Farid, A Hossain; Hussain, Irshad; Arju, Irin
Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results. © 2015 The Author(s).
Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Rieber, M
We found that serum samples from patients with different clinical forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) contained immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies which reacted with laminin but not with various other purified connective tissue components, such as collagen types I, III, IV, and V and fibronectin. Eighty-one percent of ACL patients had high antilaminin antibody levels, with a relationship existing between ACL ulcers and antibody levels. This was not, however, the case with patients having treated and healed ACL ulcers; only 34% of these patients had elevated antilaminin antibodies. Eighty-four percent of chronic Chagas' disease patients were also found to contain antilaminin antibodies that were limited to the immunoglobulin G class, but these were not detected in patients suffering from any of 11 other infectious diseases. PMID:6418660
Brown, D. R.; Schumacher, I. M.; Nogueira, M. F.; Richey, L. J.; Zacher, L. A.; Schoeb, T. R.; Vliet, K. A.; Bennett, R. A.; Jacobson, E. R.; Brown, M. B.
An epidemic of pneumonia with fibrinous polyserositis and multifocal arthritis emerged in captive American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida, United States, in 1995. Mycoplasma alligatoris sp. nov. was cultured from multiple organs, peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid of affected alligators. In a subsequent experimental inoculation study, the Henle-Koch-Evans postulates were fulfilled for M. alligatoris as the etiological agent of fatal mycoplasmosis of alligators. That finding was remarkable because mycoplasmal disease is rarely fatal in animals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies produced by alligators in response to M. alligatoris exposure was developed by using plasma obtained from naturally infected alligators during the original epidemic. The assay was validated by using plasma obtained during an experimental dose-response study and applied to analyze plasma obtained from captive and wild crocodilian species. The ELISA reliably detected alligator seroconversion (P < 0.05) beginning 6 weeks after inoculation. The ELISA also detected seroconversion (P < 0.05) in the relatively closely related broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris and the relatively distantly related Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis following experimental inoculation with M. alligatoris. The ELISA may be used to monitor exposure to the lethal pathogen M. alligatoris among captive, repatriated, and wild crocodilian species. PMID:11136785
Brown, D R; Schumacher, I M; Nogueira, M F; Richey, L J; Zacher, L A; Schoeb, T R; Vliet, K A; Bennett, R A; Jacobson, E R; Brown, M B
An epidemic of pneumonia with fibrinous polyserositis and multifocal arthritis emerged in captive American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida, United States, in 1995. Mycoplasma alligatoris sp. nov. was cultured from multiple organs, peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid of affected alligators. In a subsequent experimental inoculation study, the Henle-Koch-Evans postulates were fulfilled for M. alligatoris as the etiological agent of fatal mycoplasmosis of alligators. That finding was remarkable because mycoplasmal disease is rarely fatal in animals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies produced by alligators in response to M. alligatoris exposure was developed by using plasma obtained from naturally infected alligators during the original epidemic. The assay was validated by using plasma obtained during an experimental dose-response study and applied to analyze plasma obtained from captive and wild crocodilian species. The ELISA reliably detected alligator seroconversion (P < 0.05) beginning 6 weeks after inoculation. The ELISA also detected seroconversion (P < 0.05) in the relatively closely related broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris and the relatively distantly related Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis following experimental inoculation with M. alligatoris. The ELISA may be used to monitor exposure to the lethal pathogen M. alligatoris among captive, repatriated, and wild crocodilian species.
Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik
Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB. PMID:22012976
Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, H Martin; Zanolari, Patrik
Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB.
Sweeny, Larissa; Prince, Andrew; Patel, Neel; Moore, Lindsay S; Rosenthal, Eben L; Hughley, Brian B; Warram, Jason M
Evaluate if vascular normalization with an antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody improves detection of melanoma using fluorescently labeled antibody-based imaging. Preclinical. Panitumumab and control IgG were covalently linked to a near-infrared fluorescent probe (IRDye800CW). Immunodeficient mice with ear xenografts of melanoma cell lines (A375 and SKMEL5) were systemically injected (200 μg, tail vein) with either IgG-IRDye800CW, panitumumab-IRDye800CW, or a combination (bevacizumab [5mg/kg], administered 72 hours prepanitumumab-IRDye800CW) (n = 5). Primary tumors were imaged with open-field (LUNA, Novadaq, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and closed-field (Pearl, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NB) imaging devices. Postresection, the concentration of labeled antibody within the tumor (μg/g) was calculated using normalized standards. The mean fluorescence within the melanoma tumors was greater for the combination group compared to panitumumab alone for both cell lines (P < 0.001). The tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) for the A375 tumors was greater for the combination (3.4-7.1) compared to the panitumumab alone (3.2-5.0) (P = 0.04). The TBR for SKMEL5 tumors was greater for the combination (2.4-6.0) compared to the panitumumab alone (2.2-3.9) (P = 0.02). Within A375 tumors, the concentration was lower for panitumumab (0.51 μg/g) compared to combination group (0.68 μg/g) (P = 0.036). Within SKMEL5 tumors, the concentration was lower for panitumumab (0.0.17 μg/g) compared to combination group (0.35 μg/g) (P = 0.048). Residual tumor (1.0-0.2 mg) could be differentiated from background in both panitumumab and combination groups. For both cell lines, panitumumab and combination groups had greater mean fluorescence of the tumor compared to control IgG. The addition of antiangiogenic therapy improves uptake of fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies within melanoma tumors. Clinical translation could improve detection of melanoma intraoperatively, reducing positive margins
Jacobson, Elliott R; Johnson, April J; Hernandez, Jorge A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Dupuis, Alan P; Stevens, Robert; Carbonneau, Dwayne; Stark, Lillian
In October 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) was identified in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida showing clinical signs and having microscopic lesions indicative of central nervous system disease. To perform seroepidemiologic studies, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to determine exposure of captive and wild alligators to WNV. To validate the test, a group of WNV-seropositive and -seronegative alligators were identified at the affected farm using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The indirect ELISA utilized a rabbit anti-alligator immunoglobulins polyclonal antibody as the secondary antibody, and inactivated WNV-infected Vero cells were used as the coating antigen. For all samples (n=58), the results of the ELISA were consistent with the HAI and PRNT findings. Plasma was collected from 669 free-ranging alligators from 21 sites across Florida in April and October 2003. Four samples collected in April and six in October were positive for WNV antibodies using HAI, PRNT, and the indirect ELISA. This indicated that wild alligators in Florida have been exposed to WNV. These findings can be used as a baseline for future surveys.
Rich, Barrie S.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Darcy, David G.; Smith, Peter T.; Williams, Andrew R.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Johnson, Linda K.; Gönen, Mithat; Simon, Joel S.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Simon, Sanford M.
The study of cancer immunology has provided diagnostic and therapeutic instruments through serum autoantibody biomarkers and exogenous monoclonal antibodies. While some endogenous antibodies are found within or surrounding transformed tissue, the extent to which this exists has not been entirely characterized. We find that in transgenic and xenograft mouse models of cancer, endogenous gamma immunoglobulin (IgG) is present at higher concentration in malignantly transformed organs compared to non-transformed organs in the same mouse or organs of cognate wild-type mice. The enrichment of endogenous antibodies within the malignant tissue provides a potential means of identifying and tracking malignant cells in vivo as they mutate and diversify. Exploiting these antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is possible through the use of agents that bind endogenous antibodies. PMID:24875800
Picascia, Antonietta; Infante, Teresa; Napoli, Claudio
Preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies have a negative effect on kidney transplantation outcome with an increased rejection rate and reduction in survival. Posttransplantation production of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies is indicative of an active immune response and risk of transplantation rejection. For many years the primary technique for anti-HLA antibody detection was complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), which has been integrated by solid-phase assays as HLA antigen-coated bead methods (Luminex). This new technological approach has allowed identification of anti-HLA antibodies, not detectable using conventional CDC method, in patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Moreover, use of Luminex technology has enabled better definition of acceptable or unacceptable antigens favoring transplantation in highly immunized patients. However, there are still many unresolved issues, including the clinical relevance of antibodies detected with this system.
