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Sample records for america case studies

  1. Merging Computers and Communication: A Case Study in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeffinger, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses access to information through merging computers and new communications technology and its influence in developing nations. Highlights include a case study of InterNet/LACRIP (Latin American Cancer Research Information Project), a microcomputer-based international network involving institutions in the United States and Latin America that…

  2. The Idea of America: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, William E.; Hartoonian, H. Michael; van Scotter, Richard; Davis, James E.

    2007-01-01

    It is often difficult for Americans to find the secrets for addressing issues relevant to the contemporary United States. However, in every generation, individual citizens in their communities, states, and national institutions have debated values that are central to the nation. By studying American history as a sequence of case studies, students…

  3. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  4. A Case Study of a Career in Education that Began with "Teach for America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip

    2011-01-01

    In this article I share the results of a seven-year case study of an educator who began his career without formal preservice teacher education, as a participant in Teach for America. Steven (a pseudonym) began teaching mathematics in an urban middle school, later teaching social studies to English language learners, and is currently a principal of…

  5. A Case Study of a Career in Education that Began with "Teach for America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip

    2011-01-01

    In this article I share the results of a seven-year case study of an educator who began his career without formal preservice teacher education, as a participant in Teach for America. Steven (a pseudonym) began teaching mathematics in an urban middle school, later teaching social studies to English language learners, and is currently a principal of…

  6. A Case Study: How Twenty-One Koreans Perceive America. World Education Monograph Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Byungchai Cora

    Twenty-one Koreans were interviewed concerning their perceptions of America. In the spring of 1977, 9 men and 12 women between the ages of 20 and 50 from the greater Hartford and Storrs area in Connecticut participated in this case study. The males interviewed included five graduate students, three undergraduates, and one government scientist.…

  7. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed.

  8. An adolescent vampire cult in rural America: clinical issues and case study.

    PubMed

    Miller, T W; Veltkamp, L J; Kraus, R F; Lane, T; Heister, T

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of cult related activities in rural America are examined. Cults and their attraction to adolescents are addressed as are methods of cult indoctrination and a profile of cult members and their leader. Clinical management along with a rationale for the attraction of some adolescents to cults are discussed. A case study of a vampire cult and the psychopathology identified in the leader of the cult are provided. Import for clinicians is offered.

  9. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-28

    Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits) in Central America. This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical that preventive health measures address such upstream determinants

  10. Cost of dengue cases in eight countries in the Americas and Asia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suaya, Jose A; Shepard, Donald S; Siqueira, João B; Martelli, Celina T; Lum, Lucy C S; Tan, Lian Huat; Kongsin, Sukhontha; Jiamton, Sukhum; Garrido, Fàtima; Montoya, Romeo; Armien, Blas; Huy, Rekol; Castillo, Leticia; Caram, Mariana; Sah, Binod K; Sughayyar, Rana; Tyo, Karen R; Halstead, Scott B

    2009-05-01

    Despite the growing worldwide burden of dengue fever, the global economic impact of dengue illness is poorly documented. Using a common protocol, we present the first multicountry estimates of the direct and indirect costs of dengue cases in eight American and Asian countries. We conducted prospective studies of the cost of dengue in five countries in the Americas (Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, and Venezuela) and three countries in Asia (Cambodia, Malaysia, and Thailand). All studies followed the same core protocol with interviews and medical record reviews. The study populations were patients treated in ambulatory and hospital settings with a clinical diagnosis of dengue. Most studies were performed in 2005. Costs are in 2005 international dollars (I$). We studied 1,695 patients (48% pediatric and 52% adult); none died. The average illness lasted 11.9 days for ambulatory patients and 11.0 days for hospitalized patients. Among hospitalized patients, students lost 5.6 days of school, whereas those working lost 9.9 work days per average dengue episode. Overall mean costs were I$514 and I$1,394 for an ambulatory and hospitalized case, respectively. With an annual average of 574,000 cases reported, the aggregate annual economic cost of dengue for the eight study countries is at least I$587 million. Preliminary adjustment for under-reporting could raise this total to $1.8 billion, and incorporating costs of dengue surveillance and vector control would raise the amount further. Dengue imposes substantial costs on both the health sector and the overall economy.

  11. Screening for cervical cancer in Latin America: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Herrero, R; Brinton, L A; Reeves, W C; Brenes, M M; de Britton, R C; Gaitan, E; Tenorio, F

    1992-12-01

    The beneficial effect of cervical cytology in reducing the incidence of invasive cervical cancer is well accepted, but many issues regarding specific patterns of screening remain to be resolved, and preventive programmes need to be adapted to regional characteristics. In a case-control study conducted in Latin America, we investigated cytological screening histories of 759 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 1430 controls, with participation rates of 99% and 96%, respectively. Fifty per cent of the cases and 29% of the controls reported never having been screened. Screening was less common among older, less educated and less parous women; non-users of oral contraceptives and women without histories of venereal diseases. There was also evidence that older women and those with multiple partners had longer intervals between examinations. The relative risk (RR) associated with no prior screening was approximately 3 and was not modified by other risk factors. Women reporting a Pap smear within 24-47 months before interview had the same RR as those examined within 12-23 months. Women tested longer ago had higher risks, but still much lower than women never examined. There was evidence that one examination is associated with less reduction in risk than two, regardless of the interval since last Pap smear. Screening appeared to reduce risk of both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. As expected, cases presenting at advanced stages were less likely to have been screened and reported longer intervals since their last examination. These results support the need to concentrate limited resources in the groups that need screening most, mainly older and less educated women who have never been screened.

  12. Why Study Education in the Americas: A Case Study of a Belizean School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Brenda H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the benefits and advantages of studying education in other countries, neighbors to the United States, such as the small Central American country of Belize. This case study describes the everyday life of two contrasting schools in Belize, a private school and a public school. Modern day school issues affecting the lives of…

  13. Public health foodborne illness case study during a Special Operations Forces deployment to South America.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Although many public health articles have been published detailing foodborne illness outbreaks, a medical literature search revealed no articles that detail a case study or a specific response of a deployed U.S. military unit to a potential foodborne illness. This article describes a recent public health case study of a U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) team sickened while deployed to South America. It highlights public health factors which may affect U.S. personnel deployed or serving overseas and may serve as a guide for a deployed SOF medic to reference in response to a potential food- or waterborne illness outbreak. Eight food samples and five water samples were collected. The food samples were obtained from the host nation kitchen that provided food to the SOF team. The water samples were collected from the kitchen as well as from multiple sites on the host nation base. These samples were packaged in sterile containers, stored at appropriate temperatures, and submitted to a U.S. Army diagnostic laboratory for analysis. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of elevated aerobic plate counts (APCs) in the food prepared by the host nation and consumed by the SOF team. High APCs in food are the primary indicator of improper sanitation of food preparation surfaces and utensils. This case study concluded that poor kitchen sanitation, improper food storage, preparation, and/or holding were the probable conditions that led to the team?s symptoms. These results emphasize the importance of ensuring safe food and water for U.S. personnel serving overseas, especially in a deployment or combat setting. Contaminated food and/or water will negatively impact the health and availability of forces, which may lead to mission failure. The SOF medic must respond to potential outbreaks and be able to (1) critically inspect food preparation areas and accurately advise commanders in order to correct deficiencies and (2) perform food/water surveillance testing consistently

  14. Trans-Pacific Transport of Saharan Dust to Western North America: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendry, Ian G. M.; Strawbridge, Kevin B.; O'Neill, Norman; Macdonald, Anne Marie; Liu, Peter S. K.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Anlauf, Kurt G.; Jaegle, Lyatt; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    The first documented case of long range transport of Saharan dust over a pathway spanning Asia and the Pacific to Western North America is described. Crustal material generated by North African dust storms during the period 28 February - 3 March 2005 reached western Canada on 13-14 March 2005 and was observed by lidar and sunphotometer in the Vancouver region and by high altitude aerosol instrumentation at Whistler Peak. Global chemical models (GEOS-CHEM and NRL NAAPS) confirm the transport pathway and suggest source attribution was simplified in this case by the distinct, and somewhat unusual, lack of dust activity over Eurasia (Gobi and Takla Makan deserts) at this time. Over western North America, the dust layer, although subsiding close to the boundary layer, did not appear to contribute to boundary layer particulate matter concentrations. Furthermore, sunphotometer observations (and associated inversion products) suggest that the dust layer had only subtle optical impact (Aerosol Optical Thickness (Tau(sub a500)) and Angstrom exponent (Alpha(sub 440-870) were 0.1 and 1.2 respectively) and was dominated by fine particulate matter (modes in aerodynamic diameter at 0.3 and 2.5microns). High Altitude observations at Whistler BC, confirm the crustal origin of the layer (rich in Ca(++) ions) and the bi-modal size distribution. Although a weak event compared to the Asian Trans-Pacific dust events of 1998 and 2001, this novel case highlights the possibility that Saharan sources may contribute episodically to the aerosol burden in western North America.

  15. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, California

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. Through Building America research and other innovative programs throughout the country, many of the technical challenges to building to the ZERH standard have been addressed. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, CA. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. The case study discusses challenges encountered, lessons learned, and how obstacles were overcome. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  16. [Neoliberal reforms in health services in Latin America: a critical view from two case studies].

    PubMed

    Homedes, Nuria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    Neoliberal reforms have promoted privatization and decentralization as strategies to improve equity, efficiency, and the quality of health services. In this piece the impact of these reforms in Latin America is critically analyzed, and the impacts of privatization in Colombia and of decentralization in Mexico are detailed. These two cases show that after 10 years of privatization in Colombia and 20 years of decentralization in Mexico the reforms have had the opposite of the desired effect: They have not improved equity, have increased health expenditures, have not increased efficiency, and have not shown a positive impact on quality. Public health programs in Colombia have deteriorated, while decentralization in Mexico has had a very high cost, without achieving the proposed objectives. It is officially accepted that decentralization in Mexico has increased inequity, and that new reforms implemented in 2003 promote vertical programs. Health systems based on regulated competition are not the most suitable ones for Latin America. Latin American countries should improve their health systems in line with the principles stated in the Declaration of Alma Ata and according to their own national experiences.

  17. Alcohol and Road Traffic Injuries in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Monteiro, Maristela; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Orozco, Ricardo; Ye, Yu; Poznyak, Vladimir; Peden, Margie; Pechansky, Flavio; Cremonte, Mariana; Reid, Sandra D; Mendez, Jesus

    2017-10-01

    This study reports dose-response estimates for the odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk of acute alcohol use and road traffic injury (RTI). Data were analyzed on 1,119 RTI patients arriving at 16 emergency departments (EDs) in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago. Case-crossover analysis, pair-matching the number of standard drinks consumed within the 6 hours prior to the RTI with 2 control periods (prior d/wk), was performed using fractional polynomial analysis for dose-response. About 1 in 6 RTI patients in EDs were positive for self-reported alcohol 6 hours prior to the injury (country range 8.6 to 24.1%). The likelihood of an RTI with any drinking prior (compared to not drinking) was 5 times higher (country range OR 2.50 to 15.00) and the more a person drinks the higher the risk. Every drink (12.8 g alcohol) increased the risk of an RTI by 13%, even 1 to 2 drinks were associated with a sizable increase in risk of an RTI and a dose-response was found. Differences in ORs for drivers (OR = 3.51; 95% CI = 2.25 to 5.45), passengers (OR = 8.12; 95% CI = 4.22 to 15.61), and pedestrians (OR = 6.30; 95% CI = 3.14 to 12.64) and attributable fractions were noted. Acute use of alcohol was attributable to 14% of all RTIs, varying from 7% for females to 19% for being injured as a passenger. The finding that the presence of alcohol increases risk among drivers and nondrivers alike may further help to urge interventions targeting passengers and pedestrians. Routine screening and brief interventions in all health services could also have a beneficial impact in decreasing rates of RTIs. Higher priority should be given to alcohol as a risk factor for RTIs, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  19. Best practices in intercultural health: five case studies in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Mignone, Javier; Bartlett, Judith; O'Neil, John; Orchard, Treena

    2007-01-01

    The practice of integrating western and traditional indigenous medicine is fast becoming an accepted and more widely used approach in health care systems throughout the world. However, debates about intercultural health approaches have raised significant concerns. This paper reports findings of five case studies on intercultural health in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Suriname. It presents summary information on each case study, comparatively analyzes the initiatives following four main analytical themes, and examines the case studies against a series of the best practice criteria. PMID:17803820

  20. Primary oral melanoma: A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of 22 cases of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Toral-Rizo, Víctor H.; León, Jorge E.; Contreras, Elisa; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; de-Almeida, Oslei P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of 22 cases of primary oral melanomas (OM). Study Design: Twenty two cases of primary oral melanoma were analyzed by description of their histopathological features and immunohistochemical study using the antibodies S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and Ki-67. Results: The mean age was 58 years and 14 cases were female. The main affected sites were the hard palate, followed by the upper gingiva. Microscopically, 15 cases presented level III of invasion, 2 cases were amelanotic and 13 showed a mixed epithelioid and plasmacytoid or spindle cells composition. Some cases showed necrosis, perivascular and perineural invasion. S-100 and HMB-45 were positive in all cases, but 3 cases were negative for Melan-A. The proliferative index with Ki-67 was high, with labeling index ranging from 15.51% to 63% of positive cells. Conclusion: S-100 and HMB-45 are more frequently expressed than Melan-A in primary oral melanomas and these markers are helpful to confirm the diagnosis. Key words:Oral melanoma, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:22143732

  1. Assessment of an improved hydrological loading model from space geodesy: case study in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Joëlle; Boy, Jean-Paul; Durand, Frédéric; Mémin, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Loading effects are crustal deformations induced by ocean, atmosphere and continental water mass redistributions. In this study we focus on hydrological loading effect monitored by space geodesy and in particular by GNSS and GRACE. Classically, hydrological loading models take into account snow and soil-moisture but don't consider surface waters (rivers, lakes…). As a result, huge discrepancies between GPS observations and those models arise around large rivers such as the Amazon where nearly half of the vertical signal cannot be explained by the combination of atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological loading models. To better resolve the hydrological signal, we improve the continental water storage models computed from soil-moisture and snow GLDAS/Noah or MERRA data sets by including surface water runoff. We investigate how continental water storage model improvements are supported by GNSS and GRACE observations in South America main river basins: Amazon, Orinoco and Parana. In this area the hydrological effects are among the largest in the world mainly due to the river level variations. We present the results of time series analyses with spectral and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. We extract the dominant spatio-temporal annual mode. We also identify and characterize the spatio-temporal changes in the annual hydrology signal, which is the key to a better understanding of the water cycle variations of those major rivers. We demonstrate that it is crucial to take into account the river contribution in fluid signatures before investigating high-frequency variability and episodic events.

  2. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  3. Stemming the Diffusion of Responsibility: A Longitudinal Case Study of America's Chemistry Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Ray, Herman E.; Criswell, Brett A.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Bearss, Clyde J.; Levelsmier, Nicholas; Chhita, Himanshu; Kirchhoff, Mary

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives to expand the aggregate science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workforce reflect America's goals to increase global competitiveness. However, the aggregation of STEM stakeholders may elicit a "diffusion of responsibility" because individuals assume others are already acting. Here, we perform a longitudinal…

  4. Stemming the Diffusion of Responsibility: A Longitudinal Case Study of America's Chemistry Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Ray, Herman E.; Criswell, Brett A.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Bearss, Clyde J.; Levelsmier, Nicholas; Chhita, Himanshu; Kirchhoff, Mary

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives to expand the aggregate science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workforce reflect America's goals to increase global competitiveness. However, the aggregation of STEM stakeholders may elicit a "diffusion of responsibility" because individuals assume others are already acting. Here, we perform a longitudinal…

  5. Effect of the lithospheric thermal state on the Moho interface: A case study in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Bai, Yongliang; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Tenzer, Robert; Abrehdary, Majid; Miranda, Silvia; Alcacer Sanchez, Juan M.

    2017-07-01

    Gravimetric methods applied for Moho recovery in areas with sparse and irregular distribution of seismic data often assume only a constant crustal density. Results of latest studies, however, indicate that corrections for crustal density heterogeneities could improve the gravimetric result, especially in regions with a complex geologic/tectonic structure. Moreover, the isostatic mass balance reflects also the density structure within the lithosphere. The gravimetric methods should therefore incorporate an additional correction for the lithospheric mantle as well as deeper mantle density heterogeneities. Following this principle, we solve the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy constrained by seismic data to determine the Moho depth of the South American tectonic plate including surrounding oceans, while taking into consideration the crustal and mantle density heterogeneities. Our numerical result confirms that contribution of sediments significantly modifies the estimation of the Moho geometry especially along the continental margins with large sediment deposits. To account for the mantle density heterogeneities we develop and apply a method in order to correct the Moho geometry for the contribution of the lithospheric thermal state (i.e., the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction). In addition, the misfit between the isostatic and seismic Moho models, attributed mainly to deep mantle density heterogeneities and other geophysical phenomena, is corrected for by applying the non-isostatic correction. The results reveal that the application of the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction improves the RMS fit of the VMM gravimetric Moho solution to the CRUST1.0 (improves ∼ 1.9 km) and GEMMA (∼1.1 km) models and the point-wise seismic data (∼0.7 km) in South America.

  6. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-05-19

    Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub-national administrative regions, and

  7. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Results Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. Conclusion This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub

  8. America and North Africa: A Case Study in United States-Third World Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingg, Paul J.

    1979-01-01

    Maintains that American historians should undertake additional research on North Africa and, particularly, on American-North African relations. A major reason for this research is that case studies of American-North African encounters can provide a suitable model for United States-Third World relations in general. Reviews literature related to…

  9. The Cultural and Intercultural Identities of Transnational English Teachers: Two Case Studies from the Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two long-time English language teachers: a California English as a second language instructor originally from Brazil, and a Chilean English as a foreign language teacher who worked for many years in the United States before returning home. Based on interview and classroom observation data, this research…

  10. Pathways to Death Row for America's Disabled Youth: Three Case Studies Driving Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Chaisson, Rebecca; Houchins, David

    2004-01-01

    This article uses the case study method to examine the lives of three youths with disabilities living in the southern part of the United States who have followed a pathway to death row. An empirically established developmental and theoretical framework is used to examine issues related to the influence of disabilities and race on children and…

  11. The Cultural and Intercultural Identities of Transnational English Teachers: Two Case Studies from the Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two long-time English language teachers: a California English as a second language instructor originally from Brazil, and a Chilean English as a foreign language teacher who worked for many years in the United States before returning home. Based on interview and classroom observation data, this research…

  12. Unemployment, Education, and Training: Case Studies from North America and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Keith, Ed.; Ward, Kevin, Ed.

    This book contains 12 chapters, each of which is a case study or a commentary on the unemployment of the 1980s and early 1990s and on the programs devised to retrain workers. Titles and authors are as follows: "Understanding Unemployment: A Critical Overview of Labour Market Trends, Employment, and Unemployment: (John Hughes); "A…

  13. Pathways to Death Row for America's Disabled Youth: Three Case Studies Driving Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Chaisson, Rebecca; Houchins, David

    2004-01-01

    This article uses the case study method to examine the lives of three youths with disabilities living in the southern part of the United States who have followed a pathway to death row. An empirically established developmental and theoretical framework is used to examine issues related to the influence of disabilities and race on children and…

  14. Building America Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center, Denver, Colorado (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a 'Power of Zero Energy Center' linked to its model home in the Stapleton community of Denver. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. The case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  15. Past climate change and plant evolution in Western North America: a case study in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Töpel, Mats; Antonelli, Alexandre; Yesson, Chris; Eriksen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Species in the ivesioid clade of Potentilla (Rosaceae) are endemic to western North America, an area that underwent widespread aridification during the global temperature decrease following the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. Several morphological features interpreted as adaptations to drought are found in the clade, and many species occupy extremely dry habitats. Recent phylogenetic analyses have shown that the sister group of this clade is Potentilla section Rivales, a group with distinct moist habitat preferences. This has led to the hypothesis that the ivesioids (genera Ivesia, Horkelia and Horkeliella) diversified in response to the late Tertiary aridification of western North America. We used phyloclimatic modeling and a fossil-calibrated dated phylogeny of the family Rosaceae to investigate the evolution of the ivesioid clade. We have combined occurrence- and climate data from extant species, and used ancestral state reconstruction to model past climate preferences. These models have been projected into paleo-climatic scenarios in order to identify areas where the ivesioids may have occurred. Our analysis suggests a split between the ivesioids and Potentilla sect. Rivales around Late Oligocene/Early Miocene (∼23 million years ago, Ma), and that the ivesioids then diversified at a time when summer drought started to appear in the region. The clade is inferred to have originated on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains from where a westward range expansion to the Sierra Nevada and the coast of California took place between ∼12-2 Ma. Our results support the idea that climatic changes in southwestern North America have played an important role in the evolution of the local flora, by means of in situ adaptation followed by diversification.

  16. Past Climate Change and Plant Evolution in Western North America: A Case Study in Rosaceae

    PubMed Central

    Töpel, Mats; Antonelli, Alexandre; Yesson, Chris; Eriksen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Species in the ivesioid clade of Potentilla (Rosaceae) are endemic to western North America, an area that underwent widespread aridification during the global temperature decrease following the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. Several morphological features interpreted as adaptations to drought are found in the clade, and many species occupy extremely dry habitats. Recent phylogenetic analyses have shown that the sister group of this clade is Potentilla section Rivales, a group with distinct moist habitat preferences. This has led to the hypothesis that the ivesioids (genera Ivesia, Horkelia and Horkeliella) diversified in response to the late Tertiary aridification of western North America. We used phyloclimatic modeling and a fossil-calibrated dated phylogeny of the family Rosaceae to investigate the evolution of the ivesioid clade. We have combined occurrence- and climate data from extant species, and used ancestral state reconstruction to model past climate preferences. These models have been projected into paleo-climatic scenarios in order to identify areas where the ivesioids may have occurred. Our analysis suggests a split between the ivesioids and Potentilla sect. Rivales around Late Oligocene/Early Miocene (∼23 million years ago, Ma), and that the ivesioids then diversified at a time when summer drought started to appear in the region. The clade is inferred to have originated on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains from where a westward range expansion to the Sierra Nevada and the coast of California took place between ∼12-2 Ma. Our results support the idea that climatic changes in southwestern North America have played an important role in the evolution of the local flora, by means of in situ adaptation followed by diversification. PMID:23236369

  17. Geographic Information System in Bolivia: a Case Study for Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrien, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bolivia's Geological Service is concluding a successful project designed to give the Department of Oruro the capability to evaluate its natural resources using data generated by three United States satellites. A permanent integrated geographic information system was created for preparing base maps of soil characteristics, land use, geomorphology, geology, water resources and hydrology. The information compiled through the project was stored on magnetic disks and tapes to permit periodic updating, retrieval of data on specific aspects of development projects, and obtaining various data mixes to analyze aspects of prospective development projects. This is the first digital information system developed in Latin America.

  18. Geographic Information System in Bolivia: a Case Study for Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrien, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bolivia's Geological Service is concluding a successful project designed to give the Department of Oruro the capability to evaluate its natural resources using data generated by three United States satellites. A permanent integrated geographic information system was created for preparing base maps of soil characteristics, land use, geomorphology, geology, water resources and hydrology. The information compiled through the project was stored on magnetic disks and tapes to permit periodic updating, retrieval of data on specific aspects of development projects, and obtaining various data mixes to analyze aspects of prospective development projects. This is the first digital information system developed in Latin America.

  19. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Forced air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as an attic or crawlspace. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system (duct leakage) in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution to this problem is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (sealed attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. This case study examines one Building America builder partner's implementation of an inexpensive, quick and effective method of building a fur-down or dropped ceiling chase.

  20. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  1. Building America Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol, Chicago Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    "9Combustion safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  2. Building America Case Study: Demonstration House of Cold-Climate Solutions for Affordable Housing, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-01

    Single family homes in urban areas that are available for renovation by nonprofit developers are often in rough shape (1MM to 2MM nationally). Budgeting has historically focused on improving homes to meet basic housing standards. A rising interest in the long-term impact of homeownership has introduced the need to balance basic needs with home performance. This demonstration project aims to help nonprofit affordable housing developers become familiar with three Building America performance measures, the installation processes, and impacts and benefits of each. A story and a half home in North Minneapolis, MN was presented by Urban Homeworks our local nonprofit partner. The team helped them install three researched upgrade measures: exterior roof insulation or 'overcoat,' exterior foundation insulation, or 'excavationless', and a combined space and water heating HVAC system or 'combi'. To maximize efficiency of application and to address budget issues, the Team worked with Urban Homeworks to identify ways to use volunteers and construction training programs to install the measures. An open invitation to visit the job site was extended to other nonprofit developers and industry partners to encourage dialog about the systems during live installation.

  3. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  4. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    Solar water heating systems are not new, but they have not become prevalent in most of the U.S. Most of the country is cold enough that indirect solar thermal systems are required for freeze protection, and average installed cost of these systems is $9,000 to $10,000 for typical systems on single-family homes. These costs can vary significantly in different markets and with different contractors, and federal and regional incentives can reduce these up-front costs by 50% or more. In western Massachusetts, an affordable housing developer built a community of 20 homes with a goal of approaching zero net energy consumption. In addition to excellent thermal envelopes and PV systems, the developer installed a solar domestic water heating system (SDHW) on each home. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a research consortium funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program, commissioned some of the systems, and CARB was able to monitor detailed performance of one system for 28 months.

  5. A Stochastic Precipitation Generator Conditioned on ENSO Phase: A Case Study in Southeastern South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondona, Martin O.; Podestá, Guillermo P.; Bidegain, Mario; Marino, Monica; Hordij, Hugo

    2000-08-01

    Stochastic precipitation generators can produce synthetic daily rainfall series with statistical characteristics similar to those of historical data. Typically, parameters of precipitation generators have been fit using all historical data for a given period. This approach, however, fails to capture differences in the precipitation process associated with an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal. Stochastic precipitation generators conditioned on the ENSO phase were developed to address this problem. Precipitation models with a range of parameterization schemes were tested in six locations in central-eastern Argentina and western Uruguay (southeastern South America), an important agricultural region with a clear ENSO precipitation signal in October-March. Conditional precipitation models (occurrence, intensity, or both) were superior to simple models in 24 of the 36 locations/months analyzed. Graphic diagnostics showed that conditional occurrence models successfully captured differences in the number and persistence of wet days among ENSO phases. Similarly, conditional intensity models improved noticeably the agreement between theoretical and empirical distributions of daily rainfall amounts. Conditional precipitation generators can be linked to other process models (e.g., crop models) to derive realistic assessments of the likely consequences of ENSO-related variability. Conditional stochastic precipitation generators, therefore, can be useful tools to translate ENSO forecasts into likely regional impacts on sectors of interest.

  6. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    PARR

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  7. Building America Case Study: Control Retrofits for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Systems, Brooklyn, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7 percent after implementing the demand control technique, 2 percent after implementing temperature modulation, and 15 percent after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8 percent, 1 percent, and 14 percent for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  8. Building America Case Study: Control Retrofits for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Systems, Brooklyn, New York

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dentz; E. Ansanelli, H. Henderson, Jr.; K. Varshney

    2016-12-01

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  9. Biocomplexity and conservation of biodiversity hotspots: three case studies from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Callicott, J Baird; Rozzi, Ricardo; Delgado, Luz; Monticino, Michael; Acevedo, Miguel; Harcombe, Paul

    2007-02-28

    The perspective of 'biocomplexity' in the form of 'coupled natural and human systems' represents a resource for the future conservation of biodiversity hotspots in three direct ways: (i) modelling the impact on biodiversity of private land-use decisions and public land-use policies, (ii) indicating how the biocultural history of a biodiversity hotspot may be a resource for its future conservation, and (iii) identifying and deploying the nodes of both the material and psycho-spiritual connectivity between human and natural systems in service to conservation goals. Three biocomplexity case studies of areas notable for their biodiversity, selected for their variability along a latitudinal climate gradient and a human-impact gradient, are developed: the Big Thicket in southeast Texas, the Upper Botanamo River Basin in eastern Venezuela, and the Cape Horn Archipelago at the austral tip of Chile. More deeply, the biocomplexity perspective reveals alternative ways of understanding biodiversity itself, because it directs attention to the human concepts through which biodiversity is perceived and understood. The very meaning of biodiversity is contestable and varies according to the cognitive lenses through which it is perceived.

  10. Large scale and synoptic features associated with extreme precipitation over South America: A review and case studies for the first decade of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema Fonseca Albuquerque

    2012-11-01

    Flooding or droughts over South America affect the population and several sectors of the economy such as agriculture, energy and transport. Floods occur due to extreme precipitation from mesoscale precipitating systems, which can often be embedded in synoptic systems that are influenced by large scale conditions that are in turn influenced by climate variability. Droughts are associated with lack of or reduced influence of these synoptic systems, and also affected by persistent large scale conditions. El Niño-Southern Oscillation episodes have been related to droughts in Amazonia and northeastern Brazil and flooding in southeastern South America. Other extreme cases have been associated with Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Extreme cases also occur in association with tropical-extratropical interactions, through atmospheric circulation anomalies in both tropics and extratropics. In the present review, studies of precipitation extremes in South America and some examples of extreme precipitation in several regions of South America in the 21st century are shown, and a discussion of the associated mechanisms is included. The influences of tropical and extratropical large scale climate variability - such as the Pacific and Atlantic SST, the Pacific South America pattern, the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and features of the North Atlantic Oscillation - on extremes over South America are mentioned. Daily precipitation extremes over South America are often related to convective development within synoptic systems, such as frontal systems and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, in the Southeastern Brazil. Intertropical Convergence Zone and easterly disturbances are the main systems in which convective development can occur related to precipitation extremes in Northeastern region. In La Plata basin, extremes are associated with highly organized convective systems originating in the lee of the Andes that propagate eastward.

  11. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  12. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  13. Building America Case Study: Rehabilitation of USDA Multifamily Homes, Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC, (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface) on the rehabilitation of 418 low-income rental multifamily apartments located at 14 different properties in Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4). These 22-year old, individually-metered units were arranged in rowhouse or townhouse style units. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, who partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide. In 2012, over $100 million was allocated in grants and loans. Due to the unique financing mechanism as well as long-term ownership requirements, property owners are especially motivated to invest in upgrades that will increase durability and tenant retention. These buildings represent a large stock of rural affordable housing that have the potential for significant energy and cost savings for property owners and tenants. Southface analyzed the energy upgrade potential of one stereotypical property in the Rea Ventures portfolio. This study will provide insight into the most cost-effective, implementable energy efficiency and durability upgrades for this age multifamily housing, having an enormous impact not only on the portfolio of Rea Ventures but on the vast USDA and larger Federal portfolio. Additionally, Southface will identify gaps in the current capital needs assessment process, examine available audit and simulation tools and protocols, and evaluate additional auditor training or certification needs.

  14. Social Studies in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John E.; Garcia, Jesus

    1982-01-01

    Seventy six teachers and 737 social studies students from rural high schools in six states were surveyed to determine whether rural secondary social studies programs discuss topics and themes that provide an insight into rural America. Findings suggest that rural life-styles are inadequately portrayed in social studies curricula. (AM)

  15. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  16. Social Studies; Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Paul S.

    Students in grades seven through nine will examine and analyze the political organization, social structure, economic life, and values of the American Colonial period in this quinmester arranged American Studies course. Since the thirteen English Colonies effected the United States development, many of our nations foundations in government,…

  17. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  18. Review Article: A Review of Melioidosis Cases in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Tina J.; Blaney, David D.; Doker, Thomas J.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy G.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Bower, William A.; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus. Cases occur sporadically in the Americas with an increasing number of cases observed among people with no travel history to endemic countries. To better understand the incidence of the disease in the Americas, we reviewed the literature, including unpublished cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of 120 identified human cases, occurring between 1947 and June 2015, 95 cases (79%) were likely acquired in the Americas; the mortality rate was 39%. Burkholderia pseudomallei appears to be widespread in South, Central, and North America. PMID:26458779

  19. A Review of Melioidosis Cases in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Tina J; Blaney, David D; Doker, Thomas J; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy G; Rolim, Dionne B; Inglis, Timothy J J; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Bower, William A; Walke, Henry T

    2015-12-01

    Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus. Cases occur sporadically in the Americas with an increasing number of cases observed among people with no travel history to endemic countries. To better understand the incidence of the disease in the Americas, we reviewed the literature, including unpublished cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of 120 identified human cases, occurring between 1947 and June 2015, 95 cases (79%) were likely acquired in the Americas; the mortality rate was 39%. Burkholderia pseudomallei appears to be widespread in South, Central, and North America. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Toward global standards for comparator pharmaceutical products: case studies of amoxicillin, metronidazole, and zidovudine in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Löbenberg, Raimar; Chacra, Nadia B; Stippler, Erika S; Shah, Vinod P; DeStefano, Anthony J; Hauck, Walter W; Williams, Roger L

    2012-09-01

    This study compared in vitro dissolution characteristics and other quality measures of different amoxicillin, metronidazole, and zidovudine products purchased in the Americas to a comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP). These three drugs are classified as Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class I drugs with the possibility that dissolution findings might be used to document bioequivalence. All investigated zidovudine products were found to be in vitro equivalent to the CPP. Only 3 of 12 tested amoxicillin products were found to be in vitro equivalent to the CPP. None of the tested metronidazole products were in vitro equivalent to the CPP. These findings suggest but do not confirm bioinequivalence where in vitro comparisons failed, given that an in vivo blood level study might have confirmed bioequivalence. At times, identifying a CPP in one of the selected markets proved difficult. The study demonstrates that products sold across national markets may not be bioequivalent. When coupled with the challenge of identifying a CPP in different countries, the results of this study suggest the value of an international CPP as well as increased use of BCS approaches as means of either documenting bioequivalence or signaling the need for further in vivo studies. Because of increased movement of medicines across national borders, practitioners and patients would benefit from these approaches.

