. 7.4 and c. 5.3 genome equivalents with low organelle contamination and average insert sizes of 110 and 100 kb. Both libraries were used for the isolation of clones containing genetically mapped legume anchor markers (single copy genes), and resistance gene analogues. Conclusion These diploid BAC libraries are important tools for the isolation of wild alleles conferring resistances to biotic stresses, comparisons of orthologous regions of the AA and BB genomes with each other and with other legume species, and will facilitate the construction of a physical map. PMID:18230166

  2. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the

  3. Transcriptome and proteome response to water-deficit stress in peanut (Arachis sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genotypes from the U.S. mini-core collection were screened under water-deficit stress conditions and two lines, COC041 (Tolerant) and COC166 (Susceptible) were selected for gene expression and protein profiling studies. For transcript profiling, we have developed a high-density oligonucleoti...

  4. Fine phenotyping of pod and seed traits in Arachis germplasm accessions using digital image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable and objective phenotyping of peanut pod and seed traits is important for cultivar selection and genetic mapping of yield components. To develop useful and efficient methods to quantitatively define peanut pod and seed traits, a group of peanut germplasm with high levels of phenotypic varia...

  5. Annotation of trait loci on integrated genetic maps of Arachis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From lack of availability of molecular markers to the release of genome sequence of two of its diploid wild relative, the international peanut community has come a long way in the last decade, particularly during the last five years. However there still is long way to go when genomics-assisted breed...

  6. Cloning and characterization of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2A gene in Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa.

    PubMed

    Huang, B L; Zhang, X K; Li, Y Y; Li, D Y; Ma, M Y; Cai, D T; Wu, W H; Huang, B Q

    2016-08-05

    Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa is one of the most tolerant Cruciferae species to drought, and dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2A (DREB2A) is involved in responses to salinity, heat, and particularly drought. In this study, a gene encoding EvDREB2A was cloned and characterized in E. vesicaria subsp sativa. The full-length EvDREB2A cDNA sequence contained a 388-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 348-bp 3'-UTR, and a 1002-bp open reading frame that encoded 334 amino acid residues. The theoretical isoelectric point of the EvDREB2A protein was 4.80 and the molecular weight was 37.64 kDa. The genomic sequence of EvDREB2A contained no introns. Analysis using SMART indicated that EvDREB2A contains a conserved AP2 domain, similar to other plant DREBs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EvDREB2A and DREB2As from Brassica rapa, Eutrema salsugineum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Arachis hypogaea formed a small subgroup, which clustered with DREB2Bs from A. lyrata, A. thaliana, Camelina sativa, and B. rapa to form a larger subgroup. EvDREB2A is most closely related to B. rapa DREB2A, followed by DREB2As from E. salsugineum, A. thaliana, A. hypogaea, and A. lyrata. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that EvDREB2A expression was highest in the leaves, followed by the roots and hypocotyls, and was lowest in the flower buds. EvDREB2A could be used to improve drought tolerance in crops.

  7. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of ensiled warm-season legumes and bahiagrass.

    PubMed

    Foster, J L; Carter, J N; Sollenberger, L E; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Maddox, M K; Phatak, S C; Adesogan, A T

    2011-04-01

    This study determined the nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge 'Tifton 9'), perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. 'Florigraze'), annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) 'FL MDR 98'], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. 'Iron clay'], and pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. 'GA-2']. All forages were harvested at maturity stages that optimized dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value. After harvest, forages were wilted to 45% DM, and 4 replicate bales of each legume and 8 bales of bahiagrass were wrapped in polyethylene and ensiled for 180 d. After each bale was opened, the forage was thoroughly mixed, and representative subsamples were taken for laboratory analysis and in situ incubation. Wilting and ensiling decreased the rumen-undegradable protein, water-soluble carbohydrate, crude protein (CP), and in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of bahiagrass, perennial peanut, and cowpea, and increased their neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations. Among haylages, CP concentration was greatest for annual peanut, followed by perennial peanut and cowpea, and least for bahiagrass. In contrast, NDF concentration was greater in bahiagrass than in legumes. Pigeonpea had the greatest NDF concentration among legumes and lowest IVTD of all haylages. All haylages were aerobically stable for at least 84 h, but pH was lower in perennial peanut and cowpea than in pigeonpea. Ammonia-N concentrations tended to be greater in legume haylages than in bahiagrass haylage. Butyrate concentration was greater in annual and perennial peanut than in bahiagrass. Total VFA concentration was greater in annual and perennial peanut and cowpea haylages than in bahiagrass haylage. Undegradable DM fractions were greater and extent of DM degradation was lower in bahiagrass and pigeonpea than in other haylages but lag time and degradation rates did not differ. Annual and perennial peanut and cowpea haylages were as

  8. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica

  9. Contributions of rational soil tillage to compaction stress in main peanut producing areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pu; Wu, Zhengfeng; Wang, Chunxiao; Luo, Sheng; Zheng, Yongmei; Yu, Tianyi; Sun, Xuewu; Sun, Xiushan; Wang, Caibin; He, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    Tillage intensities largely affect soil compaction dynamics in agro-ecosystems. However, the contribution of tillage intensities on compaction changes in underground peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields has not been quantified. We thus aimed to better understand the role of soil tillage intensities in mitigation of compaction stress for peanuts. Using three field tillage experiments in major Chinese peanut producing areas, we quantified the effects of (1) no tillage, (2) shallow (20 cm) plowing, (3) deep (30 cm) plowing and (4) deep (30 cm) loosening on changes in soil bulk density at 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–30 cm depths, roots and pods growth, and nutrient accumulation. Results showed that tillage management effectively mitigated soil compaction stress for peanut growth and production. Greater beneficial improvement for the underground growth of roots and pods, and N accumulation ranked as deep plowing > shallow plowing and deep loosening. Respective increases of 7.5% and 4.6% in root biomass productions and peanut yields were obtained when soil bulk density was decreased by 0.1 g cm‑3. Our results suggest that the mitigation of soil compaction stress by deep plowing could be a key tillage strategy for increasing peanut yields in the field.

  10. Expression of peanut Iron Regulated Transporter 1 in tobacco and rice plants confers improved iron nutrition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nozoye, Tomoko; Zhang, Lixia; Shen, Hongyun; Qiu, Wei; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) limitation is a widespread agricultural problem in calcareous soils and severely limits crop production. Iron Regulated Transporter 1 (IRT1) is a key component for Fe uptake from the soil in dicot plants. In this study, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) AhIRT1 was introduced into tobacco and rice plants using an Fe-deficiency-inducible artificial promoter. Induced expression of AhIRT1 in tobacco plants resulted in accumulation of Fe in young leaves under Fe deficient conditions. Even under Fe-excess conditions, the Fe concentration was also markedly enhanced, suggesting that the Fe status did not affect the uptake and translocation of Fe by AhIRT1 in the transgenic plants. Most importantly, the transgenic tobacco plants showed improved tolerance to Fe limitation in culture in two types of calcareous soils. Additionally, the induced expression of AhIRT1 in rice plants also resulted in high tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soils.

  11. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  12. Overexpression of Bacterial mtlD Gene in Peanut Improves Drought Tolerance through Accumulation of Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated. PMID:25436223

  13. Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Martinez, V. A.; Zobeck, T. M.; Gill, T. E.; Kennedy, A. C.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of semiarid soils of different textures in the Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in rotations with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and had different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional). Microbial community structure was investigated using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by gas chromatography and enzyme activities, involved in C, N, P and S cycling of soils, were measured (mg product released per kg soil per h). The activities of b-glucosidase, b-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase were significantly (P<0.05) increased in soils under cotton rotated with sorghum or wheat, and due to conservation tillage in comparison to continuous cotton under conventional tillage. Principal component analysis showed FAME profiles of these soils separated distinctly along PC1 (20 %) and PC2 (13 %) due to their differences in soil texture and management. No significant differences were detected in FAME profiles due to management practices for the same soils in this sampling period. Enzyme activities provide early indications of the benefits in microbial populations and activities and soil organic matter under crop rotations and conservation tillage in comparison to the typical practices in semiarid regions of continuous cotton and conventional tillage.

  14. Characterization of small RNA populations in non-transgenic and aflatoxin-reducing-transformed peanut.

    PubMed

    Power, Imana L; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S; Orner, Valerie A; Powell, Joseph L; Lamb, Marshall C; Arias, Renee S

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B1 than the controls. The objective was to determine the putative involvement of the small RNA populations in aflatoxin reduction. In total, 41 known microRNA (miRNA) families and many novel miRNAs were identified. Among those, 89 known and 10 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transformed lines. We furthermore found two small interfering RNAs derived from the inverted repeat, and 39 sRNAs that mapped without mismatches to the genome of A. flavus and were present only in the transformed lines. This information will increase our understanding of the effectiveness of RNAi and enable the possible improvement of the RNAi technology for the control of aflatoxins.

  15. Biotechnological approaches for production of anti-cancerous compounds resveratrol, podophyllotoxin and zerumbone.

    PubMed

    Nandagopal, Krishnadas; Halder, Mihir; Dash, Biswabhusan; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Jha, Sumita

    2017-04-04

    Secondary metabolites from numerous plant sources have been developed as anti-cancer reagents and compounds such as resveratrol, podophyllotoxin and zerumbone are of particular importance in this regard. Since their de novo chemical synthesis is both arduous and commercially expensive, there has been an impetus to develop viable, biotechnological methods of production. Accordingly, this review focuses on recent developments in the field, highlighting the use of micropropagation, cell suspension cultures, callus cultures, hairy root cultures, recombinant microbes and genetically modified higher plants. Optimization of media and culture conditions, precursor feeding, immobilization and the use of chemical or physical elicitation in various protocols has lead to increase in resveratrol and podophyllotoxin production. Heterologous gene transformation of higher plants with stilbene synthase derived from Arachis hypogaea or Vitis vinifera lead to resveratrol production with the concomitant increase in resistance to plant pathogens. Interestingly, genetic transformation of Podophyllum hexandrum and Linum flavum with Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in Ri-T-DNA gene(s)-mediated enhancement of podophyllotoxin production. Zerumbone yields from tissue cultured plantlets or from suspension cultures are generally low and these methods require further optimization. In microbes lacking the native resveratrol or zerumbone biosynthesis pathway, metabolic engineering required not only the introduction of several genes of the pathway, but also precursor feeding and optimization of gene expression to increase their production. Data pertaining to safety and toxicity testing are needed prior to use of these sources of anti-cancer compounds in therapy.

  16. Engineering of plant-specific phenylpropanoids biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Yoon, Jin A; Paik, Ji Hye; Park, Je Won; Jung, Won Seok; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Yoo, Young Ji; Han, Ah Reum; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2009-05-20

    Phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and stilbenes, are plant secondary metabolites with potential pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. To expand the applicability of Streptomyces venezuelae as a heterologous host to plant polyketide production, flavonoid and stilbene biosynthetic genes were expressed in an engineered strain of S. venezuelae DHS2001 bearing a deletion of native pikromycin polyketide synthase gene. A plasmid expressing the 4-coumarate/cinnamate:coenzyme A ligase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScCCL) and the chalcone synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (atCHS) under the control of a single ermE* promoter was constructed and introduced into S. venezuelae DHS2001. The resulting strain produced racemic naringenin and pinocembrin from 4-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, respectively. Placement of an additional ermE* promoter upstream of the codon-optimized atCHS (atCHS(op)) gene significantly increased the yield of both flavanones. Expression of codon-optimized chalcone isomerase gene from Medicago sativa, together with ScCCL and atCHS(op) genes led to production of (2S)-flavanones, but the yield was reduced. On the other hand, a recombinant strain harboring the ScCCL and codon-optimized stilbene synthase gene from Arachis hypogaea generated stilbenes such as resveratrol and pinosylvin. This is the first report on the heterologous expression of plant phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces genus.

  17. Development and Evaluation of a High Density Genotyping ‘Axiom_Arachis’ Array with 58 K SNPs for Accelerating Genetics and Breeding in Groundnut

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Agarwal, Gaurav; Kale, Sandip M.; Clevenger, Josh; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Sriswathi, Manda; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Chavarro, Carolina; Chen, Xiaoping; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Vishwakarma, Manish K.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya; Liang, Xuanqiang; Bertioli, David J.; Guo, Baozhu; Jackson, Scott A.; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant DNA sequence variation in the genomes which can be used to associate genotypic variation to the phenotype. Therefore, availability of a high-density SNP array with uniform genome coverage can advance genetic studies and breeding applications. Here we report the development of a high-density SNP array ‘Axiom_Arachis’ with 58 K SNPs and its utility in groundnut genetic diversity study. In this context, from a total of 163,782 SNPs derived from DNA resequencing and RNA-sequencing of 41 groundnut accessions and wild diploid ancestors, a total of 58,233 unique and informative SNPs were selected for developing the array. In addition to cultivated groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), fair representation was kept for other diploids (A. duranensis, A. stenosperma, A. cardenasii, A. magna and A. batizocoi). Genotyping of the groundnut ‘Reference Set’ containing 300 genotypes identified 44,424 polymorphic SNPs and genetic diversity analysis provided in-depth insights into the genetic architecture of this material. The availability of the high-density SNP array ‘Axiom_Arachis’ with 58 K SNPs will accelerate the process of high resolution trait genetics and molecular breeding in cultivated groundnut. PMID:28091575

  18. Enhanced Production of Resveratrol, Piceatannol, Arachidin-1, and Arachidin-3 in Hairy Root Cultures of Peanut Co-treated with Methyl Jasmonate and Cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianhong; Fang, Lingling; Nopo-Olazabal, Cesar; Condori, Jose; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Balmaceda, Carlos; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio

    2015-04-22

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) produces stilbenoids upon exposure to abiotic and biotic stresses. Among these compounds, the prenylated stilbenoids arachidin-1 and arachidin-3 have shown diverse biological activities with potential applications in human health. These compounds exhibit higher or novel biological activities in vitro when compared to their nonprenylated analogues piceatannol and resveratrol, respectively. However, assessment of these bioactivities in vivo has been challenging because of their limited availability. In this study, hairy root cultures of peanut were induced to produce stilbenoids upon treatment with elicitors. Co-treatment with 100 μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 9 g/L methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD) led to sustained high levels of resveratrol, piceatannol, arachidin-1, and arachidin-3 in the culture medium when compared to other elicitor treatments. The average yields of arachidin-1 and arachidin-3 were 56 and 148 mg/L, respectively, after co-treatment with MeJA and CD. Furthermore, MeJA and CD had a synergistic effect on resveratrol synthase gene expression, which could explain the higher yield of resveratrol when compared to treatment with either MeJA or CD alone. Peanut hairy root cultures were shown to be a controlled and sustainable axenic system for the production of the diverse types of biologically active stilbenoids.

  19. Histochemistry of six lectins in the tissues of the flat fish Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Sook; Ahn, Mee-Jung; Lee, Yong-Duk; Go, Gyung-Min; Shin, Tae-Kyun

    2002-12-01

    Lectins are glycoproteins that specifically bind carbohydrate structures and may participate in the biodefense mechanisms of fish. In this study, the binding of three lectins, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia BS-1 (isolectin B4), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I) were studied in the gill, liver, intestine, kidney, heart, and spleen of the flat fish Paralichthys olivaceus. DBA was detected in intestinal mucous cells, as well as in gill epithelial and mucous cells. It was weakly detected in renal tubule epithelial cells and in bile duct epithelial cells. The strong SBA staining was seen in the intestinal club cells, in bile duct epithelial cells and renal tubule epithelial cells. There were intense positive reactions for isolectin B4 in gill epithelial and mucous cells, and the strong isolectin B4 staining was seen in epithelial cells of the bile duct and intestine. The strong WGA staining was seen in the gill mucosal cells, sinusoid, renal tubule epithelial cells and mucosal cells of the intestine. UEA-I was detected in the gill epithelial and mucosal cells, bile duct epithelial cells and renal tubular epithelial cells. These results suggest that the six lectins examined were localized in the covering epithelia of the various organs of the flat fish and they may participate in the biodefense mechanism of the intra body surface in which is exposed to various antigens.

  20. H-deficient Bombay and para-Bombay red blood cells are most strongly agglutinated by the galactophilic lectins of Aplysia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that detect I and P1 antigens.

    PubMed

    Gilboa-Garber, N; Sudakevitz, D; Levene, C; Rahimi-Levene, N; Yahalom, V

    2006-01-01

    The galactophilic lectins Aplysia gonad lectin (AGL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IL), which detect human I and P1 RBC antigens, were examined for hemagglutination of H+ (group O and B) and H-deficient (Bombay and para-Bombay phenotype) RBCs. The results were compared with those obtained using two other galactophilic lectins, Maclura pomifera lectin (MPL) and Arachis hypogaea (peanut) agglutinin (PNA), which share T-antigen affinity, and two fucose-binding H-specific lectins, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IIL), as well as with those achieved with anti-I serum. The results revealed that, in contrast to UEA-I and PA-IIL, which preferentially agglutinated H+ RBCs, and to MPL and PNA, which similarly agglutinated all examined RBCs, AGL, PA-IL, and the anti-I serum agglutinated the H-deficient RBCs more strongly than did the H+ RBCs. These findings could be attributed to increased levels of I and P1 antigens on those RBCs resulting from the use of the free common H-type 2 precursor for their synthesis. Since both PA-IL and PA-IIL are regarded as potential pathogen adhesins, it would be interesting to statistically compare the sensitivities of individuals of H+ and H-deficient RBC populations to P. aeruginosa infections.