Sanford, Kimberly Williams; Bourikian, Seda; McClain, Aryn; Curtis, Kyle
Kidd antibodies have a reputation for causing hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We present a case of an untransfused male patient who developed anti-Kidd(a) (Jk(a)) antibodies after receiving an allogenic renal transplant. The formation of this antibody was associated with exposure to the Kidd antigen expressed on the tubular epithelium of the transplanted kidney. The 59-year-old white male patient had received a cadaveric renal transplant at our clinic and returned 5 years later with proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine levels, consistent with nephrotic syndrome. We review the expression of Kidd antigens and the development and detection of Kidd antibodies, and discuss the case reports from the literature of Kidd antibodies associated with kidney-graft rejection that suggest Kidd antigens play a role as a minor histocompatibility antigen.
Ferreira, Maíra Peres; Roselino, Ana Maria Ferreira; Nascimento, Margarida Maria Passeri; Aires, Juliana Machado; Figueiredo, José Fernando de Castro
The diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is frequently based on clinical and epidemiological data associated with the results of laboratory tests. Some laboratory methods are currently being applied for the diagnosis of ACL, among them the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIFR), the Montenegro skin test (MST), histopathological examination, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The performance of these methods varies in a considerable proportion of patients. After the standardization of an immunoenzymatic test (ELISA) for the detection of IgG in the serum of patients with ACL using a crude Leishmania braziliensis antigen, the results obtained were compared to those of other tests routinely used for the diagnosis. The tests revealed the following sensitivity, when analyzed separately: 85% for ELISA IgG, 81% for PCR, 64.4% for MST, 58.1% for IIFR, and 34% for the presence of parasites in the biopsy. ELISA was positive in 75% of patients with ACL presenting a negative MST, in 84.8% of ACL patients with negative skin or mucous biopsies for the presence of the parasite, and in 100% of cases with a negative PCR. Thus, ELISA presented a higher sensitivity than the other tests and was useful as a complementary method for the diagnosis of ACL.
Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T.
Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.
Menking, Darrell E.; Heitz, Jonathon M.; Anis, Nabil A.; Thompson, Roy G.
Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a one step assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin or Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled toxins. In the two-step assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified antitoxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or antitoxin IgG in a dose-dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.
Novel methodologies and screening strategies will be outlined on the use of hybridoma technology for the selection of antigen specific monoclonal antibodies. The development of immunoassays used for diagnostic detection of prions and bacterial toxins will be discussed and examples provided demonstr...
Kumar, Yashwant; Bhatia, Alka
The antinuclear antibodies (ANA) also known as antinuclear factors (ANF) are unwanted molecules which bind and destroy certain structures within the nucleus. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), they are produced in excess; hence their detection in the blood of patients is important for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Several methods are available which can be used to detect ANA; nevertheless, indirect immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody test (IF-ANA) is considered a "reference method" for their detection. Though IF-ANA is relatively easier to perform, its interpretation requires considerable skill and experience. The chapter therefore is aimed to provide comprehensive details to readers, not only about its methodology but also the result interpretation and reporting aspects of IF-ANA.
Rucker, Victor C; Havenstrite, Karen L; Herr, Amy E
We have developed antibody-based microarray techniques for the multiplexed detection of cholera toxin beta-subunit, diphtheria toxin, anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, and tetanus toxin C fragment in spiked samples. Two detection schemes were investigated: (i) a direct assay in which fluorescently labeled toxins were captured directly by the antibody array and (ii) a competition assay that employed unlabeled toxins as reporters for the quantification of native toxin in solution. In the direct assay, fluorescence measured at each array element is correlated with labeled toxin concentration to yield baseline binding information (Langmuir isotherms and affinity constants). Extending from the direct assay, the competition assay yields information on the presence, identity, and concentration of toxins. A significant advantage of the competition assay over reported profiling assays is the minimal sample preparation required prior to analysis because the competition assay obviates the need to fluorescently label native proteins in the sample of interest. Sigmoidal calibration curves and detection limits were established for both assay formats. Although the sensitivity of the direct assay is superior to that of the competition assay, detection limits for unmodified toxins in the competition assay are comparable to values reported previously for sandwich-format immunoassays of antibodies arrayed on planar substrates. As a demonstration of the potential of the competition assay for unlabeled toxin detection, we conclude with a straightforward multiplexed assay for the differentiation and identification of both native S. aureus enterotoxin B and tetanus toxin C fragment in spiked dilute serum samples.
Rösler, Reinhild; Abbas, Maha Diekan; Papp, Tibor; Marschang, Rachel E
Sera from a total of 202 tortoises from six countries and nine species were tested for antibodies against four different reptilian paramyxoviruses (ferlaviruses, ferlaVs) by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The viruses used were a tortoise PMV (tPMV) and three squamatid PMV isolates, each belonging to a different subgroup of ferlaV within the genus Ferlavirus. HI tests revealed that antibodies against ferlaVs occurred regularly in the tested samples (5.5%). One and a half percent of the tested samples have measurable antibody titers against the group A isolate, 3% had antibodies against the group B isolate, and 1% had antibodies against the group C isolate. The significantly highest number of positive reactions was detected against the tortoise isolate (5%). Most of the animals that tested positive for one of the snake isolates also tested positive in HI assays with the tortoise isolate. Of the samples from different origins, the sera from Great Britain showed the highest percentage of positive tested animals (10.3%, n = 39), followed by those from Spain (10%, n = 10), while none of the samples from Madagascar or Italy scored positive. Since in most cases animals from one country came from the same collection, this does not represent the real prevalence of ferlaV in tortoises in these countries but rather indicates that ferlaVs occur in a number of different countries and tortoise species.
Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A
Testing for neutralizing antibodies against polioviruses has been an established gold standard for assessing individual protection from disease, population immunity, vaccine efficacy studies, and other vaccine clinical trials. Detecting poliovirus specific IgM and IgA in sera and mucosal specimens has been proposed for evaluating the status of population mucosal immunity. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in using dried blood spot cards as a medium for sample collection to enhance surveillance of poliovirus immunity. Here, we describe the modified poliovirus microneutralization assay, poliovirus capture IgM and IgA ELISA assays, and dried blood spot polio serology procedures for the detection of antibodies against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3.