  1. Stossel in America: A Case Study of the Neoliberal/Neoconservative Assault on Public Schools and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, David; Atkinson, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to help those who support the pivotal role of public education in promoting a critically informed and actively engaged democratic citizenry understand what the American Federation of Teachers (2006) inaccurately describes as "The John Stossel Agenda." In his "20/20 Report," "Stupid in America: How Lack of Choice Cheats Our Kids…

  2. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  3. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  4. Comparative genetic diversity in a sample of pony breeds from the U.K. and North America: a case study in the conservation of global genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Clare L; Plante, Yves; Hind, Pamela; McMahon, Robert; Hegarty, Matthew J; McEwan, Neil R; Davies-Morel, Mina C G; Morgan, Charly M; Powell, Wayne; Nash, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Most species exist as subdivided ex situ daughter population(s) derived from a single original group of individuals. Such subdivision occurs for many reasons both natural and manmade. Traditional British and Irish pony breeds were introduced to North America (U.S.A. and Canada) within the last 150 years, and subsequently equivalent breed societies were established. We have analyzed selected U.K. and North American equivalent pony populations as a case study for understanding the relationship between putative source and derived subpopulations. Diversity was measured using mitochondrial DNA and a panel of microsatellite markers. Genetic signatures differed between the North American subpopulations according to historical management processes. Founder effect and stochastic drift was apparent, particularly pronounced in some breeds, with evidence of admixture of imported mares of different North American breeds. This demonstrates the importance of analysis of subpopulations to facilitate understanding the genetic effects of past management practices and to lead to informed future conservation strategies. PMID:26380682

  5. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    A new construction pilot community was constructed by builder-partner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes (WCHH) based on a single occupied test house that was designed to achieve greater than 30% energy savings with respect to the House Simulation Protocols (Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn (2010). Building America House Simulation Protocols. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.). Builders face several key problems when implementing a whole-house systems integrated measures package (SIMP) from a single test house into multiple houses. Although a technical solution already may have been evaluated and validated in an individual test house, the potential exists for constructability failures at the community scale. This report addresses factors of implementation and scalability at the community scale and proposes methodologies by which community-scale energy evaluations can be performed based on results at the occupied test house level. Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a SIMP and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  6. Building America Case Study: Excavationless Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    NorthernSTAR

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  7. Building America Case Study: Accelerating the Delivery of Home-Performance Upgrades Using a Synergistic Business Model, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40 percent by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) Understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades. B) Determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks. C) Access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.

  8. Building America Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification, Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor. 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.

  9. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  10. How important is spatial resolution: Case studies at 48, 12 and 4 km for the U.S., Latin America and Southern Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, Robert J; Erickson III, David J

    2009-12-01

    A critical role for regional climate models is downscaling coarse spatial resolution global model simulations of climate change to the much higher resolution required for assessment of regional changes and impacts. But what degree of downscaling is required? Fully coupled global climate models typically have resolutions of at best 100-200 km. The most recent set of IPCC reports suggest that the scale of regional/local impacts to climate change are on the order of 10 km. The scale mismatch is obvious, but less clear is what degree the climate simulations must be downscaled to meet the needs of impacts studies - other non-climate factors might also be crucial or even dominant. We have made a series of simulations with the WRF ARW for the U.S., large portions of Latin America, and South and Southeast Asia. Each set of runs includes a large outer domain at 48 km; an intermediate domain at 12 km (that is the primary basis for model results and interpretations); and one or more 'exploratory' inner domains at 4 km. The latter include regions with complex topography as well as both homogeneous and inhomogeneous land surface types. For each region a multi-year control forced by NCEP reanalyses has been made. Experiments for Asia are focusing on the effects of deforestation, while those for the U.S. and Latin America are focusing on IPCC climate change scenarios (A1FI for the U.S. and A2 for Latin America). Large-scale forcings for the latter two are provided by NCAR CCSM IPCC AR4 simulations. Preliminary results suggest that the higher resolutions have much more structure in standard climate quantities such as temperature or precipitation. Less obvious, however, is how realistic these structures are. In some cases, they clearly follow the better resolution of topography; in other instances the reason is less certain. Furthermore, observational datasets are frequently inadequate in assessing realism, especially for the non-U.S. domains. Finally, this work raises the issue of

  11. Superhero Physiology: The Case for Captain America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Smith, JohnEric W.; McAllister, Matthew; Joe, LeeAnn

    2017-01-01

    Using pop icons in the science classroom represents a creative way to engage often-distracted students in a relevant and, perhaps more importantly, fun way. When the pop icon is as universally known as Captain America, the pedagogical stage is set. However, when the movies can also be employed to link dramatic references to the science concepts at…

  12. Superhero Physiology: The Case for Captain America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Smith, JohnEric W.; McAllister, Matthew; Joe, LeeAnn

    2017-01-01

    Using pop icons in the science classroom represents a creative way to engage often-distracted students in a relevant and, perhaps more importantly, fun way. When the pop icon is as universally known as Captain America, the pedagogical stage is set. However, when the movies can also be employed to link dramatic references to the science concepts at…

  13. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  14. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216507

  15. Maté drinking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in South America: pooled results from two large multi-center case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Jay H.; De Stefani, Eduardo; Abnet, Christian C.; Acosta, Gisele; Boffetta, Paolo; Victora, Cesar; Graubard, Barry I.; Muñoz, Nubia; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Franceschi, Silvia; Castellsagué, Xavier; Ronco, Alvaro L; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maté tea is non-alcoholic infusion widely consumed in southern South America, and may increase risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and other cancers due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or thermal injury. Methods We pooled two case-control studies: a 1988–2005 Uruguay study and a 1986–1992 multinational study in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, including 1,400 cases and 3,229 controls. We computed odds ratios (OR) and fitted a linear excess odds ratio (EOR) model for cumulative maté consumption in liters/day-year (LPDY). Results The adjusted OR for ESCC with 95% confidence interval (CI) by ever compared with never use of maté was 1.60 (1.2,2.2). ORs increased linearly with LPDY (test of non-linearity, P=0.69). The estimate of slope (EOR/LPDY) was 0.009 (0.005,0.014) and did not vary with daily intake, indicating maté intensity did not influence the strength of association. EOR/LPDY estimates for consumption at warm, hot and very hot beverage temperatures were 0.004 (−0.002,0.013), 0.007 (0.003,0.013) and 0.016 (0.009,0.027), respectively, and differed significantly (P<0.01). EOR/LPDY estimates were increased in younger (<65) individuals and never alcohol drinkers, but these evaluations were post hoc, and were homogeneous by sex. Conclusions ORs for ESCC increased linearly with cumulative maté consumption and were unrelated to intensity, so greater daily consumption for shorter duration or lesser daily consumption for longer duration resulted in comparable ORs. The strength of association increased with higher mate temperatures. Impact Increased understanding of cancer risks with maté consumption enhances the understanding of the public health consequences given its purported health benefits. PMID:24130226

  16. Building America Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole House Retrofit, Stockton, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    ARBI

    2014-09-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  17. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  18. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Steven J.; Bunt, Christopher M.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Pearson, Micheal P.; Cooperman, Micheal S.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    Catostomid fishes are a diverse family of 76+ freshwater species that are distributed across North America in many different habitats. This group of fish is facing a variety of impacts and conservation issues that are somewhat unique relative to more economically valuable and heavily managed fish species. Here, we present a brief series of case studies to highlight the threats such as migration barriers, flow regulation, environmental contamination, habitat degradation, exploitation and impacts from introduced (non-native) species that are facing catostomids in different regions. Collectively, the case studies reveal that individual species usually are not threatened by a single, isolated factor. Instead, species in general face numerous stressors that threaten multiple stages of their life history. Several factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish some species, lack of basic natural history and ecological knowledge of life history, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value. Without a specific constituent group lobbying for conservation of non-game fishes, all such species, including members of the catostomid family, will continue to face serious risks because of neglect, ignorance, and misunderstanding. We suggest that conservation strategies should incorporate research and education/outreach components. Other conservation strategies that would be effective for protecting suckers include freshwater protected areas for critical habitat, restoration of degraded habitat, and design of catostomid-friendly fish bypass facilities. We believe that the plight of the catostomids is representative of the threats facing many other non-game freshwater fishes with diverse life-history strategies globally.

  19. Superhero physiology: the case for Captain America.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stanley P; Smith, JohnEric W; McAllister, Matthew; Joe, LeeAnn

    2017-03-01

    Using pop icons in the science classroom represents a creative way to engage often-distracted students in a relevant and, perhaps more importantly, fun way. When the pop icon is as universally known as Captain America, the pedagogical stage is set. However, when the movies can also be employed to link dramatic references to the science concepts at hand, we may have a very powerful tool by which linkages between fiction and science can be forged. In this regard, Captain America's performances in several movies to date can be used to explain actual science. Granted, script writers and movie directors may or may not be interested in whether the physical performances they depict can be explained, but that is irrelevant. The point is to make a connection using science to explain how the superhero can run faster, jump higher, or lift more than is humanly possible. If a teachable moment has occurred and an important concept has been communicated, the educator has accomplished his or her job well.

  20. Analysis of the enablers of capacities to produce primary health care-based reforms in Latin America: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto Pablo; Yavich, Natalia; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Primary health care (PHC)-based reforms have had different results in Latin America. Little attention has been paid to the enablers of collective action capacities required to produce a comprehensive PHC approach. To analyse the enablers of collective action capacities to transform health systems towards a comprehensive PHC approach in Latin American PHC-based reforms. We conducted a longitudinal, retrospective case study of three municipal PHC-based reforms in Bolivia and Argentina. We used multiple data sources and methodologies: document review; interviews with policymakers, managers and practitioners; and household and services surveys. We used temporal bracketing to analyse how the dynamic of interaction between the institutional reform process and the collective action characteristics enabled or hindered the enablers of collective action capacities required to produce the envisioned changes. The institutional structuring dynamics and collective action capacities were different in each case. In Cochabamba, there was an 'interrupted' structuring process that achieved the establishment of a primary level with a selective PHC approach. In Vicente López, there was a 'path-dependency' structuring process that permitted the consolidation of a 'primary care' approach, but with limited influence in hospitals. In Rosario, there was a 'dialectic' structuring process that favoured the development of the capacities needed to consolidate a comprehensive PHC approach that permeates the entire system. The institutional change processes achieved the development of a primary health care level with different degrees of consolidation and system-wide influence given how the characteristics of each collective action enabled or hindered the 'structuring' processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Analysis of the enablers of capacities to produce primary health care-based reforms in Latin America: a multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    Yavich, Natalia; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background. Primary health care (PHC)-based reforms have had different results in Latin America. Little attention has been paid to the enablers of collective action capacities required to produce a comprehensive PHC approach. Objective. To analyse the enablers of collective action capacities to transform health systems towards a comprehensive PHC approach in Latin American PHC-based reforms. Methods. We conducted a longitudinal, retrospective case study of three municipal PHC-based reforms in Bolivia and Argentina. We used multiple data sources and methodologies: document review; interviews with policymakers, managers and practitioners; and household and services surveys. We used temporal bracketing to analyse how the dynamic of interaction between the institutional reform process and the collective action characteristics enabled or hindered the enablers of collective action capacities required to produce the envisioned changes. Results. The institutional structuring dynamics and collective action capacities were different in each case. In Cochabamba, there was an ‘interrupted’ structuring process that achieved the establishment of a primary level with a selective PHC approach. In Vicente López, there was a ‘path-dependency’ structuring process that permitted the consolidation of a ‘primary care’ approach, but with limited influence in hospitals. In Rosario, there was a ‘dialectic’ structuring process that favoured the development of the capacities needed to consolidate a comprehensive PHC approach that permeates the entire system. Conclusion. The institutional change processes achieved the development of a primary health care level with different degrees of consolidation and system-wide influence given how the characteristics of each collective action enabled or hindered the ‘structuring’ processes. PMID:27209640

  2. Factors of Forest Loss using An Object-based Mapping Method -A Case Study in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Ying, Q.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in forest cover affect the delivery of important ecosystem services, including biodiversity richness, climate regulation, carbon storage, and water supplies. In 2013, Hansen et al. published a scientific paper in Science. They mapped global tree cover extent, loss and gain for the period from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30m, with loss allocated annually. They found a total of 2.3 million km2 of forest loss and 0.8 million km 2 of new forest established. Concerning loss, all stand-replacement disturbances were mapped, including mechanical removal (logging), fire and other factors such as storms and disease. The implications on carbon cycle dynamics are very different for these various causes of forest loss. For example, emissions from the various change dynamics vary greatly, and labeling forest loss by change factor will improve carbon cycle and carbon accounting efforts. In this study, we will try to distinguish forest loss caused by fire and logging from other causes. We take Canada and the continental US as the study area, which were estimated to have lost 52.8 MHa forest from 2000 to 2012. Our preliminary results show that fire and logging are the dominant factors (>90%) of North American forest loss. We employ annual minimum NDVI band, annual ETM+ composites for band 3, band 4, band 5, band 7 from 1999 to 2012, and three derived bands from ETM+ composites (dataset A), together with the annual 30m global forest loss map (2001- 2012) (dataset B). The method can be divided into four parts: 1. Generate patches from dataset B. 2. Extract shape, spectral, texture and contextual features from dataset A, with a total of 445 features for each patch; 3. Classify the patches with those features using a bagged regression tree model; 4. Validate and evaluate the results. Mapping results and analysis will be presented at the meeting.

  3. Building America Case Study: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates - Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    New inverter-driven ASHPs are gaining ground in colder climates. These systems operate at sub-zero temperatures without the use of electric resistance backup. There are still uncertainties, however, about cold-climate capacity and efficiency in cold weather and questions such as measuring: power consumption, supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures, and air flow through the indoor fan coil. CARB observed a wide range of operating efficiencies and outputs from site to site. Maximum capacities were found to be generally in line with manufacturer's claims as outdoor temperatures fell to -10 degrees F. The reasons for the wide range in heating performance likely include: low indoor air flow rates, poor placement of outdoor units, relatively high return air temperatures, thermostat set back, integration with existing heating systems, and occupants limiting indoor fan speed. Even with lower efficiencies than published in other studies, most of the heat pumps here still provide heat at lower cost than oil, propane, or certainly electric resistance systems.

  4. Building America Case Study: Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation, Cold Climate Region

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  5. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  6. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  7. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  8. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  9. Asthma in changing environments - chances and challenges of international research collaborations between South America and Europe - study protocol and description of the data acquisition of a case-control-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asthma in children is an emerging public health problem in South America. So far, research in this part of the world is limited. This paper presents the methodology and description of the data acquisition of an asthma case-control study conducted in the Central South of Chile. Methods/Design A hospital-based case-control study about asthma (188 cases, 294 controls) in children (6-15 years) was carried out in Valdivia, Chile between November 2008 and December 2009. Data on asthma risk factors were collected by computer-assisted personal interview using validated questions from e.g. ISAAC phase II. Data on household dust exposure (endotoxin, allergen analyses), skin prick tests to most common allergens, stool examinations for parasitic infection, and blood samples (total IgE, genetics) were collected. Additionally, 492 randomly chosen blood donors were recruited in order to assess allele frequencies in the population of Valdivia. Discussion Overall 1,173 participants were contacted. Response was 82% among cases and 65% among controls. Atopic sensitization was high (78% among cases, 47% among controls). Cases had a statistically significantly (p < .0001) increased self-reported 12-month prevalence of symptoms of rhinitis (82% vs. 51%) and wheeze (68% vs. 16%). The study is well placed to address current hypotheses about asthma and its correlates in the South American context. Results of this study might help develop novel, innovative and individualized prevention strategies in countries in transition with respect to the South American context. PMID:20718949

  10. Designing a rapid response program to support evidence-informed decision-making in the Americas region: using the best available evidence and case studies.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Barreto, Jorge; Reveiz, Ludovic; Lavis, John N

    2016-08-18

    The objective of this work was to inform the design of a rapid response program to support evidence-informed decision-making in health policy and practice for the Americas region. Specifically, we focus on the following: (1) What are the best methodological approaches for rapid reviews of the research evidence? (2) What other strategies are needed to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making in health policy and practice? and (3) How best to operationalize a rapid response program? The evidence used to inform the design of a rapid response program included (i) two rapid reviews of methodological approaches for rapid reviews of the research evidence and strategies to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making, (ii) supplementary literature in relation to the "shortcuts" that could be considered to reduce the time needed to complete rapid reviews, (iii) four case studies, and (iv) supplementary literature to identify additional operational issues for the design of the program. There is no agreed definition of rapid reviews in the literature and no agreed methodology for conducting them. Better reporting of rapid review methods is needed. The literature found in relation to shortcuts will be helpful in choosing shortcuts that maximize timeliness while minimizing the impact on quality. Evidence for other strategies that can be used concurrently to facilitate the uptake of research evidence, including evidence drawn from rapid reviews, is presented. Operational issues that need to be considered in designing a rapid response program include the implications of a "user-pays" model, the importance of recruiting staff with the right mix of skills and qualifications, and ensuring that the impact of the model on research use in decision-making is formally evaluated. When designing a new rapid response program, greater attention needs to be given to specifying the rapid review methods and reporting these in sufficient detail to allow a quality assessment. It will also be

  11. Identifying Barriers and Practical Solutions to Conducting Site-Based Research in North America: Exploring Acute Heart Failure Trials As a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ambrosy, Andrew P; Mentz, Robert J; Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Greene, Stephen J; Severance, Harry W

    2015-10-01

    Although the prognosis of ambulatory heart failure (HF) has improved dramatically there have been few advances in the management of acute HF (AHF). Despite regional differences in patient characteristics, background therapy, and event rates, AHF clinical trial enrollment has transitioned from North America and Western Europe to Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia-Pacific where regulatory burden and cost of conducting research may be less prohibitive. It is unclear if the results of clinical trials conducted outside of North America are generalizable to US patient populations. This article uses AHF as a paradigm and identifies barriers and practical solutions to successfully conducting site-based research in North America.

  12. The Management of University-Industry Relations: Five Institutional Case Studies from Africa, Europe, Latin America, and the Pacific Region. Improving the Managerial Effectiveness of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michaela, Ed.

    Five case studies were conducted to collect empirical evidence on innovative mechanisms through which universities worldwide manage their relations with industry. Cases were selected from institutions of higher education in Israel, Papua New Guinea, Turkey, Brazil, and Uganda. These studies were selected for their innovative approaches, but also…

  13. The Management of University-Industry Relations: Five Institutional Case Studies from Africa, Europe, Latin America, and the Pacific Region. Improving the Managerial Effectiveness of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michaela, Ed.

    Five case studies were conducted to collect empirical evidence on innovative mechanisms through which universities worldwide manage their relations with industry. Cases were selected from institutions of higher education in Israel, Papua New Guinea, Turkey, Brazil, and Uganda. These studies were selected for their innovative approaches, but also…

  14. Building America Case Study: Project Overcoat: Airtightness Strategies and Impacts for 1-1/2 Story Homes, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-11-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  15. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of the Performance of Houses With and Without Supplemental Dehumidification in a Hot-Humid Climate, New Orleans, Louisiana (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This report, Evaluation of the Performance of Houses with and without Supplemental Dehumidification in a Hot-Humid Climate, describes a research study that that was conducted by the Building Science Corporation (BSC) Building America Research Team. BSC seeks to research and report on the field monitoring of the performance of in-situ supplemental dehumidification systems in low energy, high performance, homes in a Hot-Humid climate. The purpose of this research project was to observe and compare the humidity control performance of new, single family, low energy, and high performance, homes. Specifically, the study sought to compare the interior conditions and mechanical systems operation between two distinct groups of houses, homes with a supplemental dehumidifier installed in addition to HVAC system, and homes without any supplemental dehumidification. The subjects of the study were ten single-family new construction homes in New Orleans, LA. Data logging equipment was installed at each home in 2012. Interior conditions and various end-use loads were monitored for one year. In terms of averages, the homes with dehumidifiers are limiting elevated levels of humidity in the living space. However, there was significant variation in humidity control between individual houses. An analysis of the equipment operation did not show a clear correlation between energy use and humidity levels. In general, no single explanatory variable appears to provide a consistent understanding of the humidity control in each house. Indoor humidity is likely due to all of the factors we have examined, and the specifics of how they are used by each occupant.

  16. Study Finds Benefits in Teach for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Since 1990, the privately organized Teach For America has deployed more than 10,000 graduates to disadvantaged schools plagued by teacher shortages. The recruits take part in five-week summer institutes that include four weeks of student teaching. Because states have begun stepping up their requirements for Teach For America participants, most…

  17. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    ?Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of various DCS strategies. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, diagnostic testing, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into California's 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project complemented information collected in the California project with BEopt simulations of DCS performance in hot/dry climate regions.

  18. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  19. Dependence of intake fraction on release location in a multi-media framework: A case study of four contaminants in North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Matthew; Bennett, Deborah H.; Perem, Merike; Maddalena, Randy L.; M cKone, Thomas E.; Mackay, Don

    2003-03-01

    The extent of human exposure to persistent anthropogenic environmental contaminants is a complex function of the amount of chemical emitted, its physico-chemical properties and reactivity, the nature of the environment, and the characteristics of the pathways for human exposure, such as inhalation, intake of food and water and dermal contact. For some chemicals, the location of emissions relative to areas of high population density or intense food production may also be an important factor. The relative importance of these variables is explored using the regionally segmented BETR North America contaminant fate model and data for food production patterns and population density for North America. The model is applied to four contaminants emitted to air: benzene, carbon tetrachloride, benzo[a]pyrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo dioxin. The total continental intake fraction (iF), relating exposure quantity to emission quantity, is employed as a metric for assessing population exposure to environmental contaminants. The results show that the use of continentally averaged parameters for population density and food production provides an accurate estimate of the median of iF calculated for emissions in individual regions, however iF can range from this median by up to 3 orders of magnitude, especially for chemicals transferred to humans through the food pathway. The location of population relative to food production and emissions of chemicals are important variables that should be considered in assessing the public health implications of chemical emissions.

  20. Weather and climate socio-economic impacts in Central America for the management and protection of world heritage sites and the Diquis Delta culture in Costa Rica (a case study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Central America region hosts a valuable amount of World Heritage Sites (WHS), many of them located in areas of floods, landslides, drought, high winds, intense precipitations, and earthquakes. The effective management of WHS requires the understanding of this type of environmental phenomena and their potential impacts on these sites. The objective of this work is twofold. To make an analysis of some of the atmospheric systems (easterly waves, cold fronts and tropical cyclones [TCs]) hitting Central America, to estimate their effects on socio-economic activities and potential impacts on WHS during the period 2002-2012. The second objective is to identify, for a case study, the potential effects of hydro-meteorological events associated with a tropical storm on the Diquis Delta region in southern Costa Rica. This site, an important unique archeological site of stone spheres, has been proposed by this country as a WHS. To achieve both, public data bases like HURDAT (North Atlantic Hurricane Database), and information from regional newspapers and National Emergency Committees, among other sources, were used for the study of socio-economic impacts caused by these natural hazards. To accomplish the latter, course resolution NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) Reanalysis atmospheric data served to initialize version 5 of a numerical atmospheric mesoscale model (MM5). This approach permitted to obtain higher resolution gridded data for a set of atmospheric variables for a case study associated with the formation of tropical storm Alma upon the Pacific basin. The MM5 resulted winds and precipitation, among other variables, were then used to evaluate potential impacts on the WHS region. Among the systems analyzed for Central America, TCs were the ones that most severely impacted regional social life and worsened the already weak regional economies. During the period analyzed, TCs affected regions where WHS are

  1. Tomographic images of subducted oceans matched to the accretionary records of orogens - Case study of North America and relevance to Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.; Hosseini, Kasra

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are the surface record of subduction on the 100-million-year timescale; they aggregate buoyant crustal welts that resisted subduction. The other record of subduction is found in the deep subsurface: oceanic lithosphere preserved in the mantle that records ocean basin closure between successive generations of arcs. Seismic tomography maps out these crumpled paleo-oceans down to the core-mantle boundary, where slab accumulates. One such accumulation of enormous scale is under Eastern Asia, recording the assembly of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Deep CAOB slab has hardly been explored because tomographic image resolution in the lowermost mantle is limited, but this is rapidly improving. We present new images of the CAOB slabs from our P-wave tomography that includes core-diffracted waves as a technical novelty. The previous slab blur sharpens into the type of elongated geometries expected to trace paleo-trench lines. Since the North American Cordillera is younger than the CAOB (mostly <200 m.y. versus ~650-250 m.y.), its slabs have descended only to mid-mantle depths (<2000 km), where tomographic resolution is much better. Hence we can make a detailed, spatiotemporal match between 3-D slab geometries and the accretion history of the Cordillera - a blueprint for continental-scale investigations in other accretionary orogens, including what may become possible for the CAOB. Lower-mantle slabs beneath North America reveal evolving configurations of arc-trench positions back to the breakup of Pangea. These can be combined with quantitative plate reconstructions to show where and when the westward-drifting continent overrode pre-existing, intra-oceanic subduction zones, and accreted their associated arcs and basement terranes in Jurassic and Cretaceous times. Tectonic predictions from this "tomographic time machine" can be checked against the geological record. To demonstrate, we propose a resolution to the longstanding debate of how and when

  2. Endomyocardial disease in South America--report on 23 cases in Venezuela.

    PubMed Central

    Puigbo, J. J.; Combellas, I.; Acquatella, H.; Marsiglia, I.; Tortoledo, F.; Casal, H.; Suarez, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cases of endomyocardial disease (ED) are presented, studied in Venezuela, a tropical country in northern South America. The diagnosis was confirmed in 18 cases by means of pathological studies, and in 5 cases by angiocardiography which showed the characteristic obliterative ventricular lesions. Eosinophilia was present in 35% of the patients. The most frequent clinical feature was heart failure associated with mitral regurgitation. Systemic embolism was the first clinical feature in 5 cases. In 2 cases, ED was associated with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia or vasculitis. Necropsy revealed a predominance of the left-sided (9/16 cases) and biventricular (6/16 cases) types. The pathological lesions were characterised by fibrous thickening of the endocardium at the apex and the ventricular inflow tracts extending to the myocardium and involving the atrioventricular valves. ED is frequently misdiagnosed as rheumatic valvular cardiopathy. The two-dimensional echocardiogram is a very useful procedure for determining the spatial anatomy of ED. The echo findings were closely correlated with ventriculographic and necropsy findings. Even though ED is widely spread around the world, it is most frequently found in tropical and subtropical countries in Africa, Asia and America, such as Venezuela and Brazil. This suggests that there are aetiological factors in these latitudes, about which little is known. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:6844201

  3. Inventory of the freshwater fishes from a densely collected area in South America-a case study of the current knowledge of Neotropical fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Bertaco, Vinicius A; Ferrer, Juliano; Carvalho, Fernando R; Malabarba, Luiz R

    2016-07-18

    We herein analyse the history of the description of the freshwater fish fauna from three drainages in one of the most densely collected areas of Brazil, and possibly of South America, the Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. An updated inventory of the freshwater fish species from rio Uruguay (partial) in Brazil, Laguna dos Patos (complete) and rio Tramandaí basins (complete) is presented. We found the number of new species described in these drainages increased nearly 56% since 1981, reaching a total of 422 species, but even now 10% of this number still corresponds to undescribed species. This rate of species description suggests that previous estimates of the Neotropical fish fauna are low, and we predict a final number of Neotropical fishes larger than the largest prediction estimate (8,000 species), after other regions of South and Central Americas become densely sampled. We discuss and attempt to demonstrate that species diversity knowledge is historically and strictly related to collecting efforts. We also demonstrate that the ecoregions in eastern South America with the highest density of species per area correspond to the areas more densely sampled in collections, and this may represent a bias in such kinds of analyses. This uneven sampling in Brazilian regions is apparently associated with the uneven distribution of Zoological research centers in different regions of the country. Small-sized species represents an important source of new species, along with little explored regions or little explored habitats, sometimes associated with restricted range species, and species complexes that need revisionary work. In contrast to other Neotropical regions, Atheriniformes are relatively diverse, sharing the fifth place in species richness with Gymnotiformes, and there is a remarkably high number of species of Rivulidae. Eight species are endemic to the rio Tramandaí drainage, 68 to the Laguna dos Patos system, and 78 to the rio Uruguay drainage. Almost 10

  4. [Animal health policies and practices in the Americas: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Rojas, H; Stuardo, L; Benavides, D

    2005-08-01

    The Americas have a large population of farm animals, mostly for export. There are diverse production systems distributed over an extensive and varied geography, which hampers efforts to respond to the demands of the different markets. This study provides an overview of the elements influencing animal welfare implementation, such as the requirements of importing countries, the requirements of private agents, the demands of producers and manufacturers, quality promotion policies, the demands of the community, the recommendations of reference bodies and the results of applied research. To explore the level of animal welfare development in the countries of the region, a detailed case study was made of Chile, in addition to a survey of the Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the Americas. An analysis was made of progress with the issues considered by the OIE as priorities, namely humane slaughter for human consumption, transport and killing for disease control purposes. Furthermore, the study considers various aspects of production which the OIE has not included up to now. It also explores the status of research and producer and consumer perceptions of the issue. The results reveal that the level of development and implementation of animal welfare differs from one country to another. While the adoption of animal welfare regulations certainly relates to all the above-mentioned aspects, the one which appears to have the most impact is the export of livestock products to certain markets. Although there is great interest in improving animal welfare conditions, this calls for the general characteristics of animal husbandry in the various countries to be taken into account. While some livestock production in the Americas follows world patterns, many countries still find it difficult to integrate good animal welfare practices, owing to specific geographical, social and cultural situations that are reflected in local livestock development

  5. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  6. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography of Italian studies in North America includes books, bibliographies, and reviews of comparative literature studies, translations, and publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology, which are closely related to literature. (SW)

  7. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  8. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  9. Youth action research in the marine environment: A case study analysis of selected education projects in Hawai'i, United States of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zicus, Sandra A.

    The marine environment has always been extremely important to the human inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands. Today, the ocean environment around Hawai'i is no less important, but it is far more threatened. Coastal and urban development, overfishing, introduction of alien species, and other commercial and recreational uses pose serious risks to coastal and marine ecosystems. There is a recognized need for greater public awareness and understanding of the importance of marine and coastal ecosystems. Involving children actively in the care and management of community resources is an essential factor for long-term societal change in environmental attitudes and behavior. Agencies and organizations in Hawai'i offer a wide range of marine education programs and materials aimed at children. However, there has been little assessment of their overall effectiveness, or analysis of factors that encourage or impede their success. The goal of this research was to begin to address this gap. The first stage of the research examined the perceptions and attitudes of Hawai'i resource managers and educators toward youth involvement in coastal and marine protection, and to answer the question "What is currently being done and by whom?" The second stage examined in detail three different programs that represent a range of approaches and age levels, and include two public charter schools (one elementary and one high school) and a nonprofit after-school program that drew youth from four area high schools. The case study research was conducted over the course of the 2001--2002 school year by means of observations, participant-observations, interviews, focus groups, and reviews of written and electronic media. The case studies were exploratory in nature and differed in their settings, age groups, administration, size, and focus. However, an analysis using the assessment rubric revealed broad patterns common to all three projects. This allowed the development of analytical generalizations

  10. How does land use link terrestrial and aquatic carbon in western North America?: Implications from an agricultural case study in central Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, S. A.; Sigler, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    The fate of soil organic matter with expanding human land use is of increasing concern for planetary health and ecological sustainability. In North American grasslands, cultivation has commonly resulted in loss of stored soil organic carbon to dissolved phases in groundwater and surface water, as well as to atmospheric CO2 via decomposition. In addition, cultivation has released nutrients stored in organic matter and facilitated water movement through soils to benefit crops, increasing groundwater recharge rates. This has altered groundwater chemistry both by changing biogeochemistry of the terrestrial-aquatic interface and by increasing addition of nutrients, herbicides, and pesticides to these systems. In this presentation, we consider the effects of food production practices on terrestrial-aquatic carbon linkages in former grassland ecosystems of western North America. Our data from an agricultural area in central Montana begin to reveal how elevated nitrate and pesticide levels in groundwater on an isolated landform reflect transformation over the last century of a temperate grassland ecosystem for wheat and cattle production. Rates and pathways of carbon and nitrogen loss are inferred from the concentration and isotopic character of both water and carbon and nitrogen over three years in soils, shallow groundwater, emergent springs and surface waters. In this semi-arid, non-irrigated context, the fate of soil organic matter is linked with redistribution of pedogenic carbonate as well as other soil and rock derived solutes. We consider implications for future trends in dissolved carbon and nitrogen in surface waters in the region.