  1. Study of surface carbohydrates in Galba truncatula tissues before and after infection with Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Katya; Georgieva, Liliya; Mizinska-Boevska, Yana; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R

    2016-01-01

    The presence and distribution of surface carbohydrates in the tissues of Galba truncatula snails uninfected or after infection with Fasciola hepatica as well as on the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of the parasite were studied by lectin labelling assay. This is an attempt to find similarities that indicate possible mimicry, utilised by the parasite as an evasion strategy in this snail-trematode system. Different binding patterns were identified on head-foot-mantle, hepatopancreas, genital glands, renopericardial complex of the host as well as of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The infection with F. hepatica leads to changes of labelling with Glycine max in the head-mantle cells and Arachis hypogaea in the tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas. The lectin binding on the other snail tissues is not changed by the development of the larvae. Our data clearly demonstrated the similarity in labelling of G. truncatula tissues and the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The role of glycosylation of the contact surfaces of both organisms in relation to the host-parasite interactions is also discussed. PMID:27384082

  2. Increased susceptibility and reduced phytoalexin accumulation in drought-stressed peanut kernels challenged with Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed Central

    Wotton, H R; Strange, R N

    1987-01-01

    Three genotypes of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), with ICG numbers 221, 1104, and 1326, were grown in three replicate plots and drought stressed during the last 58 days before harvest by withholding irrigation water. Within each plot there were eight levels of stress ranging from 1.1 to 25.9 cm of water. Kernels harvested from the plots were hydrated to 20% moisture and challenged with Aspergillus flavus. Fungal colonization, aflatoxin content, and phytoalexin accumulation were measured. Fungal colonization of non-drought-stressed kernels virtually ceased by 3 days after inoculation, when the phytoalexin concentration exceeded 50 micrograms/g (fresh weight) of kernels, but the aflatoxin concentration continued to rise exponentially for an additional day. When fungal colonization, aflatoxin production, and phytoalexin accumulation were measured 3 days after drought-stressed material was challenged, the following relationships were apparent. Fungal colonization was inversely related to water supply (r varied from -0.848 to -0.904, according to genotype), as was aflatoxin production (r varied from -0.876 to -0.912, according to genotype); the phytoalexin concentration was correlated with water supply when this exceeded 11 cm (r varied from 0.696 to 0.917, according to genotype). The results are discussed in terms of the critical role played by drought stress in predisposing peanuts to infection by A. flavus and the role of the impaired phytoalexin response in mediating this increased susceptibility. PMID:3105455

  3. Divergent Nod-Containing Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 with a Megaplasmid and its Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Songwattana, Pongpan; Noisangiam, Rujirek; Piromyou, Pongdet; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Nantagij, Achara; Okazaki, Shin; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Teaumroong, Neung

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9, a non-photosynthetic bacterial strain originally isolated from the root nodules of the legume Aeschynomene americana, is a divergent nod-containing strain. It exhibits a broad host range, being able to colonize and efficiently nodulate the roots of most plants from the Dalbergioid, Millettioid, and Robinioid tribes (7 species of Papilionoideae). In all cases, nodulation was determinate. The morphology and size of DOA9 bacteroids isolated from the nodules of various species of Papilionoideae were indistinguishable from the free-living form. However, they were spherical in Arachis hypogaea nodules. GusA-tagged DOA9 also colonized rice roots as endophytes. Since broad-host-range legume symbionts often carry multiple replicons in their genome, we analyzed the replicons for symbiosis genes by electrophoresis. DOA9 carried two replicons, a chromosome (cDOA9) and single megaplasmid (pDOA9) larger than 352 kb. The genes for nodulation (nodA, B, C) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) were localized on the megaplasmid. Southern blot hybridization revealed two copies of nodA on the megaplasmid, single copies of nodB and C on the megaplasmid, and one copy each of nifH on the chromosome and megaplasmid. These results suggested that Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 may have the unusual combination of a broad host range, bacteroid differentiation, and symbiosis-mediating replicons. PMID:25283477

  4. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  5. Comparing Symbiotic Efficiency between Swollen versus Nonswollen Rhizobial Bacteroids1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Oono, Ryoko; Denison, R. Ford

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic rhizobia differentiate physiologically and morphologically into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids inside legume host nodules. The differentiation is apparently terminal in some legume species, such as peas (Pisum sativum) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), likely due to extreme cell swelling induced by the host. In other legume species, such as beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), differentiation into bacteroids, which are similar in size and shape to free-living rhizobia, is reversible. Bacteroid modification by plants may affect the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Here, we compare symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in two different hosts where the rhizobia differentiate into swollen nonreproductive bacteroids in one host and remain nonswollen and reproductive in the other. Two such dual-host strains were tested: Rhizobium leguminosarum A34 in peas and beans and Bradyrhizobium sp. 32H1 in peanuts and cowpeas. In both comparisons, swollen bacteroids conferred more net host benefit by two measures: return on nodule construction cost (plant growth per gram nodule growth) and nitrogen fixation efficiency (H2 production by nitrogenase per CO2 respired). Terminal bacteroid differentiation among legume species has evolved independently multiple times, perhaps due to the increased host fitness benefits observed in this study. PMID:20837702

  6. The use of SNP markers for linkage mapping in diploid and tetraploid peanuts.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Chu, Ye; Dantas, Karinne M; Santos, Silvio P; Gouvea, Ediene; Guimarães, Patricia M; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Knapp, Steven J; Moretzsohn, Marcio C

    2014-01-10

    Single nucleotide polymorphic markers (SNPs) are attractive for use in genetic mapping and marker-assisted breeding because they can be scored in parallel assays at favorable costs. However, scoring SNP markers in polyploid plants like the peanut is problematic because of interfering signal generated from the DNA bases that are homeologous to those being assayed. The present study used a previously constructed 1536 GoldenGate SNP assay developed using SNPs identified between two A. duranensis accessions. In this study, the performance of this assay was tested on two RIL mapping populations, one diploid (A. duranensis × A. stenosperma) and one tetraploid [A. hypogaea cv. Runner IAC 886 × synthetic tetraploid (A. ipaënsis × A. duranensis)(4×)]. The scoring was performed using the software GenomeStudio version 2011.1. For the diploid, polymorphic markers provided excellent genotyping scores with default software parameters. In the tetraploid, as expected, most of the polymorphic markers provided signal intensity plots that were distorted compared to diploid patterns and that were incorrectly scored using default parameters. However, these scorings were easily corrected using the GenomeStudio software. The degree of distortion was highly variable. Of the polymorphic markers, approximately 10% showed no distortion at all behaving as expected for single-dose markers, and another 30% showed low distortion and could be considered high-quality. The genotyped markers were incorporated into diploid and tetraploid genetic maps of Arachis and, in the latter case, were located almost entirely on A genome linkage groups.

  7. Sandwich immunoassays for the determination of peanut and hazelnut traces in foods.

    PubMed

    Kiening, Martin; Niessner, Reinhard; Drs, Elisabeth; Baumgartner, Sabine; Krska, Rudolf; Bremer, Monique; Tomkies, Victoria; Reece, Paul; Danks, Chris; Immer, Ulrike; Weller, Michael G

    2005-05-04

    People suffering from food allergies are dependent on accurate food labeling, as an avoidance diet is the only effective countermeasure. Even a small amount of allergenic protein can trigger severe reactions in highly sensitized patients. Therefore, sensitive and reliable tests are needed to detect potential cross-contamination. In this paper two fast sandwich immunoassays are described for the determination of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) traces in complex food matrices. Mouse monoclonal antibodies were used as capture antibodies, and labeled rabbit polyclonal antibodies were used as detection antibodies in both assays. The assay time was 30 min in total, and cross-reactivities against a variety of fruits and seeds were found to be in the low 10(-4)% (ppm) level or in some cases not detectable. The recoveries in all tested food matrices ranged from 86 to 127%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.2-1.2 mg/kg (ppm) in food for both peanut and hazelnut, respectively.

  8. Multiplex DNA detection of food allergens on a digital versatile disk.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A; Santiago-Felipe, Sara; Morais, Sergi; Gabaldón, José Antonio; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2012-01-11

    The development of a DNA microarray method on a digital versatile disk (DVD) is described for the simultaneous detection of traces of hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.), peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ), and soybean ( Glycine max ) in foods. After DNA extraction, multiplex PCR was set up using 5'-labeled specific primers for Cor a 1, Ar h 2, and Le genes, respectively. Digoxin-labeled PCR products were detected by hybridization with 5'-biotinylated probes immobilized on a streptavidin-modified DVD surface. The reaction product attenuates the signal intensity of the laser that reached the DVD drive used as detector, correlating well with the amount of amplified sequence. Analytical performances showed a detection limit of 1 μg/g and good assay reproducibility (RSD 8%), suitable for the simultaneous detection of the three targeted allergens. The developed methodology was tested with several commercially available foodstuffs, demonstrating its applicability. The results were in good agreement, in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility, with those obtained with ELISA, PCR-gel agarose electrophoresis, and RT-PCR.

  9. Effects of Thrips Density, Mode of Inoculation, and Plant Age on Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Transmission in Peanut Plants.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anita; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Abney, Mark R; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-02-01

    Spotted wilt caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a serious disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southeastern United States. Peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV are effective in suppressing spotted wilt. All commercially available genotypes with field resistance to TSWV were developed through conventional breeding. As a part of the breeding process, peanut genotypes are regularly screened under field situations. Despite numerous advantages associated with field screening, it is often limited by inconsistent vector (thrips) and TSWV pressure. A greenhouse transmission protocol would aid in thorough screening of selected genotypes and conserve time. In this study, various parameters associated with TSWV transmission, including tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) density, mode of inoculation, and plant age, were evaluated. Greater incidences of TSWV infection were obtained with thrips-mediated inoculation when compared with mechanical inoculation. TSWV inoculation with three, five, and 10 thrips resulted in greater incidences of TSWV infection in plants than inoculation with one thrips. However, incidences of TSWV infection did not vary between plants inoculated with three, five, and 10 viruliferous thrips. With both thrips-mediated and mechanical inoculation methods, incidences of TSWV infection in 1-wk-old plants were greater than in 4-wk-old plants. TSWV copy numbers, as determined by qPCR, also decreased with plant age. Results suggest that using at least three thrips per plant and 1- to 2-wk-old plants would maximize TSWV infection in inoculated plants.

  10. Mining the “glycocode”—exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gunning, A. Patrick; Kirby, Andrew R.; Fuell, Christine; Pin, Carmen; Tailford, Louise E.; Juge, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Mucins are the main components of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. Mucin glycosylation is critical to most intermolecular and intercellular interactions. However, due to the highly complex and heterogeneous mucin glycan structures, the encoded biological information remains largely encrypted. Here we have developed a methodology based on force spectroscopy to identify biologically accessible glycoepitopes in purified porcine gastric mucin (pPGM) and purified porcine jejunal mucin (pPJM). The binding specificity of lectins Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA), peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA), Maackia amurensis lectin II (MALII), and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA) was utilized in force spectroscopy measurements to quantify the affinity and spatial distribution of their cognate sugars at the molecular scale. Binding energy of 4, 1.6, and 26 aJ was determined on pPGM for RCA, PNA, and UEA. Binding was abolished by competition with free ligands, demonstrating the validity of the affinity data. The distributions of the nearest binding site separations estimated the number of binding sites in a 200-nm mucin segment to be 4 for RCA, PNA, and UEA, and 1.8 for MALII. Binding site separations were affected by partial defucosylation of pPGM. Furthermore, we showed that this new approach can resolve differences between gastric and jejunum mucins.—Gunning, A. P., Kirby, A. R., Fuell, C., Pin, C., Tailford L. E., Juge, N. Mining the “glycocode”—exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy. PMID:23493619

  11. Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food.

    PubMed

    Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B

    2015-01-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) μmol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts.

  12. Overexpression of bacterial mtlD gene in peanut improves drought tolerance through accumulation of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated.

  13. Relationship between Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 binding and nucleolar organizer regions in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Niikawa, S; Hara, A; Shirakami, S; Zhang, W; Sakai, N; Yamada, H; Shimokawa, K

    1993-06-01

    Histochemical staining using lectins from Ricinus communis (RCA-1), Arachis hypogaea, and Canavalia ensiformis was investigated in 40 human gliomas, three central neurocytomas, one human neuroblastoma cell line (IMR-32), and two normal brain tissues. Staining was uniform in low-grade gliomas, but heterogeneous in high-grade gliomas, particularly with RCA-1. The correlation between RCA-1 reactivity and cellular proliferative potential was investigated in 10 high-grade gliomas using a combined staining technique: the silver colloid method for nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) and histochemistry with RCA-1. The mean number of Ag-NORs counted on a simple preparation was significantly greater in the nuclei of RCA-1-negative cells than in those of RCA-1-positive cells (p < 0.001). The staining intensity of inflammatory cells was obviously higher than that of neoplastic cells, and therefore inflammatory cells were easily discriminated from neoplastic cells. Combined RCA-1 histochemical and Ag-NOR silver colloid staining revealed heterogeneous expression of RCA-1 receptor in high-grade gliomas with changes in Ag-NOR number. This result seems to show that high-grade gliomas express heterogeneous cellular carbohydrate structure and proliferative potential even within the same tumor.

  14. Contributions of rational soil tillage to compaction stress in main peanut producing areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pu; Wu, Zhengfeng; Wang, Chunxiao; Luo, Sheng; Zheng, Yongmei; Yu, Tianyi; Sun, Xuewu; Sun, Xiushan; Wang, Caibin; He, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Tillage intensities largely affect soil compaction dynamics in agro-ecosystems. However, the contribution of tillage intensities on compaction changes in underground peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields has not been quantified. We thus aimed to better understand the role of soil tillage intensities in mitigation of compaction stress for peanuts. Using three field tillage experiments in major Chinese peanut producing areas, we quantified the effects of (1) no tillage, (2) shallow (20 cm) plowing, (3) deep (30 cm) plowing and (4) deep (30 cm) loosening on changes in soil bulk density at 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–30 cm depths, roots and pods growth, and nutrient accumulation. Results showed that tillage management effectively mitigated soil compaction stress for peanut growth and production. Greater beneficial improvement for the underground growth of roots and pods, and N accumulation ranked as deep plowing > shallow plowing and deep loosening. Respective increases of 7.5% and 4.6% in root biomass productions and peanut yields were obtained when soil bulk density was decreased by 0.1 g cm−3. Our results suggest that the mitigation of soil compaction stress by deep plowing could be a key tillage strategy for increasing peanut yields in the field. PMID:27934905

  15. A Stilbenoid-Specific Prenyltransferase Utilizes Dimethylallyl Pyrophosphate from the Plastidic Terpenoid Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prenylated stilbenoids synthesized in some legumes exhibit plant pathogen defense properties and pharmacological activities with potential benefits to human health. Despite their importance, the biosynthetic pathways of these compounds remain to be elucidated. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) hairy root cultures produce a diverse array of prenylated stilbenoids upon treatment with elicitors. Using metabolic inhibitors of the plastidic and cytosolic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated that the prenyl moiety on the prenylated stilbenoids derives from a plastidic pathway. We further characterized, to our knowledge for the first time, a membrane-bound stilbenoid-specific prenyltransferase activity from the microsomal fraction of peanut hairy roots. This microsomal fraction-derived resveratrol 4-dimethylallyl transferase utilizes 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate as a prenyl donor and prenylates resveratrol to form arachidin-2. It also prenylates pinosylvin to chiricanine A and piceatannol to arachidin-5, a prenylated stilbenoid identified, to our knowledge, for the first time in this study. This prenyltransferase exhibits strict substrate specificity for stilbenoids and does not prenylate flavanone, flavone, or isoflavone backbones, even though it shares several common features with flavonoid-specific prenyltransferases. PMID:27356974

  16. Overexpression of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam.Verdc.) NAC transcriptional factor (MuNAC4) in groundnut confers enhanced drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pandurangaiah, Merum; Lokanadha Rao, G; Sudhakarbabu, O; Nareshkumar, A; Kiranmai, K; Lokesh, U; Thapa, Ganesh; Sudhakar, Chinta

    2014-08-01

    The NAC family being the largest plant-specific transcription factors functions in diverse and vital physiological processes during development. NAC proteins are known to be crucial in imparting tolerance to plants against abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, but the functions of most of them are still elusive. In this study, we report for the first time expression of the MuNAC4, a member of NAC transcription factor from horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) conferring drought tolerance. The groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) transgenics were generated using recombinant MuNAC4 binary vector transformation approach. Molecular analysis of these transgenic lines confirmed the stable gene integration and expression of the MuNAC4 gene. Twelve lines of T5 generation exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to drought stress with proliferated lateral root growth as compared to wild types. Transgenics exposed to long-term desiccation stress assays showed increased lateral roots and greenish growth. The physiological parameters analysis also suggests that overexpression of MuNAC4 plays a significant role in improving the water stress tolerance of transgenic groundnut, reducing the damage to membrane structures and enhancing osmotic adjustment and antioxidative enzyme regulation under stress. This study validates MuNAC4 as an important candidate gene for future phytoengineering approaches for drought tolerance in crop plants.

  17. Plant growth promotion and root colonization by EPS producing Enterobacter sp. RZS5 under heavy metal contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, R Z; Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S

    2015-02-01

    The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 μM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 μM of Ca2+; 50 μM of Fe2+ and 60 μM of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.

  18. In Vitro Embryo Explant Cultures of Peanut to Evaluate Resistance to Ditylenchus destructor

    PubMed Central

    De Waele, D.; van der Walt, P. C. W.; Wilken, Ria; Basson, Selmaré; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    Population densities of D. destructor on embryo explants of 22 peanut genotypes grown in vitro were compared with those in roots and seeds of the same genotypes grown in the greenhouse. During the first 8 weeks after inoculation, the optimum incubation period was 6 weeks for maximum reproduction of Ditylenchus destructor on embryo explants of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Sellie) inoculated with 250 nematodes at 25 C. Nematode numbers increased 17-fold. Deletion of MnSO₄ H₂O and a higher KH₂PO₄ concentration in the medium resulted in higher nematode reproduction. Resistance or susceptibility to D. destructor was observed in seeds of several genotypes but was not matched by differences in host suitability in roots. The results indicate that the factor for resistance or susceptibility to D. destructor is synthesized in the seeds of peanut but is not translocated to the roots. Use of embryo explant cultures of peanut as a rapid method to evaluate resistance to D. destructor did not work under the conditions described. PMID:19287727

  19. Peanut cultivar selection for BLSS in terms of the biomass productivity, nutritional quality, photosynthetic character and mineral ions up-take by PTNDS cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been selected as one of the crop candidates for BLSS, because its seeds have high nutritional value, being rich in vegetable oil and protein. Porous-Tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) has been successfully used for crop cultivation in controllable environments. In this paper, four peanut cultivars ('HY25', 'HY28', 'HY31' and 'BS1016') were evaluated in terms of yield, photosynthetic efficiency, insoluble fiber and ions uptake efficiency. Besides protein, total oil content and fatty acid composition were monitored in the seeds. 'HY25' plants showed much higher yield and harvest index, in addition to the lower lignin content of inedible biomass. Data showed that 'HY25' had the higher photosynthetic capacity of peanut leaves with regard to highest photosynthetic rate, qP and ΦPSII, lowest energy dissipation (qN) values, whereas instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency carotenoids content were no difference with the other cultivars. 'BS1016‧ showed the lowest photosynthetic capacity contrarily. These suggested that 'HY25‧ could be the most suitable for the cultivation in a closed controlled environment with PTNDS. While, both cations and anions except NH4+ and H2PO4-, were accumulated excessively compared to controls, especially with anions in PTNDS. Hence, further studies are needed in order to improve the nutritional quality of seeds and modify the fertilization strategy of this cultivar in the growth environment feasible during a closed environment and space mission.