Adler, S P; McVoy, M; Biro, V G; Britt, W J; Hider, P; Marshall, D
Transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections should be prevented in seronegative immunocompromised patients by providing blood products from donors who are also seronegative. Latex agglutination was investigated as a simple and rapid method for detecting antibody against CMV. Latex beads were coated with CMV antigen, incubated for 8 min at room temperature with 25 microliter of sera, and examined for agglutination. The sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination was compared with that of indirect hemagglutination (IHA, Cetus Corp., Emeryville, Calif.) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with sera from 604 random blood donors or patients. Of 327 serum samples shown to be seronegative by EIA and IHA, 327 had a latex agglutination titer of less than 1:4 (specificity, 100%). Of 236 serum samples with detectable antibody by EIA and IHA, 228 had a latex agglutination titer of 1:4 or greater (sensitivity, 97%). Plasma collected with EDTA, heparin, or citrate was satisfactory for latex agglutination. Latex agglutination results correlated quantitatively with those of EIA, and the test also detected fourfold or greater rises in antibody with paired sera from six patients with posttransfusion CMV infections. Latex agglutination is a sensitive and specific assay that is rapid and simple to perform and should be effective in selecting seronegative blood donors to prevent posttransfusion CMV infections in seronegative recipients. PMID:2991330
The driving force behind development of in vitro methods for platelet antibodies is identification of plasma factors causing platelet destruction. Early methods relied on measurement of platelet activation. Current methods are more specific and use a purified antibody against immunoglobulin or complement, which is usually labeled with /sup 125/I or tagged with an enzyme or fluorescein. Comparisons of quantitation of platelet-associated IgG show wide variability between different methods. The disparate results can be related both to differences in binding of secondary antibodies to immunoglobulin in solution compared to immunoglobulins attached to platelets and to the improper assumption that the binding ratio between the secondary detecting and primary antiplatelet antibody is one. Most assays can 1) identify neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura, 2) help to differentiate between immune and nonimmune thrombocytopenias, 3) help to sort out the offending drug when drug-induced thrombocytopenia is suspected, and 4) identify platelet alloantibodies and potential platelet donors via a cross match assay for refractory patients. However, the advantages of quantitative assays over qualitative methods with respect to predictions of patients clinical course and response to different treatments remain to be investigated. 61 references.
Summers, P L; Dubois, D R; Cohen, W H; Macarthy, P O; Binn, L N; Sjogren, M H; Snitbhan, R; Innis, B L; Eckels, K H
A solid-phase antibody capture hemadsorption (SPACH) assay was developed to detect hepatitis A virus (HAV)-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in sera from humans recently infected with hepatitis. The assay is performed with microtiter plates coated with anti-human IgM antibodies to capture IgM antibodies from the test sera. HAV-specific IgM antibody is detected by the addition of HAV hemagglutinating antigen and goose erythrocytes. Hemadsorption of erythrocytes to antigen-antibody complexes attached to the solid phase indicate the presence of IgM antibodies. The SPACH assay was compared to a commercial radioimmunoassay and was found to be equally or more sensitive and specific for the detection of HAV IgM antibodies. The SPACH assay is an alternative, rapid assay that doesn't require hazardous substrates or radioactivity for the detection of HAV-specific antibodies. PMID:8388890
Callado, Maria Roseli Monteiro; de Alencar Barroso, Maria Nancy; Alves, Vania Maria; de Lima Abreu, Maria Arenilda; Muniz, Lívia M Mesquita Mororó; Lima, José Rubens Costa
In order to evaluate the performance of the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) in antinuclear antibodies (ANA) testing, using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) on HEp-2 cells as a standard, 209 samples were studied from September to October/2010. The tests were conducted according to the procedures recommended by the manufacturers of the reagents. The interpretation of the IFA results was done according to the Brazilian standards. The charts of patients showing different results between the two techniques were analyzed. The CLIA efficiency was 89%, with a sensitivity of 65%, and a specificity of 94.7%. Nine (4.3%) false-positive and 14 (6.7%) false-negative results were detected. Of these, 13 (93%) represented no risk for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of the patients. The CLIA methodology reduced the need for the IFA manual technique by 77% (160/209). The ANA screening test proved to be a fast and acceptable methodology in the studied population. We established the following criteria for the introduction of an automated ANA screening: (1) Positive results must be confirmed by IFA to characterize the pattern and titer of the antibody. (2) Negative results are issued with a notice to request a new test by IFA when the clinical suspicion of autoimmune disease persists.
Antibodies are widely used biomarkers for the diagnosis of many diseases. Assays based on solid-phase immobilization of antigens comprise the majority of clinical platforms for antibody detection, but can be undermined by antigen denaturation and epitope masking. These technological hurdles are especially troublesome in detecting antibodies that bind nonlinear or conformational epitopes, such as anti-insulin antibodies in type 1 diabetes patients and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies associated with thyroid cancers. Radioimmunoassay remains the gold standard for these challenging antibody biomarkers, but the limited multiplexability and reliance on hazardous radioactive reagents have prevented their use outside specialized testing facilities. Here we present an ultrasensitive solution-phase method for detecting antibodies, termed antibody detection by agglutination-PCR (ADAP). Antibodies bind to and agglutinate synthetic antigen–DNA conjugates, enabling ligation of the DNA strands and subsequent quantification by qPCR. ADAP detects zepto- to attomoles of antibodies in 2 μL of sample with a dynamic range spanning 5–6 orders of magnitude. Using ADAP, we detected anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies from human patient plasma with a 1000-fold increased sensitivity over an FDA-approved radioimmunoassay. Finally, we demonstrate the multiplexability of ADAP by simultaneously detecting multiple antibodies in one experiment. ADAP’s combination of simplicity, sensitivity, broad dynamic range, multiplexability, and use of standard PCR protocols creates new opportunities for the discovery and detection of antibody biomarkers. PMID:27064772
Sign, Chandan; Sumana, Gajjala
Graphene oxide (GO), due to its excellent electrochemical properties and large surface area, known to be highly suitable material for biosensing application. Here, we report in situ synthesis of silver nanopaticles (AgNPs) onto the GO sheets for the electrochemical detection of Salmonella typhimurium (S.typhimurium). The GO-AgNPs composites have been deposited onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by the electrophoretic deposition technique. Carbodiimide coupling (EDC-NHS) has been used for the immobilization of antibodies of Salmonella typhimurium (anti-S.typhimurium) for detection of S.typhimurium. The electron microscopy and UV-visible studies reveal successful synthesis GO-AgNPs composites while FT-IR studies suggest the proper immobilization of anti-S.typhi. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been utilized for detection using anti-S.typhi/GOAgNPs/ITO based immunoelectrode as a function of S.typhimurium concentration. The fabricated immunosensor shows improved sensitivity of 33.04 μACFU-1mLcm-2 in a wide detection range of 101 to 106 CFUmL-1. This immunosensor may be utilized for the detection of other food borne pathogens like aflatoxin and E.coli also.
Xue, Li; Fiscella, Michele; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Goyal, Jaya; Holland, Claire; Gorovits, Boris; Morimoto, Alyssa
The immunogenicity profile of a biotherapeutic is determined by a multitude of product and patient-related risk factors that can influence the observed incidence and clinical consequences of immunogenicity. Pre-existing antibodies, i.e., biotherapeutic-reactive antibodies present in samples from treatment-naïve subjects, have been commonly observed during immunogenicity assessments; however their relevance in terms of the safety and efficacy of a biotherapeutic is poorly understood. An American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists-sponsored survey was conducted to gather information about the prevalence, nature, and consequences of pre-existing antibodies in clinical and nonclinical studies. The survey results indicate that pre-existing antibodies against a variety of biotherapeutics (e.g., mAbs, fusion proteins) are frequently encountered, especially in the context of autoimmune diseases, but that the methods and approaches used to detect, characterize, and report these antibodies vary. In most cases, pre-existing antibodies did not appear to have clinical consequences; however, a few of the respondents reported having observed an effect on pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, safety, and/or efficacy parameters. The findings from this survey are an important first step in evaluating the potential risks associated with the presence of pre-existing antibodies and highlight the importance of standardizing the approaches for detection and characterization of these antibodies. Cross-industry sharing of case studies and relevant data collection will help better inform biotherapeutic risk/benefit profiles and provide deeper understanding of the biological consequences of pre-existing antibodies.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...