  11. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  12. 76 FR 17485 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case... is announcing the price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation...

  13. Surviving as Foreign-Born Immigrants in America's Higher Education: Eight Exemplary Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskay, M. K.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N. O.; Igbo, J. N.; Udaya, J.

    2012-01-01

    In every democratically heterogeneous society like America, different players are involved in contributing to the smooth running of its higher education. These players have differentiated body of knowledge with which to make America's higher education a premier one. However, that does not seem to be the case for many foreign-born African…

  14. Cutaneous melanoma in Latin America: a population-based descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sortino-Rachou, Ana Maria; Curado, Maria Paula; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma incidences vary between geographic regions and are a health concern for Caucasians and for all ethnic populations. In Latin America, data from population-based cancer registries of cutaneous melanoma incidence rates have rarely been reported. We searched the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents volume IX (CI5-IX) database for cutaneous melanoma and select cases by topography (C43) from 11 population-based cancer registries in Latin America. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 4,465 cutaneous melanoma cases were reported in Latin America. The average age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 persons-year) was 4.6 (male) and 4.3 (female). This study presents an overview of cutaneous melanoma incidence in Latin America, highlighting the need to enhance coverage of population-based cancer registries in Latin America, to allow for a better understanding of this neoplasm in the region. Thus it can help in implementing primary prevention programs for the whole Latino population. At this point in time, early detection messages should target young women and older men in Latin America.

  15. The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Jairo

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the history of population education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1970 to 1992 and changes in fertility, mortality, and migration during that period. Considers issues such as government styles and motivations, staff shortages, cooperation among administrators, teacher training, distance education, and new management…

  16. Vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Latin America: a case-crossover study in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Santiago, Chile and Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; O'Neill, Marie S; Ranjit, Nalini; Borja-Aburto, Victor H; Cifuentes, Luis A; Gouveia, Nelson C

    2008-08-01

    Factors affecting vulnerability to heat-related mortality are not well understood. Identifying susceptible populations is of particular importance given anticipated rising temperatures from climatic change. We investigated heat-related mortality for three Latin American cities (Mexico City, Mexico; São Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile) using a case-crossover approach for 754 291 deaths from 1998 to 2002. We considered lagged exposures, confounding by air pollution, cause of death and susceptibilities by educational attainment, age and sex. Same and previous day apparent temperature were most strongly associated with mortality risk. Effect estimates remained positive though lowered after adjustment for ozone or PM(10). Susceptibility increased with age in all cities. The increase in mortality risk for those >or=65 comparing the 95th and 75th percentiles of same-day apparent temperature was 2.69% (95% CI: -2.06 to 7.88%) for Santiago, 6.51% (95% CI: 3.57-9.52%) for São Paulo and 3.22% (95% CI: 0.93-5.57%) for Mexico City. Patterns of vulnerability by education and sex differed across communities. Effect estimates were higher for women than men in Mexico City, and higher for men elsewhere, although results by sex were not appreciably different for any city. In São Paulo, those with less education were more susceptible, whereas no distinct patterns by education were observed in the other cities. Elevated temperatures are associated with mortality risk in these Latin American cities, with the strongest associations in São Paulo, the hottest city. The elderly are an important population for targeted prevention measures, but vulnerability by sex and education differed by city.

  17. Vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Latin America: a case-crossover study in São Paulo, Brazil, Santiago, Chile and Mexico City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L; O’Neill, Marie S; Ranjit, Nalini; Borja-Aburto, Victor H; Cifuentes, Luis A; Gouveia, Nelson C

    2008-01-01

    Background Factors affecting vulnerability to heat-related mortality are not well understood. Identifying susceptible populations is of particular importance given anticipated rising temperatures from climatic change. Methods We investigated heat-related mortality for three Latin American cities (Mexico City, Mexico; São Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile) using a case-crossover approach for 754 291 deaths from 1998 to 2002. We considered lagged exposures, confounding by air pollution, cause of death and susceptibilities by educational attainment, age and sex. Results Same and previous day apparent temperature were most strongly associated with mortality risk. Effect estimates remained positive though lowered after adjustment for ozone or PM10. Susceptibility increased with age in all cities. The increase in mortality risk for those ≥65 comparing the 95th and 75th percentiles of same-day apparent temperature was 2.69% (95% CI: −2.06 to 7.88%) for Santiago, 6.51% (95% CI: 3.57–9.52%) for São Paulo and 3.22% (95% CI: 0.93–5.57%) for Mexico City. Patterns of vulnerability by education and sex differed across communities. Effect estimates were higher for women than men in Mexico City, and higher for men elsewhere, although results by sex were not appreciably different for any city. In São Paulo, those with less education were more susceptible, whereas no distinct patterns by education were observed in the other cities. Conclusions Elevated temperatures are associated with mortality risk in these Latin American cities, with the strongest associations in São Paulo, the hottest city. The elderly are an important population for targeted prevention measures, but vulnerability by sex and education differed by city. PMID:18511489

  18. Professionalization of Teaching in America: Two Case Studies Using Educational Research Experiences to Explore the Perceptions of Preservice Teachers/Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, James E.; Baker, Credence; Lamb, Holly; Pate, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In 2013-2015, two faculty-led educational research studies were conducted, aided by five undergraduate preservice teachers/researchers (PSTR). Faculty-researchers designed a qualitative phenomenological-inquiry based methodology to examine the PSTR perceptions regarding their respective research experiences with faculty. Triangulation of the data…

  19. Ground-Penetrating Radar vertical resolution, signal attenuation, and penetration in temperate and polar glaciers: Case studies from North America and Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. W.; Kreutz, K. J.; Arcone, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The application of commercially available ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a standard routine for many field glaciological research efforts. However, the success of glaciological radar surveys often depends on frequency selection, tunable parameters, and data collection methods relative to the glaciological setting. Specifically, glaciers exhibit a range of thermal properties (i.e. cold, polythermal, temperate) and exist under diverse settings (e.g. maritime, continental, mountain glaciers, ice sheets, ice streams), each which present unique and complex challenges for conducting radar surveys. Herein, we review over 1000 km of ground collected GPR data from polar and temperate settings and distill vertical resolution, signal attenuation, and depth of penetration for various recording and antenna configurations ranging between 15-900 MHz. Snow and firn studies, ice thickness measurements, and ice flow dynamics studies from Alaska, Antarctica, Canada, and the Western United States will be referenced.

  20. Integration of high spatial resolution land cover maps to understand opposing trends in vegetation productivity: A case study for the Dry Chaco ecoregion of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehammer, A.; Fensholt, R.; Horion, S.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-12-01

    Time series analysis of coarse spatial resolution satellite images, especially AVHRR-NDVI data records, has been widely used to characterize long term vegetation dynamics at regional, continental and global scales. However, studies of greening and browning trends show contradictory results depending on input data sets or examined vegetation productivity metrics. Annual cycles of vegetation reflectance respond in a variety of ways to change in climate and/or human induced activities, which make the interpretation and validation of trends at global scale difficult. Integrating high spatial resolution land cover data for analysis can provide accurate evidence of change in land cover/use such as deforestation or expansion/reduction of agricultural land. To bridge scales between coarse resolution data and in-situ observations, this research aims to create multi-temporal, high resolution land cover maps. These maps should add an independent information layer to understand trends found in global earth observation records. To test the framework of this study, the Dry Chaco ecoregion, covering Northern Argentina, Eastern Bolivia and Western Paraguay, is explored as opposing trends are found for this region for the period 1982 to 2010. Not only are results based on yearly NDVI sums of the GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies; 3g) and VIP (Vegetation Index and Phenology; version 2) datasets diverging, but also a comparison of the annual mean with the growing season small integral (both derived from GIMMS 3g) yields opposing trends. In this study we hypothesize that these differences in trends are related to land cover change and several researchers report deforestation in favor of industrial agriculture. Landsat images are used to create regional land cover maps. To overcome the problem of product availability and acquisition mismatch between years, an object-based classification approach based on multiple images per year is applied. First results are

  1. Building America Case Study: Apartment Compartmentalization with an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process - Queens, NY; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Air sealing of building enclosures is a difficult and time-consuming process. Current methods in new construction require laborers to physically locate small and sometimes large holes in multiple assemblies and then manually seal each of them. The innovation demonstrated under this research study was the automated air sealing and compartmentalization of buildings through the use of an aerosolized sealant, developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at University of California Davis.
    CARB sought to demonstrate this new technology application in a multifamily building in Queens, NY. The effectiveness of the sealing process was evaluated by three methods: air leakage testing of overall apartment before and after sealing, point-source testing of individual leaks, and pressure measurements in the walls of the target apartment during sealing. Aerosolized sealing was successful by several measures in this study. Many individual leaks that are labor-intensive to address separately were well sealed by the aerosol particles. In addition, many diffuse leaks that are difficult to identify and treat were also sealed. The aerosol-based sealing process resulted in an average reduction of 71% in air leakage across three apartments and an average apartment airtightness of 0.08 CFM50/SF of enclosure area.

  2. Latin America: Introduction and Summary. Grade Five (Unit 7). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The last of three main parts designed for fifth grade students, resource unit seven provides an overview of patterns of Latin America and a system of regionalization for the total area on the basis of population composition. Following the overview, a series of case studies arranged in separate sub-units on Buenos Aires, Manaus, Sao Paulo, Chile,…

  3. Erratic boulder trains and cosmogenic exposure dating of former glacial limits: A case-study from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvill, Christopher; Stokes, Chris; Bentley, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Erratic Boulder Trains (EBTs) are a spectacular yet poorly-understood glacial geomorphological feature. These linear clusters of glacial erratic boulders help to illustrate the flow-lines of former glaciers by pin-pointing the parent rock from which they have originated and are often used as targets for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Consequently, there is a need to understand their geomorphological significance to improve ice-sheet reconstructions and provide important contextual information for dating studies. The EBTs in Tierra del Fuego are some of the finest examples of this feature in the world, and this paper presents the first comprehensive mapping and physical assessment of four boulder trains. Unlike most other examples, they were deposited laterally rather than medially and are tightly clustered, presenting linear features only a few kilometres long that contain hundreds to thousands of huge boulders (often >8 m in diameter). The size and angularity of the boulders strongly supports the hypothesis that they were deposited as a supraglacial rock avalanche. The boulders have been the subject of previous cosmogenic dating, which have yielded anomalously young ages from deposits thought to be hundreds of thousands of years old. Analysis of weathering proxies shows little difference between boulder trains thought to be of radically different ages, with important implications for the timing of glaciations and potentially contradicting previous age constraints on glacial limits in the region.

  4. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  5. Educational Change Rural America: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    Data from Shiloh County's effort to improve quality of life for its residents lead to three conclusions: political intervention can convert private sector growth into a platform for rural development, exchanges between community and schools are not difficult to understand, and the ethnographer has a function in discovering local contexts to which…

  6. Across America. Windows on Social Studies: Multicultural Adventures through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westley, Joan; Melton, Holly

    This resource book is one in a series containing lesson plans for grades 1-3 designed to support children's literature books sharing familiar social studies themes. "Across America" presents eight different children's books related to the theme. For each book social studies concepts are presented, followed by four activities called "windows." Some…

  7. The study of processes of medicalization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Murguía, Adriana; Ordorika, Teresa; Lendo, León F

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, an ever-increasing cluster of phenomena has attracted the attention of social scientists and historians of medicine: processes of medicalization. As in other regions, Latin America has been affected by these phenomena. This article surveys recent literature involving sociological studies of these processes in the region, in order to provide an overview of the issue. It explores the theoretical transformations linked to the concept of medicalization in the contexts where they originated. It then analyzes the ways in which the concept has been appropriated by the social sciences in Latin America in order to describe the various phenomena associated with medicalization in the subcontinent.

  8. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  9. Study Visit to Latin America: Three Examples of Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen-Bauer, Ingrid

    1976-01-01

    Three projects are described that were observed during a two-month study tour to Latin America in 1975: urban and rural community development in Bolivia; nonformal initial education in Peru; and international education in Argentina. The projects are carried out in situations involving particularly difficult social problems. (ND)

  10. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  11. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  12. Colonial America: A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sondra; Stephens, Mark

    This illustrated unit of study can be incorporated into regular social studies courses in elementary classrooms. The unit focuses on life in the 13 original colonies from the settlement period to the Revolutionary War. Activities are provided to help students learn the names and locations of the colonies. A highlight of the unit is a study of the…

  13. Colonial America: A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sondra; Stephens, Mark

    This illustrated unit of study can be incorporated into regular social studies courses in elementary classrooms. The unit focuses on life in the 13 original colonies from the settlement period to the Revolutionary War. Activities are provided to help students learn the names and locations of the colonies. A highlight of the unit is a study of the…

  14. Spread of epidemic Clostridium difficile NAP1/027 in Latin America: case reports in Panama.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Miranda, Erick; Fonseca, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2014-02-01

    The rate and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been linked to the emergence and spread of the hypervirulent toxigenic strain NAP1/027. This strain has been responsible for large outbreaks in healthcare facilities in North America and Europe and most recently in Latin America. This is the first report of the NAP1 strain in Panama. It suggests that the spread of C. difficile NAP1 throughout Latin America could be a possibility as evidenced in the following case reports. Five isolates typed as NAP1 had tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin gene cdtB and tcdC deletion. All isolates were resistant to clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin. Under this scenario, surveillance programmes for CDI should be implemented in public health facilities in Latin America and diagnosis of CDI should be considered, especially in patients with predisposing factors.

  15. Social Studies: Dissent and Change in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Grace C.; Schmidt, Fran

    Students, grades 7 through 9, will examine and hopefully gain understanding of the process for effecting change within the structure of a Democratic society in this quinmester course of study. Focus is upon the reasons, limits, methods, and effectiveness of American dissent bringing about social change. The responsibility of citizenship in a…

  16. National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent. An Anthology of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Patricia O'Connell, Ed.

    The five commissioned papers in this anthology provided part of the research base for the national report, "National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent." In the first paper, "The Performance of High Ability Students in the United States on National and International Tests," Carolyn Callahan describes…

  17. The case of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Palacio, J

    1993-03-01

    Population education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are traced from their first inception around 1970 and express the diversity of strategies that would be appropriate to the variety of cultures, development styles, climates, and geography. In the early 1970s, this region had the highest growth rates in the world. The thinking embodied the notion that large populations were a sign of progress and geopolitical power; size was relevant only to the physical space available. The connections between population and economic development were not being made explicitly in policy or sectoral planning. There was some contention surrounding urban growth and the ability to meet the needs and the imbalance in the age structure. Initially, educational sectors did not take population into accounting; international agencies were responsible for promoting attention to demographics. It was the medical profession that mobilized the education sector to start sex and family education, due to the increasing number of abortions and their consequences. By 1974, education departments were engaged in curricula that included sex and family life issues, in teacher education, and training staff to implement these programs. The demographic situation has changed over the past 20 years, and not includes reduced mortality and the beginning of fertility decline. Growth rates are now 1.9% annually compared with 2.8% in 1970, and population increases by 9 million/year. Population education is described in terms of styles, motivations, human resources, administrative awareness, teacher training, training strategies and research needs, and future management. Population education has advanced, but the need is still there to reduce fertility among large numbers of people who "leave procreation to chance and fate." Education serves the purpose of changing values, attitudes, and knowledge that entails a different view of the value of children, the relations between the sexes, and the adoption

  18. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  19. An unusual case of bilateral anterior uveitis related to moxifloxacin: the first report in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Carlos M.; Parra, M. Margarita; Frederick, Gabriel; Tello, Alejandro; Varón, Clara L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to oral moxifloxacin. Methods: Case report. Results: A 54-year-old female presented bilateral anterior uveitis following a 10-day course of oral moxifloxacin. She developed a bilateral anterior uveitis associated with pigment dispersion syndrome and iris transillumination. Conclusions: Drug-induced uveitis is one of the causes of anterior uveitis. Uveitis related to fluoroquinolones is a rare entity, there are few cases reported in the literature, this is the first case reported in Latin America. PMID:28706771

  20. An unusual case of bilateral anterior uveitis related to moxifloxacin: the first report in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Carlos M; Parra, M Margarita; Frederick, Gabriel; Tello, Alejandro; Varón, Clara L

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to oral moxifloxacin. Methods: Case report. Results: A 54-year-old female presented bilateral anterior uveitis following a 10-day course of oral moxifloxacin. She developed a bilateral anterior uveitis associated with pigment dispersion syndrome and iris transillumination. Conclusions: Drug-induced uveitis is one of the causes of anterior uveitis. Uveitis related to fluoroquinolones is a rare entity, there are few cases reported in the literature, this is the first case reported in Latin America.

  1. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  2. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  3. America Reads: A Critical Policy Analysis. Literacy Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Jacqueline

    This book examines President Clinton's America Reads Challenge, a proposed solution to the political, social, and economic inequality in the United States and explains how the goals of America Reads and the program's implementation were not as straightforward as President Clinton imagined. By looking at the origins of the America Reads policy and…

  4. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Three: The English Settlement of North America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This third in a series of resource units designed for sixth grade students and produced by the Project Social Studies Curriculum Center deals primarily with the English settlement of North America. Pupils study similarities and differences in the English settlements of Jamestown and Plymouth by using case studies. English contact with the Indian…

  5. [Chromosome 7q11.23 duplication syndrome. First reported case in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Botero, Felipe; Saldarriaga Gil, Wilmar; Isaza de Lourido, Carolina

    2016-02-01

    7q11.23 duplication syndrome is a disease caused by duplication of a region of chromosome 7 comprising 26 genes. The first case described in the literature was reported by Somerville et al. in 2005, who described a patient with dolichocephaly, high and narrow forehead, long eyelashes, high and wide nose, short philtrum, high arched palate, dental malocclusion, retrognathia, and severe language delay. We report the case of a Colombian patient with 7q11.23 duplication by comparative genomic hybridization techniques, and classical clinical findings, this being the first reported case in Colombia and Latin America.

  6. Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

    This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

  7. Case Study Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  8. Case Study Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  9. Latin America -- Struggle for Stability. Social Studies: 6478.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantera, Bonnie

    This quinmester course guide for grades seven through nine examines Latin America and the United States/Latin America relationship through the concept of stability as influenced by various social, economic, and political factors. The goals of the course are for the student to discover the diversity of backgrounds, aspirations, and customs of the…

  10. Studies on Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ore from South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Deqing; Wu, Tengjiao; Guo, Zhenqi; Pan, Jian; Li, Ziyun

    A leaching study was conducted on South America oxidized copper ore assaying 3.10% Cu, and the process parameters were optimized, including leaching temperature, leaching time, acid consumption, liquid-solid ratio and stirring rate. The results show that copper leaching rate of 92.02% were achieved under the optimized conditions as follows: raw ore crushed to 100% passing 1mm, leaching by sulfuric acid at 70°C for 1.5h with a sulfuric acid consumption of 150kg/t, liquid-solid ratio of 2:1, stirring rate of 300r/min. The leaching solution is a good feed for the subsequent extraction-electrowinning processes due to its high copper concentration and low contents of impurities like calcium and iron ions.

  11. [Dermatobia hominis furuncular myiasis in a man returning from Latin America: first imported case in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Kaouech, E; Kallel, K; Belhadj, S; Chaker, E

    2010-04-01

    Human cutaneous myiasis is a common dermatosis in tropical zones. The purpose of this report is to describe the first imported case of furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis (human botfly) in Tunisia. The patient was a man returning from Bolivia. Furuncular myiasis was suspected based on epidemiological data and clinical examination showing pruriginous elevated lesions. Diagnosis was confirmed by identification of Dermatobia hominis larvae. Treatment was based mainly on manual removal of larvae. Since furuncular myiasis is unknown in Tunisia, it is important to remember this parasitic disease in differential diagnosis in patients presenting boil-like inflammatory papules following travel to Latin America.

  12. Continental Sources, Sinks and the Human Factor in Large Tropical Rivers: the Case of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of river basins sediment yield at a continental scale and accumulation in sedimentary basins (sinks) provides useful information for quantitative models of landscape evolution, geochemical and sediment mass balance studies for estimating continental and regional net erosion intensities, to assess the volume of solids and to provide understanding to a variety of environmental and engineering applications. Although several estimations exist on the flow of sediments by large rivers from the continent to the Ocean, the role of continental sedimentary basins and fluvial environments (large rivers, megafans) acting as major sedimentary sinks is still partially understood. This assessment is additionally complicated by the human activities that contributed to modify the original rates of production, trapping and transference of sediments at continental scales. South America is an ideal place to discuss these aspects because it contains a) the longest mountain chain of the planet, the Andes; b) the longest and more extensive foreland systems, c) huge lowlands/plains, d) the largest rivers, e) the largest megafans, f) major intracratonic, continental platform and aulacogen sedimentary basins. The analysis of some of the most active sedimentary basins of the continent can help to improve our perspective on what can be preserved and how much sediment is being stored by fluvial systems. In this presentation I assess the biggest source areas and the larges trapping systems at continental scale with focus on megarivers and megafans, as well us I discuss some study cases of sediment budgets in large rivers that were intensively modified by human disturbances in recent times (dams, deforestation, etc).

  13. Case Studies Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M.

    The case histories of five students enrolled in a university course in how to study are reported. The students ranged in age from 18 to 35, included two males and three females, and varied in school experience from no college in one case and some college in two cases to college degrees in two cases. Students were initially taught to chart their…

  14. Large-scale studies of marked birds in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tautin, J.; Metras, L.; Smith, G.

    1999-01-01

    The first large-scale, co-operative, studies of marked birds in North America were attempted in the 1950s. Operation Recovery, which linked numerous ringing stations along the east coast in a study of autumn migration of passerines, and the Preseason Duck Ringing Programme in prairie states and provinces, conclusively demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale projects. The subsequent development of powerful analytical models and computing capabilities expanded the quantitative potential for further large-scale projects. Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship, and Adaptive Harvest Management are current examples of truly large-scale programmes. Their exemplary success and the availability of versatile analytical tools are driving changes in the North American bird ringing programme. Both the US and Canadian ringing offices are modifying operations to collect more and better data to facilitate large-scale studies and promote a more project-oriented ringing programme. New large-scale programmes such as the Cornell Nest Box Network are on the horizon.

  15. Case study research.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  16. How to Get Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Right? The Case of Vaccine Economics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Cañón, Oscar; Silverman, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    In middle-income countries, vaccines against pneumococcal disease, rotavirus, and human papilloma virus are in general more costly, not necessarily cost saving, and less consistently cost-effective than earlier generation vaccines against measles, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Budget impact is also substantial; public spending on vaccines in countries adopting new vaccines is, on average, double the amount of countries that have not adopted. Policymakers must weigh the costs and benefits of the adoption decision carefully, given the low coverage of other kinds of cost-effective health and nonhealth interventions in these same settings and relatively flat overall public spending on health as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) over time. This paper considers lessons learned from recent vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses and subsequent adoption decisions in Latin America a, largely under the auspices of the Pro Vac Initiative. The paper illustrates how small methodological choices and seemingly minor technical limitations of cost-effectiveness models can have major implications for the studies' conclusions, potentially influencing countries' subsequent vaccine adoption decisions. We evaluate the ProVac models and technical outputs against the standards and framework set out by the International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for economic evaluation and consider the practical effects of deviations from those standards. Lessons learned are discussed, including issues of appropriate comparators, GDP-based thresholds, and use of average versus incremental cost-effectiveness ratios as a convention are assessed. The article ends with recommendations for the future. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A study of ayahuasca use in North America.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rachel; Gurel, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-one subjects who used ayahuasca at least once in North America answered a lengthy set of open-ended questions and completed the 81-item After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. An additional 50 ayahuasca users were interviewed in person. The data for this study represent ayahuasca experience based on more than 2,267 ceremonies. A comparison group of 46 people attending a Catholic spiritual retreat weekend also completed the After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. A factor analysis of this questionnaire yielded three factors: Joy in Life, Relationship to the Sacred and Toxic Feelings. Although the ayahuasca users had significantly higher scores on the first two factors, the two groups had modest mean differences indicating a similar response to two very different spiritual experiences. This key finding strongly supports the view that ayahuasca users are engaged in an authentic process as spiritual in nature as that of the retreatants. The qualitative data revealed that ayahuasca users reduced their alcohol intake, ate healthier diets, enjoyed improved mood and greater self-acceptance and felt more loving and compassionate in their relationships. Seventy-four percent of the ayahuasca users said they had a relationship with and received ongoing guidance and support from the spirit of ayahuasca.

  18. Distribution of Ophioglossum reticulatum L. in South America. A case of long-distance jump dispersal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza Torres, Esteban I.; Cerne, Bibiana; Ulke, Ana G.; Morbelli, Marta A.

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory work is to test the hypothesis that South American populations of Ophioglossum reticulatum L. derive from Africa. Spores cross the Atlantic transported by wind and arrive in South America in recurrent migration. Three-dimensional (backward and forward) trajectories of spores between Africa and South America were calculated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT4). The model showed possible backward trajectories in the low troposphere arriving in South America with probable origin in Northwestern Africa. The results support the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal of the studied species. Including vertical motion in the model runs allowed obtaining valuable and novel information about the migration routes. The trade winds combined with the South American monsoon could be a dispersal vehicle for the disseminules from Northwestern Africa to the eastern slopes of the Andes. As the monsoon is a periodic regional atmospheric circulation pattern, transcontinental migration can be assumed to be a recurring phenomenon that provides genetic exchange and prevents speciation by reproductive isolation. Modelled forward trajectories connect the neotropics with Africa-Madagascar, but they seem to be less effective due to their travelling altitudes. This hypothesis might explain the absence of infraspecific taxa restricted to different geographic locations.

  19. Help Needed: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study of the Experience of Teach for America Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Mamie L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to understand, interpret, and present the finding of how second year participants of the Teach for America (TFA) program perceived their professional needs from the mentor assigned to then within the school district and within the Teach for America program. The participants were Teach for…

  20. Assessing SfM-Photogrammetry potential at micro-scale on a rapidly evolving mud-bank: case study on a mesocosm study within pioneer mangroves in French Guiana (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Jules; Brunier, Guillaume; Michaud, Emma; Anthony, Edward; Dussouillez, Philippe; Morvan, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Mud banks are the loci of rich bio-geo-chemical processes occuring rapidly at infra-tide frequency. Their surface topography is commonly affected by many of these processes, including bioturbation, water drainage or dessication. Quantifying surface morphology and changes on a mud bank at the micro-scale is a challenging task due to a number of issues. First, the water-saturated nature of the soil makes it difficult to measure High Resolution Topography (HRT) with classical methods. Second, setting up an instrumented experiment without disrupting the signal being studied is hardly achieved at micro-scale. Finally, the highly mobile nature of this environment enhancing strong spatio-temporal heterogeneity is hard to capture. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and SfM (Surface from Motion)-Photogrammetry are two techniques that enable mapping of micro-scale features, but the first technique is not suitable because of the poor quality of the backscattered laser signal on wet surfaces and the need to set up several measuring stations on a complex, unstable substrate. Thus, we set up an experiment to assess the feasibility and the accuracy of SfM in such a context. We took the opportunity of the installation of a pontoon dedicated to the study of bio-geochemical processes within benthic mesocosms installed on a mud bank inhabited by pioneer mangroves trees to develop an adapted photogrammetry protocol based on a full-frame remotely triggered camera sensor mounted on a pole. The incident light on the surface was also controlled with a light-diffusing device. We obtained sub-millimetric resolution 3D-topography and visible imagery. Surveys were carried out every 2 hours at low tide to detect surface changes due to water content variation as well as bioturbation mainly caused by crabs digging galleries and feeding on sediment surface. Both the qualitative and quantitative results seem very promising and lead us to expect new insights into heterogeneous surface processes on a

  1. Some Recent USF Studies at Volcanoes in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists at the University of South Florida (USF) have been working in Central America for several decades. Efforts have focused on Physical Volcanology in Nicaragua, GPS in Costa Rica, and assessment of Geothermal projects in El Salvador, amongst others. Two years ago a Seismology Lab was established at USF. Personnel now include three Professors, a Post-Doc, and 4 graduate students. Seismic and GPS networks were installed at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, in 2010 by Roman, LaFemina and colleagues. Data are recorded on site and recovered several times per year at this persistently restless volcano, which has rates of 5 to 1400 low frequency seismic events per day (Rodgers et al., submitted). Proposals have been submitted to install instruments on other Nicaraguan volcanoes, including seismometers, GPS, infrasound, and lightning sensors. This suite of instruments has proven to be very effective to study a range of volcanic processes. The proposals have not been successful to date (some are pending), and alternative funding sources are being explored. One interesting scientific issue is the presence of strong seasonal effects, specifically a pronounced rainy season and dry season and possible interaction between shallow volcanic processes and surface waters. We are also pursuing a variety of studies that are complementary to the instrumental efforts. One such study is examining volcanic earthquake swarms, with the focus to date on identifying diagnostics. One clear pattern is that peak rates often occur early in swarms, whereas the largest M event occurs late. Additional evidence suggests that the seismic source size grows systematically, especially for events with similar waveforms (families). Recognition of such patterns, linked to processes, may help to improve monitoring and better take advantage of instrumental data to reduce vulnerability from eruptions.

  2. Study of the scientific production on leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Perilla-Gonzalez, Yuliana; Gomez-Suta, Daniela; Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Baquero-Rodriguez, Juan D; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a highly relevant neglected tropical disease. It has important consequences in affected populations, including a high fatality rate in its visceral form. It is present in Latin America, then it is necessary to promote more research on it. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American scientific production in leishmaniasis was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index. At SCI, 2857 articles were found (17.7% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (58.1%), followed by Colombia (9.9%) and Venezuela (5.6%); the region received 41186 citations, 54.2% of Brazil (H index=62), 12.1% Colombia (H index=30) and 4.5% of Venezuela (H index=25). At Scopus, there are 3681 (14.7% of the total), 53.2% Brazil, 6.8% Colombia and 6.0% Venezuela; 38.46% at Brazil were from Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 30.6% of Colombia corresponded to Universidad de Antioquia; 31.34% at Venezuela were from Universidad Central de Venezuela. At Medline there are 4525 records (60.6% of Brazil). At SciELO there are 1068 records (67.5% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1740 records (56.0% Brazil). Scientific production of Brazil predominates in the region, with one single institution generating more articles than Colombia and Venezuela together. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is still relatively low, and the disease neglected when compared to other tropical conditions such as dengue and malaria.

  3. Observational study of multiple myeloma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hungria, Vania T M; Maiolino, Angelo; Martinez, Gracia; Duarte, Gislaine Oliveira; Bittencourt, Rosane; Peters, Lygia; Colleoni, Gisele; Oliveira, Luciana C O; Crusoé, Edvan; Coelho, Érika O D M; Pasquini, Ricardo; Magalhães, Sílvia M M; Nunes, Renata; Neto, Jorge V Pinto; Faria, Rosa Malena O; Souza, Mair; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Flantl, Dorotea; Navarro, J R; Conte, Guillermo; Gomez-Almaguer, David; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo; Durie, Brian G M

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the outcomes of multiple myeloma in Latin America, a world region where incorporation of novel agents is generally slow. In the current retrospective-prospective study, we aimed to describe the patterns of care and treatment results in five Latin American countries. Between April 2007 and October 2009, patients who had been diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2007 were registered at 23 institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. We divided patients into two cohorts, according to transplantation eligibility, and analyzed them with regard to first-line treatment and overall survival (OS). We analyzed a total of 852 patients, 46.9 % of whom were female. The median follow-up was 62 months. Among transplantation-ineligible patients (N = 461), the mean age was 67.4 years, approximately one third of patients received a thalidomide-based treatment in the first line, and the median OS was 43.0 months. Transplantation-eligible patients (N = 391) had a mean age of 54.7 years and a median OS of 73.6 months. Autologous transplantation was performed in 58.6 % of the patients for whom this procedure was initially planned and in only 26.9 % of the overall patients. Our long-term results reflect the contemporary literature for patients with multiple myeloma treated with autologous transplantation and thalidomide-based regimens in clinical trials and observational studies. However, further efforts are needed to approve and incorporate novel agents in Latin American countries, as well as to increase access to transplantation, in order to achieve the expected improvements in patient outcomes.