  20. Characterization and compilation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of peanut from public database

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are several reports describing thousands of SSR markers in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome. There is a need to integrate various research reports of peanut DNA polymorphism into a single platform. Further, because of lack of uniformity in the labeling of these markers across the publications, there is some confusion on the identities of many markers. We describe below an effort to develop a central comprehensive database of polymorphic SSR markers in peanut. Findings We compiled 1,343 SSR markers as detecting polymorphism (14.5%) within a total of 9,274 markers. Amongst all polymorphic SSRs examined, we found that AG motif (36.5%) was the most abundant followed by AAG (12.1%), AAT (10.9%), and AT (10.3%).The mean length of SSR repeats in dinucleotide SSRs was significantly longer than that in trinucleotide SSRs. Dinucleotide SSRs showed higher polymorphism frequency for genomic SSRs when compared to trinucleotide SSRs, while for EST-SSRs, the frequency of polymorphic SSRs was higher in trinucleotide SSRs than in dinucleotide SSRs. The correlation of the length of SSR and the frequency of polymorphism revealed that the frequency of polymorphism was decreased as motif repeat number increased. Conclusions The assembled polymorphic SSRs would enhance the density of the existing genetic maps of peanut, which could also be a useful source of DNA markers suitable for high-throughput QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection in peanut improvement and thus would be of value to breeders. PMID:22818284

  1. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  2. N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.

    PubMed

    Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment.

  3. Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit A; Peczuh, Mark W; Kumar, Challa V; Rusling, James F

    2014-11-21

    Severity of peanut allergies is linked to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in blood, but diagnostics from assays using glycoprotein allergen mixtures may be inaccurate. Measuring IgEs specific to individual peptide and carbohydrate epitopes of allergenic proteins is promising. We report here the first immunoarray for IgEs utilizing both peptide and carbohydrate epitopes. A surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) microarray was equipped with peptide and β-xylosyl glycoside (BXG) epitopes from major peanut allergen glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea h2 (Ara-h2). A monoclonal anti-IgE antibody was included as positive control. IgEs were precaptured onto magnetic beads loaded with polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies to enhance sensitivity and minimize non-specific binding. As little as 0.1 attomole (0.5 pg mL(-1)) IgE was detected from dilute serum in 45 min. IgEs binding to Ara-h2 peptide and BXG were quantified in 10 μL of patient serum and correlated with standard ImmunoCAP values.

  4. Heterologous Expression of the AtDREB1A Gene in Transgenic Peanut-Conferred Tolerance to Drought and Salinity Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P.; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai

    2014-01-01

    Research on genetic transformation in various crop plants using the DREB1A transcription factor has shown better abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic crops. The AtDREB1A transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. GG 20), which was previously developed, was characterized in terms of its physio-biochemical, molecular and growth parameters. The tolerance of this transgenic peanut to drought and salinity stresses was evaluated at the seedling (18 days old) and maturity stages. Transgenic peanut lines showed improved tolerance to both stresses over wild-type, as observed by delayed and less severe wilting of leaves and by improved growth parameters that were correlated with physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, total chlorophyll content, osmotic potential, electrolytic leakage and relative water content. The expression pattern of the AtDREB1A gene evaluated using qPCR at different time points demonstrated that transgene expression was induced within two hours of stress imposition. The better performance of transgenic AtDREB1A peanut at the seedling stage and the improved growth parameters were due to the expression of the transgene, which is a transcription factor, and the possible up-regulation of various stress-inducible, downstream genes in the signal transduction pathway under abiotic stress. PMID:25545786

  5. Multilocus sequences confirm the close genetic relationship of four phytoplasmas of peanut witches'-broom group 16SrII-A.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Piao, Chun-gen; Tian, Guo-zhong; Liu, Zhi-xin; Guo, Min-wei; Lin, Cai-li; Wang, Xi-zhuo

    2014-08-01

    Four witches'-broom diseases associated with Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Crotalaria pallida, Tephrosia purpurea, and Cleome viscosa were observed in Hainan Province, China during field surveys in 2004, 2005, and 2007. In previously reported studies, we identified these four phytoplasmas as members of subgroup 16SrII-A, and discovered that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.9-100% identical to one another. In this study, we performed extensive phylogenetic analyses to elucidate relationships among them. We analyzed sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and rplV-rpsC, rpoB, gyrB, dnaK, dnaJ, recA, and secY combined sequence data from two strains each of the four phytoplasmas from Hainan province, as well as strains of peanut witches'-broom from Taiwan (PnWB-TW), "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense", "Ca. Phytoplasma mali AT", aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, and onion yellows phytoplasma OY-M. In the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree, the eight Hainan strains form a clade with PnWB-TW. Analysis of the seven concatenated gene regions indicated that the four phytoplasmas collected from Hainan province cluster most closely with one another, but are closely related to PnWB-TW. The results of field survey and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Cr. pallida, T. purpurea, and Cl. viscosa may be natural plant hosts of peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma.

  6. Mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts sold at markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Mngqawa, Pamella; Rheeder, John P; Teffo, Snow L; Katerere, David R

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. In this survey, the mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts collected from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa, was assessed. Twenty peanut samples were purchased randomly at informal markets in the two cities and analysed for mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) using standard methods. The results indicated that 95% of the Kinshasa samples and 100% of the Pretoria samples were contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi in the ranges 20-49,000 and 40-21,000 CFU/g, respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the Kinshasa samples and 35% of the Pretoria samples exceeded the maximum limits of AFB1 as set by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Residents of both cities are at a high risk of aflatoxin exposure despite their apparent cultural, socio-economic, geographic and climatic differences. Further work needs to be done to understand the supply chains of peanut trade in informal markets of the two countries so that interventions are well targeted on a regional rather than a national level.

  7. Efficacy of entomopathogenic Steinernema and Heterorhabditis nematodes against white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in peanut fields.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Yan, X; Zhao, C; Han, R

    2013-06-01

    The efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against the white grub Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields was evaluated. In the first experiment with a high initial white grub population (24.65 +/- 2.44 larvae per m2) in the field, Steinernema longicaudum X-7 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 at 10,000 and 5,000 infective juveniles (IJs) per plant contributed to significantly higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae, lower percentage of the injured legume, and higher peanut yield compared with chlorpyrifos and other treatments. The peanut yields harvested from the plots treated with EPNs at 5,000 IJs per plant were at least 70% higher than that from the untreated control (water) and at least 30% higher than that from chlorpyrifos-treated plots. In the second experiment with a low initial white grub population (8.07 +/- 1.29 larvae per m2) in the field, EPN treatment did not increase peanut yield compared with the other treatments. But both S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 gained higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae and lower percentage of the injured legume than Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) All and the control. The cost-benefit of using EPNs for white grub control was estimated to be comparable with that of using chemicals. S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 showed promise for white grub control in peanut fields.

  8. Effects of Interactions of Auxin-Producing Bacteria and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes on Regulation of Peanut Growths

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Xu, Wensi; Jiang, Ying; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-01-01

    The influences of an IAA (indole-3-acetic acid)-producing bacterium (Bacillus megaterium) and two bacterial-feeding nematodes (Cephalobus sp. or Mesorhabditis sp.) on the growth of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Haihua 1) after various durations of time were investigated in natural soils. The addition of bacteria and nematodes and incubation time all significantly affected plant growth, plant root growth, plant nutrient concentrations, soil nutrient concentrations, soil microorganisms and soil auxin concentration. The addition of nematodes caused greater increases in these indices than those of bacteria, while the addition of the combination of bacteria and nematodes caused further increases. After 42-day growth, the increases in soil respiration differed between the additions of two kinds of nematodes because of differences in their life strategies. The effects of the bacteria and nematodes on the nutrient and hormone concentrations were responsible for the increases in plant growth. These results indicate the potential for promoting plant growth via the addition of nematodes and bacteria to soil. PMID:25867954

  9. Leaf aquaporin transcript abundance in peanut genotypes diverging in expression of the limited-transpiration trait when subjected to differing vapor pressure deficits and aquaporin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Devi, M Jyostna; Sinclair, Thomas R; Jain, Mukesh; Gallo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    A plant trait currently being exploited to decrease crop yield loss under water-deficit conditions is limited-transpiration rate (TRlim ) under high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) conditions. Although limited genotype comparisons for the TRlim trait have been performed in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), no detailed study to describe the basis for this trait in peanut has been reported. Since it has been hypothesized that the TRlim trait may be a result of low leaf hydraulic conductance associated with aquaporins (AQPs), the first objective of this study was to examine a possible correlation of TRlim to leaf AQP transcriptional profiles in six peanut cultivars. Five of the studied cultivars were selected because they expressed TRlim while the cultivar York did not. Transcripts of six AQPs were measured. Under exposure to high vapor pressure deficit, cultivar C 76-16 had decreased AQP transcript abundance for four of the six AQPs but in York only one AQP had decreased abundance. The second objective was to explore the influence of AQP inhibitors mercury and silver on expression of TRlim and AQP transcription profiles. Quantitative RT-PCR data were compared in cultivars York and C 76-16, which had the extreme response in TR to VPD. Inhibitor treatment resulted in increased abundance of AQP transcripts in both. The results of these experiments indicate that AQP transcript abundance itself may not be useful in identifying genotypes expressing the TRlim trait under high VPD conditions.

  10. Crop Rotation Studies with Velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) for the Management of Meloidogyne spp.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Pinochet, J.; Robertson, D. G.; Wells, L.

    1992-01-01

    Results from a greenhouse experiment at Cabrils, Spain, with two velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) accessions (Florida and Mozambique) growing in sterilized sandy loam and inoculated with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica revealed that the legume was not a host for these nematodes. In contrast, roots of 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentum), 'Summer Crookneck' squash (Cucurbita pepo), and 'Davis' soybean (Glycine max) were galled by all three root-knot nematodes. Greenhouse experiments at Auburn, Alabama, using soils infested with Heterodera glycines (race 14) + M. incognita or with H. glycines + M. arenaria (race 2) showed that, in contrast to Davis soybean, a Mexican and the Florida velvetbean accessions were not hosts for the nematodes. An experiment with 'Florunner' peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and the Florida velvetbean in a field infested with M. arenaria (race 1), near Headland, Alabama, showed that significant juvenile populations of the nematode at peanut harvest time were present only in plots with peanut. A microplot rotation experiment demonstrated that 'Black Beauty' eggplant (Solanum melongena) following the Florida velvetbean had heavier shoots and lower numbers of M. arenaria juveniles in the roots and in the soil than eggplant after Summer Crookneck squash or Davis soybean. PMID:19283043

  11. Potential of trap crops for integrated management of the tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20-30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage.

  12. Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on growth and yield of groundnut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammed; Ismail B., S.

    2016-11-01

    The level of phosphorus (P) and the time of application are considered as two of the most important factors affecting crop growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). A field experiment was carried out at the greenhouse of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Malaysia, in 2014. The objective of the study was to find the best level and the timing of P application, with the aim of getting better growth and higher yield. A complete randomized design with three rates of P (27.5, 55 and 82.5 kg ha-1) were used. The dosage that gave the highest yield and growth was 82.5 kg ha-1 when P application was given at 7, 21, 42 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). The results show that the highest level of P (82.5 kg ha-1) at 7 DAS significantly increased plant height, number of nodules/plant, number of pods per plant, pod yield (kg ha-1), seed weight, oil content and shelling percentage. It can be concluded from the experiment that P fertilizer application at 82.5 kg ha-1 at 7 DAS was necessary for profitable groundnut production in the study area.

  13. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  14. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  15. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones.

  16. Study of surface carbohydrates in Galba truncatula tissues before and after infection with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Katya; Georgieva, Liliya; Mizinska-Boevska, Yana; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R

    2016-07-04

    The presence and distribution of surface carbohydrates in the tissues of Galba truncatula snails uninfected or after infection with Fasciola hepatica as well as on the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of the parasite were studied by lectin labelling assay. This is an attempt to find similarities that indicate possible mimicry, utilised by the parasite as an evasion strategy in this snail-trematode system. Different binding patterns were identified on head-foot-mantle, hepatopancreas, genital glands, renopericardial complex of the host as well as of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The infection with F. hepatica leads to changes of labelling with Glycine max in the head-mantle cells and Arachis hypogaea in the tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas. The lectin binding on the other snail tissues is not changed by the development of the larvae. Our data clearly demonstrated the similarity in labelling of G. truncatula tissues and the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The role of glycosylation of the contact surfaces of both organisms in relation to the host-parasite interactions is also discussed.

  17. Assessment of mycoflora and infestation of insects, vector of Aspergillus section Flavi, in stored peanut from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nesci, Andrea; Montemarani, Analía; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of spoilage fungi and Aspergillus section Flavi populations, the aflatoxins incidence, the role of insects as vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi and the AFs-producing ability of the isolated species throughout the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) storage period were evaluated. Analyses of fungal populations from 95 peanut seed samples did not demonstrate significant differences between the incidences in each sampling period. Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated during all incubation periods. Cryptolestes spp. (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) were collected in August, September and October with 18, 16 and 28% of peanut samples contaminated, respectively. Insects isolated during August showed 69% of Aspergillus section Flavi contamination. A. flavus was the most frequently isolated (79%) from peanut seeds and from insect (59%). The greater levels of AFB1 were detected in September and October with a mean of 68.86 μg/kg and 69.12 μg/kg respectively. The highest proportion of A. flavus toxigenic strains (87.5%) was obtained in June. The presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and insect vectors of aflatoxigenic fungi presented a potential risk for aflatoxin production during the peanut storage period. Integrated management of fungi and insect vectors is in progress.

  18. Functional properties of peanut fractions on the growth of probiotics and foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengfei; Bitsko, Elizabeth; Biswas, Debabrata

    2015-03-01

    Various compounds found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) have been shown to provide multiple benefits to human health and may influence the growth of a broad range of gut bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of peanut white kernel and peanut skin on 3 strains of Lactobacillus and 3 major foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens. Significant (P < 0.05) growth stimulation of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was observed in the presence of 0.5% peanut flour (PF) made from peanut white kernel, whereas 0.5% peanut skin extract (PSE) exerted the inhibitory effect on the growth of these beneficial microbes. We also found that within 72 h, PF inhibited growth of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), while PSE significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited Listeria monocytogenes but promoted the growth of both EHEC and Salmonella Typhimurium. The cell adhesion and invasion abilities of 3 pathogens to the host cells were also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.5% PF and 0.5% PSE. These results suggest that peanut white kernel might assist in improving human gut flora as well as reducing EHEC, whereas the beneficial effects of peanut skins require further research and investigation.

  19. Growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of hydroponically grown peanut in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanciel, K.; Mortley, D. G.; Hileman, D. R.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of 'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to concentrations of 400 (ambient), 800, and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in reach-in growth chambers. Foliage fresh and dry weights increased with increased CO2 up to 800 micromoles mol-1, but declined at 1200 micromoles mol-1. The number and the fresh and dry weights of pods also increased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, the yield of immature pods was not significantly influenced by increased CO2. Total seed yield increased 33% from ambient to 800 micromoles mol-1 CO2, and 4% from 800 to 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Harvest index increased with increasing CO2. Branch length increased while specific leaf area decreased linearly as CO2 increased from ambient to 1200 micromoles mol-1. Net photosynthetic rate was highest among plants grown at 800 micromoles mol-1. Stomatal conductance decreased with increased CO2. Carboxylation efficiency was similar among plants grown at 400 and 800 micromoles mol-1 and decreased at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 micromoles mol-1 had positive effects on peanut growth and yield, but above 800 micromoles mol-1 enrichment seed yield increased only marginally.

  20. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production.

  1. Synthesis of artificial N-glycopolypeptides carrying N-acetyllactosamine and related compounds and their specific interactions with lectins.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Murata, T; Kawagishi, H; Usui, T; Kobayashi, K

    1998-06-01

    Artificial N-glycopolypeptides carrying N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) or related compounds were synthesized. First, sugars were converted into their corresponding beta-glycosylamines with ammonium hydrogen carbonate. Then, the beta-glycosylamines were condensated with the carboxyl groups of poly(L-glutamic acid). N-Glycopolypeptides with different degrees of substitution of sugars were isolated by passage through a column of Sephadex G-25. These synthetic polymers were used as model compounds in the analysis of oligosaccharide-lectin interactions. Interactions with some lectins were investigated by agar-gel double-diffusion tests and in terms of inhibition of hemagglutination. A glycopolypeptide substituted with LacNAc reacted with Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA), peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-120 (RCA120), wheat germ (Triticum vulgaris) agglutinin (WGA) lectins, which recognize either galactosyl or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues. Other synthetic glycopolymers carrying N-acetylisolactosamine, GlcNAc, N,N'-diacetylchitobiose, or N,N', N"-triacetylchitotriose also reacted with WGA, and these last two polymers inhibited hemagglutination most. Of these five glycopolypeptides, only the one substituted with LacNAc reacted with ECA. These sugar-substituted glycopolypeptides interacted specifically with the corresponding lectins, no matter how much shorter the sugar side chains of the glycopolymers were than those of natural glycoproteins.

  2. Studies on the methods of identification of irradiated food I. Seedling growth test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiongying, Liu; Yanhua, Kuang; Yuemei, Zheng

    1993-07-01

    A seedling growth test for the identification of gamma irradiated edible vegetable seeds was described. The identification of gamma irradiated grape and the other seeds has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy, rapid and practical technique for the identification of irradiated edible vegetable seeds. Seven different irradiated edible vegetable seeds as: rice ( Oryza sativa), peanut ( Arachis hypogaea), maize ( Zeamays), soybean ( Glycine max), red bean ( Phaseolus angularis), mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus) and catjang cowpea ( Vigna cylindrica) were tested by using the method of seedling growth. All of the edible vegetable seeds were exposed to gamma radiation on different doses, O(CK), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy. After treatment with above 1.0 kGy dose to the seeds, the seedling rate was less than 50% compared with the control. Although the seedling rate of rice seeds can reached 58%, the seedling growth was not normal and the seedling leaves appeared deformed. The results by this method were helpful to identify gamma treatment of the edible vegetable seeds with above 1.0 kGy dose.

  3. Comparative host selection responses of specialist (Helicoverpa assulta) and generalist (Helicoverpa armigera) moths in complex plant environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-zheng; Teng, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Hong-fei; Liu, Ting; Wang, Qiong; Guo, Xian-ru

    2017-01-01

    We tested the behavioral responses of ovipositing females and natal larvae of two sibling species, a generalist Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and a specialist Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée), to odor sources emitted from different combinations of six plant species (tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum; hot pepper, Capsicum annuum; tomato, Solanum esculentum; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum; peanut, Arachis hypogaea; maize, Zea mays). Under the conditions of plant materials versus corresponding controls, both stages of both species could find their corresponding host plants. However, H. assulta females and larvae exhibited a supersensitive and an insensitive response, respectively. Under the conditions of tobacco paired with each plant species, H. assulta females exhibited more specialized ovipositional response to tobacco than its sibling. When each plant species were combined with tobacco and tested against tobacco reference, peanut played an opposite role in the two species in their ovipositional responses to tobacco, and cotton can enhance the approaching response of H. armigera larvae when combined with tobacco. It seems that two attractive host plants also can act antagonistically with respect to host selection of the generalist via volatile exchange. Tomato should better be excluded from host list of H. assulta. PMID:28182679

  4. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  5. Characterization of early leaf spot suppression by strip tillage in peanut.