Moldofsky, P.J.; Powe, J.; Hammond, N.D.
Radioisotope conjugated to monoclonal antibody products has been used for imaging tumors targeted by the antibody. As imaging progresses, new sets of procedural and technical questions arise. In this chapter, we discuss several current problems in imaging tumor with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody. These include (1) methods for selection of specific antibody and, once the particular antibody is selected, which fragment form is to be used; (2) imaging procedures: what are the optimum imaging parameters, such as optimum time for imaging after administration of tracer and considerations regarding background subtraction; and (3) noninvasive quantitative techniques: quantitation of localization of antibody indirectly from quantitative information in the images.100 references.
Linhares, A C; Salbé, E V; Gabbay, Y B; Rees, N
Rotavirus antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 711 (54.7%) of 1,299 serum samples collected from Indians belonging to 13 relatively isolated communities in the Amazon region. The Parakanãs Novos Indians showed prevalences of immunity of 17.9% and 10.7% by ELISA and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique, respectively. The remaining tribes, with the exception of the Yanomamis, Tucanos, and Xicrins, had percentages of positivity greater than 50% by at least one technique; among both the Kubenkrankreins and the Oyampis, all individuals over 20 years of age possessed antibody. High percentages of rotavirus positivity were observed among the Apalais, ranging from 56.0% (age group 31-40 years) to 74.0% (age group 0-5 years). In the Kubenkrankreins, Maiogongs, and Tucanos, the prevalences of rotavirus antibody regularly increased with age. ELISA and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique agreed in 72.5% of the specimens, but the former test yielded more positives than the latter.
Randazzo, D N; Michalski, F J
Antibodies were compared for use in the spin-amplified shell vial method for rapid cytomegalovirus detection. Commercial antibodies by Du Pont Co., Whittaker M.A. Bioproducts, Bartels Immunodiagnostic, Virostat, and Serono Diagnostics were compared at incubation times of 16 to 48 h on 22 patient specimens. Only the Du Pont antibody showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and no nonspecific reactions. PMID:2830312
Randazzo, D N; Michalski, F J
Antibodies were compared for use in the spin-amplified shell vial method for rapid cytomegalovirus detection. Commercial antibodies by Du Pont Co., Whittaker M.A. Bioproducts, Bartels Immunodiagnostic, Virostat, and Serono Diagnostics were compared at incubation times of 16 to 48 h on 22 patient specimens. Only the Du Pont antibody showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and no nonspecific reactions.
Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.
Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.
Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.
A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.
Cazenave, P. -A.; Ternynck, T.; Avrameas, S.
The occurrence of immunoglobulins with and without antibody specificity and with and without idiotypic specificity was studied, by use of enzyme-labeled antigen and antibodies, in lymph node cells of rabbits immunized with horse-radish peroxidase and hen ovalbumin. Some cells, containing immunoglobulins without detectable antibody function, were shown to contain idiotypes similar to those found in antibody-producing cells. PMID:4140504
Birkenheuer, Adam J; Levy, Michael G; Stebbins, Martha; Poore, Matthew; Breitschwerdt, Edward
Stray dogs (n=359) and kennel dogs (n=149) from North Carolina were tested for evidence of antiBabesia antibodies. AntiBabesia antibodies were detected in 21/359 and 22/149 of the stray and kennel dogs, respectively. A total of 57 dogs from both groups were tested for babesiasis by light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Babesia deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 3/28 of the stray dogs and 14/29 of the kennel dogs. When Babesia DNA was detected by PCR, the species-specific PCR results differed from the Babesia species antibody titer results in 6/17 of the PCR-positive dogs. There was no association between antiBabesia antibodies and the presence of ticks. There are currently Babesia gibsoni epizootics affecting American pit bull terrier kennels.
Scott, R; De Landazuri, M O; Gardner, P S; Owen, J J
An indirect membrane fluorescent antibody technique was established to study HEp 2 cells infected with respiratory syncytial (RS) virus. It was possible to detect IgG and IgM antibody to RS virus in the sera of patients with respiratory infections using this technique. The technique was further applied to the detection of IgA antibody to the same virus in colostrum. PMID:793751
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to...
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to...
... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to...
... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to...
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to...
Carol A. Clausen
Early detection of wood decay can prolong the service life of wood. Antibodies are the ideal probe for detecting fungi that cause biodeterioration because they are highly specific and can quantitatively determine the fungal antigen concentration from highly complex structures, such as wood. Polyclonal antibodies recognize multiple chemical sites of the targeted...
Baldwin, R.W.; Byers, V.S. )
Antibodies directed against markers on cancer cells are gaining in importance for the purpose of targeting diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In the past, this approach has had very limited success principally because the classical methods for producing antibodies from blood serum of animals immunized with cancer cells or extracts were unsatisfactory. The situation has changed dramatically since 1975 following the design of procedures for 'immortalizing' antibody-producing cells (lymphocytes) by fusing them with cultured myeloma cells to form hybridomas which continuously secrete antibodies. Since these hybridomas produce antibodies coded for by a single antibody-producing cell, the antibodies are called monoclonal. Building on these advances in biomedical research, it is now possible to reproducibly manufacture monoclonal antibodies on a scale suitable for use in cancer detection and therapy.
Barrick, Charles W.; Clarke, Sara M.; Nordin, Carl W.
An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected.
Barrick, C.W.; Clarke, S.M.; Nordin, C.W.
An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected. 10 figures.
Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.; Fuller, Christopher K.
The use of impedance measurements to detect the presence of pathogens attached to antibody-coated beads. In a fluidic device antibodies are immobilized on a surface of a patterned interdigitated electrode. Pathogens in a sample fluid streaming past the electrode attach to the immobilized antibodies, which produces a change in impedance between two adjacent electrodes, which impedance change is measured and used to detect the presence of a pathogen. To amplify the signal, beads coated with antibodies are introduced and the beads would stick to the pathogen causing a greater change in impedance between the two adjacent electrodes.
Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.; Fuller, Christopher K.
The use of impedance measurements to detect the presence of pathogens attached to antibody-coated beads. In a fluidic device antibodies are immobilized on a surface of a patterned interdigitated electrode. Pathogens in a sample fluid streaming past the electrode attach to the immobilized antibodies, which produces a change in impedance between two adjacent electrodes, which impedance change is measured and used to detect the presence of a pathogen. To amplify the signal, beads coated with antibodies are introduced and the beads would stick to the pathogen causing a greater change in impedance between the two adjacent electrodes.
Lee, Wonbae; Lau, Calvin; Richardson, Mark; Rajapakse, Arith; Weiss, Gregory; Collins, Philip; UCI, Molecular Biology; Biochemistry Collaboration; UCI, Departments of Physics; Astronomy Collaboration
Paclitaxel is a naturally-occurring pharmaceutical used in numerous cancer treatments, despite its toxic side effects. Partial inhibition of this toxicity has been demonstrated using weakly interacting monoclonal antibodies (3C6 and 8A10), but accurate monitoring of antibody and paclitaxel concentrations remains challenging. Here, single-molecule studies of the kinetics of antibody-paclitaxel interactions have been performed using single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The devices were sensitized with single antibody attachments to record the single-molecule binding dynamics of paclitaxel. This label-free technique recorded a range of dynamic interactions between the antibody and paclitaxel, and it provided sensitive paclitaxel detection for pM to nM concentrations. Measurements with two different antibodies suggest ways of extending this working range and uncovering the mechanistic differences among different antibodies.
... Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that men have a chance to ...