  4. Avian influenza in Latin America: A systematic review of serological and molecular studies from 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    Afanador-Villamizar, Alejandra; Gomez-Romero, Carlos; Diaz, Andres; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America. Methods were designed based on the PRISMA and STROME guidelines. Only peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 to 2015 and data was analysed based on country, viral subtype, avian species, and phylogenetic origins. From 271 studies initially found only twenty-six met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of AIVs infection was found in most Latin American countries, with Mexico as the country with the largest number of conducted studies and reported cases during the period analysed, followed by Chile and Argentina. Most of the AIVs were early reported through surveillance systems and at least 14 different subtypes of influenza viruses were reported in birds, and the presence of both low (92.9%) and high (7.1%) pathogenic AIVs was shown in Latin America. Of the reported AIVs in Latin America, 43.7% belong to migratory birds, 28.1% to local wild birds, and 28.1% to poultry. The migratory bird population mainly comprises families belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes. We highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance systems and the possible role of different migratory birds in the transmission of AIVs within the Americas. Our findings demonstrate the limited information on AIVs in Latin America and highlight the need of more studies on AIVs at the regional level, particularly those focused on identifying the endemic subtypes in regional wild birds.

  5. Avian influenza in Latin America: A systematic review of serological and molecular studies from 2000-2015

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America. Methods were designed based on the PRISMA and STROME guidelines. Only peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 to 2015 and data was analysed based on country, viral subtype, avian species, and phylogenetic origins. From 271 studies initially found only twenty-six met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of AIVs infection was found in most Latin American countries, with Mexico as the country with the largest number of conducted studies and reported cases during the period analysed, followed by Chile and Argentina. Most of the AIVs were early reported through surveillance systems and at least 14 different subtypes of influenza viruses were reported in birds, and the presence of both low (92.9%) and high (7.1%) pathogenic AIVs was shown in Latin America. Of the reported AIVs in Latin America, 43.7% belong to migratory birds, 28.1% to local wild birds, and 28.1% to poultry. The migratory bird population mainly comprises families belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes. We highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance systems and the possible role of different migratory birds in the transmission of AIVs within the Americas. Our findings demonstrate the limited information on AIVs in Latin America and highlight the need of more studies on AIVs at the regional level, particularly those focused on identifying the endemic subtypes in regional wild birds. PMID:28632771

  6. Trends in the incidence of possible severe bacterial infection and case fatality rates in rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Latin America, 2010-2013: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Patricia L; Hansen, Nellie I; Wang, Marie E; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Pasha, Omrana; Esamai, Fabian; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Althabe, Fernando; Derman, Richard J; Goldenberg, Robert L; Liechty, Edward A; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F; Buekens, Pierre; McClure, Elizabeth M; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Patel, Archana B

    2016-05-24

    Possible severe bacterial infections (pSBI) continue to be a leading cause of global neonatal mortality annually. With the recent publications of simplified antibiotic regimens for treatment of pSBI where referral is not possible, it is important to know how and where to target these regimens, but data on the incidence and outcomes of pSBI are limited. We used data prospectively collected at 7 rural community-based sites in 6 low and middle income countries participating in the NICHD Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry, between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. Participants included pregnant women and their live born neonates followed for 6 weeks after delivery and assessed for maternal and infant outcomes. In a cohort of 248,539 infants born alive between 2010 and 2013, 32,088 (13 %) neonates met symptomatic criteria for pSBI. The incidence of pSBI during the first 6 weeks of life varied 10 fold from 3 % (Zambia) to 36 % (Pakistan), and overall case fatality rates varied 8 fold from 5 % (Kenya) to 42 % (Zambia). Significant variations in incidence of pSBI during the study period, with proportions decreasing in 3 sites (Argentina, Kenya and Nagpur, India), remaining stable in 3 sites (Zambia, Guatemala, Belgaum, India) and increasing in 1 site (Pakistan), cannot be explained solely by changing rates of facility deliveries. Case fatality rates did not vary over time. In a prospective population based registry with trained data collectors, there were wide variations in the incidence and case fatality of pSBI in rural communities and in trends over time. Regardless of these variations, the burden of pSBI is still high and strategies to implement timely diagnosis and treatment are still urgently needed to reduce neonatal mortality. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01073475 ).

  7. On continuity case studies.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, David; Lombardo, Timothy

    This article is divided into three sections. The first section provides a taxonomy of case studies within the field of business continuity along with a brief commentary. The second section discusses the proper use of case studies in general pedagogy and provides research-based recommendations for their employment. The third section provides suggestions and examples of how business continuity case studies might be utilised specifically for instruction in the discipline of business continuity planning.

  8. Etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Latin America: a prospective, multicenter, international study.

    PubMed

    Fassio, Eduardo; Díaz, Solangel; Santa, Catalina; Reig, María Elisa; Martínez Artola, Yamila; Alves de Mattos, Angelo; Míguez, Carlos; Galizzi, Joao; Zapata, Rodrigo; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; de Souza, Francisco Carlos; Hernández, Nelia; Pinchuk, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    No prospective study has been published investigating etiology of HCC in Latin America. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze the etiology of liver disease in patients with HCC from our area. Secondary aims were to evaluate staging using Okuda and BCLC classifications; and percentage of patients receiving treatment. The Governing Board of the Latin American Association for the Study of the Liver designed the protocol. During a 18 month period, all members were invited to load their incident HCC cases on line. 240 cases from 9 countries were uploaded, 174 were male (72.5%), median age was 64 years, interquartile range 57-72. In 85.4% of cases, patients had underlying cirrhosis. Main etiological factors were: HCV in 74 patients (30.8%), alcohol in 49 (20.4%), cryptogenic cirrhosis in 35 (14.6%), HBV in 26 (10.8%), HCV plus alcohol in 14 (5.8%). Considering the combinations, hepatitis C was shown in 91 patients (38%); chronic alcoholism in 68 patients (28%); and hepatitis B in 33 patients (14%). There were no significant differences between the groups in the age at diagnosis. Percentage of male gender was higher in groups of alcohol (94%), HCV plus alcohol (93%) and HBV (85%) than in cryptogenic cirrhosis (60%) and HCV (59%) (p<0.001). Our prospective study showed that hepatitis C is the more frequent etiology of HCC in Latin America, followed by alcoholic cirrhosis. Demographical results showed a male predominance (male:female ratio 2.6) with an important proportion of patients being diagnosed at their sixties.

  9. Religious Freedom in America. Source Book and Study Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Francis Stuart; And Others

    To encourage a more meaningful celebration of the 1976 Bicentennial, the Interchurch Center is distributing nationally an exhibit of 18 posters, each 36" x 40", which portray various facets of the history of religious freedom in America. Reproductions of the posters together with an informative text make up the contents of this…

  10. Reinventing Black Colleges in Postethnic America: The Case of Knoxville College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Barbara R.

    2011-01-01

    As America moves toward the ideals of its founding documents, some scholars have termed it "postethnic America," where culture rather than color or ethnicity will have more influence over the country's affairs. In postethnic America, the country will realize that all "are created equal," and no groups will be treated…

  11. Reinventing Black Colleges in Postethnic America: The Case of Knoxville College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Barbara R.

    2011-01-01

    As America moves toward the ideals of its founding documents, some scholars have termed it "postethnic America," where culture rather than color or ethnicity will have more influence over the country's affairs. In postethnic America, the country will realize that all "are created equal," and no groups will be treated…

  12. [Case and studies].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  13. Union Formation Implications of Race and Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment: The Case of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel

    2012-01-01

    We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace. PMID:23172982

  14. SETDA Case Studies 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through…

  15. Case Study: Challenging Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a case study involving organizational change and its effect on employees. Presents three responses to the case study: "Paradox of Ordering Change: I Insist That We Work as a Team" (Paaige K. Turner); "Managing Change Is Managing Meaning" (Greg Hearn and Abraham Ninan); and "The Psychodynamics of an Organizational Change Initiative"…

  16. Work Sharing Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Maureen E.; And Others

    Designed to provide private sector employers with the practical information necessary to select and then to design and implement work sharing arrangements, this book presents case studies of some 36 work sharing programs. Topics covered in the case studies include the circumstances leading to adoption of the program, details of compensation and…

  17. Case Study: Challenging Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a case study involving organizational change and its effect on employees. Presents three responses to the case study: "Paradox of Ordering Change: I Insist That We Work as a Team" (Paaige K. Turner); "Managing Change Is Managing Meaning" (Greg Hearn and Abraham Ninan); and "The Psychodynamics of an Organizational Change Initiative"…

  18. NAOMI: The trials and tribulations of implementing a heroin assisted treatment study in North America

    PubMed Central

    Gartry, Candice C; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Laliberté, Nancy; Schechter, Martin T

    2009-01-01

    Background Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease and remains a major public health challenge. Despite important expansions of access to conventional treatments, there are still significant proportions of affected individuals who remain outside the reach of the current treatment system and who contribute disproportionately to health care and criminal justice costs as well as to public disorder associated with drug addiction. The NAOMI study is a Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing injectable heroin maintenance to oral methadone. The study has ethics board approval at its Montréal and Vancouver sites, as well as from the University of Toronto, the New York Academy of Medicine and Johns Hopkins University. The main objective of the NAOMI Study is to determine whether the closely supervised provision of injectable, pharmaceutical-grade opioid agonist is more effective than methadone alone in recruiting, retaining, and benefiting chronic, opioid-dependent, injection drug users who are resistant to current standard treatment options. Methods The case study submitted chronicles the challenges of getting a heroin assisted treatment trial up and running in North America. It describes: a brief background on opioid addiction; current standard therapies for opioid addiction; why there is/was a need for a heroin assisted treatment trial; a description of heroin assisted treatment; the beginnings of creating the NAOMI study in North America; what is the NAOMI study; the science and politics of the NAOMI study; getting NAOMI started in Canada; various requirements and restrictions in getting the study up and running; recruitment into the study; working with the media; a status report on the study; and a brief conclusion from the authors' perspectives. Results and conclusion As this is a case study, there are no specific results or main findings listed. The case study focuses on: the background of the study; what it took to get the study started in Canada

  19. NAOMI: The trials and tribulations of implementing a heroin assisted treatment study in North America.

    PubMed

    Gartry, Candice C; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Laliberté, Nancy; Schechter, Martin T

    2009-01-21

    Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease and remains a major public health challenge. Despite important expansions of access to conventional treatments, there are still significant proportions of affected individuals who remain outside the reach of the current treatment system and who contribute disproportionately to health care and criminal justice costs as well as to public disorder associated with drug addiction.The NAOMI study is a Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing injectable heroin maintenance to oral methadone. The study has ethics board approval at its Montréal and Vancouver sites, as well as from the University of Toronto, the New York Academy of Medicine and Johns Hopkins University.The main objective of the NAOMI Study is to determine whether the closely supervised provision of injectable, pharmaceutical-grade opioid agonist is more effective than methadone alone in recruiting, retaining, and benefiting chronic, opioid-dependent, injection drug users who are resistant to current standard treatment options. The case study submitted chronicles the challenges of getting a heroin assisted treatment trial up and running in North America. It describes: a brief background on opioid addiction; current standard therapies for opioid addiction; why there is/was a need for a heroin assisted treatment trial; a description of heroin assisted treatment; the beginnings of creating the NAOMI study in North America; what is the NAOMI study; the science and politics of the NAOMI study; getting NAOMI started in Canada; various requirements and restrictions in getting the study up and running; recruitment into the study; working with the media; a status report on the study; and a brief conclusion from the authors' perspectives. As this is a case study, there are no specific results or main findings listed. The case study focuses on: the background of the study; what it took to get the study started in Canada; the unique requirements and conditions of

  20. Fruit & Vegetable Screeners in the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS): Instruments

    Cancer.gov

    These instruments are in the public domain and may be used by any investigator. However, because they were used in NCI's Eating at America's Table Study (EATS) project, investigators must remove the first page, which is the EATS identifier page.

  1. First Case of Fungemia Due to Pseudozyma aphidis in a Pediatric Patient with Osteosarcoma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza Giselle; Murisengo, Omar Alejandro; Szuzs, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Córdoba, Susana; Montanaro, Patricia Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of blood infection due to Pseudozyma aphidis in Latin America. We contribute evidence showing this organism to be a potential human pathogen, and we provide new data about its identification, drug susceptibility, and treatment outcome. PMID:26292313

  2. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Program; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1: baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2: installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season and energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades to be implemented in Phase 3.

  3. Septic Systems Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  6. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  7. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  8. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Water reuse in South America: A Chilean study

    SciTech Connect

    Piero, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The driest desert in the western hemisphere is the source of the largest and most lucrative copper mining and processing business in South America. The newest, most explosive capitalist economy in South America is fueled by an industry whose ancient water supply is on the verge of collapse. Farther south, a textbook example of 1950's industrial pollution continues to be dumped in the Bio Bio River, the water supply of the country's third largest city. In the temperate Central Valley, public health advisories regularly warn consumers against consuming vegetables irrigated with river water containing raw sewage. In the warm summer months, hepatitis and cholera epidemics are frequent and deadly. In the last 5 years, these areas have initiated major sewage treatment plant and system improvements with significant reuse components. The technologies and reuse applications of reclaimed water that are now being used in Chile are being monitored and evaluated by Peru, Argentina, and Brazil. Major efforts at environmental cleanups are now being combined with new strategies to sue reclaimed water to meet the needs of South American in the 21st century.

  10. America after 3PM: The Most In-Depth Study of How America's Children Spend Their Afternoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2009

    2009-01-01

    For many adults in America, thinking about the hours after the school day ends conjures up memories of doing homework, playing pick-up basketball, taking guitar or dance lessons or going home to Mom and a snack. But for millions of children today, those images are nothing like their reality. In fact, each day in America, some 15 million…

  11. School of the Americas: At War With Democracy? Study Guide. Episode #804. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Sean L.

    This program examines the 50-year practice of the U.S. training of Latin American soldiers at the School of the Americas. Originally designed as a jungle warfare training center in the 1950s, the program evolved into a Cold War program to promote stability and democracy in Latin America. Human rights abuses have been charged against these elite…

  12. Schools Make Teachers: The Case of Teach for America and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Patricia Ann

    2012-01-01

    Teach For America, founded by Wendy Kopp in 1991, now boasts nearly 25,000 alumni and 5,000 current teachers, known as corps members. The culture of Teach For America, which is built on these corps members, is a culture of achievement. They have completed college as high-achievers, so they typically expect that trajectory to continue in their…

  13. Schools Make Teachers: The Case of Teach for America and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Patricia Ann

    2012-01-01

    Teach For America, founded by Wendy Kopp in 1991, now boasts nearly 25,000 alumni and 5,000 current teachers, known as corps members. The culture of Teach For America, which is built on these corps members, is a culture of achievement. They have completed college as high-achievers, so they typically expect that trajectory to continue in their…

  14. Use of aliskiren in Latin America in a real-world setting: aliskiren in Latin America Study (ALAS).

    PubMed

    Volman, Sergio; Benitez, Fernando Nicolas; Cedenio, Harold; Giorgi, Mariano; Jaramillo, Nicolas; Molina, Nelys; Zilberman, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Western countries, and disease control is of major relevance in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Different approaches have shown efficacy, and one of the proven therapies for HTN control is the blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which may be accomplished by means of various drugs with different modes of action. Aliskiren is a novel direct renin inhibitor that reduces both angiotensin I and II blood levels. Different randomized clinical trials (phase II and III) have shown its safety and efficacy either alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. However, although aliskiren has been on the market for some years, reports on the post-marketing experience with aliskiren in the real-world setting are lacking. The Aliskiren in Latin America Study (ALAS) was designed with the aim of describing the effectiveness of aliskiren at reducing blood pressure (BP) values by prospectively assessing BP control in outpatient clinics in different countries in Latin America. A total of 435 sites in 5 Latin American countries (Mexico, Ecuador, Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela) enrolled 4588 patients who had just been initiated on aliskiren (either alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide) based on their treating physicians' discretion, and they were followed for a 6-month period. Prior antihypertensive drugs could be continued if their doses were not modified along the study. At the end of the follow-up period, a statistically significant reduction in BP values was observed, with a mean systolic BP reduction of 29.2 mmHg and a mean diastolic BP reduction of 13.78 mmHg from baseline at the 6-month visit. The BP reduction levels and the low adverse event rate demonstrate the adequate efficacy and safety profile of aliskiren (alone or with hydrochlorothiazide).

  15. Distance Learning Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.

    The Office of Technology Assessment authorized a series of case studies in 1989 to investigate how technologies, services, and programs are implemented in distance education projects. The studies were also intended to look at the role of local, state, and federal agencies, and other public and private entities in providing educational services to…

  16. ECLAMC Study: Prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: Multi-national analysis over a 24-year period.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Nicolás; Pérez, Jaime; Monterrey, Pedro; Poletta, Fernando A; Bägli, Darius J; Lorenzo, Armando J; Zarante, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH) and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH). Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]). This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  17. ECLAMC Study: prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: multi-national analysis over a 24-year period

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Nicolás; Pérez, Jaime; Monterrey, Pedro; Poletta, Fernando A.; Bägli, Darius J.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; Zarante, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. Materials and Methods A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH) and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH). Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. Results A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]). Conclusion This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level. PMID:27802003

  18. Planning meeting combined analysis, North America residential radon studies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the Third International Department of Energy/ Commission of European Communities Workshop on Residential Radon Epidemiology held in February 1995 in Baltimore, MD. This culminates a major effort begun 1988, co-sponsored by the DOE and the CEC Radiation Protection Programme to identify and bring together all those scientists worldwide performing epidemiological case control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. Two prior meetings were held in 1989 and 1991. The goal of this effort is to work with the investigators and to pool these studies to increase their limited statistical power and to maximize any information that could be gained from them. That goal has now been met. At this Workshop the task moved from planning and agreement to implementation, as many of the studies were finally being completed and published. This report provides a summary of the Workshop as well as that of the first implementation workgroup meeting hosted by Health Canada. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Landini, M P

    2016-07-01

    This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV and its establishment in the Caribbean and in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) and Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean and Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation and clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance and early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe and North America.

  20. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  1. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  2. School-to-Work Transition: Local Programs. A Series of Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Tom; Schreiber, Ann

    Initiatives to improve vocational education--such as tech prep, the School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA), and Goals 2000: Educate America Act--are full of promise. Case studies prepared by the Vocational Industrial Clubs of America illustrate the potential of these initiatives. Massachusetts and Wisconsin are two recipients of federal STWOA…

  3. Teaching Beyond the Borders: A Review of the Global Studies Latin America Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julian

    The New York City Board of Education's unit on Latin America (Global Studies Grade 9) is a welcome and useful aid to teachers seeking to develop a social studies curriculum with a global perspective. Besides the contemporary relevance, the methodology of the curriculum closely adheres to current thinking on teaching social studies. The lessons and…

  4. Best Practices Case Study: Tommy Williams Homes -Gainesville, FL

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-01

    Case study of Tommy Williams Homes who has continued to outsell the competition with sales increasing despite the recession thanks to a systems-engineering approach developed with DOE’s Building America that yields high energy efficiency, comfort, and indoor air quality. The company offers to pay buyers’ energy bills for the first year.

  5. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  6. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  8. Best Practices Case Study: Quadrant Homes - Kentlake Highlands, Kent, WA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of Quadrant Homes, a Seattle area builder who, despite the recession, sold three homes a day in the first half of 2009, by letting buyers choose from 300 floor plans and 10,000 options, including an energy efficiency package designed with help from DOE’s Building America that cut energy use by 50% over a code-built home.

  9. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    methods in public relations and marketing communications. New York, Routledge 166-185 13. Denzin , N. K. (1978) The Research Act: A Theoretical...Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study

  10. Remediation case studies: Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide case studies of site cleanup projects utilizing bioremediation. This volume contains reports on nine projects that include bioventing and land treatment technologies, as well as a unique, large-scale slurry-phase project. In these projects, petroleum hydrocarbons are the most frequent contaminants of concern. Two land treatment projects in this volume represent completed cleanups at creosote sites.

  11. Dietary habits and prostate cancer prevention: a review of observational studies by focusing on South America.

    PubMed

    Niclis, Camila; Díaz, María del Pilar; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Román, María Dolores; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    There exist several works considering the association between diet and prostate cancer (PC) risk, but the issue is largely unsettled. This article systematically reviews the epidemiological studies on diet and risk of PC focusing on those carried out in countries of South America. There is some suggestion that dairy products, red meat, processed meat, α-linolenic fatty acids, as well as dietary patterns characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meat, eggs, and grains may play some role in the development of PC. There is no clear association with the intake of vegetables and fruits, lycopene, fats, and different types of fatty acids. The evidence on diet and PC is therefore inconclusive in general and specifically in South America. Particular attention must be paid to the study of cancer risk in some countries of South America because of the singularly risky dietary pattern consumed by its population.

  12. [Descriptive study about social and demographical characteristic of the disability in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Alvarez-Martín, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the social and demographical characteristics of disability in Latin America and verify the methodology used in the survey by questionnaires for the analysis of disabilities. It is a descriptive study that analyzed the data and methodology of disability surveys conducted in Latin America after 2001. It was noted that there is a big difference in the prevalence of disability found in the surveys that used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for statistical analysis of people with disabilities. It was also shown that in Latin America motor disabilities are more prevalent in men over 65 years old and with a low educational level. The main cause is chronic disease. The conclusion is that ICF is a good methodological tool to use in disability survey questionnaires.

  13. Midwifery practice and maternity services: A multisite descriptive study in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Binfa, Lorena; Pantoja, Loreto; Ortiz, Jovita; Cavada, Gabriel; Schindler, Peter; Burgos, Rosa Ypania; Maganha E Melo, Célia Regina; da Silva, Lúcia Cristina Florentino Pereira; Lima, Marlise de Oliveira Pimentel; Hernández, Laura Valli; Schlenker Rm, Rosana; Sánchez, Verdún; Rojas, Mirian Solis; Huamán, Betty Cruz; Chauca, Maria Luisa Torres; Cillo, Alicia; Lofeudo, Susana; Zapiola, Sandra; Weeks, Fiona; Foster, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    over the past three decades there has been a social movement in Latin American countries (LAC) to support humanised, physiologic birth. Rates of caesarean section overall in Latin America are approximately 35%, increasing up to 85% in some cases. There are many factors related to poor outcomes with regard to maternal and newborn/infant health in LAC countries. Maternal and perinatal outcome data within and between countries is scarce and inaccurate. The aims of this study were to: i) describe selected obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women who received midwifery care, ii) identify the level of maternal well-being after experiencing midwifery care in 6 Latin America countries. this was a cross sectional and descriptive study, conducted in selected maternity units in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Peru, and Uruguay. Quantitative methods were used to measure midwifery processes of care and maternal perceptions of well-being in labour and childbirth through a validated survey of maternal well-being and an adapted version of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) standardized antepartum and intrapartum data set. Maternity units from 6 Latin American countries. the final sample was a convenience sample, and the total participants for all sites in the six countries was 3009 low risk women. for the countries reporting, overall, 82% of these low risk women had spontaneous vaginal deliveries. The rate of caesarean section was 16%; the Dominican Republic had the highest rate of Caesarean sections (30%) and Peru had the lowest rate (4%). The use of oxytocin in labour was widely variable, although overall there was a high proportion of women whose labour was augmented or induced. Ambulation was common, with the lowest proportion (48%) of women ambulating in labour in Chile, Uruguay (50%), Peru (65%), Brazil (85%). The presence of continuous support was highest in Uruguay (93%), Chile (75%) and Argentina (55%), and Peru had the lowest (22

  14. Exploration case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Jimmy M.

    1989-04-01

    NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken four case studies for prospective expansion of manned space activities beyond earth orbit. The subjects of these studies are (1) an expedition to the Martian moon Phobos; (2) a three-mission expedition to Mars; (3) the construction of a man-tended lunar observatory; and (4) the construction of a lunar outpost to serve as the basis for construction of a Martian outpost. The fourth alternative would follow the recommendation of the National Commission on Space for the creation of a 'bridge between worlds' in which explorers would develop ways in which to 'live off the land' in a space environment.

  15. Organized Labor: Source Materials for the Study of Labor in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Carl, Comp.

    Designed for use in secondary economics or other social studies classes, this kit presents instructional materials and replications of primary source documents on the development of the labor movement in America. The documents are divided into four major areas of study: the growth of organized labor, the function of a union, labor and politics,…

  16. How America Saves for College, 2009. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Sallie Mae's study, "How America Saves for College 2009," conducted by Gallup, provides a measure of the commitment parents have to helping their children reach higher education and whether and how they are saving for the investment. Based on a nationally representative survey of parents of children under age 18, the study found that without…

  17. COMPARISON OF SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS FROM MAJOR OZONE FIELD STUDIES IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade, nearly 600 million dollars were invested in more than 30 major field studies in North America and Europe examining tropospheric ozone chemistry, meteorology, precursor emissions, and modeling. Most of these studies were undertaken to provide new or refin...

  18. A Remote Sensing Class Exercise To Study the Effects of "El Nino" in South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxey, Lucas Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical science laboratory course exercising the utilization of satellite imagery for studying the floods that resulted in the Parana River region in South America during El Nino (1997-1998), and examines vegetation cover and spectral profiles from the study area in order to further understand and assess the changes…

  19. How America Pays for College, 2012. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sallie Mae has conducted "How America Pays for College" annually since 2008, providing information about the resources American families invest in an undergraduate college education. This study focuses particularly on the planning and payment behaviors in a given academic year. Now in its fifth year, the study allows tracking over time of changes…

  20. How America Pays for College, 2014: Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Sallie Mae has conducted "How America Pays for College" annually since 2008, providing information about the resources American families invest in an undergraduate college education. This study focuses particularly on the planning and payment behaviors in a given academic year. Now in its seventh year, the study provides a compelling…

  1. A Remote Sensing Class Exercise To Study the Effects of "El Nino" in South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxey, Lucas Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical science laboratory course exercising the utilization of satellite imagery for studying the floods that resulted in the Parana River region in South America during El Nino (1997-1998), and examines vegetation cover and spectral profiles from the study area in order to further understand and assess the changes…

  2. Best Practices Case Study: Urbane Homes - Crestwood, KY, Various Locations, Greater Louisville, KY

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Urbane Homes, who worked with Building America to build market rate homes with HERS scores of 57 to 62. Despite a down market they’ve sold every home within 3 weeks of listing, without any advertising.

  3. Chinese Soft Power in Latin America: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    those factors that are the sources of U.S. influence, such as the affinity of the world’s youth for American music, media , and lifestyle, the...based on media reports or experiences with ethnic Chinese living in those countries. Such perceptions are often mixed, including respect for the...15 “China prestará a Venezuela $300 millones para crear aerolínea,” El Universal (Caracas), April 24, 2010. 16 In many business and technical

  4. Building America Case Study: Savannah Gardens, Savannah, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize building envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  5. Trends in Dengue Cases Imported into the United States from Pan America 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A.M.; Richards, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve risk assessments of travel on dengue (DEN) virus (DENV) distribution. We investigated the exposure risk of US citizens traveling to DEN-endemic Pan American countries. The number of DEN cases reported in 51 Pan American countries from 2001 to 2012 was compared to the population of the same countries. The number of US travelers visiting the Pan American countries was categorized by region, and travel-related DEN infections were analyzed. US residents visiting the Dominican Republic exhibited the highest traveler-related DEN incidence. Brazil showed the most DEN cases in its residents (>1 million reported cases in 2010). The number of DEN cases continues to rise as does international travel and the geographic range of potential DENV vectors. DENV risk assessments may be improved by analyzing the possible routes of entry. Underreporting remains an issue for calculating DENV transmission risk by country and region. PMID:26766913

  6. Survey data for the study of aging in Latin America and the Caribbean: selected studies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebeca; Peláez, Martha; Palloni, Alberto; Markides, Kyriakos

    2006-04-01

    The article summarizes three of the data collection studies that can assist researchers in examining population aging processes in the Latin America and Caribbean region with an emphasis on cross-national comparisons, including the population of Mexican immigrants in the United States. These are the Survey on Health and Wellbeing of Elders conducted in seven urban centers of the region, the national Mexican Health and Aging Study, and the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly in the United States. The article describes the studies and marks them as informative, comprehensive, and still underanalyzed in particular for the purpose of cross-national analyses of aging among Latin American and Caribbean populations.

  7. WHO dengue case classification 2009 and its usefulness in practice: an expert consensus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Horstick, Olaf; Martinez, Eric; Guzman, Maria Guadalupe; Martin, Jose Luis San; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, the new World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification - dengue/severe dengue (D/SD) - was introduced, replacing the 1997 WHO dengue case classification: dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS). A 2-day expert consensus meeting in La Habana/Cuba aimed to (1) share the experiences from Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) member states when applying D/SD, (2) present national and local data using D/SD, and (3) agree with the presented evidence on a list of recommendations for or against the use of D/SD for PAHO, and also globally. Eight key questions were discussed, concluding: (1) D/SD is useful describing disease progression because it considers the dynamic nature of the disease, (2) D/SD helps defining dengue cases correctly for clinical studies, because it defines more precisely disease severity and allows evaluating dynamically the progression of cases, (3) D/SD describes correctly all clinical forms of severe dengue. Further standards need to be developed regionally, especially related to severe organ involvement, (4) D/SD allows for pathophysiological research identifying - in a sequential manner - the clinical manifestations of dengue related to pathophysiological events, (5) the warning signs help identifying early cases at risk of shock (children and adults), pathophysiology of the warning signs deserves further studies, (6) D/SD helps treating individual dengue cases and also the reorganization of health-care services for outbreak management, (7) D/SD helps diagnosing dengue, in presumptive diagnosis and follow-up of the disease, because of its high sensitivity and high negative predictive value (NPV), and (8) there is currently no update of the International Disease Classification10 (ICD10) to include the new classification of dengue (D/SD); therefore, there are not enough experiences of epidemiological reporting. Once D/SD has been implemented in epidemiological surveillance, D/SD allows to (1

  8. WHO Dengue Case Classification 2009 and its usefulness in practice: an expert consensus in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Horstick, Olaf; Martinez, Eric; Guzman, Maria Guadalupe; Martin, Jose Luis San; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2009, the new World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification – dengue/severe dengue (D/SD) – was introduced, replacing the 1997 WHO dengue case classification: dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS). Methods: A 2-day expert consensus meeting in La Habana/Cuba aimed to (1) share the experiences from Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) member states when applying D/SD, (2) present national and local data using D/SD, and (3) agree with the presented evidence on a list of recommendations for or against the use of D/SD for PAHO, and also globally. Results: Eight key questions were discussed, concluding: (1) D/SD is useful describing disease progression because it considers the dynamic nature of the disease, (2) D/SD helps defining dengue cases correctly for clinical studies, because it defines more precisely disease severity and allows evaluating dynamically the progression of cases, (3) D/SD describes correctly all clinical forms of severe dengue. Further standards need to be developed regionally, especially related to severe organ involvement, (4) D/SD allows for pathophysiological research identifying – in a sequential manner – the clinical manifestations of dengue related to pathophysiological events, (5) the warning signs help identifying early cases at risk of shock (children and adults), pathophysiology of the warning signs deserves further studies, (6) D/SD helps treating individual dengue cases and also the reorganization of health-care services for outbreak management, (7) D/SD helps diagnosing dengue, in presumptive diagnosis and follow-up of the disease, because of its high sensitivity and high negative predictive value (NPV), and (8) there is currently no update of the International Disease Classification10 (ICD10) to include the new classification of dengue (D/SD); therefore, there are not enough experiences of epidemiological reporting. Once D/SD has been implemented in

  9. Lessons Learned from Former College Presidents of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunheim, Katherine A.; McLean, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of ten Lutheran (ELCA) college presidents who had transitioned from the presidency. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of former college presidents who were associated with Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) colleges. The results…

  10. Lessons Learned from Former College Presidents of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunheim, Katherine A.; McLean, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of ten Lutheran (ELCA) college presidents who had transitioned from the presidency. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of former college presidents who were associated with Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) colleges. The results…

  11. Exploring the Experience of Former Students Participation in Business Professionals of America Club: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Katrina Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study gathered from former students during grades 6th through 12th who had actively participated in the Business Professionals of America (BPA) program, sought to build on existing research on the benefits of participating in extra-curricular activities. The purpose of the research was to examine the extent to which participation in the BPA…

  12. War: Images of America. Social Studies Unit, Secondary Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide helps secondary school teachers supplement social studies materials dealing with wars over the past 200 years. Using authentic visuals including paintings, drawings, engravings, posters, photographs, songsheets, and cartoons,…

  13. How America Pays for College, 2009. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Sallie Mae's study, "How America Pays for College 2009," conducted by Gallup, provides a picture of how families made the investment in higher education last academic year and how they are beginning to meet the challenges of the economic recession. Based on a nationally representative survey of college-going students and parents of undergraduates,…

  14. How America Pays for College, 2011. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sallie Mae's national study, "How America Pays for College," now in its fourth year, shows the resilience of American families' strongly held belief in the value of a college education. Even in the face of rising tuition costs and the worst economic decline in a generation, between academic years 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 Americans paid increasingly…

  15. Central America: Theme IV. Social Studies Grade 5: The Western Hemisphere. Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeson, Eileen; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents materials for teaching about Central America and emphasizes the concepts of environment, culture, interdependence, and citizenship. The guide is designed to integrate the study of geographic, economic, historic, political, and social features of Central American nations. The major theme of the document deals with how…

  16. Central America: Theme IV. Social Studies Grade 5: The Western Hemisphere. Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeson, Eileen; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents materials for teaching about Central America and emphasizes the concepts of environment, culture, interdependence, and citizenship. The guide is designed to integrate the study of geographic, economic, historic, political, and social features of Central American nations. The major theme of the document deals with how…

  17. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  18. Comparative study of general public owl knowledge in Costa Rica, Central America and Malawi, Africa

    Treesearch

    Paula A. Enriquez; Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    The public knowledge of owls in Central America and Africa was compared based on 162 interviews in Costa Rica and 147 in Malawi. General knowledge of owls included: species, common names, habitats, food, and calls, and was quite similar in both study areas. In Malawi, more than 90 percent of the respondents connected owls with bad luck, witchcraft, and death. In Costa...