    PubMed

    Cantonwine, E G; Culbreath, A K; Stevenson, K L

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemics of early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), caused by Cercospora arachidicola, are less severe in strip-tilled than conventionally tilled fields. Experiments were carried out to characterize the effect of strip tillage on early leaf spot epidemics and identify the primary target of suppression using a comparative epidemiology approach. Leaf spot intensity was assessed weekly as percent incidence or with the Florida 1-to-10 severity scale in peanut plots that were conventionally or strip tilled. The logistic model, fit to disease progress data, was used to estimate initial disease (y(0)) and epidemic rate (r) parameters. Environmental variables, inoculum abundance, and field host resistance were assessed independently. For experiments combined, estimated y(0) was less in strip-tilled than conventionally tilled plots, and r was comparable. The epidemic was delayed in strip-tilled plots by an average of 5.7 and 11.7 days based on incidence and severity, respectively. Tillage did not consistently affect mean canopy temperature, relative humidity, or frequency of environmental records favorable for infection or spore dispersal. Host response to infection was not affected by tillage, but infections were detected earlier and at higher frequencies with noninoculated detached leaves from conventionally tilled plots. These data suggest that strip tillage delays early leaf spot epidemics due to fewer initial infections; most likely a consequence of less inoculum being dispersed to peanut leaves from overwintering stroma in the soil.

  6. Differential isoform expression and protein localization from alternatively spliced Apetala2 in peanut under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yon; Grabau, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) belongs to the AP2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) family and regulates expression levels of downstream stress responsive genes as a transcription factor. In this study, we cloned six different isoforms of AhAP2 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Four isoforms (AhAP2.1, AhAP2.2, AhAP2.3 and AhAP2.4) had both AP2/ERF DNA binding domains and ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs. Two isoforms (AhAP2.5 and AhAP2.6) only had an EAR suppressor domain. After agroinfiltration, AhAP2.1, AhAP2.3, and AhAP2.4 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) showed localization to the nucleolus, which is the site of transcription and ribosome biogenesis. AhAP2.2-YFP showed a dispersed signal in the nucleus. AhAP2.5 and AhAP2.6 fused to YFP localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. In addition, increased levels of AhAP2.1 and AhAP2.2 transcripts were observed in drought-treated peanut leaves, suggesting differential transcriptional regulation under drought stress conditions.

  7. [Effects of single-seed sowing on canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics and pod yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaca)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-yan; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Jia-lei; Meng, Jing-jing; Li, Lin; Wan, Shu-bo; Li, Xin-guo

    2015-12-01

    The large-seed peanut cultivar of Huayu 22 was used to study the differences of canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics, and pod yield at three single-seed sowing densities, i.e., 225000 (S₁), 195000 (S₂) and 165000 (S₃) holes per hectare, in field experiments. The results showed that the canopy light transmittance, canopy air temperature and canopy CO₂concentration all increased at these three single-seed sowing densities compared with those of double-seed sowing pattern (150000 holes per hectare), while the canopy humidity decreased. It seemed that single-seed sowing was helpful to improve microenvironment and the growth of peanut, especially at late growth stage. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic pigment contents and the net photosynthetic rate of peanut under single-seed sowing, especially in S₂ and S₃, were remarkably higher than those under traditional double-seed sowing. S₂ had the optimum population size with an equal distribution of individuals, which reduced the contradiction between individuals and population, optimized the canopy microenvironment, enhanced the photosynthetic characteristics, and increased the synthesis and accumulation of photosynthetic products to maximize the yield production of peanut.

  8. Insights into the Indian Peanut Genotypes for ahFAD2 Gene Polymorphism Regulating Its Oleic and Linoleic Acid Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Nawade, Bhagwat; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Rathnakumar, Arulthambi L.; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentilal R.; Kundu, Rahul; Mishra, Gyan P.

    2016-01-01

    In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and “SunOleic95R”—a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89%) than in ssp. fastigiata (17%). This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism. PMID:27610115

  9. Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention by sheep supplemented with warm-season legume haylages or soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Foster, J L; Adesogan, A T; Carter, J N; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Phatak, S C

    2009-09-01

    The high cost of commercial supplements necessitates evaluation of alternatives for ruminant livestock fed poor quality warm-season grasses. This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass haylage (Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Tifton 9) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume haylages affected the performance of lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin lambs (27.5 +/- 5 kg) were fed for ad libitum intake of bahiagrass haylage (67.8% NDF, 9.6% CP) alone (control) or supplemented with soybean meal (18.8% NDF, 51.4% CP) or haylages of annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Florida MDR98; 39.6% NDF, 18.7% CP], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Iron clay; 44.1% NDF, 16.0% CP], perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. Florigraze; 40.0% NDF, 15.8% CP), or pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. GA-2; 65.0% NDF, 13.7% CP]. Haylages were harvested at the optimal maturity for maximizing yield and nutritive value, wilted to 45% DM, baled, wrapped in polyethylene plastic, and ensiled for 180 d. Legumes were fed at 50% of the dietary DM, and soybean meal was fed at 8% of the dietary DM to match the average CP concentration (12.8%) of legume haylage-supplemented diets. Lambs were fed each diet for a 14-d adaptation period and a 7-d data collection period. Each diet was fed to 7 lambs in period 1 and 4 lambs in period 2. Pigeonpea haylage supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) DM and OM intake and digestibility vs. controls. Other legume haylages increased (P < 0.05) DM and OM intake vs. controls; however, only soybean meal supplementation increased (P = 0.01) DM digestibility. All supplements decreased (P = 0.05) NDF digestibility. Except for pigeonpea haylage, all supplements increased (P < 0.01) N intake, digestibility, and retention, and the responses were greatest (P = 0.04) with soybean meal supplementation. Microbial N synthesis was reduced (P = 0.02) by pigeonpea haylage supplementation, but unaffected (P = 0.05) by other supplements

  10. Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention by sheep supplemented with warm-season legume hays or soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Foster, J L; Adesogan, A T; Carter, J N; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Phatak, S C

    2009-09-01

    The increasing cost of feed supplements necessitates evaluation of alternatives for ruminant livestock grazing poor quality warm-season grasses. This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass hay (Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Pensacola) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume hays affected intake, digestibility, and N utilization by lambs. Dorper x Katadhin crossbred lambs (30.6 +/- 5.5 kg; n = 42) were fed bahiagrass hay (73.8% NDF, 8.1% CP) for ad libitum intake and supplemented with nothing (control), soybean meal, or hays of annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Florida MDR98; 46.2% NDF, 14.7% CP], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Iron clay; 62.2% NDF, 11.7% CP], perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. Florigraze; 43.3% NDF, 15.2% CP), pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. GA-2; 78.6% NDF, 12.2% CP], or soybean (cv. Pioneer 97B52; 59.0% NDF, 13.5% CP). Legume hays were supplemented at 50% of total diet DM, and soybean meal was supplemented at a level (4.25% of diet DM) that matched the average dietary CP content (10.8%) of the legume hay-supplemented diets. The cowpea, pigeonpea, and soybean were harvested at respective maturities that maximized DM yield and nutritive value, and the peanuts were first cuttings. Diets were fed to 6 lambs per treatment for 2 consecutive 21-d periods. Supplementation with hays of annual and perennial peanut, cowpea, and soybean increased (P < 0.01) DMI vs. control, but apparent DM digestibility was only increased (P = 0.03) by supplementation with annual or perennial peanut hay. Compared with the control, N intake, digestibility, and retention were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation with legume hay or soybean meal. Responses were greatest when annual or perennial peanut hays were fed. Ruminal ammonia concentration was increased (P < 0.01) by all legume hay supplements vs. the control. Microbial N synthesis and ruminally degraded OM were increased (P = 0.03) by perennial and

  11. Groundnut improvement: use of genetic and genomic tools

    PubMed Central

    Janila, Pasupuleti; Nigam, S. N.; Pandey, Manish K.; Nagesh, P.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2013-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a self-pollinated legume is an important crop cultivated in 24 million ha world over for extraction of edible oil and food uses. The kernels are rich in oil (48–50%) and protein (25–28%), and are source of several vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, biologically active polyphenols, flavonoids, and isoflavones. Improved varieties of groundnut with high yield potential were developed and released for cultivation world over. The improved varieties belong to different maturity durations and possess resistance to diseases, tolerance to drought, enhanced oil content, and improved quality traits for food uses. Conventional breeding procedures along with the tools for phenotyping were largely used in groundnut improvement programs. Mutations were used to induce variability and wide hybridization was attempted to tap variability from wild species. Low genetic variability has been a bottleneck for groundnut improvement. The vast potential of wild species, reservoir of new alleles remains under-utilized. Development of linkage maps of groundnut during the last decade was followed by identification of markers and quantitative trait loci for the target traits. Consequently, the last decade has witnessed the deployment of molecular breeding approaches to complement the ongoing groundnut improvement programs in USA, China, India, and Japan. The other potential advantages of molecular breeding are the feasibility to target multiple traits for improvement and provide tools to tap new alleles from wild species. The first groundnut variety developed through marker-assisted back-crossing is a root-knot nematode-resistant variety, NemaTAM in USA. The uptake of molecular breeding approaches in groundnut improvement programs by NARS partners in India and many African countries is slow or needs to be initiated in part due to inadequate infrastructure, high genotyping costs, and human capacities. Availability of draft genome sequence for diploid (AA and

  12. A Cytosolic Acyltransferase Contributes to Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Sucrose-Rescued Arabidopsis Seed Oil Catabolism Mutants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Luisa; Whitehead, Lynne; He, Zhesi; Gazda, Valeria; Gilday, Alison; Kozhevnikova, Ekaterina; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and oil bodies persist in sucrose (Suc)-rescued Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings disrupted in seed oil catabolism. This study set out to establish if TAG levels persist as a metabolically inert pool when downstream catabolism is disrupted, or if other mechanisms, such as fatty acid (FA) recycling into TAG are operating. We show that TAG composition changes significantly in Suc-rescued seedlings compared with that found in dry seeds, with 18:2 and 18:3 accumulating. However, 20:1 FA is not efficiently recycled back into TAG in young seedlings, instead partitioning into the membrane lipid fraction and diacylglycerol. In the lipolysis mutant sugar dependent1and the β-oxidation double mutant acx1acx2 (for acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase), levels of TAG actually increased in seedlings growing on Suc. We performed a transcriptomic study and identified up-regulation of an acyltransferase gene, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE3 (DGAT3), with homology to a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cytosolic acyltransferase. The acyl-Coenzyme A substrate for this acyltransferase accumulates in mutants that are blocked in oil breakdown postlipolysis. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed involvement in TAG synthesis and specificity toward 18:3 and 18:2 FAs. Double-mutant analysis with the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter mutant peroxisomal ABC transporter1 indicated involvement of DGAT3 in the partitioning of 18:3 into TAG in mutant seedlings growing on Suc. Fusion of the DGAT3 protein with green fluorescent protein confirmed localization to the cytosol of N. benthamiana. This work has demonstrated active recycling of 18:2 and 18:3 FAs into TAG when seed oil breakdown is blocked in a process involving a soluble cytosolic acyltransferase. PMID:22760209

  13. Plants with potential use on obesity and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I.; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E.; Gallegos-Infante, J. Alberto; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R.; Vázquez-Cabral, Blanca D.; González-Laredo, Rubén F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disease and a growing public health problem worldwide. This disease is a causal component of the metabolic syndrome related with abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, among others. There are anti-obesity drugs, affecting the fundamental processes of the weight regulation; however they have shown serious side effects, which outweigh their beneficial effects. Most recent studies on the treatment of obesity and its complications have focused on the potential role of different plants preparation that can exert a positive effect on the mechanisms involved in this pathology. For instance, anti-obesity effects of green tea and its isolated active principles have been reported in both in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models) that possess healthy effects, decreasing adipose tissue through reduction of adipocytes differentiation and proliferation. A positive effect in lipid profile, and lipid and carbohydrates metabolisms were demonstrated as well. In addition, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities were studied. However, the consumption of green tea and its products is not that common in Western countries, where other plants with similar bioactivity predominate; nevertheless, the effect extension has not been analyzed in depth, despite of their potential as alternative treatment for obesity. In this review the anti-obesity potential and reported mechanisms of action of diverse plants such as: Camellia sinensis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Hypericum perforatum, Persea americana, Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annuum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ilex paraguariensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus limon, Punica granatum, Aloe vera, Taraxacum officinale and Arachis hypogaea is summarized. We consider the potential of these plants as natural alternative treatments of some metabolic alterations associated with obesity. PMID:26869866

  14. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

    PubMed

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Stink Bugs in Southeastern Farmscapes

    PubMed Central

    Pilkay, Grant L.; Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.; Toews, Michael D.; Greene, Jeremy K.; Bridges, William C.

    2015-01-01

    A 3-yr study (2009–2011) was conducted to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in three commercial farmscapes. Study locations were replicated in South Carolina and Georgia, in an agriculturally diverse region known as the southeastern coastal plain. Crops included wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.), corn, Zea mays (L.), soybean, Glycine max (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and peanut, Arachis hypogaea (L.). Farmscapes were sampled weekly using whole-plant examinations for corn, with all other crops sampled using sweep nets. The predominant pest species of phytophagous stink bugs were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say), and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Chi-square tests indicated a departure from a normal distribution in 77% of analyses of the variance to mean ratio, with 37% of slopes of Taylor’s power law and 30% of coefficient β of Iwao’s patchiness regression significantly greater than one, indicating aggregated distributions. Spatial Analyses by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated aggregated patterns of stink bugs in 18% of year-end totals and 42% of weekly counts, with 80% of adults and nymphs positively associated using the SADIE association tool. Maximum stink bug densities in each crop occurred when the plants were producing fruit. Stink bugs exhibited greater densities in crops adjacent to soybean in Barnwell and Lee Counties compared with crops adjacent to corn or fallow areas. The diversity of crops and relatively small size of fields in the Southeast leads to colonization of patches within a farmscape. The ecological and management implications of the spatial and temporal distribution of stink bugs within farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843577

  16. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  17. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  18. O-Glycosylation of α-1-Acid Glycoprotein of Human Milk Is Lactation Stage Related

    PubMed Central

    Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Hirnle, Lidia; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Human milk provides a multitude of glycoproteins, including highly glycosylated α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), which elicits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The milk AGP glycoforms may provide the breastfed infant with a wide range of biological benefits. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of O-linked sugar-specific lectins with human milk AGP over the process of lactation and compared the results with those of the lactating mother's plasma. Materials and Methods: Relative amounts of human skim milk AGP O-glycans were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sialyl T (sialyl-α2,3/α2,6 Galβ1,3GalNAc-), asialyl T (Galβ1,3GalNAc-), and Tn (GalNAc-) antigen-specific biotinylated Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Vicia villosa (VVA) lectins, respectively. Results: Milk AGP elicited high expression of Jacalin- and PNA-reactive glycotopes and low expression of VVA-reactive glycotopes, which were absent on plasma AGP of lactating mothers and healthy individuals. The expression of sialyl, asialyl T, and Tn glycotopes of human milk AGP was lactation stage related. The relative amount of Jacalin-reactive AGP glycotope was highest in the colostrum samples and then decreased starting from Day 8 of lactation. In contrast, an increase of the relative amount of PNA-reactive glycotope with milk maturation was observed. The relative amount of VVA-reactive glycotope remained almost constant over the development of lactation. Conclusions: Milk AGP differs from mother's plasma AGP by the presence of O-linked sialylated and asialylated T as well as Tn antigens. The variation of the expression of sialylated and asialylated T and Tn antigens on AGP is associated with milk maturation. PMID:26057552

  19. Prevalence of toxigenic fungi in common medicinal herbs and spices in India.

    PubMed

    Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2016-12-01

    Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of food grains, feeds, medicinal herbs, and spices, posing as health threat to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to screen medicinal herbs and spices for fungi and mycotoxin contamination and evaluate their safety. Sixty-three samples were examined for fungal contamination and fungal load determined using standard microbiological method. Aflatoxin and citrinin were detected using thin layer chromatography and high-performance chromatography technique. Fifty-eight out of the 63 samples were contaminated, while five were free from fungal contamination. Analysis revealed that 47 % of the samples had a fungal load above 1 × 10(3) cfu/g which is the permissible limit set by World Health Organization. The samples Mesua ferrea-II and Terminalia chebula-III had the highest fungal load, i.e., 5.0 × 10(4) cfu/g. A total of 187 fungi were isolated, out of which 28 were toxigenic which included 19 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus and 9 citrinin-producing Penicillium citrinum. The natural contamination with aflatoxin B1 was detected only in one sample, i.e., Arachis hypogaea (groundnut) which was present beyond the permissible limit. Though toxigenic fungi were isolated, mycotoxins were not detected from any of the medicinal herbs and spices. Medicinal herbs and spices are susceptible to toxigenic fungi; however, they also possess intrinsic factors that inhibit mycotoxin contamination. This study provides a basis in assessing the degree of fungal and potential mycotoxin contamination in medicinal herbs and spices.