Bohac, J; Derbyshire, J B
Precipitating antibodies against transmissible gastroenteritis viral antigens were detected by the immunodiffusion test in two transmissible gastroenteritis viral hyperimmune antisera and in antiserum prepared against haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus but not in sera from several species of normal animals, in antisera prepared against a variety of othet viruses and bacteria or sera from swine with bacterial enteritis. When the immunodiffusion test was compared with the virus neutralization test for the detection of transmissible gastroeneritis viral antibodies in 20 swine sera certain samples which contained high titres of virus neutralizing antibodies failed to produce precipitation while other sera were positive in the immunodiffusion test although their virus neutralizing antibody titres were relatively low. Precipitating antibodies were also detected by immunodiffusion in several samples of milk whey from a sow which had been vaccinated with inactivated transmissible gastroenteritis virus. PMID:187295
Hutchinson, Alistair P.; Nicklin, Stephen
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765
Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites.
Jensen, Jesper; Hoiby, Poul; Emiliyanov, Grigoriy; Bang, Ole; Pedersen, Lars; Bjarklev, Anders
We demonstrate selective detection of fluorophore labeled antibodies from minute samples probed by a sensor layer of complementary biomolecules immobilized inside the air holes of microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber (mPOF). The fiber core is defined by a ring of 6 air holes and a simple procedure was applied to selectively capture either alpha-streptavidin or alpha-CRP antibodies inside these air holes. A sensitive and easy-to-use fluorescence method was used for the optical detection. Our results show that mPOF based biosensors can provide reliable and selective antibody detection in ultra small sample volumes.
The research goal is to develop a comprehensive intervention designed to increase early breast and cervical cancer detection among Filipino American...women. This population has been shown to have high rates of late stage breast and cervical cancer The first step toward increased early detection is
Baird, Cheryl L.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Miller, Keith D.; Kagen, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have an essential role in biomarker validation and diagnostic assays. A barrier to pursuing these applications is the reliance on immunization and hybridomas to produce mAbs, which is time-consuming and may not yield the desired mAb. We recommend a process flow for affinity reagent production that utilizes combinatorial protein display systems (eg, yeast surface display or phage display) rather than hybridomas. These systems link a selectable phenotype-binding conferred by an antibody fragment-with a means for recovering the encoding gene. Recombinant libraries obtained from immunizations can produce high-affinity antibodies (<10 nM) more quickly than other methods. Non-immune libraries provide an alternate route when immunizations are not possible, or when suitable mAbs are not recovered from an immune library. Directed molecular evolution (DME) is an integral part of optimizing mAbs obtained from combinatorial protein display, but can also be used on hybridoma-derived mAbs. Variants can easily be obtained and screened to increase the affinity of the parent mAb (affinity maturation). We discuss examples where DME has been used to tailor affinity reagents to specific applications. Combinatorial protein display also provides an accessible method for identifying antibody pairs, which are necessary for sandwich-type diagnostic assays.
Kochel, Tadeusz J; Watts, Douglas M; Halstead, Scott B; Hayes, Curtis G; Espinoza, Angelica; Felices, Vidal; Caceda, Roxana; Bautista, Christian T; Montoya, Ysabel; Douglas, Susan; Russell, Kevin L
In Iquitos, Peru, no cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever have been recorded in individuals infected with dengue-1 virus followed by American genotype dengue-2 (American dengue-2) virus. We assayed serum samples collected in Iquitos that tested positive for antibodies of monotype dengue-1 and monotype dengue-2 using a plaque reduction neutralisation test to determine their ability to neutralise the infectivity of two dengue-1 viruses, two American dengue-2 viruses, and two Asian dengue-2 viruses. Sera positive for the dengue-1 antibody neutralised dengue-1 viruses and American dengue-2 viruses much more effectively than Asian dengue-2 viruses. Neutralisation of American dengue-2 virus by sera positive for dengue-1 antibodies may account for the absence of dengue haemorrhagic fever in individuals infected with dengue-1 in 1990-91 followed by American dengue-2 virus in 1995 in Iquitos, Peru.
Patil, Shripad A; Katyayani, S; Arvind, N
Cryptococcus neoformans is the causative agent of Cryptococcosis, a chronic and life-threatening infection common in AIDS patients. Sonicated proteins of cryptococci were reported to contain antigenic properties. In the present study antigens are prepared from cryptococcal culture filtrate and by sonication. Secretory antigens are prepared by precipitation of culture filtrate using saturated ammonium sulfate followed by dialysis. Prepared antigens are tested for the presence of antibodies in the CSF samples of cryptococcal meningitis cases by ELISA. Comparison is made between India ink staining, latex antigen test, and the antibodies to the sonicated and secretory antigens. The results indicate that although antigen could be detected in the majority of samples, antibody could also be detected to the extent of 80-85%. It is interesting to note that some samples that were negative for India ink staining also showed high antibody responses. Hence, antibody detection could be a valuable marker in association with India ink staining for the early diagnosis of the cryptococcal infection. This test may also counter false positivity encountered in latex antigen test. Antibody detection assay would be a viable alternative, which has 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Thus the presently described test aids in immunodiagnosis of cryptococcal infection.
Dailey, Jennifer; Lerner, Mitchell; Goldsmith, Brett; Brisson, Dustin; Johnson, A. T. Charlie
We combine antibodies for Lyme flagellar protein with carbon nanotube transistors to create an electronic sensor capable of definitive detection of Lyme disease. Over 35,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported in the United States each year, of which more than 23 percent are originally misdiagnosed. Rational design of the coupling of the biological system to the electronic system gives us a flexible sensor platform which we can apply to several biological systems. By coupling these antibodies to carbon nanotubes in particular, we allow for fast, sensitive, highly selective, electronic detection. Unlike antibody or biomarker detection, bacterial protein detection leads to positive identification of both early and late stage bacterial infections, and is easily expandable to environmental monitoring.
Wu, C H; Chiang, B T; Fann, M C; Lan, J L
From several fusion experiments between spleen cells obtained from BALB/c mice immunized with partially purified Cr-PI of American cockroach and NS-1 cells, growth was observed in many wells. Seven stable subclones secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Cr-PI, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with high absorbance values and immunoblot analysis, were obtained. All seven mAbs were characterized as IgG1 subclass by immunodiffusion, and reacted strongly with 72 kilodaltons (kD) of Cr-PI which have been identified as a major allergen of American cockroach. Six mAbs were found to have similar epitope specificities against Cr-PI by ELISA. The remaining mAb was found to have different epitope specificities with others. Interestingly, all mAbs did not react with any components of crude extracts of Oriental and German cockroaches as determined by immunoblot analysis and ELISA. A mAb-based double-antibody sandwich ELISA was developed, and the ELISA was dose-dependent and capable of detecting as little as 140 ng of Cr-PI allergen.
Rodríguez-Martínez, Luis Mario; Marquez-Ipiña, Alan Roberto; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Pérez-Chavarría, Roberto; González-Vázquez, Juan Carlos; González-González, Everardo; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Ponce-Ponce de León, César Alejandro; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Alvarez, Mario Moisés
Current Ebola virus (EBOV) detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragments, rather than full-length antibodies, might represent a cost-effective alternative for the development of diagnostic and possibly even therapeutic alternatives for EBOV. We report the design and expression of three recombinant anti-GP mAb fragments in Escherichia coli cultures. These fragments contained the heavy and light variable portions of the three well-studied anti-GP full-length mAbs 13C6, 13F6, and KZ52, and are consequently named scFv-13C6, scFv-13F6, and Fab-KZ52, respectively. All three fragments exhibited specific anti-GP binding activity in ELISA experiments comparable to that of full-length anti-GP antibodies (i.e., the same order of magnitude) and they are easily and economically produced in bacterial cultures. Antibody fragments might represent a useful, effective, and low cost alternative to full-length antibodies in Ebola related capture and diagnostics applications.