  19. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  20. Exploring the Experience of Former Students Participation in Business Professionals of America Club: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Katrina Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study gathered from former students during grades 6th through 12th who had actively participated in the Business Professionals of America (BPA) program, sought to build on existing research on the benefits of participating in extra-curricular activities. The purpose of the research was to examine the extent to which participation in the BPA…

  1. War: Images of America. Social Studies Unit, Secondary Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide helps secondary school teachers supplement social studies materials dealing with wars over the past 200 years. Using authentic visuals including paintings, drawings, engravings, posters, photographs, songsheets, and cartoons,…

  2. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  3. The Portrayal of Central America in Selected Contemporary Social Studies Textbooks: An Outline of the Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, Sylvia

    Current U.S. policies toward Central American nations motivated this examination of the presentation of the region in 12 social studies textbooks. In order to determine if each text's treatment of Central America was representative of the entire book, three regions, Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean were selected for comparison purposes. The…

  4. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  5. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  6. Rhetoric and Practice in Pre-Service Teacher Education: The Case of Teach for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Teach For America (TFA), an organization that places college graduates in urban and rural classrooms for two-year terms of service, is lauded by reformers who see its five-week summer training institute as evidence that teachers have little to learn before entering classrooms. Yet, while boosters see TFA as a radical alternative to traditional…

  7. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  8. Rhetoric and Practice in Pre-Service Teacher Education: The Case of Teach for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Teach For America (TFA), an organization that places college graduates in urban and rural classrooms for two-year terms of service, is lauded by reformers who see its five-week summer training institute as evidence that teachers have little to learn before entering classrooms. Yet, while boosters see TFA as a radical alternative to traditional…

  9. Assessing the Effects of Voluntary Youth Service: The Case of Teach for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, Doug; Brandt, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    We use survey data from all accepted applicants to Teach for America 1993-98 to assess the longer-term effect of youth service on participants' current civic attitudes and behaviors. While TFA "graduates" score higher than the two comparison groups--"drop-outs" and "non-matriculants"--on a broad range of attitudinal items measuring civic…

  10. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  11. How America Saves for College, 2013. Sallie Mae's National Study of Parents with Children under Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Sallie Mae has conducted an ongoing study, "How America Pays for College," annually since 2008. Through that study, the researchers are able to provide a clearer picture of how the typical American undergraduate is paying for college today. This report is the third in the "How America Saves for College" series conducted since 2009. Interviews took…

  12. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography includes books, articles, bibliographies and reviews published here or abroad by scholars residing in the United States or Canada. Coverage includes comparative literature studies; translations; publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology; and studies pertinent to the Italian-American…

  13. What is the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS)?

    Cancer.gov

    EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire, a new and improved food frequency questionnaire developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs.

  14. Lesson Study Comes of Age in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Perry, Rebecca; Hurd, Jacqueline; O'Connell, Mary Pat

    2006-01-01

    Lesson study, the dominant form of professional development for teachers in Japan, has spread rapidly in the U.S. since 1999. In this article, the authors discuss the growth and success of lesson study at Highlands Elementary School in California's San Mateo-Foster City School District and identify conditions needed for scale-up. They also discuss…

  15. When Women Ask the Questions: Creating Women's Studies in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Marilyn Jacoby

    This book reviews the history and effects of women's studies in American higher education and concludes that the rise of women's studies has challenged the university in the same way that feminism has challenged society at large. The history of the field is narrated within the context of the philosophical and political goals of its practitioners.…

  16. PREDICT : A CASE STUDY.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, W. J. III; Booker, J. M.; Meyer, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a case study of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.

  17. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  18. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  19. Remarkable Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Sellar Xanthogranuloma: Report of Three First Cases in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Mario Tapia; Vargas, Jaime Pinto; Yañez, Fernando Andrade; León, Loreto Spencer; Arancibia, Pablo Álvarez; Putz, Thomas Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    The sellar xanthogranuloma is a rare lesion of the sellar–parasellar region difficult to differentiate from other tumors such as craniopharyngiomas or Rathke's cleft cyst in the preoperative evaluation. As they are recently recognized as a separate entity and the few number of reports in the literature, its etiology is unknown and its impact remains uncertain. This article will describe the first three cases reported in Latin America, identified in one of them an imaging feature that may be helpful to elucidate an imaging growth pattern. Current evidence will be described regarding to the clinicopathological features, imaging diagnosis, and etiology origin theories. PMID:28286725

  20. Social Studies: Emergence of America as a World Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Jackie

    The quinmester American studies elective course for grades seven through nine focuses on the development of the United States as a world power from 1898 when conditions and influential groups of expansionists contributed to the United States, changing from an isolationist nation to the present world power. Emphasis is on the concept of national…

  1. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of "institutions" and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study's methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed.

  2. A Study of America's Front Pages: How They Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasternack, Steve; Utt, Sandra H.

    A study examined the graphic devices used on the front pages of 78 American newspapers with a circulation of 25,000 or more and explored editors' attitudes toward the importance of front page appearance and graphics to newspaper readers. Questionnaires were sent to the newspapers' staff members primarily responsible for front page layout and…

  3. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  4. Know Your America: Suggested Study Course in Americanism. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Legion, Indianapolis, IN. Americanism and Children's Youth Div.

    The purpose of this booklet is to increase understanding of fundamental U.S. documents, the U.S. flag, patriotic institutions, and of San Francisco (California), March 14-16, 1986 of U.S. residents. Unit 2 describes and interprets the code of displaying the U.S. flag and provides a suggested flag education unit of study. Units 3 and 4 offer…

  5. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of “institutions” and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study’s methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed. PMID:26543407

  6. Building America Energy Renovations. A Business Case for Home Performance Contracting

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Antonopoulos, C. A.; Sevigny, M.; Gilbride, T. L.; Hefty, M. G.

    2012-10-01

    This research report gives an overview of the needs and opportunities that exist in the U.S. home performance contracting industry. The report discusses industry trends, market drivers, different business models, and points of entry for existing and new businesses hoping to enter the home performance contracting industry. Case studies of eight companies who successfully entered the industry are provided, including business metrics, start-up costs, and marketing approaches.

  7. Methodology of Leaving America for Asia: Reading South Korea's Social Studies Textbooks through Chen Kuan-Hsing's Asia as Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    This project began as a content analysis of five South Korean high school Social Studies textbooks. Yet, it has evolved into an epistemological experiment to pursue the question of "what does it mean to leave America for Asia, at least methodologically, for the researcher who left Asia for America?" Using the textbooks as a mediating…

  8. Five Studies on the Situation of Women in Latin America. Estudios e Informes de la CEPAL. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Commission for Latin America (UN), Santiago (Chile).

    Five studies on the situation of women in Latin America focus on (1) the integration of women in development, (2) the family as the immediate social framework of children and women, (3) some types of poor women in Latin America, (4) the educational situation of women, and (5) women in development and housework. An introductory section outlining…

  9. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  10. Community-acquired diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile in an HIV-positive cancer patient: first case report in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cecília L; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; de Carvalho, Cibele B Mano; González, Rafael H; Gifoni, Markus A; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea, mainly associated with antibiotic use and immunodeficiency. Although, an increased incidence of community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI) has been reported worldwide, this infection has been under-diagnosed in Latin America. This is the first report of a CA-CDI case in Latin America, in an HIV-positive patient with cancer.

  11. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.

  12. Dioxin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  13. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  14. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  15. The Paradox of Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Helen

    1996-01-01

    Examines the paradox of case studies' abilities to understand the complexity in particular contexts while not being generalizable. Argues that the pressure for quantification and multisite case study design in policy research has weakened the original utility of the case study method for understanding complex educational phenomena. (DSK)

  16. Chryseobacterium indologenes in a woman with metastatic breast cancer in the United States of America: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We report the seventh case of Chryseobacterium indologenes occurring in the United States of America. C. indologenes is seldom isolated from clinical specimens but has caused hospital-acquired infections in Taiwan and rarely elsewhere. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic breast cancer presented to a hospital emergency department with bilateral radiation-induced pleural effusions and respiratory failure. The patient was hospitalized and ventilated for 26 days; tracheal aspirates collected on ventilation days 24 and 26 grew C. indologenes. The patient subsequently died as a result of worsening ventilator-associated pneumonia and stage IV breast cancer. Conclusions C. indologenes infection should be considered for hospitalized patients with a history of malignancy, especially those with indwelling devices and antibiotic use for >14 days. PMID:23890272

  17. Hypertension in seven Latin American cities: the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Rafael; Silva, Honorio; Velasco, Manuel; Pellegrini, Fabio; Macchia, Alejandro; Escobedo, Jorge; Vinueza, Raul; Schargrodsky, Herman; Champagne, Beatriz; Pramparo, Palmira; Wilson, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available regarding hypertension, treatment, and control in urban population of Latin America. We aimed to compare blood pressure (BP) distribution, hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control in seven Latin American cities following standard methodology. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study was a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study assessing cardiovascular risk factors using stratified multistage sampling of adult populations (aged 25-64 years) in seven cities: Barquisimeto (Venezuela; n = 1848); Bogotá (n = 1553); Buenos Aires (n = 1482); Lima (n = 1652); Mexico City (n = 1720); Quito (n = 1638); and Santiago (n = 1655). The prevalence of hypertension and high normal BP were determined based on 2007 European Society of Hypertension and European Society of Cardiology definitions. BP increased with age in men and women; pulse pressure increased mainly in the upper age group. The hypertension prevalence ranged from 9% in Quito to 29% in Buenos Aires. One-quarter to one-half of the hypertension cases were previously undiagnosed (24% in Mexico City to 47% in Lima); uncontrolled hypertension ranged from 12% (Lima) to 41% (Mexico City). High normal BP was also evident in a substantial number of each city participants (approximately 5-15%). Majority of population has other cardiovascular risk factors despite hypertension; only 9.19% of participants have no risk factors apart from hypertension. From 13.4 to 44.2% of the populations of seven major Latin American cities were hypertensive or had high normal BP values. Most hypertensive patients have additional risk factors. Public health programs need to target prevention, detection, treatment, and control of total cardiovascular risk in Latin America.

  18. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  19. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  20. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  1. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  2. Gender, acculturative stress and Caribbean immigrants' health in the United States of America: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Livingston, I L; Neita, M; Riviere, L; Livingston, S L

    2007-06-01

    Given that the health of many immigrants declines after increasing years in their host countries and that there may be gender differences in these experiences, this exploratory study's main objective was twofold: a) assess the relationship between acculturative stress and negative health (ie both mental and physical) and b) determine if there were any gender differences in these stress-health relationships. Gender-stratified analyses were conducted on a sample of 418 (males = 158, females = 260) English-speaking immigrants (the majority of whom were Jamaicans--males = 81%, females = 86%) that lived in the District of Columbia, Virginia, and Maryland (DC Metropolitan Area, United States of America (USA). Mail-order surveys were used to collect the data over a six-month period in 2002. Data for the main independent variable, acculturative stress, were collected using five indices (ie personal problems, group affiliations, adjustment to life in the USA, lonely feelings and feeling socially satisfied). Data for the major dependent variable, health, were collected using four indices (ie symptoms of depression, physical health conditions, the rating of one's health and the feeling of control one had over one's health). After controlling for selected covariates, both males (r = 0.42, p < 0.001) and females (r = 0.19, p < 0.05) reported a positive relationship between personal problems and depression. In other cases, female immigrants, with increasing personal problems, reported more physical health problems (r = 0.20, p < 0.05). Male immigrants who had more group affiliations (r = 0.22, p < 0.05), and who reported more loneliness (r = .26, p < 0.05) had less symptoms of depression. These exploratory results suggest the potential importance of selected variables (eg personal problems and depression) in efforts at improving the health of Caribbean immigrants.

  3. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  4. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  5. Case study--leprosy.

    PubMed

    Wood, A M; Wood, C M; Bakker-Dyos, J

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 26 year old Indian base worker who attended the Role 2 enhanced hospital in Iraq with a case of leprosy. The patient presented four times over a 12 month period with non-specific pain in the right hand and forearm combined with a large lesion of dry skin and reduced sensation in the forearm. A clinical diagnosis of leprosy was made, which was subsequently confirmed as paucibacillary leprosy by skin smears sent to the UK. It was not possible to treat the patient locally and a recommendation made to the patient's employer that the patient return to India to commence treatment.

  6. Dissociation and symptoms of culture-bound syndromes in North America: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Schroeder, Elizabeth; Ness, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether classical culture-bound syndromes occur among psychiatric inpatients with dissociative disorders in North America. The Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule were administered to 100 predominantly Caucasian, American, English-speaking trauma program inpatients at a hospital in the United States. The participants reported high rates of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse (87%), dissociative disorders (73%), and membership in the dissociative taxon (78%). They also reported a wide range of possession experiences and exorcism rituals, as well as the classical culture-bound syndromes of latah, bebainan, amok, and pibloktoq. Our data are consistent with the view that possession and classical culture-bound syndromes are predominantly dissociative in nature and not really culture-bound from the perspective of Caucasian, English-speaking America.

  7. Risk Factors and Demographics for Microtia in South America: a Case-Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luquetti, Daniela V.; Saltzman, Babette S.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Dutra, Maria da Graca; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The etiopathogenesis of microtia is still unknown in the majority of the cases, particularly for individuals presenting with isolated microtia. Our aim was to evaluate potential risk factors for this condition using a case-control approach. METHODS We analyzed data from 1,194 livebirths with isolated microtia enrolled in the ECLAMC study (Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas) from 1982 to 2011 and their respective controls. Odds ratios were estimated with conditional logistic regression models along with 95% confidence intervals for the resulting odds ratio estimates controlling for the effects of potential confounders (sex, maternal age, hospital and year of birth) for an adjusted OR (aOR). RESULTS Multiparity was associated with a higher risk of microtia compared to primiparity (aOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.2–1.8), with women who had eight or more prior pregnancies having the highest risk (aOR 2.8, 95%CI 1.6–5.2). Women who presented with cold-like symptoms were at higher risk for microtia (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.2–3.9) as well as those that used tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy (aOR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1–2.5 and aOR 1.4, 95%CI 0.9–2.1, respectively). The association with alcohol use appeared to be limited to those women who reported binge drinking during pregnancy (aOR 1.4, 95% 0.7–2.9). Cases from hospitals at low altitude (< 2,500 m) tended to have more severe types of microtia than those from hospitals at high altitude. CONCLUSIONS These results support the hypothesis that in addition to teratogens other non-genetic risk factors contribute to the occurrence of isolated microtia. PMID:24265127

  8. Greeks in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    Part of the Ethnic Heritage in America curriculum materials, this unit is about Greeks in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Greece, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Greece, historical chronological outline, list of Greeks in U.S. history, bibliography about Greeks, Greek publications in the United…

  9. Jews in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    This ethnic heritage unit is about Jews in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Israel, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Israel, a bibliography about Jews, and a list of Jewish organizations in the United States. The second section discusses early Jewish settlement in North America, Jewish contributions to…

  10. A single early introduction of HIV-1 subtype B into Central America accounts for most current cases.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Wendy; Veras, Nazle; Prosperi, Mattia; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Juarez, Sandra I; Yang, Chunfu; DeVos, Joshua; Marín, José Pablo; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan; Salemi, Marco

    2013-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants show considerable geographical separation across the world, but there is limited information from Central America. We provide the first detailed investigation of the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in six Central American countries. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on 625 HIV-1 pol gene sequences collected between 2002 and 2010 in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize. Published sequences from neighboring countries (n = 57) and the rest of the world (n = 740) were included as controls. Maximum likelihood methods were used to explore phylogenetic relationships. Bayesian coalescence-based methods were used to time HIV-1 introductions. Nearly all (98.9%) Central American sequences were of subtype B. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 437 (70%) sequences clustered within five significantly supported monophyletic clades formed essentially by Central American sequences. One clade contained 386 (62%) sequences from all six countries; the other four clades were smaller and more country specific, suggesting discrete subepidemics. The existence of one large well-supported Central American clade provides evidence that a single introduction of HIV-1 subtype B in Central America accounts for most current cases. An introduction during the early phase of the HIV-1 pandemic may explain its epidemiological success. Moreover, the smaller clades suggest a subsequent regional spread related to specific transmission networks within each country.

  11. A Single Early Introduction of HIV-1 Subtype B into Central America Accounts for Most Current Cases

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Wendy; Veras, Nazle; Prosperi, Mattia; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Juarez, Sandra I.; Yang, Chunfu; DeVos, Joshua; Marín, José Pablo; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants show considerable geographical separation across the world, but there is limited information from Central America. We provide the first detailed investigation of the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in six Central American countries. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on 625 HIV-1 pol gene sequences collected between 2002 and 2010 in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize. Published sequences from neighboring countries (n = 57) and the rest of the world (n = 740) were included as controls. Maximum likelihood methods were used to explore phylogenetic relationships. Bayesian coalescence-based methods were used to time HIV-1 introductions. Nearly all (98.9%) Central American sequences were of subtype B. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 437 (70%) sequences clustered within five significantly supported monophyletic clades formed essentially by Central American sequences. One clade contained 386 (62%) sequences from all six countries; the other four clades were smaller and more country specific, suggesting discrete subepidemics. The existence of one large well-supported Central American clade provides evidence that a single introduction of HIV-1 subtype B in Central America accounts for most current cases. An introduction during the early phase of the HIV-1 pandemic may explain its epidemiological success. Moreover, the smaller clades suggest a subsequent regional spread related to specific transmission networks within each country. PMID:23616665

  12. Making the Case--Adult Education & Literacy: Key to America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy, New York, NY.

    This publication is comprised of case statements of 14 attendees at an invitational meeting at the Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy and other adult educators. Offered as an advocacy tool for the field, these case statements represent short statements making the case for adult education and literacy; are the products of national leaders…

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Zero Net-Energy Homes Production Builder Business Case: California/Florida Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Grupe Homes of Sacramento’s work with Building America to design California’s first production-scale community of solar homes. The homes outsold neighboring developments two to one.

  14. Heart Failure in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America: The INTER-CHF study.

    PubMed

    Dokainish, Hisham; Teo, Koon; Zhu, Jun; Roy, Ambuj; AlHabib, Khalid F; ElSayed, Ahmed; Palileo-Villaneuva, Lia; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Karaye, Kamilu; Yusoff, Khalid; Orlandini, Andres; Sliwa, Karen; Mondo, Charles; Lanas, Fernando; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Badr, Amr; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Damasceno, Albertino; Tibazarwa, Kemi; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Balasubramanian, Kumar; Yacoub, Magdi H; Huffman, Mark D; Harkness, Karen; Grinvalds, Alex; McKelvie, Robert; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-02-01

    There are few data on heart failure (HF) patients from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America. INTER-CHF is a prospective study that enrolled HF patients in 108 centers in 16 countries from 2012 to 2014. Consecutive ambulatory or hospitalized adult patients with HF were enrolled. Baseline data were recorded on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, HF etiology and treatments. Age- and sex-adjusted results are reported. We recruited 5813 HF patients: mean(SE) age=59(0.2)years, 39% female, 65% outpatients, 31% from rural areas, 26% with HF with preserved ejection fraction, with 1294 from Africa, 2661 from Asia, 1000 from the Middle-East, and 858 from South America. Participants from Africa-closely followed by Asians-were younger, had lower literacy levels, and were less likely to have health or medication insurance or be on beta-blockers compared with participants from other regions, but were most likely to be in NYHA class IV. Participants from South America were older, had higher insurance and literacy levels, and, along with Middle Eastern participants, were more likely to be on beta-blockers, but had the lowest proportion in NYHA IV. Ischemic heart disease was the most common HF etiology in all regions except Africa where hypertensive heart disease was most common. INTER-CHF describes significant regional variability in socioeconomic and clinical factors, etiologies and treatments in HF patients from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America. Opportunities exist for improvement in health/medication insurance rates and proportions of patients on beta blockers, particularly in Africa and Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applied Climate Studies Centered on the Intra-Americas Sea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enfield, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Intra-Americas Studies of Climate Processes (IASCLIP) is a new program under the umbrella of the Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS), a division of International CLIVAR. The centerpiece for IASCLIP is the Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) that embraces the eastern North Pacific, the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS — Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) and the western tropical Atlantic. The WHWP holds promise for summer climate predictability for the Western Hemisphere from northern South America to the Midwest of the United States, with an emphasis on extreme events like hurricanes, floods, droughts and tornados. This predictability derives from two factors: (1) year-to-year variations in the size of the summer WHWP that vary by up to a factor of three in response to boreal spring forcing by potentially predictable winter climate patterns such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Amazon convection; and (2) a summer tropospheric response to WHWP anomalies that affects the tropical cyclone environment and the low-level moisture transports into surrounding land regions. In this talk I will show examples from recent research of these phenomena and outline the IASCLIP strategy to translate summer predictability into useful climate forecast applications.

  16. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  17. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  18. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  19. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  20. Energy technology roll-out for climate change mitigation: A multi-model study for Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Kober, Tom; Calderon, Silvia; Clarke, Leon; Daenzer, Katie; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Lucena, André F. P.; Octaviano, Claudia; Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be cost-optimal in the energy sector to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in the region. By way of sensitivity test we perform a cross-model comparison study and inspect whether robust conclusions can be drawn across results from different models as well as different types of models (general versus partial equilibrium). Given the abundance of biomass resources in Latin America, they play a large role in energy supply in all scenarios we inspect. This is especially true for stringent climate policy scenarios, for instance because the use of biomass in power plants in combination with CCS can yield negative CO2 emissions. We find that hydropower, which today contributes about 800 TWh to overall power production in Latin America, could be significantly expanded to meet the climate policies we investigate, typically by about 50%, but potentially by as much as 75%. According to all models, electricity generation increases exponentially with a two- to three-fold expansion between 2010 and 2050.Wefind that in our climate policy scenarios renewable energy overall expands typically at double-digit growth rates annually, but there is substantial spread in model results for specific options such as wind and solar power: the climate policies that we simulate raise wind power in 2050 on average to half the production level that hydropower provides today, while they raise solar power to either a substantially higher or a much lower level than hydropower supplies at present, depending on which model is used. Also for CCS we observe large diversity in model outcomes, which reflects the uncertainties with regard to its future implementation potential as a result of

  1. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-10-05

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. PMID:27382078

  3. Censorship and Authority in Sex Education: Three Court Cases from 1970's America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGenio, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    The cases analyzed in this essay exemplify both the influence of the sexual revolution and the conservative backlash against it. Topics that were once considered obscene were now seen as educational. Without this greater openness, none of these court cases would have been possible. In fact, people fighting against censorship and repression…

  4. PREVENTING FUTURE SHOCK: A Case for Addressing Future Threats to America’s National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    JOHN F. KENNEDY SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT HARVARD UNIVERSITY PREVENTING FUTURE SHOCK: A Case for Addressing Future Threats to America’s National...Date 01APR2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle PREVENTING FUTURE SHOCK: A Case for Addressing Future Threats to...3 A National Security Strategy that Looks to the Future ............................................4 Addressing Future Threats in

  5. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-02-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the implementation of teacher education that aims at those objectives. None of these countries have rigorous selection criteria for candidates for science teacher education programs, although each has some type of certification or test requirement before entry into the public education system is permitted. The three countries have similar teacher training programs, with instruction programs lasting between 4 and 5 years; programs entail both disciplinary instruction and pedagogical instruction that starts in the first year. Data from the three countries show that a high percentage of instruction in the training programs is devoted to general pedagogy with less instruction time devoted to specific preparation for teaching science. Disciplinary instruction accounts for nearly 50 % of the instruction program among secondary teachers. Training in other subjects such as nature of science, history of science and scientific inquiry is poorly developed. In general, there are few opportunities for research on practicum, as these opportunities tend to occur at the end of the training program. The generation of instruction standards by governments as well as the increase in the number of scholars dedicated to the investigation of science education and the education of science teachers suggests that some of these shortcomings could be remedied in the future.

  6. Online Collaborative Case Study Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Case study learning was integrated into a course designed to improve students' potential for academic success and increase student retention. Case studies related to self-regulation of behavior, motivation, and cognition for academic tasks were used to prompt students' critical thinking and facilitate deep learning of self-regulation topics,…

  7. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  8. Case Studies Reveal Camper Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Steve; Fullerton, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Case studies in the National Camp Evaluation Project and National Inclusive Camp Practices project used interviews with counselors and parents about camper's growth to yield qualitative data for camp program evaluation. The importance, methods, and benefits of case studies are described. Sidebars give examples of comments on perceived camper…

  9. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  10. Three Community College Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  11. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  12. Southern Appalachian Case Study

    Treesearch

    Charles C. van Sickle

    1999-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian study covers a region of 37.4 million acres. Its mountains, foothills, and valleys stretch from northern Virginia and northern West Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama. When Native Americans came to the region, forests dominated the landscape and they still do, covering 70% of the land (Figure 32.1). Terrain characteristics are...

  13. CMC and Ethnic Communities: A Case Study of Chinese Students' Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kewen; Hao, Xiaoming

    This paper presents a case study exploring the impact of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) on the formation of ethnic social groups, or communities, by examining the case of Chinese students in North America and other parts of the world. The paper (1) reviews the relationship between communication and community; (2) traces the development of…

  14. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara; Fernández, Laura; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia; Moirano, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based GNSS products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, seven-year long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay (Bianchi et al. 2016). As preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2% per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model fairly reproduces the observed mean delays, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited form the underling atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available at a scientific repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858234). References: C. Bianchi, L. Mendoza, L. Fernandez, M. P. Natali, A. Meza, J. F. Moirano, Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies, Ann. Geophys., ISSN 0992-7689, eISSN 1432-0576, 34 (7), 623-639 (doi:10.5194/angeo-34-623-2016).

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wong-McClure, Roy A; Gregg, Edward W; Barceló, Alberto; Lee, Kahye; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra; Sanabria-López, Laura; Tortós-Guzmán, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national); Costa Rica (San José); Guatemala (Guatemala City); Honduras (Tegucigalpa); and Nicaragua (Managua). Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27.1-33.4). There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4) and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9). Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  16. Geostatistical case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Matheron, G.; Armstrong, M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes.

  17. The marketing potential of corporate social responsibility activities: the case of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pantani, Daniela; Peltzer, Raquel; Cremonte, Mariana; Robaina, Katherine; Babor, Thomas; Pinsky, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  19. Case study: a patient's survival.

    PubMed

    Nauer, K A; Kramer, L; Lockard, K L

    2000-05-01

    Presentation of a case study involving a female patient, in her 20s, undergoing routine surgery for removal of atrial myxoma leading to a heart transplant. This case study will show the progression from postcardiotomy failure, the emergent use of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device, the insertion of the HeartMate device, and the final return to the operating room for a heart transplant. The case study will examine the physiologic demands on the patient, as well as the psychological effects from the various life-saving devices.

  20. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  1. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  2. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  3. Case studies of uncommon headaches.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W

    2006-05-01

    The following interesting and uncommon headache disorders are presented through case studies: exploding head syndrome, hypnic headache, neck-tongue syndrome, "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, nummular headache, red ear syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome, and cardiac cephalalgia.

  4. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  5. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Cancer.gov

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  6. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  7. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  8. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  9. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  10. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  11. Corporate America and community health: exploring the business case for investment.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Baase, Catherine; Noyce, Jerry; Stevens, Denise E

    2015-05-01

    The principal aim of this project was to learn from corporate executives about the most important components of a business case for employer leadership in improving community health. We used dialogue sessions to gain insight into this issue. The strongest elements included metrics and measurement, return on investment, communications, shared values, shared vision, shared definitions, and leadership. Important barriers included lack of understanding, lack of clear strategy, complexity of the problem, trust, lack of resources and leadership, policies and regulations, and leadership philosophy. Substantial variability was observed in the degree of understanding of the relationship between corporate health and community health. The business case for intentional and strategic corporate investment in community health occurs along a continuum has a set of clearly defined elements that address why investment may make sense, but also asks questions about the "what-to-do" and the "how-to-do-it."

  12. An exploratory study of forensic nursing education in North America: constructed definitions of forensic nursing.

    PubMed

    Kent-Wilkinson, Arlene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore forensic nursing knowledge as a specialty area of study, and factors influencing its educational development. A purposeful sample of nurse educators who had established some of the earliest forensic nursing programs in North America were sought for their perspective to answer predominantly qualitative questions. Unexpected findings from this study resulted in the concept of forensic nursing being described, differentiated, and defined. Since the inception of forensic nursing, numerous definitions have been written to articulate the knowledge of the specialty. The constructed definitions of forensic nursing from this study not only validated prior definitions developed by individuals and associations by nonresearchable methods, but also led to a discussion of what concepts are important to include in definitions of forensic nursing.

  13. Mass Media and the Contagion of Fear: The Case of Ebola in America.

    PubMed

    Towers, Sherry; Afzal, Shehzad; Bernal, Gilbert; Bliss, Nadya; Brown, Shala; Espinoza, Baltazar; Jackson, Jasmine; Judson-Garcia, Julia; Khan, Maryam; Lin, Michael; Mamada, Robert; Moreno, Victor M; Nazari, Fereshteh; Okuneye, Kamaldeen; Ross, Mary L; Rodriguez, Claudia; Medlock, Jan; Ebert, David; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In the weeks following the first imported case of Ebola in the U. S. on September 29, 2014, coverage of the very limited outbreak dominated the news media, in a manner quite disproportionate to the actual threat to national public health; by the end of October, 2014, there were only four laboratory confirmed cases of Ebola in the entire nation. Public interest in these events was high, as reflected in the millions of Ebola-related Internet searches and tweets performed in the month following the first confirmed case. Use of trending Internet searches and tweets has been proposed in the past for real-time prediction of outbreaks (a field referred to as "digital epidemiology"), but accounting for the biases of public panic has been problematic. In the case of the limited U. S. Ebola outbreak, we know that the Ebola-related searches and tweets originating the U. S. during the outbreak were due only to public interest or panic, providing an unprecedented means to determine how these dynamics affect such data, and how news media may be driving these trends. We examine daily Ebola-related Internet search and Twitter data in the U. S. during the six week period ending Oct 31, 2014. TV news coverage data were obtained from the daily number of Ebola-related news videos appearing on two major news networks. We fit the parameters of a mathematical contagion model to the data to determine if the news coverage was a significant factor in the temporal patterns in Ebola-related Internet and Twitter data. We find significant evidence of contagion, with each Ebola-related news video inspiring tens of thousands of Ebola-related tweets and Internet searches. Between 65% to 76% of the variance in all samples is described by the news media contagion model.