  20. Dietary Plant Lectins Appear to Be Transported from the Gut to Gain Access to and Alter Dopaminergic Neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans, a Potential Etiology of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jolene; Wang, Mingming; Wei, Wenqian; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Adhikari, Binita; King, Jason F.; King, Michael L.; Peng, Nan; Laine, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins from dietary plants have been shown to enhance drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of rats, be transported trans-synaptically as shown by tracing of axonal and dendritic paths, and enhance gene delivery. Other carbohydrate-binding protein toxins are known to traverse the gut intact in dogs. Post-feeding rhodamine- or TRITC-tagged dietary lectins, the lectins were tracked from gut to dopaminergic neurons (DAergic-N) in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) [egIs1(Pdat-1:GFP)] where the mutant has the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to a dopamine transport protein gene labeling DAergic-N. The lectins were supplemented along with the food organism Escherichia coli (OP50). Among nine tested rhodamine/TRITC-tagged lectins, four, including Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E), Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA), appeared to be transported from gut to the GFP-DAergic-N. Griffonia Simplicifolia and PHA-E, reduced the number of GFP-DAergic-N, suggesting a toxic activity. PHA-E, BS-I, Pisum sativum (PSA), and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (Succinylated) reduced fluorescent intensity of GFP-DAergic-N. PHA-E, PSA, Concanavalin A, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin decreased the size of GFP-DAergic-N, while BS-I increased neuron size. These observations suggest that dietary plant lectins are transported to and affect DAergic-N in C. elegans, which support Braak and Hawkes’ hypothesis, suggesting one alternate potential dietary etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A recent Danish study showed that vagotomy resulted in 40% lower incidence of PD over 20 years. Differences in inherited sugar structures of gut and neuronal cell surfaces may make some individuals more susceptible in this conceptual disease etiology model. PMID:27014695

  1. An Apparent Anomaly in Peanut Leaf Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Pallas, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Conductance to gaseous transfer is normally considered to be greater from the abaxial than from the adaxial side of a leaf. Measurements of the conductance to water vapor of peanut leaves (Arachis hypogaea L.) under well watered and stress conditions in a controlled environment, however, indicated a 2-fold higher conductance from the adaxial side of the leaf than from the abaxial. Studies of conductance as light level was varied showed an increase in conductance from either surface with increasing light level, but conductance was always greater from the adaxial surface at any given light level. In contrast, measurements of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf conductance showed an approximate 2-fold greater conductance from the abaxial surface than from the adaxial. Approximately the same number of stomata were present on both peanut leaf surfaces and stomatal size was similar. Electron microscopic examination of peanut leaves did not reveal any major structural differences between stomata on the two surfaces that would account for the differences in conductance. Light microscope studies of leaf sections revealed an extensive network of bundle sheaths with achloraplastic bundle sheath extensions; the lower epidermis was lined with a single layer of large achloraplastic parenchyma cells. Measurements of net photosynthesis made on upper and lower leaf surfaces collectively and individually indicated that two-thirds of the peanut leaf's total net photosynthesis can be attributed to diffusion of CO2 through the adaxial leaf surface. Possibly the high photosynthetic efficiency of peanut cultivars as compared with certain other C3 species is associated with the greater conductance of CO2 through their upper leaf surfaces. Images PMID:16661294

  2. Novel and Stress Relevant EST Derived SSR Markers Developed and Validated in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Bosamia, Tejas C.; Mishra, Gyan P.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Dobaria, Jentilal R.

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to increase the number of functional markers in resource poor crop like cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), large numbers of available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public databases, were employed for the development of novel EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 16424 unigenes, 2784 (16.95%) SSRs containing unigenes having 3373 SSR motifs were identified. Of these, 2027 (72.81%) sequences were annotated and 4124 gene ontology terms were assigned. Among different SSR motif-classes, tri-nucleotide repeats (33.86%) were the most abundant followed by di-nucleotide repeats (27.51%) while AG/CT (20.7%) and AAG/CTT (13.25%) were the most abundant repeat-motifs. A total of 2456 EST-SSR novel primer pairs were designed, of which 366 unigenes having relevance to various stresses and other functions, were PCR validated using a set of 11 diverse peanut genotypes. Of these, 340 (92.62%) primer pairs yielded clear and scorable PCR products and 39 (10.66%) primer pairs exhibited polymorphisms. Overall, the number of alleles per marker ranged from 1-12 with an average of 3.77 and the PIC ranged from 0.028 to 0.375 with an average of 0.325. The identified EST-SSRs not only enriched the existing molecular markers kitty, but would also facilitate the targeted research in marker-trait association for various stresses, inter-specific studies and genetic diversity analysis in peanut. PMID:26046991

  3. Antigenic cross-reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni and peanut: a role for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and implications for the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Igetei, Joseph E; El-Faham, Marwa; Liddell, Susan; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The antigenic reactivity of constituents of Schistosoma mansoni and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was investigated to determine whether identical antigenic epitopes possessed by both organisms provided a possible explanation for the negative correlation between chronic schistosome infection and atopy to allergens. Aqueous extracts of peanuts were probed in Western immunoblots with rabbit IgG antibodies raised against the egg, cercarial and adult worm stages of S. mansoni. Several molecules in the peanut extract were antigenically reactive with antibodies from the various rabbit anti-schistosome sera. A pair of cross-reactive peanut molecules at ~30 000-33 000 molecular weight was purified and both proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the peanut allergen Ara h 1. Anti-S. mansoni soluble egg antigen antibodies that were eluted off the peanut molecules reacted with two S. mansoni egg antigens identified by mass spectrometry as IPSE/α-1 and κ-5. Alignments of the amino acid sequences of Ara h 1 and either IPSE/α-1 or κ-5 revealed a low level of peptide sequence identity. Incubation of nitrocellulose paper carrying electrophoresed peanut molecules, six constituents of other allergic plants and S. mansoni egg antigens in a mild solution of sodium metaperiodate before probing with antibodies, inhibited most of the cross-reactivities. The results are consistent with the antigenic cross-reactive epitopes of S. mansoni egg antigens, peanut and other allergic plants being cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). These findings are novel and an explanation based on 'blocking antibodies' could provide an insight for the inverse relationship observed between schistosome infection and allergies.

  4. The Glycosylation Pattern of Common Allergens: The Recognition and Uptake of Der p 1 by Epithelial and Dendritic Cells Is Carbohydrate Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghouleh, Abeer; Johal, Ramneek; Sharquie, Inas K.; Emara, Mohammed; Harrington, Helen; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2012-01-01

    Allergens are initiators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are recognised at the site of entry by epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs), both of which activate innate inflammatory circuits that can collectively induce Th2 immune responses. In an attempt to have a better understanding of the role of carbohydrates in the recognition and uptake of allergens by the innate immune system, we defined common glycosylation patterns in major allergens. This was done using labelled lectins and showed that allergens like Der p 1 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1), Fel d 1 (Felis domisticus), Ara h 1 (Arachis hypogaea), Der p 2 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2), Bla g 2 (Blattella germanica) and Can f 1 (Canis familiaris) are glycosylated and that the main dominant sugars on these allergens are 1–2, 1–3 and 1–6 mannose. These observations are in line with recent reports implicating the mannose receptor (MR) in allergen recognition and uptake by DCs and suggesting a major link between glycosylation and allergen recognition. We then looked at TSLP (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin) cytokine secretion by lung epithelia upon encountering natural Der p 1 allergen. TSLP is suggested to drive DC maturation in support of allergic hypersensitivity reactions. Our data showed an increase in TSLP secretion by lung epithelia upon stimulation with natural Der p 1 which was carbohydrate dependent. The deglycosylated preparation of Der p 1 exhibited minimal uptake by DCs compared to the natural and hyperglycosylated recombinant counterparts, with the latter being taken up more readily than the other preparations. Collectively, our data indicate that carbohydrate moieties on allergens play a vital role in their recognition by innate immune cells, implicating them in downstream deleterious Th2 cell activation and IgE production. PMID:22479478

  5. Exploratory use of a UAV platform for variety selection in peanut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Variety choice is the most important production decision farmers make because high yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional production costs. Therefore, yield improvement has been the major objective for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding programs worldwide, but the current breeding approach (selecting for yield under optimal production conditions) is slow and inconsistent with the needs derived from population demand and climate change. To improve the rate of genetic gain, breeders have used target physiological traits such as leaf chlorophyll content using SPAD chlorophyll meter, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from canopy reflectance in visible and near infra-red (NIR) wavelength bands, and canopy temperature (CT) manually measured with infra-red (IR) thermometers at the canopy level; but its use for routine selection was hampered by the time required to walk hundreds of plots. Recent developments in remote sensing-based high throughput phenotyping platforms using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have shown good potential for future breeding advancements. Recently, we initiated a study for the evaluation of suitability of digital imagery, NDVI, and CT taken from an UAV platform for peanut variety differentiation. Peanut is unique for setting its yield underground and resilience to drought and heat, for which yield is difficult to pre-harvest estimate; although the need for early yield estimation within the breeding programs exists. Twenty-six peanut cultivars and breeding lines were grown in replicated plots either optimally or deficiently irrigated under rain exclusion shelters at Suffolk, Virginia. At the beginning maturity growth stage, approximately a month before digging, NDVI and CT were taken with ground-based sensors at the same time with red, blue, green (RGB) images from a Sony camera mounted on an UAV platform. Disease ratings were also taken pre-harvest. Ground and UAV derived vegetation indices were analyzed for

  6. Herbicide incorporation by irrigation and tillage impact on runoff loss.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Strickland, Timothy C; Bosch, David D; Webster, Theodore M

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from farm fields is a common source of herbicide residues in surface waters. Incorporation by irrigation has the potential to reduce herbicide runoff risks. To assess impacts, rainfall was simulated on plots located in a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) field in Georgia's Atlantic Coastal Plain region after pre-emergence application of metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-[(1S)-2-methoxy-1-methylethyl]-acetamide) and pendimethalin (N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine). Runoff, sediment, and herbicide loss as function of strip tillage (ST) versus conventional tillage (CT) were compared with and without irrigation (12.5 mm) after application of an herbicide tank mixture. For the CT system, metolachlor runoff was reduced 2x and pendimethalin 1.2x when compared with the non-irrigated treatment. The difference in irrigated and non-irrigated metolachlor means was significant (P = 0.05). Irrigation reduced metolachlor runoff by 1.3x in the ST system, but there was a 1.4x increase for pendimethalin. Overall results indicated that irrigation incorporation reduces herbicide runoff with the greatest impact when CT is practiced and products like metolachlor, which have relatively low K(oc) and high water solubility, are used. The lower ST system response was likely due to a combination of spray interception and retention by the ST system cover crop mulch and higher ST soil organic carbon content and less total runoff. During the study, the measured K(oc) of both herbicides on runoff sediment was found to vary with tillage and irrigation after herbicide application. Generally, K(oc) was higher for ST sediment and when irrigation incorporation was used with the CT system. These results have significant implications for simulation model parametization.

  7. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA).

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2014-08-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region's water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little published data which describe their potential for loss in surface runoff. This study compared runoff of a fungicide, tebuconazole (α-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol), and an herbicide, metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) from 0.2 ha fields in strip (ST), a commonly used conservation-tillage practice, and conventional tillage (CT) near Tifton, GA (USA). Following their first application, metolachlor and tebuconazole were detected at high frequency in runoff. Concentrations and their annual losses increased with application frequency and runoff event timing and frequency with respect to applications, and when fields were positioned at the top of the slope and CT was practiced. Runoff one day after treatment (DAT) contributed to high tebuconazole runoff loss, up to 9.8% of the amount applied on an annual basis. In all cases, metolachlor loss was more than 10 times less even though total application was 45% higher. This was linked to the fact that the one metolachlor application to each crop was in May, one of the region's driest months. In sum, studies showed that fungicide runoff rates may be relatively high and emphasize the need to focus on these products in future studies on peanut and other crops. The study also showed that peanut farmers should be encouraged to use conservation tillage practices like ST which can substantially reduce pesticide runoff.

  8. Biosynthesis of the major tetrahydroxystilbenes in spruce, astringin and isorhapontin, proceeds via resveratrol and is enhanced by fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ralph, Steven G; Bohlmann, Joerg; Fenning, Trevor M; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schmidt, Axel

    2011-10-01

    Stilbenes are dibenzyl polyphenolic compounds produced in several unrelated plant families that appear to protect against various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stilbene biosynthesis has been well described in economically important plants, such as grape (Vitis vinifera), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and pine (Pinus species). However, very little is known about the biosynthesis and ecological role of stilbenes in spruce (Picea), an important gymnosperm tree genus in temperate and boreal forests. To investigate the biosynthesis of stilbenes in spruce, we identified two similar stilbene synthase (STS) genes in Norway spruce (Picea abies), PaSTS1 and PaSTS2, which had orthologs with high sequence identity in sitka (Picea sitchensis) and white (Picea glauca) spruce. Despite the conservation of STS sequences in these three spruce species, they differed substantially from angiosperm STSs. Several types of in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that the P. abies STSs catalyze the condensation of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A and three molecules of malonyl-coenzyme A to yield the trihydroxystilbene resveratrol but do not directly form the dominant spruce stilbenes, which are tetrahydroxylated. However, in transgenic Norway spruce overexpressing PaSTS1, significantly higher amounts of the tetrahydroxystilbene glycosides, astringin and isorhapontin, were produced. This result suggests that the first step of stilbene biosynthesis in spruce is the formation of resveratrol, which is further modified by hydroxylation, O-methylation, and O-glucosylation to yield astringin and isorhapontin. Inoculating spruce with fungal mycelium increased STS transcript abundance and tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside production. Extracts from STS-overexpressing lines significantly inhibited fungal growth in vitro compared with extracts from control lines, suggesting that spruce stilbenes have a role in antifungal defense.

  9. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics and yield responses in rainfed crops with variable potassium nutrition in K deficient semi-arid alfisols.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Shanker, Arun K; Kundu, Sumanta; Reddy, Sharanbhoopal

    2016-07-01

    Optimum potassium (K) nutrition in semi-arid regions may help crop plants to overcome constraints in their growth and development such as moisture stress, leading to higher productivity of rainfed crops, thus judicious K management is essential. A study was conducted to evaluate the importance of K nutrition on physiological processes like photosynthesis through chlorophyll a fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP) of rainfed crops viz., maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) under water stress conditions by studying their growth attributes, water relations, yield, K uptake and use efficiency under varied K levels. Highest chlorophyll content was observed under K60 in maize and pearl millet. Narrow and wide Chl a:b ratio was observed in castor and groundnut respectively. The fluorescence yield decreased in the crops as K dosage increased, evidenced by increasing of all points (O, J, I and P) of the OJIP curves. The fluorescence transient curve for K60 was lower than K0 and K40 for all the crops. Potassium levels altered the fluorescence induction and impaired photosynthetic systems in all the crops studied. There was no distinct trend observed in leaf water potential of crops under study. Uptake of K was high in sunflower with increased rate of K application. Quantitatively, K uptake by castor crop was lesser compared to all other crops. Our results indicate that the yield reduction under low K was due to the low capacity of the crops to translocate K from non-photosynthetic organs such as stems and petioles to upper leaves and harvested organs and this in turn influenced the capacity of the crops to produce a high economic yield per unit of K taken up thus reducing utilization efficiency of K.

  10. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  11. High-Mr glycoprotein profiles in human milk serum and fat-globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Yamauchi, K; Miyauchi, Y; Sakurai, T; Tokugawa, K; McIlhinney, R A

    1986-02-01

    Gradient-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of human milk serum separated three high-Mr glycoprotein bands. The properties of the components corresponding to the three bands (tentatively termed 'Components C, B and A' in their order of migration) were compared by staining with four monoclonal antibodies and lectins. Components B and C both reacted with the four antibodies, but Component A did not. Components B and C were stained with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA) and wheat (Triticum)-germ agglutinin (WGA), Component A being stained with soya-bean (Glycine max) agglutinin as well as PNA and WGA. These results suggest that Components B and C were related molecules, whereas Component A was markedly different from them. The reactivities of Components B and C were the same as those of PAS-0, a high-Mr periodate/Schiff (PAS)-positive glycoprotein previously isolated from human milk fat-globule membrane (MFGM). Component C, whose electrophoretic mobility was the same as PAS-0, could have been a soluble form of PAS-0. A high-Mr glycoprotein having the same properties as Component A was also observed in MFGM. The amino acid composition of the isolated Component A was significantly different from that of Component C and PAS-0, high threonine and serine contents being characteristic of Component A. The carbohydrate content of Component A was 65-80%, and was much higher than that of Component C and PAS-0. Fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid were each detected as constituent sugars of Component A. Component A represents, therefore, a new high-Mr glycoprotein species in human milk serum and MFGM. Since these glycoproteins were high-Mr mucin-like glycoproteins, the names 'HM glycoprotein-A' and 'HM glycoprotein-C' were proposed for Component A and Component C (PAS-O) respectively.

  12. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K.; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as “peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb).” The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin), and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color. PMID

  14. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  15. Generation of peanut mutants by fast neutron irradiation combined with in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Shan; Sui, Jiong-Ming; Xie, Yong-Dun; Guo, Hui-Jun; Qiao, Li-Xian; Zhao, Li-Lan; Yu, Shan-Lin; Liu, Lu-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Induced mutations have played an important role in the development of new plant varieties. In this study, we investigated the effects of fast neutron irradiation on somatic embryogenesis combined with plant regeneration in embryonic leaflet culture to develop new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) germplasm for breeding. The dry seeds of the elite cultivar Luhua 11 were irradiated with fast neutrons at dosages of 9.7, 14.0 and 18.0 Gy. The embryonic leaflets were separated and incubated in a medium with 10.0-mg/l 2,4-D to induce somatic embryogenesis. Next, they were incubated in a medium with 4.0-mg/l BAP for plant regeneration. As the irradiation dosage increased, the frequency of both somatic embryo formation and plantlet regeneration decreased. The regenerated plantlets were grafted onto rootstocks and were transplanted into the field. Later, the mature seeds of the regenerated plants were harvested. The M2 generation plants from most of the regenerated cultivars exhibited variations and segregation in vigor, plant height, branch and pod number, pod size, and pod shape. To determine whether the phenotypes were associated with genomic modification, we compared the DNA polymorphisms between the wild-type plants and 19 M3-generation individuals from different regenerated plants. We used 20 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and detected polymorphisms between most of the mutants and the wild-type plants (Luhua 11). Our results indicate that using a combination of fast neutron irradiation and tissue culture is an effective approach for creating new peanut germplasm.