López-Pacheco, Felipe; Pérez-Chavarría, Roberto; González-Vázquez, Juan Carlos; González-González, Everardo; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Ponce-Ponce de León, César Alejandro; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Alvarez, Mario Moisés
Background Current Ebola virus (EBOV) detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragments, rather than full-length antibodies, might represent a cost-effective alternative for the development of diagnostic and possibly even therapeutic alternatives for EBOV. Methods/Principal Findings We report the design and expression of three recombinant anti-GP mAb fragments in Escherichia coli cultures. These fragments contained the heavy and light variable portions of the three well-studied anti-GP full-length mAbs 13C6, 13F6, and KZ52, and are consequently named scFv-13C6, scFv-13F6, and Fab-KZ52, respectively. All three fragments exhibited specific anti-GP binding activity in ELISA experiments comparable to that of full-length anti-GP antibodies (i.e., the same order of magnitude) and they are easily and economically produced in bacterial cultures. Conclusion/Significance Antibody fragments might represent a useful, effective, and low cost alternative to full-length antibodies in Ebola related capture and diagnostics applications. PMID:26489048
Dunbar, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H; Bravo, Marjorie D; Kamel, Hany T; Gorlin, Jed; Norris, Philip J; Williamson, Phillip C; Vassallo, Ralph R
US blood centers can screen female plateletpheresis donors with a history of one or more pregnancies for both Class I and Class II anti-HLA antibodies using one of two platforms. One is a flow-based assay that yields a quantitative result and the other an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that yields either a positive or a negative result (above or below cutoff). The results of HLA antibody screening tests were analyzed by donor ABO group. Results from large and small American blood collection centers using both platforms were analyzed. Positivity rates were compared by chi-square test and the results stratified by parity using the Mann-Whitney test. No differences in parity were noted among donors of different ABO groups, but a significantly higher rate of HLA antibody positivity was observed among group O donors for the ELISA (31% of group O donors vs. 21% of non-group O donors, p < 0.0001). The higher rate of positivity was primarily due to Class I reactivity. This difference in antibody frequency was not observed at centers using the flow-based assay. Centers using the ELISA may have a higher rate of permanent deferral from plateletpheresis donation among group O female donors. Although the reasons for the higher rate of reactivity on Class I ELISA testing are unknown, this could result from test system characteristics or differences in group O donor antibody strength or specificity. © 2016 AABB.
Anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigotes IgG antibodies detected by flow cytometry (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a tool for serodiagnosis and for post-therapeutic cure assessment in American visceral leishmaniasis.
Garcia, Lúcia Maria; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Gomes, Izabelle Teixeira; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Dietze, Reynaldo; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic infection, caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex. The diagnosis of VL is complex because most clinical features are shared with other commonly occurring febrile hepatosplenic diseases that can be endemic along with VL. A number of serological devices are available but still require improvement mainly due to residual post-therapeutic serology and the cross-reactivity with other Trypanosomatidae protozooses. This study intended to describe and evaluate the performance of an indirect immunofluorescence assay referred as flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigote IgG antibodies (FC-AFPA-IgG) for serodiagnosis of VL and assessment of post-therapeutic cure. The sera reactivity is reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasite (PPFP) along the titration curve. The analysis of sera titration curve indicated the sera dilution 1/32,000 and the PPFP=25% as the cut-off to segregate positive and negative results. Using these parameters, the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed outstanding sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment purposes. The inter-test reproducibility of FC-AFPA-IgG was also verified, considering two independent Analysts and validated the results obtained by FC-AFPA-IgG. Moreover, the comparison between FC-AFPA-IgG and the conventional serologic test (ELISA) showed that besides the statistically analogous results with strong positive correlation the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed higher performance indexes. Further analysis demonstrated that while cross-reactivity was observed in 8% of samples tested by ELISA, no cross-reactivity was detected by FC-AFPA-IgG. Together, the findings presented in this study showed the potential of FC-AFPA-IgG in both diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment of VL.
Madrid, Raquel; de la Cruz, Silvia; García, Aina; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa
Phage display is a powerful tool to produce recombinant antibodies against a given antigen without animal immunization. This technology employs libraries of recombinant bacteriophages that display billions of different functional antibody fragments on their surface. They are selected by panning in vitro against the target antigen in search for specific binders. In this chapter, we describe the selection of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies to be used for detection of allergenic proteins from nuts in food products. The artificial libraries TomLinson I+J (MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and MRC Centre for Protein Engineering) were employed that resulted in successful phage-ELISA systems for detection of almond and walnut proteins in commercial food products.
Fragoso, Yara Dadalti
Natalizumab and alemtuzumab are monoclonal antibodies approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A third monoclonal antibody, daclizumab, should soon become another alternative for RRMS therapy. A group of 26 doctors working at specific MS Units in seven different Latin American countries participated in the present study. All 26 neurologists had experience with natalizumab for the treatment of MS and were willing to discuss strategies for improving this treatment. Most neurologists had no confidence in starting a patient on natalizumab and alemtuzumab, which are new and efficient drugs approved by North American, European and most Latin American health agencies. The Latin American specialists felt they were not properly informed on daclizumab. Specific pharmacovigilance programs for each of these monoclonal antibodies were considered very important by the neurologists, who were also willing to discuss these therapeutic options with peers from other countries.
Maldonado-Rodríguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Chavez-Negrete, Adolfo; Rojas-Uribe, Magdalena; Posadas-Mondragon, Araceli; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Cevallos, Ana Maria; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz; Lira, Rosalia
Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs). Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x). The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field.
Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Alvarez-García, Gema; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; García-Párraga, Daniel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana
The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in Antarctic marine mammals. Two hundred and eleven sera from different species of pinnipeds collected in years 2007, 2010 and 2011 from different locations in the South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula were analysed using a commercially available agglutination test kit. The presence of antibodies (titres ≥ 1:25) against T. gondii was detected in a total of 28 animals (13.3%). Amongst animal species, percentages of detection were higher in Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) (76.9%; 10/13) followed by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) (41.9%; 13/31). Antibodies were also found in 4 of 165 (2.4%) Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 1 of 2 Crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga). Highest titres (1:100-1:800) were also observed in Southern elephant seals and Weddell seals. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the detection of antibodies against T. gondii in Antarctic marine mammals.