  14. Mass Media and the Contagion of Fear: The Case of Ebola in America

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Afzal, Shehzad; Bernal, Gilbert; Bliss, Nadya; Brown, Shala; Espinoza, Baltazar; Jackson, Jasmine; Judson-Garcia, Julia; Khan, Maryam; Lin, Michael; Mamada, Robert; Moreno, Victor M.; Nazari, Fereshteh; Okuneye, Kamaldeen; Ross, Mary L.; Rodriguez, Claudia; Medlock, Jan; Ebert, David; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background In the weeks following the first imported case of Ebola in the U. S. on September 29, 2014, coverage of the very limited outbreak dominated the news media, in a manner quite disproportionate to the actual threat to national public health; by the end of October, 2014, there were only four laboratory confirmed cases of Ebola in the entire nation. Public interest in these events was high, as reflected in the millions of Ebola-related Internet searches and tweets performed in the month following the first confirmed case. Use of trending Internet searches and tweets has been proposed in the past for real-time prediction of outbreaks (a field referred to as “digital epidemiology”), but accounting for the biases of public panic has been problematic. In the case of the limited U. S. Ebola outbreak, we know that the Ebola-related searches and tweets originating the U. S. during the outbreak were due only to public interest or panic, providing an unprecedented means to determine how these dynamics affect such data, and how news media may be driving these trends. Methodology We examine daily Ebola-related Internet search and Twitter data in the U. S. during the six week period ending Oct 31, 2014. TV news coverage data were obtained from the daily number of Ebola-related news videos appearing on two major news networks. We fit the parameters of a mathematical contagion model to the data to determine if the news coverage was a significant factor in the temporal patterns in Ebola-related Internet and Twitter data. Conclusions We find significant evidence of contagion, with each Ebola-related news video inspiring tens of thousands of Ebola-related tweets and Internet searches. Between 65% to 76% of the variance in all samples is described by the news media contagion model. PMID:26067433

  15. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Clara Eugenia; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Francisco Moirano, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, 7-year-long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column-integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay. As a preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2 % per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model reproduces the observed mean delays fairly well, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited from the underlying atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available as supplementary material.

  16. The laboratory confirmation of suspected measles cases in settings of low measles transmission: conclusions from the experience in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Vance; Rota, Jennifer; Izurieta, Héctor; Carrasco, Peter; Bellini, William

    2004-01-01

    The Americas have set a goal of interrupting indigenous transmission of measles using a strategy developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). This strategy includes recommendations for vaccination activities to achieve and sustain high immunity in the population and is complemented by sensitive epidemiological surveillance systems developed to monitor illnesses characterized by febrile rash, and to provide effective virological and serological surveillance. A key component in ensuring the success of the programme has been a laboratory network comprising 22 national laboratories including reference centres. Commercially available indirect enzyme immunoassay kits (EIA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM)-class antibodies are currently being used throughout the region. However, because there are few or no true measles cases in the region, the positive predictive value of these diagnostic tests has decreased. False-positive results of IgM tests can also occur as a result of testing suspected measles cases with exanthemata caused by Parvovirus B19, rubella and Human herpesvirus 6, among others. In addition, as countries maintain high levels of vaccination activity and increased surveillance of rash and fever, the notification of febrile rash illness in recently vaccinated people can be anticipated. Thus, managers in the measles elimination programme must be prepared to address the interpretation of a positive result of a laboratory test for measles IgM when clinical and epidemiological data may indicate that the case is not measles. The interpretation of an IgM-positive test under different circumstances and the definition of a vaccine-related rash illness in a setting of greatly reduced, or absent, transmission of measles is discussed. PMID:15640921

  17. Using non-local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: The case of Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer

    2010-04-15

    Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.

  18. A comparative study on active and passive epidemiological surveillance for dengue in five countries of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sarti, Elsa; L'Azou, Maïna; Mercado, Marcela; Kuri, Pablo; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Solis, Erick; Noriega, Fernando; Ochiai, R Leon

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is a notifiable infectious disease in many countries, but under-reporting of cases to National Epidemiological Surveillance Systems (NESSs) conceals the true extent of the disease burden. The incidence of dengue identified in a cohort study was compared with those reported to NESSs. A randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico, and Puerto Rico to assess the efficacy of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in children aged 9-16 years. The incidence of dengue in the placebo group was compared with that reported to NESSs in a similar age group (10-19 years) from June 2011 to April 2014. Three thousand six hundred and fifteen suspected dengue cases were identified in the study over 13527 person-years of observation. The overall incidence of confirmed dengue was 2.9 per 100 person-years (range 1.5 to 4.1 per 100 person-years). In the NESSs combined, over 3.2 million suspected dengue cases were reported during the same period, corresponding to over 1 billion person-years of observation. The incidence of confirmed dengue reported by the NESSs in the same locality where the study took place was 0.286 per 100 person-years across Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico (range 0.180 to 0.734 per 100 person-years). The incidence of confirmed dengue was 10.0-fold higher in the study than that reported to NESSs in the same localities (range 3.5- to 19.4-fold higher). There is a substantial under-reporting of dengue in the NESSs. Understanding the level of under-reporting would allow more accurate estimates of the dengue burden in Latin America. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The importance of integrons for development and propagation of resistance in Shigella: the case of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Kenia; Achí, Rosario

    In Latin America, the disease burden of shigellosis is found to coexist with the rapid and rampant spread of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The molecular basis of antibiotic resistance lies within genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, integrons, genomic islands, etc., which are found in the bacterial genome. Integrons are known to acquire, exchange, and express genes within gene cassettes and it is hypothesized that they play a significant role in the transmission of multidrug resistance genes in several Gram-negative bacteria including Shigella. A few studies have described antibiotic resistance genes and integrons among multidrug resistant Shigella isolates found in Latin America. For example, in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, class 1 and class 2 integrons have been detected among multidrug resistant strains of Shigella; this phenomenon is more frequently observed in S. flexneri isolates that are resistant to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The gene cassette sul2, which is frequently detected in Shigella strains resistant to the sulfonamides, suggests that the sulfonamide-resistant phenotype can be explained by the presence of the sul2 genes independent of the integron class detected. It is to be noted that sul3 was negative in all isolates analyzed in these studies. The high frequency of sulfonamide (as encoded by sul2) and trimethoprim resistance is likely to be a result of the recurrent use of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole as a popular regimen for the treatment of shigellosis. The observed resistance profiles of Shigella strains confirm that ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are ineffective as therapeutic options. In-depth information regarding antibiotic resistance mechanism in this pathogen is needed in order to develop suitable intervention strategies. There is a pressing need for regional and local antimicrobial resistance profiling of Shigella to be

  20. Case studies in working memory: a case for single cases?

    PubMed

    Della Sala, S; Logie, R H; Marchetti, C; Wynn, V

    1991-06-01

    Patterns of cognitive deficit in single neuropsychological cases are common sources of evidence for theories of normal cognition. In particular, the working memory model has benefited from data obtained from a number of contrasting patients, in some cases resulting in modifications of the working memory model. In this paper, patterns of data from short-term memory patients and anarthric patients are compared with patterns of data from normal subjects. The patterns of patient data that were unlike those patterns typically found for groups of normal subjects, could be incorporated within a modified version of the articulatory loop component of the working memory model. However a small number of individual normal subjects also did not show the pattern that is reported on the basis of average performance of groups of normal subjects. This causes some difficulty in interpreting those data from such 'aberrant normal' patterns, and those data from single patients with functional cognitive deficits. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of neuropsychological data are discussed in the context of the working memory model, but with the intention of making a general point pertaining to the development of functional models of cognition. It is argued that single case studies should continue to provide a useful source of evidence, providing that care is exercised in considering the implications of such data for models of normal cognition.

  1. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Alejandro; Álvarez-Estévez, Guillermo; Cerdas-Calderón, Manuel; Cruz-Trujillo, Zulma; Mena, Elio; Reyes, Marina; Sandoval-Diaz, Mabel; Sánchez-Polo, Vicente; Valdés, Régulo; Ordúnez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  2. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  3. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  4. Molecular markers and conservation of plant species in Latin America: the case of Phaedranassa viridflora (Amaryllidaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsatellites are molecular markers with great potential for investigating genetic structure of populations. This information is valuable for generating effective conservation plans. We studied the endemic and endangered Phaedranassa viridiflora (Amaryllidaceae) to show the utility of microsatelli...

  5. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  6. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  7. Current clinical nutrition practices in critically ill patients in Latin America: a multinational observational study.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Karin Papapietro; Martínez, Carolina Méndez; Matos Adames, Alfredo A; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa; Nogales, Guillermo Carlos Contreras; Paz, Roger Enrique Riofrio; Perman, Mario Ignacio; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2017-08-25

    Malnutrition in critically ill adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality. Adequate nutrition therapy is crucial to optimise outcomes. Currently, there is a paucity of such data in Latin America. Our aims were to characterise current clinical nutrition practices in the ICU setting in Latin America and evaluate whether current practices meet caloric and protein requirements in critically ill patients receiving nutrition therapy. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru). Eligible patients were critically ill adults hospitalised in the ICU and receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) on the Screening Day and the previous day (day -1). Caloric and protein balance on day -1, nutritional status, and prescribed nutrition therapy were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of reaching daily caloric and protein targets. The analysis included 1053 patients from 116 hospitals. Evaluation of nutritional status showed that 74.1% of patients had suspected/moderate or severe malnutrition according to the Subjective Global Assessment. Prescribed nutrition therapy included EN alone (79.9%), PN alone (9.4%), and EN + PN (10.7%). Caloric intake met >90% of the daily target in 59.7% of patients on day -1; a caloric deficit was present in 40.3%, with a mean (±SD) daily caloric deficit of -688.8 ± 455.2 kcal. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that combined administration of EN + PN was associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of meeting >90% of daily caloric and protein targets compared with EN alone (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.39; p = 0.038). In the ICU setting in Latin America, malnutrition was highly prevalent and caloric

  8. Higher Education and Social Change. Promising Experiments in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W., Ed.; And Others

    Presented are the results of a study made by developing country educators for twelve national and international agencies, directed and coordinated by the International Council for Educational Development. Volume 2 contains the reports of 25 case studies of higher education institutions and systems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: University of…

  9. School-Church/Synagogue Partnerships: A Comparative Case Study of Religious Capital Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplowitz, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The context for this study is the increased focus on school-community partnerships in the United States. With limited research having been conducted on high-achieving schools, this is a case study of one of America's top 100 high schools, a Jewish day school; this article reports on its school-synagogue partnership. Like most research on…

  10. Land & Landscape: Views of America's History and Culture. From the Series America Past and Present. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tony

    This study guide examines the history of American landscape painting and photography from the early 19th century to the present. It is designed to be used as a student supplement for U. S. history curriculum. Included are color reproductions of 15 works of art from the permanent collections of the National Museum of American Art. These art works…

  11. Development of a panel of genome-wide ancestry informative markers to study admixture throughout the Americas.

    PubMed

    Galanter, Joshua Mark; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Gignoux, Christopher R; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Via, Marc; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Contreras, Alejandra V; Figueroa, Laura Uribe; Raska, Paola; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Zolezzi, Irma Silva; Torres, Maria; Ponte, Clara Ruiz; Ruiz, Yarimar; Salas, Antonio; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Eng, Celeste; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Barreto, Guillermo; González, Fernando Rondón; Ibarra, Adriana; Taboada, Patricia; Porras, Liliana; Moreno, Fabián; Bigham, Abigail; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Brutsaert, Tom; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G; Vargas, Enrique; Cruz, Miguel; Escobedo, Jorge; Rodriguez-Santana, José; Rodriguez-Cintrón, William; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G; Bustamante, Carlos; Seminara, Daniela; Shriver, Mark; Ziv, Elad; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Haile, Robert; Parra, Esteban; Carracedo, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R² > 0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.

  12. Languages of North, Central, and South America. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of North, Central, and South America. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult…

  13. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon…

  14. STUDY TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF ADAPTING THE CARL ORFF APPROACH TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN AMERICA. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASGOW, ROBERT B.; HAMREUS, DALE G.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF ADAPTING FOR USE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF AMERICA THE MUSIC TEACHING TECHNIQUES DEVELOPED BY THE GERMAN COMPOSER AND TEACHER, CARL ORFF. THE POPULATION OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WAS EMPLOYED IN THE STUDY. FIFTEEN STUDENTS FROM EACH CLASSROOM (TOTALING 180 STUDENTS) WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FOR…

  15. Languages of North, Central, and South America. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of North, Central, and South America. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult…

  16. Muslims in America: An Exploratory Study of Universal and Mental Health Values. Final Report for 1992-1994 Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Eugene W., Jr.; And Others

    Muslims now constitute a large and growing segment of American society. This project was an exploratory study whose purpose was to obtain a preliminary picture of counseling-relevant values of Muslims in America. The study obtained a preliminary value profile of American Muslims in two significant value areas: universal values and mental health…

  17. Teaching Postwar Germany in America. Papers and Discussions of the German Studies Conference (Indiana University, March 24-25, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbig, Louis F., Ed.; Reichmann, Eberhard, Ed.

    This collection of papers begins with a position paper by L.F. Helbig describing the German studies movement and its implementation to date. V. Lange contributes a survey of German studies in America. Two papers by E. Herlitzius and H.D. Schaefer discuss the role of national economic planning and of higher education in the German Democratic…

  18. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and Central America: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Brenner, Hermann; Chen, Kexin; Chia, Kee Seng; Chen, Jian Guo; Law, Stephen C K; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Xiang, Yong Bing; Yeole, Balakrishna B; Shin, Hai Rim; Shanta, Viswanathan; Woo, Ze Hong; Martin, Nimit; Sumitsawan, Yupa; Sriplung, Hutcha; Barboza, Adolfo Ortiz; Eser, Sultan; Nene, Bhagwan M; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathiamma; Dikshit, Rajesh; Wabinga, Henry; Esteban, Divina B; Laudico, Adriano; Bhurgri, Yasmin; Bah, Ebrima; Al-Hamdan, Nasser

    2010-02-01

    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are not widely available from countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss cancer survival in these regions. Survival analysis was done for 341 658 patients diagnosed with various cancers from 1990 to 2001 and followed up to 2003, from 25 population-based cancer registries in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (The Gambia, Uganda), Central America (Costa Rica), and Asia (China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey). 5-year age-standardised relative survival (ASRS) and observed survival by clinical extent of disease were determined. For cancers in which prognosis depends on stage at diagnosis, survival was highest in China, South Korea, Singapore, and Turkey and lowest in Uganda and The Gambia. 5-year ASRS ranged from 76-82% for breast cancer, 63-79% for cervical cancer, 71-78% for bladder cancer, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancers in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Turkey. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia; in Uganda, survival did not exceed 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%). Variations in survival correlated with early detection initiatives and level of development of health services. The wide variation in cancer survival between regions emphasises the need for urgent investments in improving awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources. Association for International Cancer Research (AICR; St Andrews, UK), Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (ARC, Villejuif, France), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Seattle, USA). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multicity study of air pollution and mortality in Latin America (the ESCALA study).

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Gouveia, Nelson; Cifuentes, Luis A; de Leon, Antonio Ponce; Junger, Washington; Vera, Jeanette; Strappa, Valentina; Hurtado-Díaz, Magali; Miranda-Soberanis, Victor; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Carbajal-Arroyo, Luz; Tzintzun-Cervantes, Guadalupe

    2012-10-01

    The ESCALA* project (Estudio de Salud y Contaminación del Aire en Latinoamérica) is an HEI-funded study that aims to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in nine Latin American cities, using a common analytic framework to obtain comparable and updated information on the effects of air pollution on several causes of death in different age groups. This report summarizes the work conducted between 2006 and 2009, describes the methodologic issues addressed during project development, and presents city-specific results of meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses. The ESCALA project involved three teams of investigators responsible for collection and analysis of city-specific air pollution and mortality data from three different countries. The teams designed five different protocols to standardize the methods of data collection and analysis that would be used to evaluate the effects of air pollution on mortality (see Appendices B-F). By following the same protocols, the investigators could directly compare the results among cities. The analysis was conducted in two stages. The first stage included analyses of all-natural-cause and cause-specific mortality related to particulate matter < or = 10 pm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and to ozone (O3) in cities of Brazil, Chile, and México. Analyses for PM10 and O3 were also stratified by age group and O3 analyses were stratified by season. Generalized linear models (GLM) in Poisson regression were used to fit the time-series data. Time trends and seasonality were modeled using natural splines with 3, 6, 9, or 12 degrees of freedom (df) per year. Temperature and humidity were also modeled using natural splines, initially with 3 or 6 df, and then with degrees of freedom chosen on the basis of residual diagnostics (i.e., partial autocorrelation function [PACF], periodograms, and a Q-Q plot) (Appendix H, available on the HEI Web site). Indicator variables for day-of-week and

  20. Systematic review of cross-national drug utilization studies in Latin America: methods and comparability.

    PubMed

    Durán, Carlos E; Christiaens, Thierry; Acosta, Ángela; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We systematically review the cross-national drug utilization studies performed in Latin America (LA) in order to analyze the methods applied and assess the validity of the data to ensure the comparability. A systematic search in Medline, Embase, and BIREME was performed. Drug utilization studies including LA countries and comparing drug exposure data on volume were included. The data validity was judged independently by two authors as having low, medium, high, or unclear risk of bias. Out of 1191 articles, 25 were kept for full text reading. Finally, five studies were selected. Eight different Latin American countries were involved in the comparisons. The selected studies analyzed wholesale data from a private research company collecting information from the private healthcare sector. In three studies, a high risk of bias in the extrapolation method applied was identified. In one study, a risk of data collection bias was detected. The most frequent limitation detected by the original authors was related to the unavailability of information from the public sector in LA. Drug utilization studies comparing data cross-nationally are scarce in LA. In general, validity of the comparisons is hampered by a potential risk of extrapolation bias given the lack of available data on drug consumption from the public healthcare sector. Setting up systems to remediate this situation is a future challenge for researchers and (supra)national authorities in the region. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Case Study: Planning as Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that the objectives of strategic planning may be attained more effectively if implemented via a learning paradigm. In support of this claim, describes a case study detailing implementation of such an initiative plus post-implementation interviews. (Contains 5 figures.)

  2. Case Studies in Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC.

    This collection of nine case studies in applied mathematics was written primarily for the use of the instructor by a Conference sponsored by the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM). Each chapter contains exercises of varying degrees of difficulty and several include student projects. The materials were used on a trial…

  3. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  4. The Language Dilemma: Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teboul, J. C. Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…

  5. The Case Study of Frank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  6. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  7. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  8. Case Studies in Broadcast Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Howard W.

    This collection of case studies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…

  9. Principal Succession: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.

    Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…

  10. Case Studies in College Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; And Others

    Strategies employed by selected, pseudonymous private colleges in dealing with revenue constraints are detailed in case studies. Attention is directed to the adaptation and policies of eleven private liberal arts and three comprehensive colleges in their efforts to recover from rapid decline in total revenues during 1973-1976. Intensive analysis…

  11. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  12. The Language Dilemma: Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teboul, J. C. Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…

  13. First imported Plasmodium ovale malaria in Central America: case report of a Guatemalan soldier and a call to improve its accurate diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, María Eugenia; Díaz, Sheilee; Parsons, Emily; Peruski, Leonard F; Enríquez, Fabiola; Ramírez, Juan Luis; Padilla, Norma

    2015-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Ministers of Health have set 2020 as the target for malaria elimination to be achieved in the region. Imported malaria cases are a potential threat to countries attempting elimination or working to prevent resurgence. We report the first imported Plasmodium ovale infection with molecular confirmation in Central America, which occurred in a Guatemalan soldier that had been deployed in Africa. The obstacles for its diagnosis using the standard microscopy technique and the need to improve its detection are discussed.

  14. The decay of forest woody debris: numerical modeling and implications based on some 300 data cases from North America.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiwei

    1999-10-01

    The decay rate of forest woody debris (WD) is a key missing link for a quantitative understanding of forest carbon dynamics and the global carbon budget. This paper reports an attempt to synthesize the available information into a unifying and testable numerical model pertinent to the analysis and projection of WD decay in field conditions. The model is rooted in an integrative theory that depicts decay as a process of substrate quality degradation along with feedback responses of microbial activity. It is parameterized through regression analysis against 112 data cases of stem and branch WD decay in North America, and then is evaluated against 132 additional data cases for stem and branch WD, and 75 data cases for root WD decay. The root mean square errors of both the fitted and the projected WD decay rates are about 14% of the means of respective data sets. Aided by peripheral algorithms, the model solves WD decay with data requirements limited to (1) tree species, and (2) air temperature and precipitation in January and July for forested sites, plus (3) latitude and elevation for deforested sites. The mathematical and physical implications of the model by its component functions and as a whole are generally supported by independent evidence from the literature where available. Those implications include: (1) the observed decay rate is lower when defined by density loss than by mass loss, when inferred from chronosequence survey than from population monitoring, or when estimated with specimens with end-coating than without coating; (2) the initial quality of WD differs between Abies/Picea and other species among conifers, or along the gradients of shade tolerance and normal stem slenderness among the deciduous trees; (3) the basic microbial growth rate (the rate at a WD quality of unity) increases with ambient temperature but decreases along the gradients of July precipitation-to-potential evapotranspiration ratio and January precipitation under forested

  15. Potential Opportunities for Investment in Space Technologies in Latin-America: a Case for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Student, Master of Space Studies. International Space University. Strasbourg Central The objective of this paper is to analyze the possible commercial benefits that the global manufacturing space industry could obtain by investing in Latin-American countries. Spacecraft manufacturers have recently been complaining about small margins. They claim that customers demand technological advancement at the same time as they push for quick delivery and competitive prices. They also argue that operators (their main customers) do have great profits. Thus, manufacturers would like to raise the prices of their spacecraft (SpaceNews. January 7, 2002. P.17). This may sound logical, but it would be interesting to analyze if the industry could find alternative ways of saving money while remaining competitive. Mexico is a good example of a Latin-American country that has received foreign investment for establishing manufacturing and assembly plants for different industries. This has been mainly due to two special characteristics of the Mexican manufacturing workforce: low labor costs and qualified, reliable human resources. As a result, Mexican manufacturing industry has acquired a solid reputation worldwide. A similar story can be told about other industries such as electronics, computer assembly, clothes, etc. It is probably worth to make an analogy with a labor-demanding industry that already has experience in the Mexican market: the car industry has found a formula to keep manufacturing costs low while maintaining production and quality levels. Mexico currently manufactures and assembles cars for European, Japanese and American companies for the international market. If the same success story could be repeated for the spacecraft manufacturing industry, the benefits would be enormous. Manufacturers could consider relocating their plants to Mexico to manufacture and test parts or entire spacecraft. This would help reduce the cost of human labor, especially because of the long

  16. Organizational Issues, Structure, and Processes of Care in 257 ICUs in Latin America: A Study From the Latin America Intensive Care Network.

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Alegría, Leyla; Murias, Gastón; Friedman, Gilberto; Castro, Ricardo; Nin Vaeza, Nicolas; Loudet, Cecilia; Bruhn, Alejandro; Jibaja, Manuel; Ospina-Tascon, Gustavo; Ríos, Fernando; Machado, Flavia R; Biasi Cavalcanti, Alexandre; Dubin, Arnaldo; Hurtado, F Javier; Briva, Arturo; Romero, Carlos; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bakker, Jan; Cecconi, Maurizio; Azevedo, Luciano; Hernandez, Glenn

    2017-08-01

    Latin America bears an important burden of critical care disease, yet the information about it is scarce. Our objective was to describe structure, organization, processes of care, and research activities in Latin-American ICUs. Web-based survey submitted to ICU directors. ICUs located in nine Latin-American countries. Individual ICUs. None. Two hundred fifty-seven of 498 (52%) of submitted surveys responded: 51% from Brazil, 17% Chile, 13% Argentina, 6% Ecuador, 5% Uruguay, 3% Colombia, and 5% between Mexico, Peru, and Paraguay. Seventy-nine percent of participating hospitals had less than 500 beds; most were public (59%) and academic (66%). ICUs were mainly medical-surgical (75%); number of beds was evenly distributed in the entire cohort; 77% had 24/7 intensivists; 46% had a physician-to-patient ratio between 1:4 and 7; and 69% had a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1 ≥ 2.1. The 24/7 presence of other specialists was deficient. Protocols in use averaged 9 ± 3. Brazil (vs the rest) had larger hospitals and ICUs and more quality, surveillance, and prevention committees, but fewer 24/7 intensivists and poorer nurse-to-patient ratio. Although standard monitoring, laboratory, and imaging practices were almost universal, more complex measurements and treatments and portable equipment were scarce after standard working hours, and in public hospitals. Mortality was 17.8%, without differences between countries. This multinational study shows major concerns in the delivery of critical care across Latin America, particularly in human resources. Technology was suboptimal, especially in public hospitals. A 24/7 availability of supporting specialists and of key procedures was inadequate. Mortality was high in comparison to high-income countries.

  17. Groundwater ecohydrology: GIScience tools to forecast change and sustainability of global ecosystems, studies in Africa, Europe and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, D. R.; de Lange, W. J.; Yang, X.; Vasak, S. L.; Olsthoorn, T. N.

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the interface between groundwater hydrology and ecology, and addresses a scientific grand challenge to develop a comprehensive, systematic understanding of continental water dynamics by linking the hydrosphere and biosphere. There exists a current lack of data interoperability between groundwater modeling tools due to differences in numerical techniques - Analytic Element Method (AEM), Finite Difference Method (FDM), and Finite Element Method (FEM) - which lend themselves well to either vector or raster data, and legacy input/output file formats that are not well suited across models. Nonetheless, investigative computational tools are all founded in the same conceptualization of hydrologic properties associated with mass, flux, pathways and residence time. A consistent framework is developed using modern Geographic Information Science (GIScience) methods to organize and archive important information from international datasets and previous groundwater ecohydrology studies organized around aquifer and water point, line, polygon and raster features. Case studies illustrate the efficacy of this platform to address existing data interoperability issues for representative groundwater ecohydrology problems of global significance including the impact of human-induced forcings, change in species, and forcings by natural processes on groundwater ecohydrology. In North America, we study the relationships between groundwater pumping in the Ogallala Aquifer and changes in riparian habitat and phreatophyte species composition. In Europe, we study the impacts of changes in forest species composition on groundwater recharge and baseflow to biologically diverse fens and wetlands in the Veluwe sand hill region of The Netherlands. In Africa, we study the wetlands of the Okavango Delta in Botswana that forms an oasis in the midst of the Kalahari Desert and the role of groundwater in flushing salts from this freshwater ecosystem. In each study, we document the

  18. Risk Prioritization Tool to Identify the Public Health Risks of Wildlife Trade: The Case of Rodents from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bueno, I; Smith, K M; Sampedro, F; Machalaba, C C; Karesh, W B; Travis, D A

    2016-06-01

    Wildlife trade (both formal and informal) is a potential driver of disease introduction and emergence. Legislative proposals aim to prevent these risks by banning wildlife imports, and creating 'white lists' of species that are cleared for importation. These approaches pose economic harm to the pet industry, and place substantial burden on importers and/or federal agencies to provide proof of low risk for importation of individual species. As a feasibility study, a risk prioritization tool was developed to rank the pathogens found in rodent species imported from Latin America into the United States with the highest risk of zoonotic consequence in the United States. Four formally traded species and 16 zoonotic pathogens were identified. Risk scores were based on the likelihood of pathogen release and human exposure, and the severity of the disease (consequences). Based on the methodology applied, three pathogens (Mycobacterium microti, Giardia spp. and Francisella tularensis) in one species (Cavia porcellus) were ranked as highest concern. The goal of this study was to present a methodological approach by which preliminary management resources can be allocated to the identified high-concern pathogen-species combinations when warranted. This tool can be expanded to other taxa and geographic locations to inform policy surrounding the wildlife trade. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. What Is the Experience Like of Leaving a College Presidency of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunheim, Katherine A.; McLean, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of Lutheran college presidents leaving the presidency. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of former college presidents who were associated with Evangelical Lutheran Churches in America (ELCA) colleges. Research on university and college…

  20. How America Saves for College, 2014: Sallie Mae's National Study of Parents with Children under Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is the fourth report in the Sallie Mae series "How America Saves for College," which launched in 2009. To understand how American families are planning for their children's education, the study captures data on parents' decision-making about savings, the use of savings vehicles, and the amount they save, as well as attitudes toward…

  1. Systematic review of pneumococcal disease costs and productivity loss studies in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Luciana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2013-07-02

    Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with significant economic burden for healthcare systems and society. To systematically review pneumococcal disease cost of illness and productivity loss studies in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. A search of relevant databases was performed till November 2011. A broad and sensitive search strategy was used consisting of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms for pneumococcal disease, healthcare costs and productivity loss studies. No language restriction was applied. Only papers from LAC region and child population were analyzed. Additional exclusion criteria included duplicate studies, and insufficient information about methods. A total of 1241 citations were retrieved. After applying the exclusion criteria, only 16 studies remained for analysis. There were 4 papers from Brazil, 3 from Argentina, 2 from Colombia, 2 from Mexico, 1 from Uruguay, 1 from Chile, and 3 analyzing a group of LAC countries. Only 4 were cost-of-illness studies, 11 were cost-effectiveness studies of pneumococcal vaccine and 1 study of the pneumococcal burden of disease. Methods used for quantifying health resource utilization and costing methods varied significantly among studies, as well as data sources considered. Productivity losses were considered in 8 studies, all of which used the human capital approach method. Pneumococcal disease cost estimates varied significantly depending on the pneumococcal syndromes considered, methods used, study perspective and type of costs included. This systematic review reinforced the importance of standardization of methods for cost studies that can allow comparison and reproducibility in other settings. These estimates can be useful for future economic analysis conducted to support the decision making process on the introduction of new vaccines in LAC. However, caution must be taken, as methodological aspects of studies will result in estimates with varying

  2. STUDIES ON RARE AND POORLY KNOWN LEECHES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three taxa within the leech family Glossiphoniidae, Actinobdella inequiannulata, Placobdella hollensis, and Theromyzon spp., though widespread in eastern North America, remain poorly known with respect to their biology and systematics. All three taxa have been collected in New E...

  3. STUDIES ON RARE AND POORLY KNOWN LEECHES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three taxa within the leech family Glossiphoniidae, Actinobdella inequiannulata, Placobdella hollensis, and Theromyzon spp., though widespread in eastern North America, remain poorly known with respect to their biology and systematics. All three taxa have been collected in New E...

  4. The proceedings of the diabetes in pregnancy study group of North America 2009 conference.

    PubMed

    Langer, Oded; Miodovnik, Menachem; Reece, E Albert; Rosenn, Barak M

    2010-03-01

    The DPSG of North America (DPSG-NA) was inaugurated in 1997, and its initial meeting was commenced in San Antonio, Texas, in 1998. Since then, the DPSG-NA has held annual meetings, which are hosted by the home institution of members of the organizing committee on a rotating basis. This yeas, the DPSG-NA held its 11 annual meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, and focused on the major controversies regarding the detection, diagnosis, and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It included the latest information on the maternal and fetal consequences of GDM as well as summaries from the HAPO study, the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study (ACHOIS) in pregnant women, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal Fetal Medicine (NICHD MFMU Network) study. In addition, extensive data were presented on the effectiveness of oral antihyperglycemic agents in managing GDM as well as data from studies examining their transfer across the placenta and effects on the fetus. Strategies for managing hypertensive disorders associated with GDM were also presented. Based on this year's presentations, the DPSG-NA coordinating committee has made recommendations on the screening and management of GDM and priorities for future research.

  5. Best Practices Case Study: Tindall Homes - Princeton, NJ, Legends at Mansfield, Columbus, NJ

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case Study of Tindall Homes, who worked with Building America to design an optimal package including advanced framing, insulated precast concrete basement walls, polyurethane foam in the walls, and R-49 of batt plus blown cellulose in the attics. Some homes included a detached garden shed with photovoltaic panel-covered roofs.

  6. Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This edited volume presents case studies from Europe, North America, Asia, and the Middle East in which teachers have adapted and pioneered teaching innovations. The book is divided into 4 parts, 12 chapters, and an introduction. Part one, "Building a Computer Learning Center," has two chapters: "Guerilla Tactics: Creating a…

  7. The Social Construction of a Digital Library: A Case Study Examining Implications for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Julian; Gay, Geri

    1998-01-01

    Describes the social construction of technology (SCOT) framework which encourages a focus on the multiple perspectives inherent in the development and evaluation of digital libraries. Relevant social groups, interpretive flexibility, and closure are used to examine an evaluation case study of the "Making of America" (MOA) digital library…

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    This case study by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Building Science Corporation is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, Florida; zone 2A), insulated with air-permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass).

  9. Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This edited volume presents case studies from Europe, North America, Asia, and the Middle East in which teachers have adapted and pioneered teaching innovations. The book is divided into 4 parts, 12 chapters, and an introduction. Part one, "Building a Computer Learning Center," has two chapters: "Guerilla Tactics: Creating a…

  10. Best Practices Case Study: Schneider Homes, Inc. - Village at Miller Creek, Burien, W

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of Schneider Homes, who achieved 50% savings over the 2004 IECC with analysis and recommendations from DOE’s Building America including moving ducts and furnace into conditioned space, R-23 blown fiberglass in the walls and R-38 in the attics, and high-performance HVAC, lighting, appliances, and windows.