  16. Biosynthesis of the Major Tetrahydroxystilbenes in Spruce, Astringin and Isorhapontin, Proceeds via Resveratrol and Is Enhanced by Fungal Infection1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ralph, Steven G.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Fenning, Trevor M.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schmidt, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Stilbenes are dibenzyl polyphenolic compounds produced in several unrelated plant families that appear to protect against various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stilbene biosynthesis has been well described in economically important plants, such as grape (Vitis vinifera), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and pine (Pinus species). However, very little is known about the biosynthesis and ecological role of stilbenes in spruce (Picea), an important gymnosperm tree genus in temperate and boreal forests. To investigate the biosynthesis of stilbenes in spruce, we identified two similar stilbene synthase (STS) genes in Norway spruce (Picea abies), PaSTS1 and PaSTS2, which had orthologs with high sequence identity in sitka (Picea sitchensis) and white (Picea glauca) spruce. Despite the conservation of STS sequences in these three spruce species, they differed substantially from angiosperm STSs. Several types of in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that the P. abies STSs catalyze the condensation of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A and three molecules of malonyl-coenzyme A to yield the trihydroxystilbene resveratrol but do not directly form the dominant spruce stilbenes, which are tetrahydroxylated. However, in transgenic Norway spruce overexpressing PaSTS1, significantly higher amounts of the tetrahydroxystilbene glycosides, astringin and isorhapontin, were produced. This result suggests that the first step of stilbene biosynthesis in spruce is the formation of resveratrol, which is further modified by hydroxylation, O-methylation, and O-glucosylation to yield astringin and isorhapontin. Inoculating spruce with fungal mycelium increased STS transcript abundance and tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside production. Extracts from STS-overexpressing lines significantly inhibited fungal growth in vitro compared with extracts from control lines, suggesting that spruce stilbenes have a role in antifungal defense. PMID:21865488

  17. Effects of treated sewage sludge levels on temporal variations of some soil properties of a Typic Xerofluvent soil in Menemen Plain, Western Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Delibacak, S; Okur, B; Ongun, A R

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effects of treated sewage sludge (TSS) levels as an organic matter (OM) resource on temporal variations of some soil properties of a Typic Xerofluvent soil. The experiment was conducted in Menemen Plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (latitudes 38 degrees 34'48.22''-38 degrees 34'49.24'' N; longitudes 27 degrees 1'23.05-27 degrees 1'24.14'' E) in the years of 2003 and 2004. Moist TSS was added to the soil at the rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 t ha(-1) on May 1, 2003. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was planted as first crop. On the other hand, mixture of green barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as second crop. During the experiment, soil samples were taken in five different periods (1st, June 18, 2003; 2nd, November 13, 2003; 3rd, April 30, 2004; 4th, October 10, 2004 and 5th, May 12, 2004). The results showed that increasing TSS application to Typic Xerofluvent soil was significantly increased total salt, OM, total porosity, micro porosity, macro porosity, field capacity, wilting point, available water content, structure stability index and aggregation percentage values of soil when compared with control. Meanwhile, particle density, dry bulk density and nonaggregated silt + clay values of soil decreased. On the other hand, soil reaction (pH), lime content and total silt + clay values of soil did not significantly change. In the course of time, depending on decomposing of TSS organic materials in soil, effect of TSS levels on soil properties decreased particularly in the last periods. For this reason, it can be recommended that 90 t ha(-1) moist TSS can be added once in 2 years for improving soil properties of Typic Xerofluvent soil, which are characterized by low OM content.

  18. Suppression Mechanisms of Meloidogyne arenaria Race 1 by Pasteuria penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.; McSorley, R.; Hewlett, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    The biological control of Meloidogyne arenaria on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) by Pasteuria penetrans was evaluated using a six x six factorial experiment in field microplots over 2 years. The main factors were six inoculum levels of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria race 1 (0, 40, 200, 1,000, 5,000, and 25,000 J2/microplot, except that the highest level was 20,000 J2/microplot in 1995) and six infestation levels of P. penetrans as percentages of J2 with endospores attached (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%). The results were similar in 1994 and 1995. Numbers of eggs per root system, J2 per 100 cm³ soil at harvest, root galls, and pod galls increased with increasing nematode inoculum levels and decreased with increasing P. penetrans infestation levels (P ≤ 0.05), except that there was no effect of P. penetrans infestation levels on J2 per 100 cm³ soil in 1994 (P> 0.05). There were no statistical interaction effects between the inoculum levels of J2 and the infestation levels of P. penetrans (P > 0.05). When the infestation level was increased by 10%, the number of eggs per root system, root galls, and pod galls decreased 7.8% to 9.4%, 7.0% to 8.5%, and 8.0% to 8.7% in 1994 and 1995, respectively, whereas J2 per 100 cm³ soil decreased 8.8% in 1995 (P ≤ 0.05). The initial infestation level of P. penetrans contributed 81% to 95% of the total suppression of pod galls, whereas the infection of J2 of the subsequent generations contributed only 5% to 19% suppression of pod galls. The major suppressive mechanism of M. arenaria race 1 by P. penetrans on peanut is the initial endospore infestation of J2 at planting. PMID:19274127

  19. Suppression of Meloidogyne arenaria Race 1 by Soil Application of Endospores of Pasteuria penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.; McSorley, R.; Mitchell, D. J.; Hewlett, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential of Pasteuria penetrans for suppressing Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was tested over a 2-year period in a field microplot experiment. Endospores of P. penetrans were mass-produced on M. arenaria race 1 infecting tomato plants. Endospores were inoculated in the first year only at rates of 0, 1,000, 3,000, 10,000, and 100,000 endospores/g of soil, respectively, into the top 20 cm of microplots that were previously infested with M. arenaria race 1. One peanut seedling was planted in each microplot. In the first year, root gall indices and pod galls per microplot were significantly reduced by 60% and 95% for 100,000 endospores/g of soil, and 20% and 65% for 10,000 endospores/g of soil, respectively. Final densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) in soil were not significantly different among the treatments. The number of endospores attached to J2 and percentage of J2 with attached endospores significantly increased with increasing endospore inoculation levels. Pasteuria penetrans significantly reduced the densities of J2 that overwintered. In the second year, root and pod gall indices, respectively, were significantly reduced by 81% and 90% for 100,000 endospores/g of soil, and by 61% and 82% of 10,000 endospores/g of soil. Pod yields were significantly increased by 94% for 100,000 and by 57% for 10,000 endospores/g of soil, respectively. The effect of P. penetrans on final densities of J2 in soil was not significant. Regression analyses verified the role of P. penetrans in the suppression of M. arenaria. The minimum number of endospores required for significantly suppressing M. arenaria race 1 on peanut was 10,000 endospores/g of soil. PMID:19277131

  20. Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent.

  1. Potential of Trap Crops for Integrated Management of the Tropical Armyworm, Spodoptera litura in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

  2. Putative glycoprotein and glycolipid polymorphonuclear leukocyte receptors for the Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 fimbrial lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, A L; Ruhl, S; Joralmon, R A; Brennan, M J; Sutphin, M J; Cisar, J O

    1995-01-01

    Recognition of receptors on sialidase-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) by the Gal/GalNAc lectin associated with the type 2 fimbriae of certain strains of actinomyces results in activation of the PMNs, phagocytosis, and destruction of the bacteria. In the present study, plant lectins were utilized as probes to identify putative PMN receptors for the actinomyces lectin. The Gal-reactive lectin from Ricinus communis (RCAI), the Gal/GalNAc-reactive lectins from R. communis (RCAII) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), as well as the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-specific lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Agaricus bisporus (ABA) inhibited killing of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 by sialidase-treated PMNs. These five lectins detected a 130-kDa surface-labeled glycoprotein on nitrocellulose transfers of PMN extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This glycoprotein was revealed only after treatment of the transfers with sialidase, a condition analogous to the sialidase dependence of the lectin-mediated biological responses of the PMNs to the actinomyces. The mannose-reactive lectin concanavalin A did not inhibit killing of the actinomyces and failed to detect the 130-kDa glycoprotein but did block PMN-dependent killing of Escherichia coli B, a bacterium that possesses mannose-sensitive fimbriae. Therefore, the PMN glycoprotein receptor for A. naeslundii is clearly distinct from those recognized by E. coli. Two major putative glycolipid receptors were also identified by actinomyces and RCAI overlays on sialidase-treated thin-layer chromatograms of PMN gangliosides. Thus, both a 130-kDa glycoprotein and certain gangliosides are implicated in the attachment of the actinomyces to PMNs. PMID:7790078

  3. Relationship between Meloidogyne arenaria and Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Wilson, D. M.; Holbrook, C. C.; Maw, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Damaged and developing kernels of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are susceptible to colonization by fungi in the Aspergillus flavus group which, under certain conditions, produces aflatoxins prior to harvest. Our objective was to determine whether infection of peanut roots and pods by Meloidogyne arenaria increases aflatoxin contamination of the kernels when peanut is subjected to drought stress. The experiment was a completely randomized 2-x-2 factorial with 6 replicates/treatment. The treatment factors were nematodes (plus and minus M. arenaria) and fungus (plus and minus A. flavus inoculum). The experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in microplots under an automatic rain-out shelter. In treatments where A. flavus inoculum was added, aflatoxin concentrations were high (> 1,000 ppb) and not affected by nematode infection; in treatments without added fungal inoculum, aflatoxin concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in kernels from nematode-infected plants (1,190 ppb) than in kernels from uninfected plants (79 ppb). There was also an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.83 in 2001, r² = 0.43 in 2002; P ≤ 0.04). Colonization of kernels by A. flavus increased with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.18; P = 0.04) in 2001 but not in 2002. Root-knot nematodes may have a greater role in enhancing aflatoxin contamination of peanut when conditions are not optimal for growth and aflatoxin production by fungi in the A. flavus group. PMID:19262803

  4. Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. on Resistant Peanut Genotypes from Three Breeding Programs

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Holbrook, C. C.; Anderson, W. F.

    2003-01-01

    Three described species of root-knot nematode parasitize peanut (Arachis hypogaea): Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma), M. hapla (Mh), and M. javanica (Mj). Peanut cultivars with broad resistance to Meloidogyne spp. will be useful regardless of the species present in the field. The objective of this study was to determine whether peanut genotypes with resistance to M. arenaria originating from three different breeding programs were also resistant to M. hapla and M. javanica. The experiment used a factorial arrangement (completely randomized) with peanut genotype and nematode population as the factors. The five peanut genotypes were 'COAN' and AT 0812 (highly resistant to Ma), C209-6-13 (moderately resistant to Ma), and 'Southern Runner' and 'Georgia Green' (susceptible to Ma). The four nematode populations were two isolates of Ma (Gibbs and Gop) and one isolate each of Mh and Mj. On COAN or AT 0812, both Ma and Mj produced <10% of the eggs produced on Georgia Green. On the peanut genotype C209-6-13, Ma and Mj produced about 50% of the eggs produced on Georgia Green. None of the resistant genotypes exhibited a high level of resistance to Mh. The lack of resistance to Mh in any cultivars or advanced germplasm is a concern because the identity of a Meloidogyne sp. in a particular peanut field is generally not known. Breeding efforts should focus on moving genes for resistance to M. hapla into advanced peanut germplasm, and combining genes for resistance to the major Meloidogyne spp. in a single cultivar. PMID:19262773

  5. Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Paratrichodorus minor, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Hanna, W. W.

    2005-01-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) has potential as a grain crop for dryland crop production in the southeastern United States. Whether or not pearl millet will be compatible in rotation with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) will depend, in part, on its host status for important plant-parasitic nematodes of these crops. The pearl millet hybrid 'TifGrain 102' is resistant to both Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1; however, its host status for other plant-parasitic nematodes was unknown. In this study, the reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and Meloidogyne javanica race 3 on pearl millet ('HGM-100' and TifGrain 102) was compared relative to cotton, corn, and peanut. Separate greenhouse experiments were conducted for each nematode species. Reproduction of B. longicaudatus was lower on peanut and the two millet hybrids than on cotton and corn. Reproduction of P. minor was lower on peanut and TifGrain 102 than on cotton, corn, and HGM-100. Reproduction of P. brachyurus was lower on both millet hybrids than on cotton, corn, and peanut. Reproduction of M. javanica race 3 was greater on peanut than on the two millet hybrids and corn. Cotton was a nonhost. TifGrain 102 was more resistant than HGM-100 to reproduction of B. longicaudatus, P. minor, and M. javanica. Our results demonstrated that TifGrain 102 was a poor host for B. longicaudatus and P. brachyurus (Rf < 1) and, relative to other crops tested, was less likely to increase densities of P. minor and M. javanica. PMID:19262863

  6. Vip3Aa tolerance response of Helicoverpa armigera populations from a Cry1Ac cotton planting region.

    PubMed

    An, Jingjie; Gao, Yulin; Wu, Kongming; Gould, Fred; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lei, Chaoliang

    2010-12-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin, holds great promise in controlling target insect pests. Evolution of resistance by target pests is the primary threat to the continued efficacy of Bt cotton. To thwart pest resistance evolution, a transgenic cotton culitvar that produces two different Bt toxins, cry1Ac and vip3A genes, was proposed as a successor of cry1Ac cotton. This article reports on levels of Vip3Aa tolerance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations from the Cry1Ac cotton planting region in China based on bioassays of the F1 generation of isofemale lines. In total, 80 isofemale families of H. armigera from Xiajin county of Shandong Province (an intensive Bt cotton planting area) and 93 families from Anci county of Hebei Province (a multiple-crop system including corn [Zea mays L.] , soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and Bt cotton) were screened with a discriminating concentration of both Cry1Ac- and Vip3A-containing diets in 2009. From data on the relative average development rates and percentage of larval weight inhibition of F1 full-sib families tested simultaneously on Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa, results indicate that responses to Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa were not genetically correlated in field population ofH. armigera. This indicates that the threat of cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Vip3A is low in field populations of H. armigera. Thus, the introduction of Vip3Aa/Cry1Ac-producing lines could delay resistance evolution in H. armigera in Bt cotton planting area of China.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Cultivated biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean cultivated biological nitrogen fixation (C-BNF) in cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Nitrogen (N) inputs from the cultivation of legumes, which possess a symbiotic relationship with N-fixing bacteria, were calculated with a recently developed model relating county-level yields of various leguminous crops with BNF rates. We accessed county-level data on annual crop yields for soybeans (Glycine max L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), various dry beans (Phaseolus, Cicer, and Lens spp.), and dry peas (Pisum spp.) for 2006 from the USDA Census of Agriculture (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/index.php). We estimated the yield of the non-alfalfa leguminous component of hay as 32% of the yield of total non-alfalfa hay (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/index.php). Annual rates of C-BNF by crop type were calculated using a model that relates yield to C-BNF. We assume yield data reflect differences in soil properties, water availability, temperature, and other local and regional factors that can influence root nodulation and rate of N fixation. We distributed county-specific, C-BNF rates to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands delineated in the 2006 National Land Cover Database (30 x 30 m pixels) within the corresponding county. C-BNF data described here represent an average input to a typical agricultural land type within a county, i.e., they are not

  8. Evidence of Genomic Exchanges between Homeologous Chromosomes in a Cross of Peanut with Newly Synthetized Allotetraploid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Nguepjop, Joel R.; Tossim, Hodo-Abalo; Bell, Joseph M.; Rami, Jean-François; Sharma, Shivali; Courtois, Brigitte; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Sane, Djibril; Fonceka, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated peanut and synthetics are allotetraploids (2n = 4x = 40) with two homeologous sets of chromosomes. Meiosis in allotetraploid peanut is generally thought to show diploid-like behavior. However, a recent study pointed out the occurrence of recombination between homeologous chromosomes, especially when synthetic allotetraploids are used, challenging the view of disomic inheritance in peanut. In this study, we investigated the meiotic behavior of allotetraploid peanut using 380 SSR markers and 90 F2 progeny derived from the cross between Arachis hypogaea cv Fleur 11 (AABB) and ISATGR278-18 (AAKK), a synthetic allotetraploid that harbors a K-genome that was reported to pair with the cultivated B-genome during meiosis. Segregation analysis of SSR markers showed 42 codominant SSRs with unexpected null bands among some progeny. Chi-square tests for these loci deviate from the expected 1:2:1 Mendelian ratio under disomic inheritance. A linkage map of 357 codominant loci aligned on 20 linkage groups (LGs) with a total length of 1728 cM, averaging 5.1 cM between markers, was developed. Among the 10 homeologous sets of LGs, one set consisted of markers that all segregated in a polysomic-like pattern, six in a likely disomic pattern and the three remaining in a mixed pattern with disomic and polysomic loci clustered on the same LG. Moreover, we reported a substitution of homeologous chromosomes in some progeny. Our results suggest that the homeologous recombination events occurred between the A and K genomes in the newly synthesized allotetraploid and have been highlighted in the progeny. Homeologous exchanges are rarely observed in tetraploid peanut and have not yet been reported for AAKK and AABB genomes. The implications of these results on peanut breeding are discussed. PMID:27847512

  9. Young infants with atopic dermatitis can display sensitization to Cor a 9, an 11S legumin-like seed-storage protein from hazelnut (Corylus avellana).

    PubMed

    Verweij, Marjoke M; Hagendorens, Margo M; De Knop, Kathleen J; Bridts, Chris H; De Clerck, Luc S; Stevens, Wim J; Ebo, Didier G

    2011-03-01

    Allergy to hazelnut (Corylus avellana) can be severe and occur at young age. Atopic dermatitis (AD) can involve sensitization to various foods. The objective is to investigate the pattern of hazelnut sensitization in infants with AD. Sera of 34 infants all under 1 year of age and suffering from AD were selected according to prior specific IgE results. Twenty-nine infants were sensitized to traditional food allergens, five were not. From the 29 infants with a sensitization to at least one food allergen, 20 demonstrated IgE reactivity to hazelnut. All sera were analyzed with the allergen microarray immunoassay (ImmunoCAP ISAC). Twelve (60%) of the children with IgE reactivity to hazelnut demonstrated sensitization to Cor a 9, the 11S legumin-like seed-storage protein from hazelnut. In these infants, no sensitization to Cor a 1, the homologue of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa), or the lipid transfer protein (Cor a 8) from hazelnut was demonstrable. Half of the children sensitized to Cor a 9 demonstrated IgE reactivity to its homologue in peanut (Arachis hypogaea; Ara h 3) from which five were also sensitized to Gly m 6 from soy (Glycine max). None of the infants with AD without IgE reactivity to hazelnut demonstrated sensitization to Cor a 1, 8, or 9. In conclusion, young infants with atopic dermatitis sensitized to hazelnut can already display IgE reactivity to Cor a 9, a potentially dangerous hazelnut component. The mechanism(s) of this early sensitization and its clinical significance remain elusive.

  10. Spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in southeastern farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Toews, Michael D; Greene, Jeremy K; Bridges, William C

    2015-01-01

    A 3-yr study (2009-2011) was conducted to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in three commercial farmscapes. Study locations were replicated in South Carolina and Georgia, in an agriculturally diverse region known as the southeastern coastal plain. Crops included wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.), corn, Zea mays (L.), soybean, Glycine max (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and peanut, Arachis hypogaea (L.). Farmscapes were sampled weekly using whole-plant examinations for corn, with all other crops sampled using sweep nets. The predominant pest species of phytophagous stink bugs were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say), and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Chi-square tests indicated a departure from a normal distribution in 77% of analyses of the variance to mean ratio, with 37% of slopes of Taylor's power law and 30% of coefficient β of Iwao's patchiness regression significantly greater than one, indicating aggregated distributions. Spatial Analyses by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated aggregated patterns of stink bugs in 18% of year-end totals and 42% of weekly counts, with 80% of adults and nymphs positively associated using the SADIE association tool. Maximum stink bug densities in each crop occurred when the plants were producing fruit. Stink bugs exhibited greater densities in crops adjacent to soybean in Barnwell and Lee Counties compared with crops adjacent to corn or fallow areas. The diversity of crops and relatively small size of fields in the Southeast leads to colonization of patches within a farmscape. The ecological and management implications of the spatial and temporal distribution of stink bugs within farmscapes are discussed.