Wang, Hualei; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Wang, Chengyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Yuwei; Su, Jianqing; Zheng, Xuexing; Hou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Hainan; Yang, Ruimei; Zou, Xiaohuan; Huang, Geng; Xia, Xianzhu
An immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) for detecting antibodies to rabies virus was developed, using colloidal gold particles labeled with rabies virus glycoprotein as the tracer. The assay was evaluated using sera from dogs immunized with various commercial rabies vaccines, or from dogs in the clinics and sera from dogs immunized with vaccines against pathogens other than rabies virus, and negative sera from a wide variety of animal sources, including dogs, mice, and cats which had never been vaccinated. The ICTS was found to be highly specific for antibodies against rabies virus, with a detection limit of 0.5IU/ml as measured by the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test. Compared with the FAVN test, the specificity and sensitivity of ICTS were 98.2% and 90.4%, respectively. There was an excellent agreement between results obtained by the ICTS and FAVN tests (kappa=0.888). Strips stored at 4°C in a plastic bag with a desiccant retained their specificity and sensitivity for at least 15 months, and strips stored at ambient temperature remained stable for 12 months. The immunochromatographic test strip may therefore be useful for clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipment and for diagnosis in the field for rapid detection of rabies virus-specific antibodies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maldonado-Rodríguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Chavez-Negrete, Adolfo; Rojas-Uribe, Magdalena; Posadas-Mondragon, Araceli; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz
Background Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs). Methods Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. Results DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x). The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. Conclusion DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field. PMID:28630868
Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio
Hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Old World, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)/Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS), in the New World. Serological methods are the most common approach used for laboratory diagnosis of HCPS, however theses methods do not allow the characterization of viral genotypes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by hantaviruses, enabling detection of few target sequence copies in the sample. However, most studies proposed methods of PCR with species-specific primers. This study developed a simple and reliable diagnostic system by RT-PCR for different hantavirus detection. Using new primers set, we evaluated human and rodent hantavirus positive samples of various regions from Brazil. Besides, we performed computational analyzes to evaluate the detection of other South American hantaviruses. The diagnostic system by PCR proved to be a sensible and simple assay, allowing amplification of Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Laguna Negra virus, Rio Mamore virus and Jabora virus, beyond of the possibility of the detecting Andes, Anajatuba, Bermejo, Choclo, Cano Delgadito, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran, Pergamino and Rio Mearim viruses. The primers sets designed in this study can detect hantaviruses from almost all known genetics lineages in Brazil and from others South America countries and also increases the possibility to detect new hantaviruses. These primers could easily be used both in diagnosis of suspected hantavirus infections in humans and also in studies with animals reservoirs.
Madhan Mohan, T; Nath, N; Anand, S
Optical waveguides based immunoassay has been reported in the literature for the detection of pathogens likeC. botulinum and F1 antigen ofY. pestis (3) and also for the antibodies to pathogens like the Rubella virus (4) in the serum or the whole blood. In this line we have demonstrated the FOI for the detection ofS. digitata antibody. Experiments are in progress in our laboratory to standardise the sensor for detection of Bancroftian filariasis caused byW. bancrofti. Few modifications are also in the process so as to improve the signal amplification at evanescent region as well as to reduce the two step method into single step method. The FOI has an advantage over other conventional methods because no extensive washing steps are required and the whole procedure takes just 15 minutes to get the result. The FOI designed for this experiment can be made portable for use in the field level for epidemiological studies.
Ravichandran, Supriya; Sullivan, Mark A.; Callahan, Linda M.; Bentley, Karen L.; Delouise, Lisa A.
The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in technological applications and in commercial products has escalated environmental health and safety concerns. The detection of NPs in the environment and in biological systems is challenged by limitations associated with commonly used analytical techniques. In this paper we report on the development and characterization of NP binding antibodies, termed NProbes. Phage display methodology was used to discover antibodies that bind NPs dispersed in solution. We present a proof-of-concept for the generation of NProbes and their use for detecting quantum dots and titanium dioxide NPs in vitro and in an ex vivo human skin model. Continued development and refinement of NProbes to detect NPs that vary in composition, shape, size, and surface coating will comprise a powerful tool kit that can be used to advance nanotechnology research particularly in the nanotoxicology and nanotherapeutics fields.The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in technological applications and in commercial products has escalated environmental health and safety concerns. The detection of NPs in the environment and in biological systems is challenged by limitations associated with commonly used analytical techniques. In this paper we report on the development and characterization of NP binding antibodies, termed NProbes. Phage display methodology was used to discover antibodies that bind NPs dispersed in solution. We present a proof-of-concept for the generation of NProbes and their use for detecting quantum dots and titanium dioxide NPs in vitro and in an ex vivo human skin model. Continued development and refinement of NProbes to detect NPs that vary in composition, shape, size, and surface coating will comprise a powerful tool kit that can be used to advance nanotechnology research particularly in the nanotoxicology and nanotherapeutics fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures and detailed methods of various techniques
Zhu, W Y; Li, H X; Liang, Y
To investigate the effects of blood transfusion and number of pregnancies on ABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies in pregnant women with type O blood. The study included 4,200 pregnant women with type O blood (their husbands were with non-O type blood) that were divided into transfusion group and non-transfusion group, according to whether they had a history of blood transfusion. The both groups were respectively divided into three subgroups (the number of pregnancies was one, two, and > or = three). The ABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies were detected at the same time. The effects ofABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies on hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) were discussed. There was no consistency of ABO antibody titers and existence of irregular antibody. The positive rates of irregular antibody of transfusion group and of the subgroup (number of pregnancies > or = three) were far higher than that of non-transfusion group and of the subgroups (number of pregnancies < three), respectively. All pregnant women with positive irregular antibody in non-transfusion group were with HDN. For pregnant women with number of pregnancies > or = three or with history of blood transfusion, the prenatal joint detection of ABO antibody titers and irregular antibodies is helpful for accurately reflecting the in vivo antibody type and level.
Goldman, Ellen R.; Liu, Jinny L.; Bernstein, Rachael D.; Swain, Marla D.; Mitchell, Stanley Q.; Anderson, George P.
Phage-displayed single domain antibodies (sdAb) were compared to monomeric solubly expressed sdAb and llama polyclonal antibodies for the detection of ricin. SdAb are comprised of the variable domain derived from camelid heavy chain only antibodies (HcAb). Although HcAb lack variable light chains, they as well as their derivative sdAb are able to bind antigens with high affinity. The small size of sdAb (∼16 kDa), while advantageous in many respects, limits the number of labels that can be incorporated. The ability to incorporate multiple labels is a beneficial attribute for reporter elements. Opportunely, sdAb are often selected using phage display methodology. Using sdAb displayed on bacteriophage M13 as the reporter element gives the potential for incorporating a very high number of labels. We have demonstrated the use of both sdAb and phage- displayed sdAb for the detection of ricin using both enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Luminex fluid array assays. The phage-displayed sdAb led to five to ten fold better detection of ricin in both the ELISA and Luminex assays, resulting in limits of detection of 1 ng/mL and 64 pg/mL respectively. The phage-displayed sdAb were also dramatically more effective for the visualization of binding to target in nitrocellulose dot blot assays, a method frequently used for epitope mapping. PMID:22389616
Schmidt, E. L.
The fluorescent antibody technique and its use in direct microscopic examination of the soil is discussed. Feasibility analyses were made to determine if the method could be used to simultaneously observe and recognize microorganisms in the soil. Some data indicate this may be possible. Data are also given on two related problems involving the interaction of soil microorganisms with plant roots to form symbiotic structures. One was concerned with the developmental ecology and biology of the root nodule of alder and the second was concerned with the ectotrophic mycorrhizal structure on forest trees, especially pines. In both, the fluorescent antibody detection of the microbial symbiont both as a free living form in soil, and as a root inhabiting form in the higher plant was emphasized. A third aspect of the research involved the detection of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in soil.