  11. Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 3: Case Study Briefs on Rural Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    This document contains 20 case study briefs about efforts to improve rural schools and teachers in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Some reforms focus on a part of the education system or a particular population; others attempt to change the national education system. At least seven programs were begun as an alternative to government schools. Most…

  12. The Social Construction of a Digital Library: A Case Study Examining Implications for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Julian; Gay, Geri

    1998-01-01

    Describes the social construction of technology (SCOT) framework which encourages a focus on the multiple perspectives inherent in the development and evaluation of digital libraries. Relevant social groups, interpretive flexibility, and closure are used to examine an evaluation case study of the "Making of America" (MOA) digital library…

  13. Paleoclimatical signals from large aquifers: comparative study of North China Plain, North America and Great Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Major aquifers worldwide, under favorable conditions, can retain low temporal resolution information on climatic conditions at the time of recharge. Generally, this geochemical information can be used to better constrain reaction of the aquifer to climatic changes or even to assess long term groundwater sustainability. Understanding whether major aquifers at similar latitude world-wide share similar climatic responses and records is one of the objectives of the G@GPS (Groundwater@Global Palaeoclimatic Signals) network. Several flag basins were selected and many activities were carried out since 2011, when G@GPS was accepted as one IFG within TERPRO of INQUA. The presentation will cover the objectives, major actities and achievements in the past 5 years, with a focus on the case studies in North China Plain (NCP), Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia, and North America. 81Kr and 85Kr by using ATTA (atom trap trace analysis) to derive paleoclimate signals from deep aquifer was introduced in the workshop and training course in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province on Dec. 8-13, 2014, and some results are to be presented, combined with those from 14C. Paleoclimatic signals in the last 30-40 ka were reconstructed using stable isotopes and dated groundwater in three areas indicate climatic changes and several recharge events. The signal in NCP was compared and verified by the high resolution data series from two caves in China. The signals from the large aquifers could provide a reasonable regional and global record of paleoclimatic change.

  14. Surprise: The Korean Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-18

    theory through education ; a mre rigid approach toward decision making in foriegn policy; appropriate military doctrine; mobile and flexible forces. 20...TJUR 19 ARSTRAC7 (Contrwe on ,vvere of necesury end iderltIfy by block fnumber) Clearly m.ilitary surorise is arnng the greatest dangers a country ...SURPRISE: THE KOREAN CASE STUDY Clearly military surprise is among the greatest dangers a country can face. Despite a knowledge of this danger, responsible

  15. Case Study: Guidelines for Producing Videos to Accompany Flipped Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Généreux, Annie; Schiller, Nancy A.; Wild, John H.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Three years ago, the "National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science" (NCCSTS) was inspired to merge the case study and flipped classroom approaches. The resulting project aimed to create the materials required to teach a flipped course in introductory biology by assigning videos as homework and case studies in the classroom. Three…

  16. Case Study Research in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bryan P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for and implications of case study research in therapeutic recreation, examining: what can be learned from studying a single case; issues of validity and reliability; ethical conduct of research; and the practice of case study research (case protocol, case selection, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, and…

  17. A Selective Annotated Guide to Materials on Latin America Suitable for Use at the Secondary School Level. Latin American Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Alfred

    This selective annotated bibliography is designed to provide reference materials on Latin America that are useful at the secondary level. The guide includes materials on traditionally ignored areas of study, and reflects, as much as possible, an awareness of the problem of relevance and reality in Latin America, in social studies education, and in…

  18. Space-based ornithology: studying bird migration and environmental change in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-10-01

    Natural fluctuations in the availability of critical stopover sites coupled with anthropogenic destruction of wetlands, land-use change, and anticipated losses due to climate change present migratory birds with a formidable challenge. Space based technology in concert with bird migration modeling and geographical information analysis yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. We use an individual-based bird biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate and hydrologic data, and biological field observations to study migratory bird responses to environmental change in North America. Simulation allows us to study bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. We illustrate our approach by simulating the spring migration of pectoral sandpipers from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska. Mean stopover length and trajectory patterns are consistent with field observations.

  19. Multitemporal analysis of PAL images for the study of land cover dynamics in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrino, J. A.; Julien, Y.; Morales, L.

    2006-06-01

    Pathfinder AVHHR Land (PAL) database has been used for the retrieval of Land Surface Temperature (LST) over South America, which, along with NDVI parameter, will allow the studying of the evolution of the vegetation between July 1981 and September 2001. To this end, a classification has been built, based on PAL NDVI and Reanalysis air temperature at 2 m height data. This classification takes into account both vegetation and thermal patterns, and has been validated by a comparison with CAZALAC's map of arid zones (Centro del Agua para Zonas Áridas y semiáridas de Latino-América y el Caribe), as well as with Global Land Cover Characteristics' classification built by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). The principal advantage of this new classification is that it is a dynamic classification, that considers the actual state of the cover, since no assumption on land occupation is made for its construction. LST and NDVI yearly and long-term evolutions are analyzed with the help of this classification. Yearly evolutions are compared with Reanalysis air temperature at 2 m height and precipitation, and show good concordance. LST long-term evolution shows to be strongly affected by satellite changes and orbital drift. These latter require an adequate correction to allow deeper study. On the other hand, NDVI does not show this trend, but aerosol absorption from Mount Pinatubo's eruption in June 1991 corrupts temporarily the data. These results also validate the above-mentioned classification.

  20. The Lowest Prevalence of Cholelithiasis in the Americas - An Autopsy-based Study.

    PubMed

    Asperti, André Marangoni; Reis, Paulo; Diniz, Marcio Augusto; Pinto, Mariana Dourado; Silva, Edinésio Carlos da; Silva, Danilo Felipe Dias da; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Andraus, Wellington

    2016-07-01

    This study used autopsy to evaluate the prevalence of cholelithiasis and its associated risk factors in a population of healthy, young subjects who suffered a violent or natural death. This study is a prospective evaluation of autopsies of 446 individuals from 2011 to 2013 in Brazil. Of that sample, 330 (74%) subjects died from violent deaths and 116 (26%) died naturally. The presence of biliary calculi, previous cholecystectomy, gender, age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and alcohol use were evaluated. In the natural death group, 6.9% (95% CI 3.39 to 13.28) (3.08% of the male subjects and 11.76% of the female subjects) exhibited evidence of gallbladder disease. In the violent death group, only 2.12% (95% CI 0.96 to 4.43) (2.17% of the male subjects and 1.85% of the female subjects) of the subjects exhibited evidence of gallbladder disease. Age was correlated with the prevalence of gallbladder disease, but BMI was correlated with only gallbladder disease in the natural death group. This population has the lowest prevalence of cholelithiasis in the Americas. Dietary habits, physical activity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption and genetic factors may be responsible for this low prevalence.

  1. The Lowest Prevalence of Cholelithiasis in the Americas - An Autopsy-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, André Marangoni; Reis, Paulo; Diniz, Marcio Augusto; Pinto, Mariana Dourado; da Silva, Edinésio Carlos; da Silva, Danilo Felipe Dias; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Andraus, Wellington

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study used autopsy to evaluate the prevalence of cholelithiasis and its associated risk factors in a population of healthy, young subjects who suffered a violent or natural death. METHODS: This study is a prospective evaluation of autopsies of 446 individuals from 2011 to 2013 in Brazil. Of that sample, 330 (74%) subjects died from violent deaths and 116 (26%) died naturally. The presence of biliary calculi, previous cholecystectomy, gender, age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and alcohol use were evaluated. RESULTS: In the natural death group, 6.9% (95% CI 3.39 to 13.28) (3.08% of the male subjects and 11.76% of the female subjects) exhibited evidence of gallbladder disease. In the violent death group, only 2.12% (95% CI 0.96 to 4.43) (2.17% of the male subjects and 1.85% of the female subjects) of the subjects exhibited evidence of gallbladder disease. Age was correlated with the prevalence of gallbladder disease, but BMI was correlated with only gallbladder disease in the natural death group. CONCLUSIONS: This population has the lowest prevalence of cholelithiasis in the Americas. Dietary habits, physical activity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption and genetic factors may be responsible for this low prevalence. PMID:27464291

  2. Space-Based Ornithology - Studying Bird Migration and Environmental Change in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-01-01

    Natural fluctuations in the availability of critical stopover sites coupled with anthropogenic destruction of wetlands, land-use change, and anticipated losses due to climate change present migratory birds with a formidable challenge. Space based technology in concert with bird migration modeling and geographical information analysis yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. We use an individual-based bird biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate and hydrologic data, and biological field observations to study migratory bird responses to environmental change in North America. Simulation allows us to study bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. We illustrate our approach by simulating the spring migration of pectoral sandpipers from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska. Mean stopover length and trajectory patterns are consistent with field observations.

  3. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Baldridge, Abigail S.; Huffman, Mark D.; Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. Objective To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. Methods We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Results Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Conclusions Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies. PMID:25714407

  4. Cardiovascular research publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Colantonio, Lisandro D; Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in 1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies.

  5. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  6. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  7. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  8. Middle America: Intra- and Interregional Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This is the third of a three-part series of articles examining the five geographical themes suggested in "Guidelines for Geographic Education: Elementary and Secondary Schools." Using Middle America (Mexico, Central American and the Caribbean) as a case study, this article addresses the themes of region and movement to show how the…

  9. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  10. Modelling renewable electric resources: A case study of wind

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Hall, J.; Singh, D.

    1994-07-01

    The central issue facing renewables in the integrated resource planning process is the appropriate assessment of the value of renewables to utility systems. This includes their impact on both energy and capacity costs (avoided costs), and on emissions and environmental impacts, taking account of the reliability, system characteristics, interactions (in dispatch), seasonality, and other characteristics and costs of the technologies. These are system-specific considerations whose relationships may have some generic implications. In this report, we focus on the reliability contribution of wind electric generating systems, measured as the amount of fossil capacity they can displace while meeting the system reliability criterion. We examine this issue for a case study system at different wind characteristics and penetration, for different years, with different system characteristics, and with different modelling techniques. In an accompanying analysis we also examine the economics of wind electric generation, as well as its emissions and social costs, for the case study system. This report was undertaken for the {open_quotes}Innovative IRP{close_quotes} program of the U.S. Department of Energy, and is based on work by both Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and Tellus Institute, including America`s Energy Choices and the UCS Midwest Renewables Project.

  11. The Case: Generalisation, Theory and Phronesis in Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Arguments for the value of case study are vitiated by assumptions about the need for generalisation in the warrant of social scientific inquiry--and little generalisation is legitimate from case study, although an argument exists for the role of the case in the establishment of a form of generalisation in a certain kind of theory, a line of…

  12. Intraseasonal Oscillations over South America: A Study with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Baode; Chao, Winston

    2003-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model version 2 (RegCM2) is used to investigate the observed characteristics of intraseasonal oscillations over South America. Our study is mainly concentrated on an intraseaonal mode, which is observed to account for a large portion of the intraseasonal variation, to have a standing feature and to be independent of the MJO. The NCEPDOE AMIP-II reanalysis is utilized to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for the RegCM2 based upon the OOZ, 062, 122 and 182 data.Our results indicate that the intraseasonal oscillation still exists with time- averaged lateral boundary condition, which prevents the MJO and other outside disturbances from entering the model's domain, suggesting a locally forced oscillation responsible for ths intraseasonal mode independent of the MJO. Further experiments show that the annual and daily variabilities and a radiative-convective interaction are not essential to the locally forced intraseasonal oscillation. The intraseasonal oscillations over Amazon in our model essentially result from interactions among atmospheric continental- scale circulation, surface radiation, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and cumulus convection. The wavelet analyses of various surface energy fluxes and surface energy budget also verify that the primary cause of intraseasonal oscillation is the interaction of land surface processes with the atmosphere.

  13. Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions show all are gradual save one, which is a catastrophic extinction of terrestrial origin. These extinctions show a continuum of environmental insults from major to minor. The major causes of these extinctions are positive and negative eustatic sea level changes, temperature, or ecological competition. Extraterrestrial causes should not be posited without positive association with a stratigraphically sharp extinction. The Cretaceous-Tertiary terrestrial extinction is considerably smaller in percentage of extinction than the marine extinction and is spread over 10 my of the Cretaceous and 1 my of the Tertiary. Sixty percent of the 30 dinosaurs in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada had become extinct in the 9 my before the late Maastrichtian sea level drop. The best data on the Permo-Triassic terrestrial extinction are from the Karoo basin of South Africa. This is a series of 6 extinctions in some 8 my, recorded in some 2800 meters of sediment. Precision of dating is enhanced by the high rate of accumulation of these sediments. Few data are readily available on the timing of the marine Permo-Triassic extinction, due to the very restricted number of sequences of Tatarian marine rocks. The terminal Ordovician extinction at 438 my is relatively rapid, taking place over about 0.5 my. The most significant aspect of this extinction is a eustatic sea level lowering associated with a major episode of glaciation. New data on this extinction is the reduction from 61 genera of trilobites in North America to 14, for a 77 percent extinction. Another Ordovician extinction present over 10 percent of the North American craton occurs at 454 my in the form of a catastrophic extinction due to a volcanic eruption which blanketed the U.S. east of the Transcontinental Arch. This is the only other sizeable extinction in the Ordovician.

  14. Are cardiovascular trial results systematically different between North America and Europe? A study based on intra-meta-analysis comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bowater, Russell J; Hartley, Louise C; Lilford, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that differences in the efficacy of treatments between countries (or regions) will be neither negligible nor minor and therefore cannot be overlooked when assessing the potential benefit of treatments in one country (or region) on the basis of trials conducted in another country (or region). To assess differences in the results of cardiovascular trials between Europe and North America on the basis of data from an extensive collection of trials. A systematic search was conducted of Medline (from the year 2005 to 2008) and the Cochrane Library (from 2000 to 2008) for all meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials aimed at treating and preventing cardiovascular disease. Within each meta-analysis that satisfied given criteria, trial results were compared between Europe and North America with respect to a fatal and/or non-fatal endpoint by forming separate estimates of treatment efficacy for each of these continents. The literature search found 59 meta-analyses that satisfied all the inclusion criteria. For most meta-analyses, it was the case that relative to the control, the intervention was more favoured in trials conducted in Europe than in North America with regard to both fatal endpoints (28 out of 43 meta-analyses) and non-fatal endpoints (28 out of 40 meta-analyses). However, it was only with regard to non-fatal endpoints that this imbalance turned out to be statistically significant at the 5% level (P=0.017). Also, the lack of statistically significant differences in trial results between Europe and North America within individual meta-analyses meant that it was not possible to determine for which types of intervention these intercontinental differences are likely to be more pronounced than others. There is some evidence to support the theory that, relative to controls, interventions are more favoured in cardiovascular trials conducted in Europe than in North America, when treatment efficacy is measured in terms of a non-fatal endpoint

  15. A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    AD__ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8471 TITLE: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sara S. Strom...Molecular Epidmeiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate DAMD17-98-1-8471 Cancer Susceptibility 6. AUTHOR(S) Sara S. Strom, Ph.D. Sue-Hwa Lin 7. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer in

  16. Osteoarthritis in Latin America: Study of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics in 3040 Patients.

    PubMed

    Reginato, Anthony M; Riera, Humberto; Vera, Mariflor; Torres, Adrian R; Espinosa, Rolando; Esquivel, Jorge A; Felipe, Oscar Jair; Blas, Jorge Roman; Rillo, Oscar; Papasidero, Silvia; Souto, Renee; Rossi, Cesar; Molina, José F; Ballesteros, Francisco; Radrigan, Francisco; Guibert, Marlene; Chico, Araceli; Gil, María L; Camacho, Walter; Urioste, Lorena; Garcia, Abraham K; Iraheta, Isa; Gutierrez, Carmen E; Duarte, Margarita; Castañeda, Oswaldo; Coimbra, Ibsen; Muñoz Louis, Roberto; Reveille, John; Quintero, Maritza

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is a heterogeneous region made up of different populations, cultures, latitudes, altitudes, and immigrants from different areas and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic profile of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) evaluated by a selected group of rheumatologists in 13 Latin American countries. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 Latin American countries of patients with symptomatic OA. Data were collected over a 3-month period using an ad hoc questionnaire to evaluate the clinical and demographic features of OA seen by rheumatologists. Among the 3040 patients, their average age was 62.5 years, and female-to-male ratio was 4.8:1. Patients with body mass index of greater than 30 kg/m or obesity was found in 38.2%. Approximately 88% had primary OA. Joints with OA were as follows: knee 31.2%, hand 9.5%, hand and knee 22.9%, proximal and distal interphalangeal joints (erosive OA) 6.5%, axial 6.6%, and hip 1.3%. Approximately 88.5% had radiographic severity of grade 2 or 3 on Kellgren-Lawrence scale (0-4). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the predominant OA treatment included in combinations with glucosamine sulfate/chondroitin and viscosupplementation. Associated comorbidities included hypertension (39%), obesity (36.3%), diabetes mellitus (12%), and without comorbidity (12.7%). This is 1 of the largest population studies that evaluated the characteristics of OA in 3040 patients evaluated by rheumatologists in 13 Latin American countries. This study provides important data for each Latin American country to develop new health care planning in management of OA.

  17. WWC Review of the Report "The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach for America and the Teaching Fellows Programs." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach for America and the Teaching Fellows Programs," examined whether students taught by teachers in the "Teach for America" ("TFA") and "The New Teacher Project Teaching Fellows" ("Teaching Fellows") programs had greater…

  18. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type CLN2: A new rationale for the construction of phenotypic subgroups based on a survey of 25 cases in South America

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Romina; Noelia Carabelos, María; Xin, Winnie; Sims, Katherine; Guelbert, Norberto; Adriana Cismondi, Inés; Pons, Patricia; Alonso, Graciela Irene; Troncoso, Mónica; Witting, Scarlet; Pearce, David A.; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson; Oller-Ramírez, Ana María; de Halac, Inés Noher

    2013-01-01

    Tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 (TPP1) null or residual activity occurs in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) with underlying TPP1/CLN2 mutations. A survey of 25 South American CLN2 affected individuals enabled the differentiation of two phenotypes: classical late-infantile and variant juvenile, each in approximately 50% of patients, with residual TPP1 activity occurring in approximately 32%. Each individual was assigned to one of three subgroups: (I) n=11, null TPP1 activity in leukocytes; (II) n=8, residual TPP1 activity of 0.60–15.85 nmol/h/mg (nr 110–476); (III) n=6, activity not measured in leukocytes. Curvilinear bodies (CB) appeared in almost all studied CLN2 subjects; the only exceptions occurred in cases of subgroup II: two individuals had combined CBs/fingerprints (FPs), and one case had pure FPs. There were 15 mutations (4 first published in this paper, 3 previously observed in South America by our group, and 8 previously observed by others). In subgroup I, mutations were either missense or nonsense; in subgroups II and III, mutations prevailed at the non-conserved intronic site, c.887-10A>G (intron 7), and to a lesser extent at c.89+5G>C (intron 2), in heterozygous combinations. Grouping phenotypically and genetically known individuals on the basis of TPP1 activity supported the concept that residual enzyme activity underlies a protracted disease course. The prevalence of intronic mutations at nonconserved sites in subgroup II individuals indicates that some alternative splicing might allow some residual TPP1 activity. PMID:23266810

  19. Bluetongue virus in South America, Central America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Legisa, Danilo M; Gonzalez, Fernanda N; Dus Santos, Maria José

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) has been detected in many parts of the world but the data available from each continent are substantially different. Some regions are not covered by proper surveillance programs and thus, the real situation concerning the incidence of BTV in those regions is unknown. This is the case of Central America, South America and the Caribbean, where few outdated data about the presence and spread of BTV have been reported. In the present review, we update the BTV situation in those regions by compiling the serologic data available and analyzing the genetic information reported by the different research groups which are studying the disease in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Galanter, Joshua Mark; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Via, Marc; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Figueroa, Laura Uribe; Raska, Paola; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Silva Zolezzi, Irma; Torres, Maria; Ponte, Clara Ruiz; Ruiz, Yarimar; Salas, Antonio; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Eng, Celeste; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Barreto, Guillermo; Rondón González, Fernando; Ibarra, Adriana; Taboada, Patricia; Porras, Liliana; Moreno, Fabián; Bigham, Abigail; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Brutsaert, Tom; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G.; Vargas, Enrique; Cruz, Miguel; Escobedo, Jorge; Rodriguez-Santana, José; Rodriguez-Cintrón, William; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Bustamante, Carlos; Seminara, Daniela; Shriver, Mark; Ziv, Elad; Gonzalez Burchard, Esteban; Haile, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R2>0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region. PMID:22412386

  1. Multiple sclerosis in Latin America: A different disease course severity? A collaborative study from the MSBase Registry

    PubMed Central

    Patrucco, Liliana; Trojano, Maria; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Butzkueven, Helmut; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Duquette, Pierre; Girard, Marc; Grand’Maison, Francois; Grammond, Pierre; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Hupperts, Raymond; Boz, Cavit; Petersen, Thor; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Giuliani, Giorgio; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Barnett, Michael; Rio, Maria Edite; Van Pesch, Vincent; Amato, Maria Pia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Fiol, Marcela; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Fernandez-Bolanos, Ricardo; Poehlau, Dieter; Saladino, Maria Laura; Braber-Moerland, Leontien Den; Deri, Norma; Oleschko-Arruda, Walter; Cabrera-Gomez, Jose Antonio; Paine, Mark; Vella, Norbert; Kister, Ilya; Skromne, Eli; Savino, Aldo; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Vucic, Steve; Petkovska-Boskova, Tatjana; Bacile, Elizabeth Alejandra Bacile; Santiago, Vetere; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Limited data suggest that multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America (LA) could be less severe than in the rest of the world. The objective was to compare the course of MS between LA and other regions. Methods Centers from 18 countries with >20 cases enrolled in the MSBase Registry participated. Patients with MS with a disease duration of >1 year and <30 years at time of EDSS measurement were evaluated. The MS Severity Score (MSSS) was used as a measure of disease progression. Comparisons among regions (North America, Europe, Australia and LA), hemispheres and countries were performed. Results A total of 9610 patients were included. Patients were from: Europe, 6290 (65.6%); North America, 1609 (16.7%); Australia, 1119 (11.6%); and LA, 592 (6.1%). The mean MSSS in patients from LA was 4.47 ± 2.8, 4.53 ± 2.8 in North America, 4.51 ± 2.8 in Europe and 4.49 ± 2.7 in Australia. Mean MSSS in the northern hemisphere was 4.51 ± 1.6 compared to 4.48 ± 1.9 in the southern hemisphere. No differences were found for MSSS among hemispheres (p = 0.68), regions (p = 0.96) or countries (p = 0.50). Conclusions Our analyses did not discover any difference in mean MSSS among patients from different regions, hemispheres or countries. PMID:28607702

  2. Multiple sclerosis in Latin America: A different disease course severity? A collaborative study from the MSBase Registry.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Patrucco, Liliana; Trojano, Maria; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Butzkueven, Helmut; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Duquette, Pierre; Girard, Marc; Grand'Maison, Francois; Grammond, Pierre; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Hupperts, Raymond; Boz, Cavit; Petersen, Thor; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Giuliani, Giorgio; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Barnett, Michael; Rio, Maria Edite; Van Pesch, Vincent; Amato, Maria Pia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Fiol, Marcela; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Fernandez-Bolanos, Ricardo; Poehlau, Dieter; Saladino, Maria Laura; Braber-Moerland, Leontien Den; Deri, Norma; Oleschko-Arruda, Walter; Cabrera-Gomez, Jose Antonio; Paine, Mark; Vella, Norbert; Kister, Ilya; Skromne, Eli; Savino, Aldo; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Vucic, Steve; Petkovska-Boskova, Tatjana; Bacile, Elizabeth Alejandra Bacile; Santiago, Vetere; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Limited data suggest that multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America (LA) could be less severe than in the rest of the world. The objective was to compare the course of MS between LA and other regions. Centers from 18 countries with >20 cases enrolled in the MSBase Registry participated. Patients with MS with a disease duration of >1 year and <30 years at time of EDSS measurement were evaluated. The MS Severity Score (MSSS) was used as a measure of disease progression. Comparisons among regions (North America, Europe, Australia and LA), hemispheres and countries were performed. A total of 9610 patients were included. Patients were from: Europe, 6290 (65.6%); North America, 1609 (16.7%); Australia, 1119 (11.6%); and LA, 592 (6.1%). The mean MSSS in patients from LA was 4.47 ± 2.8, 4.53 ± 2.8 in North America, 4.51 ± 2.8 in Europe and 4.49 ± 2.7 in Australia. Mean MSSS in the northern hemisphere was 4.51 ± 1.6 compared to 4.48 ± 1.9 in the southern hemisphere. No differences were found for MSSS among hemispheres (p = 0.68), regions (p = 0.96) or countries (p = 0.50). Our analyses did not discover any difference in mean MSSS among patients from different regions, hemispheres or countries.

  3. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Four: Revolutionary America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Revolution is the theme of this resource unit, which is the fourth in a social studies series designed for sixth grade students. In the first part of the unit, case studies are used to examine 18th century Boston, Williamsburg, and Philadelphia, contrasting them to 17th century Jamestown and Plymouth settlements. Emphasis is upon examining causes…

  4. Japanese Migration and the Americas: An Introduction to the Study of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Brunette, Rachel

    This curriculum module introduces students to the study of migration, including a brief overview of some categories of migration and reasons why people migrate. As a case study, the module uses the Japanese migration experience in the United States, Peru, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. The module introduces students to…

  5. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  6. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  7. Obsessional slowness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wendy; Wong, Karen W; Fulks, Mary-Ann; Holsti, Liisa

    2008-10-01

    Obsessional slowness is a rare psychiatric disorder with few treatment options and limited research to date. Some suggest that targeted behavioural interventions may reduce the time taken for functional daily activities. To examine whether a behavioural intervention would reduce the amount of time taken for an adolescent with obsessional slowness to walk to class. A single-subject A-B-A withdrawal design was incorporated into this case study. The treatment involved one-to-one pacing and prompting during the subject's walk to gym class. Walking times to gym class were measured during a baseline phase, during a one-month treatment phase, and during a post-treatment follow-up phase. The subject's walking times decreased during the treatment phase. Post-treatment walking times suggested a carry-over effect. This study adds to the sparse evidence on treatments for obsessional slowness and suggests occupation-based treatment options.

  8. Tectonic Evolution of the Patagonian Orocline: New Insights from a Paleomagnetic Study in Southernmost America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P. J.; Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Herve, F.; Ramirez de Arellano, C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most noteworthy features of the Southern Andes is its bend, where the orogenic trend and main tectonic provinces change from Andean N-S oriented structures to W-E orientations in Tierra del Fuego. Few paleomagnetic studies have been carried out, and whether the bending is a primary curvature or a true orocline is still matter of controversy; also the mechanism of its formation. We have conducted a paleomagnetic study between 50°S to ~56°S, where 146 sites were drilled. Paleomagnetic data were obtained in 44 sites. Results in Early Cretaceous sediments and volcanics rocks confirm a remagnetization event during the mid-Cretaceous and record ~90° of counterclockwise rotation. Paleomagnetic results in mid-Cretaceous intrusives rocks record large counterclockwise rotation (>90°) while Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene intrusive rocks only record ~45° to ~30°. The paleomagnetic results reveal a systematic pattern of rotation—the Fueguian rotation pattern—suggesting that the curvature of Patagonia would have occurred in two stages: the first stage during the collapse and obduction of the Rocas Verdes basin in the mid-Cretaceous and a second stage between the Late Cretaceous and the Paleocene, concomitant with exhumation of Cordillera Darwin and propagation of the fold and thrust belt into the Magallanes foreland. Integrating this result in plate reconstructions shows the Antarctic Peninsula as a prolongation of Patagonia and would have acted as a non-rotational rigid block, facilitating the development of the Patagonia Bend. This land bridge could be a dispersal mechanism for fauna between Australia and South America and would have restricted deep ocean water circulation.

  9. Rates and implications of caesarean sections in Latin America: ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando; Barros, Fernando C; Alexander, Sophie

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidences of caesarean sections in Latin American countries and correlate these with socioeconomic, demographic, and healthcare variables. Design Descriptive and ecological study. Setting 19 Latin American countries. Main outcome measures National estimates of caesarean section rates in each country. Results Seven countries had caesarean section rates below 15%. The remaining 12 countries had rates above 15% (range 16.8% to 40.0%). These 12 countries account for 81% of the deliveries in the region. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the gross national product per capita and rate of caesarean section (rs=0.746), and higher rates were observed in private hospitals than in public ones. Taking 15% as a medically justified accepted rate, over 850 000 unnecessary caesarean sections are performed each year in the region. Conclusions The reported figures represent an unnecessary increased risk for young women and their babies. From the economic perspective, this is a burden to health systems that work with limited budgets. Key messages12 of the 19 Latin American countries studied had caesarean section rates above 15%, ranging from 16.8% to 40%These12 countries account for 81% of the deliveries in the regionBetter socioeconomic conditions were associated with higher caesarean section ratesOver 850 000 unnecessary caesarean sections are performed each year in Latin AmericaReduction of caesarean section rates will need concerted action from public health authorities, medical associations, medical schools, health professionals, the general population, and the media PMID:10574855

  10. The Current State of European Studies in North America and of Scholarly Publishing in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacken, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Relates how scholarly publishing in Western Europe feeds into North America. Discusses globalization, regionalism, and particularism; new models and research methodology; Biblio-Darwinism (survival of the fittest publishing languages) and the language of the imprint; differing academic infrastructures of Europe; booming scholarly-title production;…

  11. Mosquito studies in Belize, Central America: records, taxonomic notes, and a checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Pecor, James E; Harbach, Ralph E; Peyton, E L; Roberts, Donald R; Rejmankova, Eliska; Manguin, Sylvie; Palanko, Jorge

    2002-12-01

    Data from mosquito collections made in Belize, Central America, between September 1990 and April 1993 are presented. A total of 537 collections yielding 15,139 specimens are summarized. One genus, 4 subgenera, and 31 species are recorded from Belize for the 1st time. A checklist of the 111 mosquito species now known to occur in Belize is presented.

  12. America in the 20th Century, Grades 11-12, Course of Study. Project # 1009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utech, Ron

    Focusing on America from 1900 to the present, the major social, political, and economic developments in this century are presented in this course for grades 11 and 12. Large and small groups, panel discussions, and individual and group reports are all employed, with an emphasis on research techniques. Each student selects a major problem in 20th…

  13. Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George, Ed.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony, Ed.

    The indigenous peoples of Latin America live in conditions of extreme poverty. This book uses empirical data from national survey sources to determine the extent of poverty among Latin American indigenous populations; to compare indigenous and nonindigenous populations with regard to socioeconomic status, living conditions, educational attainment,…

  14. Homestay/Village Stay Study in the Americas, 1994-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farthing, Linda

    This report presents strategies and guidelines to manage and administer homestays and village stays for U.S. students, based on a survey of academic directors and homestay coordinators, with a focus on such activities in Latin America and the Caribbean. It reviews the literature on the role and cost of homestay and village stay programs in…

  15. Drugs in Latin America. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Thirty-seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Edmundo, Ed.

    The eight papers presented in this document discuss the link between substance and human life in Latin America and help readers uncover some of the myths surrounding drugs, especially cocaine. Contributions range from extensive research to field work and observation. Enrique Mayer demonstrates that the coca leaf is a vital Andean cultural element…

  16. Teaching and Studying the Americas: Cultural Influences from Colonialism to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinn, Anthony B., Ed.; Levander, Caroline F., Ed.; Emerson, Michael O., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary work across the humanities and social sciences is moving beyond analysis of any one nation in isolation and instead placing urgent questions in the larger matrix of the Americas as a hemisphere. But little attention has been given to the overarching methodological, institutional, and pedagogical issues resulting from the growth…

  17. Tendencies toward the Adult Educator Profession in Latin America: An Exploratory, Comparative, and Participatory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerne, Juan Jose Madrigal

    To obtain information on adult educator education in Latin America, two approaches were used: (1) data collected via e-mail or through the website of the Universidad Pedagogica Nacional de Mexico and (2) interviews with directors, coordinators, teaching staff, and students in six teacher education programs in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and…

  18. Benjamin Franklin's Pictorial Representations of the British Colonies in America: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the underlying reasons for the fundamental shift in Benjamin Franklin's portrayals of the British colonies in America. Explores the hypothesis that "Magna Britannia" was both a deliberative work directed toward the British Parliament and an apologetic work directed toward conservatives in the colonial public. Also discusses…

  19. Benjamin Franklin's Pictorial Representations of the British Colonies in America: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the underlying reasons for the fundamental shift in Benjamin Franklin's portrayals of the British colonies in America. Explores the hypothesis that "Magna Britannia" was both a deliberative work directed toward the British Parliament and an apologetic work directed toward conservatives in the colonial public. Also discusses…

  20. Investing in People: The Human Capital Needs of Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Mulkey, David, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of existing human resource conditions in rural America; examines key economic, social, and technological forces shaping the future viability of rural areas; describes human capital issues for rural women and minority groups; and outlines strategies to strengthen rural human capital resources. Chapters are: (1)…

  1. Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George, Ed.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony, Ed.