  11. Lectin binding and effects in culture on human cancer and non-cancer cell lines: examination of issues of interest in drug design strategies.

    PubMed

    Petrossian, Karineh; Banner, Lisa R; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2007-01-01

    By using a non-cancer and a cancer cell line originally from the same tissue (colon), coupled with testing lectins for cell binding and for their effects on these cell lines in culture, this study describes a simple multi-parameter approach that has revealed some interesting results that could be useful in drug development strategies. Two human cell lines, CCL-220/Colo320DM (human colon cancer cells, tumorigenic in nude mice) and CRL-1459/CCD-18Co (non-malignant human colon cells) were tested for their ability to bind to agarose microbeads derivatized with two lectins, peanut agglutinin (Arachis hypogaea agglutinin, PNA) and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and the effects of these lectins were assessed in culture using the MTT assay. Both cell lines bound to DBA-derivatized microbeads, and binding was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, but not by L-fucose. Neither cell line bound to PNA-derivatized microbeads. Despite the lack of lectin binding using the rapid microbead method, PNA was mitogenic in culture at some time points and its mitogenic effect displayed a reverse-dose response. This was also seen with effects of DBA on cells in culture. While this is a simple study, the results were statistically highly significant and suggest that: (1) agents may not need to bind strongly to cells to exert biological effects, (2) cell line pairs derived from diseased and non-diseased tissue can provide useful comparative data on potential drug effects and (3) very low concentrations of potential drugs might be initially tested experimentally because reverse-dose responses should be considered.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P G; Northfield, T D; Mizell, R F; Riddle, T C

    2009-08-01

    In the southeast United States, a field of peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., is often closely associated with a field of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine and compare the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in six of these peanut-cotton farmscapes. GS(+) Version 9 was used to generate interpolated estimates of stink bug density by inverse distance weighting. Interpolated stink bug population raster maps were constructed using ArcMap Version 9.2. This technique was used to show any change in distribution of stink bugs in the farmscape over time. SADIE (spatial analysis by distance indices) methodology was used to examine spatial aggregation of individual stink bug species and spatial association of the two stink bug species in the individual crops. Altogether, the spatiotemporal analyses for the farmscapes showed that some N. viridula and E. servus nymphs and adults that develop in peanuts disperse into cotton. When these stink bugs disperse from peanuts into cotton, they aggregate in cotton at the interface, or common boundary, of the two crops while feeding on cotton bolls. Therefore, there is a pronounced edge effect observed in the distribution of stink bugs as they colonize the new crop, cotton. The driving force for the spatiotemporal distribution and dispersal of both stink bug species in peanut-cotton farmscapes seems to be availability of food in time and space mitigated by landscape structure. Thus, an understanding of farmscape ecology of stink bugs and their natural enemies is necessary to strategically place, in time and space, biologically based management strategies that control stink bug populations while conserving natural enemies and the environment and reducing off-farm inputs.

  13. Characterization of Peanut Germin-Like Proteins, AhGLPs in Plant Development and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Fanghe; Li, Haifen; Li, Ling; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Shanlin; Liang, Xuanqiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Germin-like superfamily members are ubiquitously expressed in various plant species and play important roles in plant development and defense. Although several GLPs have been identified in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), their roles in development and defense remain unknown. In this research, we study the spatiotemporal expression of AhGLPs in peanut and their functions in plant defense. Results We have identified three new AhGLP members (AhGLP3b, AhGLP5b and AhGLP7b) that have distinct but very closely related DNA sequences. The spatial and temporal expression profiles revealed that each peanut GLP gene has its distinct expression pattern in various tissues and developmental stages. This suggests that these genes all have their distinct roles in peanut development. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that AhGLP2 and 5 undergo a protein transport process after synthesis. The expression of all AhGLPs increased in responding to Aspergillus flavus infection, suggesting AhGLPs' ubiquitous roles in defense to A. flavus. Each AhGLP gene had its unique response to various abiotic stresses (including salt, H2O2 stress and wound), biotic stresses (including leaf spot, mosaic and rust) and plant hormone stimulations (including SA and ABA treatments). These results indicate that AhGLPs have their distinct roles in plant defense. Moreover, in vivo study of AhGLP transgenic Arabidopsis showed that both AhGLP2 and 3 had salt tolerance, which made transgenic Arabidopsis grow well under 100 mM NaCl stress. Conclusions For the first time, our study analyzes the AhGLP gene expression profiles in peanut and reveals their roles under various stresses. These results provide an insight into the developmental and defensive roles of GLP gene family in peanut. PMID:23626720

  14. The manufacture of particleboards using mixture of peanut hull (Arachis hypoqaea L.) and European Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) wood chips.

    PubMed

    Guler, Cengiz; Copur, Yalcin; Tascioglu, Cihat

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the suitability of peanut hull to produce general purpose particleboards. A series of panels were produced using peanut hull and mixture of peanut hull and European Black pine wood chips. Particleboards were manufactured using various hull ratios in the mixture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Urea formaldehyde adhesive was utilized in board production and boards were produced to target panel's density of 0.7 g/cm3. Panels were tested for some physical (water absorption and thickness swelling), chemical (holocellulose content, lignin content, alcohol-benzene solubility, 1% NaOH solubility, hot water solubility and cold water solubility) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties. The main observation was that increase in peanut hull in the mixture resulted in a decrease in mechanical and physical properties of produced panels and panel including 25% hull in the mixture solely met the standard required by TS-EN 312 standard. Conclusively, a valuable renewable natural resource, peanut hull could be utilized in panel production while it has been mixed to the wood chips.

  15. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  16. NEU1 sialidase regulates the sialylation state of CD31 and disrupts CD31-driven capillary-like tube formation in human lung microvascular endothelia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chunsik; Liu, Anguo; Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Hyun, Sang Won; Lillehoj, Erik P; Cross, Alan S; Passaniti, Antonino; Grimm, P Richard; Kim, Bo-Young; Welling, Paul A; Madri, Joseph A; DeLisser, Horace M; Goldblum, Simeon E

    2014-03-28

    The highly sialylated vascular endothelial surface undergoes changes in sialylation upon adopting the migratory/angiogenic phenotype. We recently established endothelial cell (EC) expression of NEU1 sialidase (Cross, A. S., Hyun, S. W., Miranda-Ribera, A., Feng, C., Liu, A., Nguyen, C., Zhang, L., Luzina, I. G., Atamas, S. P., Twaddell, W. S., Guang, W., Lillehoj, E. P., Puché, A. C., Huang, W., Wang, L. X., Passaniti, A., and Goldblum, S. E. (2012) NEU1 and NEU3 sialidase activity expressed in human lung microvascular endothelia. NEU1 restrains endothelial cell migration whereas NEU3 does not. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 15966-15980). We asked whether NEU1 might regulate EC capillary-like tube formation on a Matrigel substrate. In human pulmonary microvascular ECs (HPMECs), prior silencing of NEU1 did not alter tube formation. Infection of HPMECs with increasing multiplicities of infection of an adenovirus encoding for catalytically active WT NEU1 dose-dependently impaired tube formation, whereas overexpression of either a catalytically dead NEU1 mutant, NEU1-G68V, or another human sialidase, NEU3, did not. NEU1 overexpression also diminished EC adhesion to the Matrigel substrate and restrained EC migration in a wounding assay. In HPMECs, the adhesion molecule, CD31, also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, was sialylated via α2,6-linkages, as shown by Sambucus nigra agglutinin lectin blotting. NEU1 overexpression increased CD31 binding to Arachis hypogaea or peanut agglutinin lectin, indicating CD31 desialylation. In the postconfluent state, when CD31 ectodomains are homophilically engaged, NEU1 was recruited to and desialylated CD31. In postconfluent ECs, CD31 was desialylated compared with subconfluent cells, and prior NEU1 silencing completely protected against CD31 desialylation. Prior CD31 silencing and the use of CD31-null ECs each abrogated the NEU1 inhibitory effect on EC tube formation. Sialyltransferase 6 GAL-I overexpression increased α2

  17. Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Hall, R.; Sullen, D.

    1998-01-01

    'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.

  18. A lectin-binding glycoprotein of Mr 135,000 associated with basal keratinocytes in pig epidermis.

    PubMed

    King, I A; Tabiowo, A; Pope, F M

    1986-07-15

    Pig epidermis separated by 1 M-CaCl2 treatment was homogenized and separated into three fractions by filtration through nylon mesh and high-speed centrifugation. Lectin-binding glycoproteins were isolated from urea/deoxycholate/mercaptoethanol extracts of the residue fraction that resisted filtration, from deoxycholate extracts of the particulate material in the filtrate and from the soluble fraction. Concanavalin A, Ricinus communis (castor bean) agglutinin 1, peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin and Ulex europaeus (gorse) agglutinin-binding glycoproteins in the three epidermal fractions were analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A major neuraminidase-sensitive glycoprotein component of the particulate fraction of Mr 135,000 was strongly bound by concanavalin A and Ricinus communis agglutinin 1, but only weakly by peanut and Ulex europaeus agglutinins. This glycoprotein was not detected in the residue or soluble fractions of the epidermis, indicating that it had only a limited distribution within the tissue. The 135,000-Mr glycoprotein was one of two major glycoprotein antigens in the particulate fraction. Rabbits immunized with total particulate glycoproteins produced antibodies directed mainly against 135,000- and 110,000-Mr components. Monospecific antibodies were obtained from guinea pigs immunized with the 135,000-Mr glycoprotein band excised from polyacrylamide gels. Indirect immunofluorescence with the use of affinity-purified antibodies showed that the 135,000-Mr glycoprotein was present at the surface of cells in the basal layer of the epidermis as well as at that of other stratified epithelia. It was not present on differentiating cells in the suprabasal layers of the epithelium, suggesting an important role in the attachment or proliferative functions of basal cells in stratified epithelia. Metabolic labelling studies with skin explants cultured in the presence of D-[3H]glucosamine showed that this basal-cell glycoprotein was synthesized

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in sub-Saharan savannas of Benin, West Africa, as affected by agricultural land use intensity and ecological zone.

    PubMed

    Tchabi, Atti; Coyne, Danny; Hountondji, Fabien; Lawouin, Louis; Wiemken, Andres; Oehl, Fritz

    2008-04-01

    The rapid decline of soil fertility of cultivated lands in the sub-Saharan savannas of West Africa is considered to be the main cause of the increasingly severe constraints of food production. The soils in this tropical area are highly fragile, and crop yields are limited by characteristically low levels of available phosphorus. Under such preconditions, the multiple benefits of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis are likely to play a pivotal role for maintaining natural soil fertility by enhancing plant nutrient use efficiency, plant health, and stabilization of a favorable soil structure. Thus, it is important to explore the impact of the commonly applied farming practices on the native AM fungal community. In the present study, we determined the AM fungal species composition in three ecological zones differing by an increasingly prolonged dry season from South to North, from the Southern Guinea Savanna (SG), to the Northern Guinea Savanna (NG), to the Sudan Savanna (SU). In each zone, four "natural" and four "cultivated" sites were selected. "Natural" sites were three natural forest savannas (at least 25-30 years old) and a long-term fallow (6-7 years old). "Cultivated" sites comprised a field with yam (Dioscorea spp.) established during the first year after forest clearance, a field under mixed cropping with maize (Zea mays) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a field under peanut, and a field under cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which was the most intensively managed crop. Soil samples were collected towards the end of the wet season in each zone. AM fungal spores were extracted and morphologically identified. Soil subsamples were used to inoculate AM fungal trap cultures using Stylosanthes guianensis and Brachiaria humidicola as host plants to monitor AM root colonization and spore formation over 10 and 24 months, respectively. A total of 60 AM fungal species were detected, with only seven species sporulating in the trap cultures. Spore density and species

  20. NEU1 Sialidase Regulates the Sialylation State of CD31 and Disrupts CD31-driven Capillary-like Tube Formation in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelia*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chunsik; Liu, Anguo; Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Hyun, Sang Won; Lillehoj, Erik P.; Cross, Alan S.; Passaniti, Antonino; Grimm, P. Richard; Kim, Bo-Young; Welling, Paul A.; Madri, Joseph A.; DeLisser, Horace M.; Goldblum, Simeon E.

    2014-01-01

    The highly sialylated vascular endothelial surface undergoes changes in sialylation upon adopting the migratory/angiogenic phenotype. We recently established endothelial cell (EC) expression of NEU1 sialidase (Cross, A. S., Hyun, S. W., Miranda-Ribera, A., Feng, C., Liu, A., Nguyen, C., Zhang, L., Luzina, I. G., Atamas, S. P., Twaddell, W. S., Guang, W., Lillehoj, E. P., Puché, A. C., Huang, W., Wang, L. X., Passaniti, A., and Goldblum, S. E. (2012) NEU1 and NEU3 sialidase activity expressed in human lung microvascular endothelia. NEU1 restrains endothelial cell migration whereas NEU3 does not. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 15966–15980). We asked whether NEU1 might regulate EC capillary-like tube formation on a Matrigel substrate. In human pulmonary microvascular ECs (HPMECs), prior silencing of NEU1 did not alter tube formation. Infection of HPMECs with increasing multiplicities of infection of an adenovirus encoding for catalytically active WT NEU1 dose-dependently impaired tube formation, whereas overexpression of either a catalytically dead NEU1 mutant, NEU1-G68V, or another human sialidase, NEU3, did not. NEU1 overexpression also diminished EC adhesion to the Matrigel substrate and restrained EC migration in a wounding assay. In HPMECs, the adhesion molecule, CD31, also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, was sialylated via α2,6-linkages, as shown by Sambucus nigra agglutinin lectin blotting. NEU1 overexpression increased CD31 binding to Arachis hypogaea or peanut agglutinin lectin, indicating CD31 desialylation. In the postconfluent state, when CD31 ectodomains are homophilically engaged, NEU1 was recruited to and desialylated CD31. In postconfluent ECs, CD31 was desialylated compared with subconfluent cells, and prior NEU1 silencing completely protected against CD31 desialylation. Prior CD31 silencing and the use of CD31-null ECs each abrogated the NEU1 inhibitory effect on EC tube formation. Sialyltransferase 6 GAL-I overexpression increased

  1. Genetic mapping of wild introgressions into cultivated peanut: a way toward enlarging the genetic basis of a recent allotetraploid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is widely used as a food and cash crop around the world. It is considered to be an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids. The most probable hypothesis gave A. duranensis as the wild donor of the A genome and A. ipaënsis as the wild donor of the B genome. A low level of molecular polymorphism is found in cultivated germplasm and up to date few genetic linkage maps have been published. The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has received little attention due to the reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and to the technical difficulties encountered in making large number of crosses. We report here the development of a SSR based genetic map and the analysis of genome-wide segment introgressions into the background of a cultivated variety through the utilization of a synthetic amphidiploid between A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis. Results Two hundred ninety eight (298) loci were mapped in 21 linkage groups (LGs), spanning a total map distance of 1843.7 cM with an average distance of 6.1 cM between adjacent markers. The level of polymorphism observed between the parent of the amphidiploid and the cultivated variety is consistent with A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis being the most probable donor of the A and B genomes respectively. The synteny analysis between the A and B genomes revealed an overall good collinearity of the homeologous LGs. The comparison with the diploid and tetraploid maps shed new light on the evolutionary forces that contributed to the divergence of the A and B genome species and raised the question of the classification of the B genome species. Structural modifications such as chromosomal segment inversions and a major translocation event prior to the tetraploidisation of the cultivated species were revealed. Marker assisted selection of BC1F1 and then BC2F1 lines carrying the desirable donor segment with the best

  2. Lithium nephrotoxicity: a progressive combined glomerular and tubulointerstitial nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, G S; Radhakrishnan, J; Kambham, N; Valeri, A M; Hines, W H; D'Agati, V D

    2000-08-01

    This study examines the clinical features, pathologic findings, and outcome of 24 patients with biopsy-proven lithium toxicity. The patient population was 50% male, 87.5% Caucasian, and had a mean age of 42.5 yr (range, 26 to 57). Mean duration of lithium therapy for bipolar disorder was 13.6 yr (range, 2 to 25). All patients were biopsied for renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 2.8 mg/dl; range, 1.3 to 8.0), with associated proteinuria >1.0 g/d in 41.7%. Nephrotic proteinuria (>3.0 g/d) was present in 25%. Other features included nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 87% and hypertension in 33.3%. Renal biopsy revealed a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy in 100%, with associated cortical and medullary tubular cysts (62.5%) or dilatation (33.3%). All of the renal cysts stained for epithelial membrane antigen, while 51.4% stained with lectin Arachis hypogaea, and only 3.8% stained with Tetragonolobus purpureas, indicating they originated from distal and collecting tubules. The degree of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis was graded as severe in 58.3%, moderate in 37.5%, and mild in 4.2% of cases. There was a surprisingly high prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (50%) and global glomerulosclerosis (100%), sometimes of equivalent severity to the chronic tubulointerstitial disease. The significant degree of foot process effacement (mean 34%, five of 14 cases with >50%) suggests a potential direct glomerular toxicity. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis correlated with proteinuria >1.0 g/d (P = 0.0014, Fisher exact test). Despite discontinuation of lithium, seven of nine patients with initial serum creatinine values >2.5 mg/dl progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Only three patients, all with initial serum creatinine <2.1 mg/dl, had subsequent improvement in renal function. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the only significant predictor of progression to ESRD was serum creatinine >2.5 mg/dl at biopsy (P = 0. 008). In conclusion

  3. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  4. Biosynthesis of plant-specific stilbene polyketides in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Kevin T; Lee, Pyung C; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Background Phenylpropanoids are the precursors to a range of important plant metabolites such as the cell wall constituent lignin and the secondary metabolites belonging to the flavonoid/stilbene class of compounds. The latter class of plant natural products has been shown to function in a wide range of biological activities. During the last few years an increasing number of health benefits have been associated with these compounds. In particular, they demonstrate potent antioxidant activity and the ability to selectively inhibit certain tyrosine kinases. Biosynthesis of many medicinally important plant secondary metabolites, including stilbenes, is frequently not very well understood and under tight spatial and temporal control, limiting their availability from plant sources. As an alternative, we sought to develop an approach for the biosynthesis of diverse stilbenes by engineered recombinant microbial cells. Results A pathway for stilbene biosynthesis was constructed in Escherichia coli with 4-coumaroyl CoA ligase 1 4CL1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and stilbene synthase (STS) cloned from Arachis hypogaea. E. coli cultures expressing these enzymes together converted the phenylpropionic acid precursor 4-coumaric acid, added to the growth medium, to the stilbene resveratrol (>100 mg/L). Caffeic acid, added in the same way, resulted in the production of the expected dihydroxylated stilbene, piceatannol (>10 mg/L). Ferulic acid, however, was not converted to the expected stilbene product, isorhapontigenin. Substitution of 4CL1 with a homologous enzyme, 4CL4, with a preference for ferulic acid over 4-coumaric acid, had no effect on the conversion of ferulic acid. Accumulation of tri- and tetraketide lactones from ferulic acid, regardless of the CoA-ligase expressed in E. coli, suggests that STS cannot properly accommodate and fold the tetraketide intermediate to the corresponding stilbene structure. Conclusion Phenylpropionic acids, such as 4-coumaric acid and caffeic

  5. Population dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria and Pasteuria penetrans in a long-term crop rotation study.