    The indigenous peoples of Latin America live in conditions of extreme poverty. This book uses empirical data from national survey sources to determine the extent of poverty among Latin American indigenous populations; to compare indigenous and nonindigenous populations with regard to socioeconomic status, living conditions, educational attainment,…

  2. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  3. The Current State of European Studies in North America and of Scholarly Publishing in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacken, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Relates how scholarly publishing in Western Europe feeds into North America. Discusses globalization, regionalism, and particularism; new models and research methodology; Biblio-Darwinism (survival of the fittest publishing languages) and the language of the imprint; differing academic infrastructures of Europe; booming scholarly-title production;…

  4. The Price: A Study of the Costs of Racism in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    America cannot afford to continue to pay the sociopsychological, sociopolitical, and economic costs of racism. The economic and psychosocial benefits of racism to the majority population during the slavery era are obvious. Similar interests motivated the discriminatory treatment of African Americans during the Jim Crow period, when Whites still…

  5. Teaching and Studying the Americas: Cultural Influences from Colonialism to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinn, Anthony B., Ed.; Levander, Caroline F., Ed.; Emerson, Michael O., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary work across the humanities and social sciences is moving beyond analysis of any one nation in isolation and instead placing urgent questions in the larger matrix of the Americas as a hemisphere. But little attention has been given to the overarching methodological, institutional, and pedagogical issues resulting from the growth…

  6. A Senior High School Social Studies Unit on the Black Experience in America. Bulletin No. 279.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Prepared for senior high students at Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, Maryland, this curriculum guide focuses on the black experience in America, beginning with the roots of African heritage and extending to modern day events. The unit tells the story of the black American from his viewpoint, adding dimension to both American history…

  7. The Price: A Study of the Costs of Racism in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    America cannot afford to continue to pay the sociopsychological, sociopolitical, and economic costs of racism. The economic and psychosocial benefits of racism to the majority population during the slavery era are obvious. Similar interests motivated the discriminatory treatment of African Americans during the Jim Crow period, when Whites still…

  8. Food: Images of America. Social Studies Unit, Elementary Grades 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary school (grades 2-6) unit on American food over the last century. Using authentic visuals including paintings, advertising, label art, documentary photography, and a movie still, the guide offers…

  9. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  10. Study of the Role of Second Languages in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frank A., Ed.

    The purpose of this survey was to investigate the nature and extent of the problem of second language learning as a factor in national development in countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. This document is based on the findings of the survey but includes some information not covered in the survey and represents essentially the reaction of…

  11. Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: Learning from Latin America's Experience. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estache, Antonio; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin

    This book explores the connections between infrastructure reform and poverty alleviation in Latin America based on a detailed analysis of the effects of a decade of reforms. The book demonstrates that because the access to, and affordability of, basic services is still a major problem, infrastructure investment will be a core component of poverty…

  12. Implementation of new tools in molecular epidemiology studies of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in South America.

    PubMed

    Avila, Héctor G; Santos, Guilherme B; Cucher, Marcela A; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Pérez, Matías G; Baldi, Germán; Jensen, Oscar; Pérez, Verónica; López, Raúl; Negro, Perla; Scialfa, Exequiel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Rosenzvit, Mara; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species and genotypes in intermediate and definitive hosts and in human isolates from endemic regions of Argentina and Brazil including those where no molecular data is available by a combination of classical and alternative molecular tools. A total of 227 samples were isolated from humans, natural intermediate and definitive hosts. Amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene fragment was performed and a combination of AluI digestion assay, High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM) assay and DNA sequencing was implemented for Echinococcus species/genotype determination. E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) was found in sheep (n=35), cattle (n=67) and dogs (n=5); E. ortleppi (G5) in humans (n=3) and cattle (n=108); E. canadensis (G6) in humans (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) in pigs (n=7). We reported for the first time the presence of E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6) in humans from San Juan and Catamarca Argentinean provinces and E. canadensis (G7) in pigs from Cordoba Argentinean province. In this work, we widened molecular epidemiology studies of E. granulosus s. l. in South America by analyzing several isolates from definitive and intermediate hosts, including humans from endemic regions were such information was scarce or unavailable. The presence of different species/genotypes in the same region and host species reinforce the need of rapid and specific techniques for accurate determination of Echinococcus species such as the ones proposed in this work.

  13. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cherrez, Annia; Ramón, Germán Darío; Lopez Jove, Orlando; Baptist, Alan; Matos, Edgar; Morfín Maciel, Blanca; Calero, Erick; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%). The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS) (69.9%). SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating (i.e. receiving and seeking information) with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5%) and Facebook (32.0%) were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient. PMID:28717641

  14. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan; Cherrez, Annia; Ramón, Germán Darío; Lopez Jove, Orlando; Baptist, Alan; Matos, Edgar; Morfín Maciel, Blanca; Calero, Erick; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Cherrez Ojeda, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%). The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS) (69.9%). SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating (i.e. receiving and seeking information) with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5%) and Facebook (32.0%) were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient.

  15. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  16. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  17. STS Case Study Development Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  18. Generalization of Findings From Single Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mary M.

    Although single case studies might be useful to evaluators for a variety of purposes, there are no generally accepted ways for drawing inferences about the generality of findings from a case study. Single case studies are defined in this paper as either studies of single events, or disaggregated studies of multiple events. The data may be…

  19. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  20. Educacion de Adultos en America Latina. Estudio Bibliografico. Serie Bibliografica # 3 (Adult Education in Latin America: Bibliographical Study. Bibliographical Series # 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaen, Norah

    This analytical bibliography describes a group of selected documents that examine the current status and extent of development of adult education in Latin America. Documents were selected for inclusion based upon their focus on and concern for international and national goals and needs of adult education programs and for distribution to countries…

  1. Seasonal Variability Study of the Tropospheric Zenithal Delay in the South America using regional Numerical Weather Prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapucci, L. F.; Monico, J. G.; Machado, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    In 2010 a new navigation and administration system of the air traffic, denominated CNS-ATM (Communication Navigation Surveillance - Air Traffic Management) should be running operationally in South America. This new system will basically employ the positioning techniques by satellites to the management and air traffic control. However, the efficiency of this new system demands the knowledge of the behavior of the atmosphere, consequently, an appropriated Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) modeling in a regional scale. The predictions of ZTD values from Numeric Weather Prediction (NWP), denominated here dynamic modeling, is an alternative to model the atmospheric gases effects in the radio-frequency signals in real time. Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC) of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), jointly with researchers from UNESP (Sao Paulo State University), has generated operationally prediction of ZTD values to South America Continent (available in the electronic address http:satelite.cptec.inpe.br/htmldocs/ztd/zenithal.htm). The available regional version is obtained using ETA model (NWP model with horizontal resolution of 20 km and 42 levels in the vertical). The application of NWP permit assess the temporal and spatial variation of ZTD values, which is an important characteristic of this techniques. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the ZTD seasonal variability over South America continent. A variability analysis of the ZTD components [hydrostatic(ZHD) and wet(ZWD)] is also presented, as such as discussion of main factors that influence this variation in this region. The hydrostatic component variation is related with atmospheric pressure oscillation, which is influenced by relief and high pressure centers that prevail over different region of the South America continent. The wet component oscillation is due to the temperature and humidity variability, which is also influenced by relief and by synoptic

  2. NWCC Transmission Case Study III

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Allison, Steve Wiese

    2000-03-01

    OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below: Assumption 1--Transmission system improvements would provide significant benefits to the electricity network and its customers. Respondents acknowledge the potential for overall system benefits in the form of reduced line losses, improved grid stability and reliability, and enhanced ability to conduct spot market transactions. They also agree that these benefits relate to specific regional needs. However, there is disagreement over the extent of other benefits such as efficiency gains and cost savings from reduced line losses. Further, environmental and community interest groups point out that none of these benefits are realized without significant financial, environmental and social costs. Assumption 2--The benefits of transmission improvements would be helpful, but not confined, to wind power. All respondents agree that wind energy could benefit from transmission system improvements. But they also acknowledge, reluctantly, in the case of environmental stakeholders, that the benefits of an improved transmission system cannot be limited to environmentally preferable forms of generation. Some environmental and community advocate respondents also feel that transmission system improvement projects can be avoided altogether through energy conservation and efficiency measures, and by substituting wind energy for fossil generation. Assumption 3--Transmission alliances among stakeholders within and external to the wind community can provide benefits in the public interest. The fractured, multi-jurisdictional governance of the regional transmission system, and the

  3. International Research Capacity-Building Programs for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in Latin America: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Caufield, Catherine; Gray, Genevieve; Olson, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    The First International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in the Americas is a result of a partnership between the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Faculty of Nursing in the University of Alberta, with financial support from the Government of Canada. The program was divided into two parts. The first part of the program was held at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It involved capacity-building in research methodologies at the Faculty of Nursing, which lead to the preparation of four multi-centric research proposals for drug demand reduction in the home countries of the eleven participants in the program. The second part of the program was related to the implementation of multi-centric research proposals in seven countries in Latin America and in Canada. This program presented expertise in research methodology to members of Latin American Schools of Nursing and introduced Latin American expertise to members of a Canadian Faculty of Nursing. The International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in the Americas has fostered the kind of inter-cultural respect and mutual appreciation necessary to confront the global health problem of the abuse of both licit and illicit drugs.

  4. Health and Ethical Consequences of Outsourcing Pivotal Clinical Trials to Latin America: A Cross-Sectional, Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The implications of conducting clinical trials in low and middle income countries on the financial accessibility and safety of the pharmaceutical products available in those markets have not been studied. Regulatory practices and ethical declarations lead to the commercialization of the new products, referred to as New Molecular Entities (NMEs), in the countries where tested as soon as they are approved in high surveillance countries. Patients and patients' associations use the Latin American courts to access new and expensive treatments, regardless of their safety profile and therapeutic value. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. To determine the therapeutic value and safety profile of the NMEs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 that had been tested in Latin America, and the implications of their market approval for the pharmaceutical budgets in the countries where tested. Latin America. To assess the therapeutic value and safety of the NMEs commercialized in the different countries we used f independent drug bulletins. The prices of the NMEs for the consumers were obtained from the pharmaceutical price observatories of the countries were the medicines had been tested. If the price was not available in the observatories, it was obtained from pharmaceutical distributors. We used the countries' minimum wage and per capita income to calculate the financial accessibility of a course of treatment with the NMEs. We found that 33 NMEs approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012 have been tested in Latin America. Of these, 26 had been evaluated by independent drug bulletins and only five were found to add some value to a subset of patients and had significant side-effects. The pharmaceutical prices were very high, varied widely across countries and were unrelated to the countries' income per capita or minimum wage. The implementation of clinical trials in Latin America results in the commercialization of medicines with questionable safety

  5. Prospective Cohort Study with Active Surveillance for Fever in Four Dengue Endemic Countries in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L.; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C.; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Rey, Luis C.; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9–16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases. PMID:26013373

  6. Prospective cohort study with active surveillance for fever in four dengue endemic countries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N; Cunha, Rivaldo V; Rey, Luis C; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9-16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases.

  7. Zika emergence in the French Territories of America and description of first confirmed cases of Zika virus infection on Martinique, November 2015 to February 2016.

    PubMed

    Daudens-Vaysse, Elise; Ledrans, Martine; Gay, Noellie; Ardillon, Vanessa; Cassadou, Sylvie; Najioullah, Fatiha; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Rousset, Dominique; Herrmann, Cécile; Cesaire, Raymond; Maquart, Marianne; Flusin, Olivier; Matheus, Séverine; Huc-Anaïs, Patricia; Jaubert, Josiane; Criquet-Hayot, Anne; Hoen, Bruno; Djossou, Felix; Locatelli-Jouans, Corinne; Blateau, Alain; McKenzie, Anne-Marie; Melin, Mathilde; Saint-Martin, Patrick; Dorléans, Frédérique; Suivant, Claudine; Carvalho, Luisiane; Petit-Sinturel, Marion; Andrieu, Audrey; Noël, Harold; Septfons, Alexandra; Gallay, Anne; Paty, Marie-Claire; Filleul, Laurent; Cabié, André

    2016-07-14

    Following of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, an epidemiological surveillance system was quickly implemented in the French overseas Territories of America (FTA) according to previous experience with dengue and chikungunya and has detected first cases of Zika. General practitioners and medical microbiologists were invited to report all clinically suspected cases of Zika, laboratory investigations were systematically conducted (RT-PCR). On 18 December, the first autochthonous case of Zika virus infection was confirmed by RT-PCR on French Guiana and Martinique, indicating introduction of Zika virus in FTA. The viral circulation of Zika virus was then also confirmed on Guadeloupe and Saint-Martin. We report here early findings on 203 confirmed cases of Zika virus infection identified by RT-PCR or seroneutralisation on Martinique Island between 24 November 2015 and 20 January 2016. All cases were investigated. Common clinical signs were observed (maculopapular rash, arthralgia, fever, myalgia and conjunctival hyperaemia) among these patients, but the rash, the foundation of our case definition, may be absent in a significant proportion of patients (16%). These results are important for the implementation of a suspected case definition, the main tool for epidemiological surveillance, in territories that may be affected by ZIKV emergence, including Europe.

  8. Use of GRACE determined secular gravity rates for glacial isostatic adjustment studies in North-America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Wu, Patrick; Sideris, Michael G.; Shum, C. K.

    2008-10-01

    Monthly geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients from the GRACE satellite mission are used to determine their usefulness and limitations for studying glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North-America. Secular gravity rates are estimated by unweighted least-squares estimation using release 4 coefficients from August 2002 to August 2007 provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas. Smoothing is required to suppress short wavelength noise, in addition to filtering to diminish geographically correlated errors, as shown in previous studies. Optimal cut-off degrees and orders are determined for the destriping filter to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The halfwidth of the Gaussian filter is shown to significantly affect the sensitivity of the GRACE data (with respect to upper mantle viscosity and ice loading history). Therefore, the halfwidth should be selected based on the desired sensitivity. It is shown that increase in water storage in an area south west of Hudson Bay, from the summer of 2003 to the summer of 2006, contributes up to half of the maximum estimated gravity rate. Hydrology models differ in the predictions of the secular change in water storage, therefore even 4-year trend estimates are influenced by the uncertainty in water storage changes. Land ice melting in Greenland and Alaska has a non-negligible contribution, up to one-fourth of the maximum gravity rate. The estimated secular gravity rate shows two distinct peaks that can possibly be due to two domes in the former Pleistocene ice cover: west and south east of Hudson Bay. With a limited number of models, a better fit is obtained with models that use the ICE-3G model compared to the ICE-5G model. However, the uncertainty in interannual variations in hydrology models is too large to constrain the ice loading history with the current data span. For future work in which GRACE will be used to constrain ice loading history and the Earth's radial viscosity profile, it is

  9. The study of headache in the 1950s in Latin America by Edgard Raffaelli Júnior (1930-2006).

    PubMed

    Silva-Néto, Raimundo P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review the life of Edgard Raffaelli Júnior (1930-2006) and to summarize his important contributions to the study of headaches. He was the first doctor to study headaches in Latin America, and for 50 years he advanced the understanding of headaches worldwide. He was born in São Paulo, Brazil, on March 2, 1930 and died on December 29, 2006. He founded the Brazilian Headache Society and was one of the organizers and founders of the International Headache Society. Following Raffaelli, many Latin American doctors have since been inspired to study headaches.

  10. The spread of hepatitis C virus genotype 1a in North America: a retrospective phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jeffrey B; McCloskey, Rosemary M; Nguyen, Thuy; Liang, Richard H; Khudyakov, Yury; Olmstead, Andrea; Krajden, Mel; Ward, John W; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G; Poon, Art F Y

    2016-06-01

    The timing of the initial spread of hepatitis C virus genotype 1a in North America is controversial. In particular, how and when hepatitis C virus reached extraordinary prevalence in specific demographic groups remains unclear. We quantified, using all available hepatitis C virus sequence data and phylodynamic methods, the timing of the spread of hepatitis C virus genotype 1a in North America. We screened 45 316 publicly available sequences of hepatitis C virus genotype 1a for location and genotype, and then did phylogenetic analyses of available North American sequences from five hepatitis C virus genes (E1, E2, NS2, NS4B, NS5B), with an emphasis on including as many sequences with early collection dates as possible. We inferred the historical population dynamics of this epidemic for all five gene regions using Bayesian skyline plots. Most of the spread of genotype 1a in North America occurred before 1965, and the hepatitis C virus epidemic has undergone relatively little expansion since then. The effective population size of the North American epidemic stabilised around 1960. These results were robust across all five gene regions analysed, although analyses of each gene separately show substantial variation in estimates of the timing of the early exponential growth, ranging roughly from 1940 for NS2, to 1965 for NS4B. The expansion of genotype 1a before 1965 suggests that nosocomial or iatrogenic factors rather than past sporadic behavioural risk (ie, experimentation with injection drug use, unsafe tattooing, high risk sex, travel to high endemic areas) were key contributors to the hepatitis C virus epidemic in North America. Our results might reduce stigmatisation around screening and diagnosis, potentially increasing rates of screening and treatment for hepatitis C virus. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research, and BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Allographic agraphia: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Menichelli, Alina; Rapp, Brenda; Semenza, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of patient MN, diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia, who exhibited a severe impairment in writing letters and words in upper-case print in the face of accurate production of the same stimuli in lower-case cursive. In contrast to her written production difficulties, MN was unimpaired in recognizing visually presented letters and words in upper-case print. We find a modest benefit of visual form cueing in the written production of upper-case letters, despite an inability to describe or report visual features of letters in any case or font. This case increases our understanding of the allographic level of letter-shape representation in written language production. It provides strong support for previous reports indicating the neural independence of different types of case and font-specific letter-shape information; it provides evidence that letter-shape production does not require explicit access to information about the visual attributes of letter shapes and, finally, it reveals the possibility of interaction between processes involved in letter-shape production and perception. PMID:18489965

  12. Case-control studies: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Pearce, Neil

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present in elementary mathematical and statistical terms a simple way to quickly and effectively teach and understand case-control studies, as they are commonly done in dynamic populations-without using the rare disease assumption. Our focus is on case-control studies of disease incidence ('incident case-control studies'); we will not consider the situation of case-control studies of prevalent disease, which are published much less frequently.

  13. Prototype house provides test case for energy-efficient systems: Mitchell Homes, Pensacola, Florida; Building America Project summary fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.

    2000-01-10

    The Carbelle prototype house is a new design produced under the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Working with other members of the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Mitchell Homes developed the Carbelle as an energy-efficient upgrade to one of their standard models. By treating all design aspects of the house as a system and involving all stakeholders in the process, Mitchell expects to decrease on-site energy use for space heating and cooling by as much as 40% compared to their typical construction.

  14. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. Discussion The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1) focus activities on what can be done; (2) build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3) consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4) conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. Summary The persistent neglect of the Indigenous Peoples

  15. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Incayawar, Mario; Maldonado-Bouchard, Sioui

    2009-10-29

    Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1) focus activities on what can be done; (2) build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3) consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4) conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. The persistent neglect of the Indigenous Peoples' mental health in Latin America

  16. Improving mental and neurological health research in Latin America: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fiestas, Fabián; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Bustamante, Inés; Alarcón, Renato D; Mari, Jair J; Razzouk, Denise; Olifson, Sylvie; Mazzotti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Background Research evidence is essential to inform policies, interventions and programs, and yet research activities in mental and neurological (MN) health have been largely neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Many challenges have been identified in the production and utilization of research evidence in Latin American countries, and more work is needed to overcome this disadvantageous situation. This study aims to address the situation by identifying initiatives that could improve MN health research activities and implementation of their results in the Latin American region. Methods Thirty-four MN health actors from 13 Latin American countries were interviewed as part of an initiative by the Global Forum for Health Research and the World Health Organization to explore the status of MN health research in low- and middle-income countries in Africa, Asia and Latin-America. Results A variety of recommendations to increase MN health research activities and implementation of their results emerged in the interviews. These included increasing skilled human resources in MN health interventions and research, fostering greater participation of stakeholders in the generation of research topics and projects, and engendering the interest of national and international institutions in important MN health issues and research methodologies. In the view of most participants, government agencies should strive to have research results inform the decision-making process in which they are involved. Thus these agencies would play a key role in facilitating and funding research. Participants also pointed to the importance of academic recognition and financial rewards in attracting professionals to primary and translational research in MN health. In addition, they suggested that institutions should create intramural resources to provide researchers with technical support in designing, carrying out and disseminating research, including resources to improve

  17. Hierarchical Y-SNP assay to study the hidden diversity and phylogenetic relationship of native populations in South America.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Maria; Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Zweynert, Sarah; Cruz, Omar Wladimir Vacas; González-Andrade, Fabricio; González-Solorzano, Jorge; Nagy, Marion; Roewer, Lutz

    2011-03-01

    Studying the Y chromosomes of indigenous tribes of Ecuador revealed a lack of strategic SNP assays to examine the substructure of South American native populations. In most studies dealing with South American samples so far only the most common Y-SNP M3 of haplogroup Q was analyzed, because this is known to define a founder group in South America. Studies of SNPs ancestral to Q-M3 (Q1a3a) to confirm the results or the typing of Q subclades have often been neglected. For this reason we developed a SNaPshot assay, which allows first for a hierarchical testing of all main haplogroups occurring in South American populations and second for a detailed analysis of haplogroups Q and C thought having ancient Asian descent. We selected 16 SNPs from the YCC haplogroup tree and established two multiplexes. The first multiplex ("SA Major") includes 12 Y-SNPs defining the most frequent haplogroups occurring in South America (M42, M207, M242, M168, M3, M145, M174, M213, RPS4Y711, M45, P170, and M9). The second multiplex ("SA SpecQ") contains Y-SNPs of haplogroup Q, especially of the subclade Q-M3 (M19, M194, P292, M3, and M199). Within our Ecuadorian sample, haplogroup Q-M3 (xM19, M194, P292, and M199) was predominant, but we also found haplogroup E and R, which can be attributed to recent admixture. Moreover, we found four out of 65 samples, which were tested to be haplogroup C3* (C-M217) the modal haplogroup in Mongolians and widespread in indigenous populations of the Russian Far East as well as in Eastern Asia. This haplogroup is not known to be the result of recent admixture and has been found only one time before in South America. Since haplogroup C occurs in Asia and in North America (C3b or C-P39), we assume that these C-lineages are ancient as well. Therefore, we established a third multiplex ("SA SpecC"), which allows the further subtyping of haplogroup C, mainly of subclade C3 defined by the Y-SNP M217 (M407, M48, P53.1, M217, P62, RPS4Y711, M93, M86, and P39

  18. Real-Life Case Studies for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, William

    Case studies described in this book reflect conditions present in today's public schools. Situations described in these case studies are intended to introduce education students to the variety of problems existing in today's schools. The 38 case studies highlight: student cheating; teacher's observation by administrator; inclusion; contract…

  19. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  20. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  1. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  2. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  3. Business and Consumer Education Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Pi Epsilon, Minneapolis, Minn. Phi Chapter.

    This publication contains 58 case studies for classroom use in teaching various business and consumer education subjects at the high school level. A supplement to a previous Phi Chapter publication, "Office Education Case Studies" (1973), the case studies are intended to create class discussions and help students acquire the ability to analyze…

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Building homes that are zero energy-ready is a goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program and one embodied in Building America’s premier home certification program, the Challenge Home program. This case study describes several examples of successful zero energy-ready home projects completed by Building America teams and partner builders.

  5. Levodopa addiction. A case study.

    PubMed

    Tack, E; De Cuypere, G; Jannes, C; Remouchamps, A

    1988-09-01

    A case is presented of a young woman with a serious addiction to levodopa who over the years developed an extrapyramidal syndrome and chronic paranoid psychotic behaviour. The possible pathophysiological mechanism is discussed.

  6. Children and Youth in Early America: A Case Study of a Bicentennial Social Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Fran

    This paper describes a project which was set up to provide secondary students with an opportunity to examine, analyze, and reflect on the role of children and youth in the first half-century of the American republic and draw meaningful comparisons with their own experience in contemporary American society. Thirty-five students, enrolled in a…

  7. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…

  8. Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents resources for grades K-8, on the subject of Colonial America. Describes Web sites; CD-ROMs and software; videos; books; audios; magazines; and professional resources. Includes two articles, "Native Americans in the Colonies," and "The Golden Age of Pirates," which also highlight resources. Presents a Web activity focusing on daily life in…

  9. Textbook America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  10. America Revising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Myron

    1982-01-01

    Reviews Frances FitzGerald's book, "America Revised," and discusses FitzGerald's critique of recent revisions in secondary-level U.S. history textbooks. The author advocates the implementation of a core curriculum for U.S. history which emphasizes political and local history. (AM)

  11. Textbook America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  12. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  13. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  14. Reusable experiment controllers, case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brian A.; Gaasbeck, Jim Van

    1996-03-01

    Congress has given NASA and the science community a reality check. The tight and ever shrinking budgets are trimming the fat from many space science programs. No longer can a Principal Investigator (PI) afford to waste development dollars on re-inventing spacecraft controllers, experiment/payload controllers, ground control systems, or test sets. Inheritance of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) from one program to another is not a significant re-use of technology to develop a science mission in these times. Reduction of operational staff and highly autonomous experiments are needed to reduce the sustaining cost of a mission. The re-use of an infrastructure from one program to another is needed to truly attain the cost and time savings required. Interface and Control Systems, Inc. (ICS) has a long history of re-usable software. Navy, Air Force, and NASA programs have benefited from the re-use of a common control system from program to program. Several standardization efforts in the AIAA have adopted the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) architecture as a point solution to satisfy requirements for re-use and autonomy. The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) has been a long-standing customer of ICS and are working on their 4th generation system using SCL. Much of the hardware and software infrastructure has been re-used from mission to mission with little cost for re-hosting a new experiment. The same software infrastructure has successfully been used on Clementine, and an end-to-end system is being deployed for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) for Johns Hopkins University. A case study of the ERIM programs, Clementine and FUSE will be detailed in this paper.

  15. Tuberculosis-related mortality in people living with HIV in Europe and Latin America: an international cohort study.

    PubMed

    Podlekareva, Daria N; Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A; Skrahina, Alena M; Panteleev, Alexander; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miller, Robert F; Losso, Marcelo H; Toibaro, Javier; Miro, Jose M; Vassilenko, Anna; Girardi, Enrico; Bruyand, Mathias; Obel, Niels; Lundgren, Jens D; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2016-03-01

    Management of tuberculosis in patients with HIV in eastern Europe is complicated by the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, low rates of drug susceptibility testing, and poor access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report 1 year mortality estimates from a multiregional (eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America) prospective cohort study: the TB:HIV study. Consecutive HIV-positive patients aged 16 years or older with a diagnosis of tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013, were enrolled from 62 HIV and tuberculosis clinics in 19 countries in eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America. The primary endpoint was death within 12 months after starting tuberculosis treatment; all deaths were classified according to whether or not they were tuberculosis related. Follow-up was either until death, the final visit, or 12 months after baseline, whichever occurred first. Risk factors for all-cause and tuberculosis-related deaths were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. Of 1406 patients (834 in eastern Europe, 317 in western Europe, and 255 in Latin America), 264 (19%) died within 12 months. 188 (71%) of these deaths were tuberculosis related. The probability of all-cause death was 29% (95% CI 26-32) in eastern Europe, 4% (3-7) in western Europe, and 11% (8-16) in Latin America (p<0·0001) and the corresponding probabilities of tuberculosis-related death were 23% (20-26), 1% (0-3), and 4% (2-8), respectively (p<0·0001). Patients receiving care outside eastern Europe had a 77% decreased risk of death: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0·23 (95% CI 0·16-0·31). In eastern Europe, compared with patients who started a regimen with at least three active antituberculosis drugs, those who started fewer than three active antituberculosis drugs were at a higher risk of tuberculosis-related death (aHR 3·17; 95% CI 1·83-5·49) as were those who did not have baseline drug-susceptibility tests (2·24; 1·31-3·83). Other

  16. Spatial Modeling of Geometallurgical Properties: Techniques and a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, Jared L.; Palmer, Kevin; Deutsch, Clayton V.; Szymanski, Jozef; Etsell, Thomas H.

    2016-06-15

    High-resolution spatial numerical models of metallurgical properties constrained by geological controls and more extensively by measured grade and geomechanical properties constitute an important part of geometallurgy. Geostatistical and other numerical techniques are adapted and developed to construct these high-resolution models accounting for all available data. Important issues that must be addressed include unequal sampling of the metallurgical properties versus grade assays, measurements at different scale, and complex nonlinear averaging of many metallurgical parameters. This paper establishes techniques to address each of these issues with the required implementation details and also demonstrates geometallurgical mineral deposit characterization for a copper–molybdenum deposit in South America. High-resolution models of grades and comminution indices are constructed, checked, and are rigorously validated. The workflow demonstrated in this case study is applicable to many other deposit types.

  17. Reconnaissance of Field Sites for the Study of Chemical Weathering on the Guayana Shield, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Steefell, C I

    2003-02-01

    Despite the fact that chemical weathering of silicate rocks plays an important role in the draw-down of CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales (Berner and Berner, 1996), the overall controls on the rate of chemical weathering are still not completely understood. Lacking a mechanistic understanding of these controls, it remains difficult to evaluate a hypothesis such as that presented by Raymo and Ruddiman (1992), who suggested that enhanced weathering and CO{sub 2} draw-down resulting from the uplift of the Himalayas contributed to global cooling during the Cenozoic. At an even more fundamental level, the three to four order of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates is still unresolved (White et al., 1996). There is as yet no comprehensive, mechanistic model for silicate chemical weathering that considers the coupled effects of precipitation, vadose zone flow, and chemical reactions. The absence of robust process models for silicate weathering and the failure to resolve some of these important questions may in fact be related-the controls on the overall rates of weathering cannot be understood without considering the weathering environment as one in which multiple, time-dependent chemical and physical processes are coupled (Malmstrom, 2000). Once chemical weathering is understood at a mechanistic process level, the important controls on chemical weathering (physical erosion, temperature, precipitation) can be folded into larger scale models tracking the global carbon cycle. Our goal in this study was to carry out the preliminary work needed to establish a field research site for chemical weathering om the Cuayana Shield in South America. The Guayana Shield is a Precambrian province greater than 1.5 billion years old covering portions of Venezuela, Guyana (the country), Surinam, French Guiana, and Brazil (Figure 1). More important than the age of the rocks themselves, however, is the age of the erosion surface developed on the Shield, with

  18. Families as Case Managers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Performed follow-up study measuring effects of case management training on management activities of families of elderly persons. Interviewed 78 subjects from original study and found case management to be normative activity for families of elderly. Noted differences reported between male and female case managers and in types of obstacles…

  19. Case Studies for Effective Business Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister-Kizzier, Donna

    This book is designed as a resource for educators who teach business content in a variety of instructional settings. It contains case studies representing all functional areas of business, including corporate training, for grades 7 through graduate education. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the case study method. The history of the case method,…

  20. An open-label study of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marcio; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Petti, Marco; Magana, Martin; Abreu, Paula; Schlamm, Haran T; Sanchez, Sonia P

    2014-01-01

    Incidence and mortality of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis (C/IC) is relatively high in Latin America versus North America and Europe. To assess efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) anidulafungin in Latin American adults with documented C/IC. All patients in this open-label study received initial IV anidulafungin with optional step-down to oral voriconazole after 5 days; total treatment duration was 14-42 days. The primary endpoint was global response (clinical + microbiological response) at end of treatment (EOT); missing/indeterminate responses were failures. The study enrolled 54 patients; 44 had confirmed C/IC within 96 h before study entry and comprised the modified intent-to-treat population. Global response at EOT was 59.1% (95% CI: 44.6, 73.6), with 13 missing/indeterminate assessments. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 43.1%. Fourteen patients (31.8%) were able to step-down to oral voriconazole; these patients had lower baseline acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores and were less likely to have solid tumours or previous abdominal surgery. Anidulafungin was generally well tolerated with few treatment-related adverse events. Anidulafungin was associated with relatively low response rates influenced by a high rate of missing/indeterminate assessments and mortality comparable to other recent candidaemia studies in Latin America. In a subset of patients with lower APACHE II scores, short-course anidulafungin followed by oral voriconazole was successful. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.