    PubMed

    Timper, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    The endospore-forming bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of crop sequence on abundance of P. penetrans. The experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2008 at a field site naturally infested with both the bacterium and its host Meloidogyne arenaria and included the following crop sequences: continuous peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (P-P-P) and peanut rotated with either 2 years of corn (Zea mays) (C-C-P), 1 year each of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and corn (Ct-C-P), or 1 year each of corn and a vegetable (V-C-P). The vegetable was a double crop of sweet corn and eggplant (Solanum melongena). A bioassay with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria from a greenhouse (GH) population was used to estimate endospore abundance under the different crop sequences. A greater numerical increase in endospore densities was expected in the P-P-P and V-C-P sequences than in the other sequences because both peanut and eggplant are good hosts for M. arenaria. However, endospore densities, as determined by bioassay, did not substantially increase in any of the sequences during the 9-year experiment. To determine whether the nematode population had developed resistance to the resident P. penetrans, five single egg-mass (SEM) lines from the field population of M. arenaria were tested alongside the GH population for acquisition of endospores from the field soil. Four of the five SEM lines acquired 9 to 14 spores/J2 whereas the GH population and one of the SEM lines acquired 3.5 and 1.8 spores/J2, respectively. Endospore densities estimated with the four receptive SEM lines were highest in the P-P-P plots (14-20 spores/J2), intermediate in the V-C-P plots (6-7 spores/J2), and lowest in the Ct-C-P plots (< 1 spore/J2). These results indicate that the field population of M. arenaria is heterogeneous for attachment of P. penetrans endospores. Moreover, spore densities

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci of resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus and leaf spots in a recombinant inbred line population of peanut (Arachis hypogae L.) from SunOleic 97R and NC94022

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots. The most sustainable and economical solution for managing peanut diseases is development of resistance cultivars. The new breeding line NC94022, high resistance to TSWV and moderate resistance to le...

  7. Influence of the size of indigenous rhizobial populations on establishment and symbiotic performance of introduced rhizobia on field-grown legumes.

    PubMed

    Thies, J E; Singleton, P W; Bohlool, B B

    1991-01-01

    Indigenous rhizobia in soil present a competition barrier to the establishment of inoculant strains, possibly leading to inoculation failure. In this study, we used the natural diversity of rhizobial species and numbers in our fields to define, in quantitative terms, the relationship between indigenous rhizobial populations and inoculation response. Eight standardized inoculation trials were conducted at five well-characterized field sites on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Soil rhizobial populations ranged from 0 to over 3.5 x 10 g of soil for the different legumes used. At each site, no less than four but as many as seven legume species were planted from among the following: soybean (Glycine max), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Leucaena leucocephala, tinga pea (Lathyrus tingeatus), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and clover (Trifolium repens). Each legume was (i) inoculated with an equal mixture of three effective strains of homologous rhizobia, (ii) fertilized at high rates with urea, or (iii) left uninoculated. For soybeans, a nonnodulating isoline was used in all trials as the rhizobia-negative control. Inoculation increased economic yield for 22 of the 29 (76%) legume species-site combinations. While the yield increase was greater than 100 kg ha in all cases, in only 11 (38%) of the species-site combinations was the increase statistically significant (P

  8. Influence of the Size of Indigenous Rhizobial Populations on Establishment and Symbiotic Performance of Introduced Rhizobia on Field-Grown Legumes †

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Singleton, Paul W.; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1991-01-01

    Indigenous rhizobia in soil present a competition barrier to the establishment of inoculant strains, possibly leading to inoculation failure. In this study, we used the natural diversity of rhizobial species and numbers in our fields to define, in quantitative terms, the relationship between indigenous rhizobial populations and inoculation response. Eight standardized inoculation trials were conducted at five well-characterized field sites on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Soil rhizobial populations ranged from 0 to over 3.5 × 104 g of soil-1 for the different legumes used. At each site, no less than four but as many as seven legume species were planted from among the following: soybean (Glycine max), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Leucaena leucocephala, tinga pea (Lathyrus tingeatus), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and clover (Trifolium repens). Each legume was (i) inoculated with an equal mixture of three effective strains of homologous rhizobia, (ii) fertilized at high rates with urea, or (iii) left uninoculated. For soybeans, a nonnodulating isoline was used in all trials as the rhizobia-negative control. Inoculation increased economic yield for 22 of the 29 (76%) legume species-site combinations. While the yield increase was greater than 100 kg ha-1 in all cases, in only 11 (38%) of the species-site combinations was the increase statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). On average, inoculation increased yield by 62%. Soybean (G. max) responded to inoculation most frequently, while cowpea (V. unguiculata) failed to respond in all trials. Inoculation responses in the other legumes were site dependent. The response to inoculation and the competitive success of inoculant rhizobia were inversely related to numbers of indigenous rhizobia. As few as 50 rhizobia g of soil-1 eliminated inoculation response. When fewer than 10 indigenous rhizobia g of soil-1 were present, economic yield was

  9. Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuts Baked goods, such as cookies and pastries Ice cream and frozen desserts Energy bars Cereals and granola ... and Vietnamese dishes Foods sold in bakeries and ice-cream shops Arachis oil, another name for peanut oil ...

  10. In situ degradability and selected ruminal constituents of sheep fed with peanut forage hay.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gisele Machado; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Teixeira de Mattos, Waldssimiler; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Junior, Evaldo Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Because legumes are a very important feed source for ruminants, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal inclusion level of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in sheep diets by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI), concentration of volatile fatty acids, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, ruminal pH and the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). In the experiment with four sheep, a 4 × 4 Latin Square design was used with four periods and four treatments (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% Arachis replacing grass hay). Significant interactions were observed between treatments and sampling times for ammonia-nitrogen and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by interaction between treatments and sampling time. The degradation of DM and CP was similar, rising with the increasing content of Arachis, showing a linear effect. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results, with good levels of daily weight gain and higher ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. The legume showed high levels of CP, high digestibility and appropriate levels of fibre, with excellent standards of degradation and ruminal characteristics. The use of the legume  Arachis for ruminants is a promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals.

  11. Genetic variability of cultivated rhizoma peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a vegetatively propagated tropical legume that combines high forage nutritive value and long-term persistence under a wide range of grazing and harvested hay systems. The objectives of this study were to measure the genetic relatedness amo...

  12. Germplasm evaluation of Rhizoma peanut for growth and forage potential.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a warm-season perennial forage legume, adapted to southern USA. It has similar dry matter (DM) and nutritive value to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Recent studies indicated that rhizoma peanut can be grown further north (zone '8b) than previously suggest...

  13. Establishment, agronomic characteristics, and dry matter yield of rhizoma peanut genotypes in cool environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) has potential to provide high quality forage during summer months; however establishment of the stand is slow and cold tolerance is limited. During the three growing seasons from 2006 to 2008, a randomized complete block design experiment was conducted at fo...

  14. Annual and perennial peanut forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut hay can be a valuable feed for livestock in the Southeast. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) cultivars have been developed and are grown on limited acres in Georgia and Florida. The cost and time for establishment of this vegetatively propagated crop can be prohibitive to some grow...

  15. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  16. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  17. Nitrogen, Phosphor, and Potassium Level in Soil and Oil Palm Tree at various Composition of plant species mixtures grown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanum, C.; Rauf, A.; Fazrin, D. A.; Habibi, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    In productive oil palm plantation areas, poor vegetation is generally caused by low light intensity. This condition causes excessive erosion and decreases soil fertility. One of the efforts for soil and water conservation at oil palm plantations is through increased vegetation diversity. The changes of soil and plant nitrogen, phosporus, and potassium content, observed by planting two types of herbs under oil palm tree, with different compositions. Vegetation composition was set as: Arachis glabrata 100%; Stenotaprum secundatum 100%; Arachis glabrata 50% + Stenotaprum secundatum 50%; Arachis glabrata 75% + Stenotaprum secundatum 25%; Arachis glabrata 25% + Stenotaprum secundatum 75%. The shoot and root fresh/dry weight, nutrient content (nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium) of each cutting were measured at the end of the experiment. Ten of treatment plant were harvested and divided shoots and roots after washing out of soil. Biomass samples were dried at 70 °C for 48 h and weighed. The total N and its proportional concentration (N%) were analyzed with the micro- Kjeldahl method. Potasium analyzing with flamephotometry, and phosphor and from samples was determined by analyzing with spectrophotometry method. The results showed the highest shoot growth of A.glabarata if planting was mixed with S. secundatum, but the result was different with S.secundatum being superior if planted with monoculture system. Combination of interrow cultivation is more recommended for soil conservation and nutrient maintenance in palm oil trees were A. Glabarata 75% + S.secundatum 25%.

  18. Yield Response and Economics of Shallow Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...

  20. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  1. Improved growth and nutrient status of an oat cover crop in sod-based versus conventional peanut-cotton rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural soils is a major concern in the southeastern USA. A winter cover crop following the summer crop rotation is essential for controlling N leaching and soil run-off, thereby improving sustainable development. Rotation of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cotton (Go...

  2. Establishment of five cover crops and total soil nutrient extraction in a humid tropical soil in the Peruvian Amazon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the establishment of five cover crops and their potential to increase soil fertility through nutrient extraction, an experiment was installed in the Research Station of Choclino, San Martin, Peru. Five cover crops were planted: Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg, Calopogonium m...

  3. Shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) for small irregular-shaped fields in the southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted using S3DI on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) rotations to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system. Drip tubing was installed in alternate row middles, strip tillage was used ...

  4. Evaluation of agronomic and economic benefits of using RTK-GPS-based auto-steer guidance systems for peanut digging operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) digger efficiency by accurate placement over the target rows could minimize damaged pods and yield losses. Producers have traditionally relied solely on tractor operator skills to harvest peanuts. However, as peanut production has shifted to new growing reg...

  5. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

  6. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sclerotinia minor from peanut research plots in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia minor is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a disease that significantly reduces peanut (Arachis hypogea) productivity. This study analyzed the diversity and population structure of 164 S. minor isolates from Oklahoma. Isolates were obtained from infected stems of peanut plants fr...

  7. Biology, speciation, and utilization of peanut species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis has a large number of highly diverse species. Large collections of cultivated peanut exist at multiple locations and several hundreds of wild species are maintained in germplasm banks. Many of the species have been characterized for agronomic traits, but much of the germplasm colle...

  8. Attempted protection of spermatogenesis from single doses of gamma-irradiation in the androgen pretreated rat.

    PubMed

    Schlappack, O K; Delic, J I; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenic stem-cell survival after gamma-irradiation has been investigated in the adult Wistar rat. Single doses of 4.5 and 9 Gy gamma-rays were administered to the testes of rats who received arachis oil (0.1 ml/100 g body weight) or testosterone enanthate (240 micrograms/100 g body weight) subcutaneously three times weekly for 6 weeks prior to radiation and during the week in which the radiations were given. A mean percentage of regenerating seminiferous tubule cross-sections of 32.45% and 7.26% was found in the testes of androgen-pretreated rats at 8 weeks after 4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Similar values (33.4% and 6.2%) were obtained in arachis oil-pretreated controls. We therefore conclude that protection of rat spermatogenesis from single doses of gamma-rays cannot be achieved by androgen pretreatment.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of WRKY Gene Family in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Lin, Jer-Young; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Bi, Yuping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement. PMID:27200012

  10. Synthesis and non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes rings: new nanomaterials with lectin affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assali, Mohyeddin; Pernía Leal, Manuel; Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar, Noureddine

    2013-03-01

    We present a mild and practical carbon nanotubes rings (CNRs) synthesis from non-covalent functionalized and water-soluble linear single-wall carbon nanotubes. The hemi-micellar-supramolecular self-organization of lactose-based glycolipid 1 on the ring surface, followed by photo-polymerization of the diacetylenic function triggered by UV light afforded the first water-soluble and biocompatible CNRs. The obtained donut-like nanoconstructs expose a high density of lactose moieties on their surface, and are able to engage specific interactions with Arachis hypogea lectin similar to glycoconjugates on the cell membrane.

  11. Identification of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes from legumes and their responses in wild type and cultivated peanut upon Aspergillus flavus infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Changsheng; Han, Suoyi; Lopez-Baltazar, Javier; Zhang, Xinyou; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) genes are widely distributed in plants and play crucial roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Although they have been characterized in various plants, little is known about the evolution of legume LOX genes. In this study, we identified 122 full-length LOX genes in Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaënsis, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In total, 64 orthologous and 36 paralogous genes were identified. The full-length, polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) and lipoxygenase domain sequences from orthologous and paralogous genes exhibited a signature of purifying selection. However, purifying selection influenced orthologues more than paralogues, indicating greater functional conservation of orthologues than paralogues. Neutrality and effective number of codons plot results showed that natural selection primarily shapes codon usage, except for C. arietinum, L. japonicas and M. truncatula LOX genes. GCG, ACG, UCG, CGG and CCG codons exhibited low relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, while CCA, GGA, GCU, CUU and GUU had high RSCU values, indicating that the latter codons are strongly preferred. LOX expression patterns differed significantly between wild-type peanut and cultivated peanut infected with Aspergillus flavus, which could explain the divergent disease resistance of wild progenitor and cultivars. PMID:27731413

  12. Genetic diversity of the forage peanut in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco, and Paranã River valleys of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azêvedo, H S F S; Sousa, A C B; Martins, K; Oliveira, J C; Yomura, R B T; Silva, L M; Valls, J F M; Assis, G M L; Campos, T

    2016-09-09

    Arachis pintoi and A. repens are legumes with a high forage value that are used to feed ruminants in consortium systems. Not only do they increase the persistence and quality of pastures, they are also used for ornamental and green cover. The objective of this study was to analyze microsatellite markers in order to access the genetic diversity of 65 forage peanut germplasm accessions in the section Caulorrhizae of the genus Arachis in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco and Paranã River valleys of Brazil. Fifty-seven accessions of A. pintoi and eight of A. repens were analyzed using 17 microsatellites, and the observed heterozygosity (HO), expected heterozygosity (HE), number of alleles per locus, discriminatory power, and polymorphism information content were all estimated. Ten loci (58.8%) were polymorphic, and 125 alleles were found in total. The HE ranged from 0.30 to 0.94, and HO values ranged from 0.03 to 0.88. By using Bayesian analysis, the accessions were genetically differentiated into three gene pools. Neither the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nor a neighbor-joining analysis clustered samples into species, origin, or collection area. These results reveal a very weak genetic structure that does not form defined clusters, and that there is a high degree of similarity between the two species.

  13. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Dillehay, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the Ñanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 14C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 14C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Ñanchoc region by 8000 14C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  14. Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2014-06-01

    Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system.

  15. Identification of chemical ingredients of peanut stems and leaves extracts using UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with novel informatics UNIFI platform.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Shi, Ai-Min; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Meruva, Naren; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Yang, Ying; Huang, Chun; Li, Peng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Peanut stems and leaves have been used traditionally as both herbal medicines and special food in Asia. In this study, the main functional compounds of peanut stems and leaves extracts were identified using UPLC separation coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS), and a traditional medicine library. Three different extraction solvents (ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and n-butanol) were evaluated to prepare the extracts of peanut stems and leaves. A total of 283 chemical compounds were identified in peanut stems and leaves extracts, of which 207 compounds are tentatively new identifications in Genus Arachis. The integration of data acquisition and processing with the traditional medicine library provides a simple, efficient process to effectively facilitate the identification of chemical ingredients in complex natural product extracts. The integrated workflow for separation, detection and identification of functional compounds in natural products using UPLC/QTOF-MS greatly improves productivity for development of traditional herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Carcinogenic Activity of Some Benz(a)Anthracene Derivatives in Newborn Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roe, F. J. C.; Dipple, A.; Mitchley, B. C. V.

    1972-01-01

    Equimolar doses of 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene and 3 of its derivatives were given to newborn male and female Swiss mice. All 4 substances tested increased the risk of tumour development compared with that seen in control mice given the vehicle, arachis oil, only. 7-Methylbenz(a)anthracene itself was the most actively tumorigenic of the compounds studied, giving rise to subcutaneous sarcomata at the site of injection, and multiple lung tumours and liver tumours. 7-Bromomethyl-12-methylbenz(a)-anthracene was similarly active in the lung and liver but evoked fewer subcutaneous sarcomata. 7-Bromomethylbenz(a)anthracene was seemingly slightly less active than either 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene or 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene. 4-Chloro-7-bromomethylbenz(a)anthracene exhibited only marginal activity in that it slightly increased the risk of liver tumour development in male mice. PMID:4647396

  17. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop. PMID:19274256

  18. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.

    PubMed

    Ritzinger, C H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1998-12-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop.

  19. Comparison of the estrogenic potencies of standardized soy extracts by immature rat uterotrophic bioassay.

    PubMed

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Duarte, Rodrigo Ferreira; Campos, Ligia Maria Moreira; Nunan, Elzíria de Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, isoflavones, are a primary class of plant-based estrogen alternatives being sold over the counter nowadays. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the major isoflavones found in soybeans, as aglycones and glycosides. Each isoflavone shows distinctive estrogenic activity and pharmacokinetics. Soy dry extracts, employed as pharmaceutical raw material for manufacturing isoflavone supplements, are standardized to contain 40% of total isoflavones, but the amount of each isoflavone is highly diverse. The influence of these compositional differences on the estrogenic potency of soy extracts was evaluated by uterotrophic bioassay. Five commercial samples of standardized soy dry extract, homogeneously suspended in arachis oil, were administered per os in serial doses (125-4150 mg/kg bw/day) to immature female rats for 3 days. Soy extract samples with considerable diversity in isoflavone composition revealed different estrogenic potencies. Our results indicate a need of standardization of the individual isoflavone content in soy extracts.

  20. Influence of drying treatments on antioxidant capacity of forage legume leaves.

    PubMed

    Sang, Saw Yei; Jamharee, Fazrina; Prasad, K Nagendra; Azlan, Azrina; Maliki, Nurzillah

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17-2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08-246.42 μM of Fe(2+)/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11-78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content.