Erdman, D D; Anderson, L J; Adams, D R; Stewart, J A; Markowitz, L E; Bellini, W J
Monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin protein, fusion protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, and nucleoprotein of measles virus were evaluated as detector antibodies in capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for the detection of specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibodies to measles virus. A pool of monoclonal antibodies to hemagglutinin protein and nucleoprotein proved optimal and was further evaluated. Specific IgM was detected in 97% of adolescents with clinical measles, 97% of infants 3 weeks postvaccination, and less than 1% of normal serum specimens. Specific IgA antibodies were found in 97% of adolescents with clinical measles, 97% of infants 3 weeks postvaccination, and less than 1% of normal serum specimens. Specific IgA antibodies were found in 97% of clinical measles cases and vaccinees, in 26% of healthy persons, and in 36% of infants 8 months postvaccination; consequently, IgA antibodies were not a useful indicator of recent measles infection. A significant increase in IgG antibodies between paired specimens was detected in 92% of clinical cases and all vaccinees. Only 59% of infant specimens had persistent IgG antibodies as detected by capture EIA at 8 months postvaccination, whereas all specimens had antibodies as detected by hemagglutination inhibition and plaque neutralization. An alternative indirect EIA, in which antigen was directly absorbed to the solid phase, was more sensitive than the capture design, detecting IgG antibodies in all infants postvaccination. When standardized with a microneutralization assay for the detection of persistent antibodies, the indirect IgG EIA gave predictive values for positive and negative tests exceeding 90%. Our capture IgM and indirect IgG EIAs provide a practical combination of serologic tests for the determination of acute measles virus infection and past exposure to measles virus or vaccine, respectively. PMID:1885743
N. ceranae is now present in a high proportion of American honey bee hives. It has been implicated in colony mortality, especially in conjunction with parasites and other pathogens. PCR is the method of choice to detect light infections and to distinguish between species. It is highly sensitive a...
Vo-Dinh, T.; Tromberg, B.J.; Griffin, G.D.; Ambrose, K.R.; Sepaniak, M.J.; Alarie, J.P.
In this work we have investigated the performance of an antibody-based fiberoptics sensor for the detection of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene and its DNA-adduct product BP-tetrol. The excellent sensitivity of this device - femtomole limits of detection for BP - illustrates that it has considerable potential to perform analyses of chemical and biological samples at trace levels in complex matrices. The results indicate that fiberoptics-based fluoroimmunosensors can be useful in a wide spectrum of biochemical and clinical analyses. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Maule, J.; Steele, A.; Toporski, J.; McKay, D. S.
At least two questions arise in developing a life-detection strategy: What do we look for and what will positive detection tell us? Unfortunately, many 'biomarkers' are not conclusive markers of biology. For example, sugars, amino acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and certain bacteria-like morphologies can all be produced non-biologically. Inferences of life following the detection of several inconclusive biomarkers in one sample will always be questioned. Although DNA, RNA and proteins are excellent markers of biology, and preserved on Earth for several millions of years, their survival over longer periods of time is low. Ideally, we should target biomarkers which are both stable over time and formed exclusively from biological processes, i.e. a 'category 1' biomarker under the new classification system of Mckay. We have used antibodies to detect category 1 and other biomarkers in rock samples. Extraction takes a few minutes and analysis a few hours. We have presented use of new antibodies to detect hopanes and have shown proof of operation during martian gravity.
Kierny, Michael R.; Cunningham, Thomas D.; Kay, Brian K.
The utility of biomarker detection in tomorrow's personalized health care field will mean early and accurate diagnosis of many types of human physiological conditions and diseases. In the search for biomarkers, recombinant affinity reagents can be generated to candidate proteins or post-translational modifications that differ qualitatively or quantitatively between normal and diseased tissues. The use of display technologies, such as phage-display, allows for manageable selection and optimization of affinity reagents for use in biomarker detection. Here we review the use of recombinant antibody fragments, such as scFvs and Fabs, which can be affinity-selected from phage-display libraries, to bind with both high specificity and affinity to biomarkers of cancer, such as Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) and Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We discuss how these recombinant antibodies can be fabricated into nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and quantum dots, for the purpose of enhancing detection of biomarkers at low concentrations (pg/mL) within complex mixtures such as serum or tissue extracts. Other sensing technologies, which take advantage of ‘Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering’ (gold nanoshells), frequency changes in piezoelectric crystals (quartz crystal microbalance), or electrical current generation and sensing during electrochemical reactions (electrochemical detection), can effectively provide multiplexed platforms for detection of cancer and injury biomarkers. Such devices may soon replace the traditional time consuming ELISAs and Western blots, and deliver rapid, point-of-care diagnostics to market. PMID:22833780
Maule, J.; Steele, A.; Toporski, J.; McKay, D. S.
At least two questions arise in developing a life-detection strategy: What do we look for and what will positive detection tell us? Unfortunately, many 'biomarkers' are not conclusive markers of biology. For example, sugars, amino acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and certain bacteria-like morphologies can all be produced non-biologically. Inferences of life following the detection of several inconclusive biomarkers in one sample will always be questioned. Although DNA, RNA and proteins are excellent markers of biology, and preserved on Earth for several millions of years, their survival over longer periods of time is low. Ideally, we should target biomarkers which are both stable over time and formed exclusively from biological processes, i.e. a 'category 1' biomarker under the new classification system of Mckay. We have used antibodies to detect category 1 and other biomarkers in rock samples. Extraction takes a few minutes and analysis a few hours. We have presented use of new antibodies to detect hopanes and have shown proof of operation during martian gravity.
Cho, H J; Entz, S C; Deregt, D; Jordan, L T; Timoney, P J; McCollum, W H
A potent ELISA antigen was prepared from equine arteritis virus (EAV) by differential centrifugation of EAV-infected cell culture fluid, followed by solubilization of the preparation by Triton X-100 treatment. Using this antigen and a mouse monoclonal antibody against the G(L) protein of EAV, a reliable blocking ELISA (bELISA) was developed for the detection of EAV antibodies in equine sera. The bELISA was evaluated using a total of 837 test serum samples. The relative sensitivity (n = 320) of the bELISA compared to the serum neutralization (SN) test was 99.4%. The bELISA appears to be a highly specific test, the specificity of which did not appear to be adversely affected by previous exposure of horses to non-EAV-containing biologicals. Of 119 serum samples, 21 from horses without any history of exposure to EAV and 98 from racetrack Thoroughbreds, 118 were negative in the SN test and bELISA. One sample was SN-negative but suspicious with the bELISA. Based on testing 465 SN-negative field samples and 52 SN-negative samples from experimental horses, and excluding any sera giving a suspicious reaction, the relative specificity of the bELISA was 97.7%. Samples should be examined undiluted and diluted 1/10 in the bELISA because the testing of sera of high neutralizing antibody titer may be affected by a prozone-like phenomenon. The bELISA is a more rapid and cost-efficient test than the SN test for the detection of EAV antibodies in equine sera. PMID:10680655
Beltrán, Mauricio; Herrera, Andrea; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Berrio, Maritza; Bermúdez, María Isabel
Chagas disease is a public health problem in Latin America. Even though vector-borne infection is the most important transmission mode for this disease, other modes such as transfusions require evaluation. To describe the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in multitransfused patients. We detected IgG antibodies against T. cruzi by two immunoassays in samples from multitransfused patients in four hospitals located in Bogotá and Medellín, Colombia. We analyzed the association with known risk factors, and we calculated the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals using Stata 11™ statistical software. In total, 479 samples were tested. Overall, T. cruzi antibody prevalence was 1.88% (nine patients). Five were onco-hematological patients, two were hemodialyzed, one had thalassemia, and one had suffered acute blood loss. We found no hemophilia patients. There was no association between known risk factors for transfusion-transmitted infection (such as the number of transfusion events, number of blood units and type of blood component) and the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in this study. Only the hepatitis C virus infection showed a positive association with the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies (OR=5.68, 95% CI: 1.36-23.63). The results of this study showed a low frequency of T. cruzi infection in multitransfused patients, suggesting that the risk of transfusion infection in Colombia is low. Known risk factors for transfusion-related infection were not associated with the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies.
Ramadass, P; Samuel, B; Nachimuthu, K
A rapid semi-quantitative latex agglutination test (LAT) has been standardized for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in serum samples of man and animals. The efficacy of the LAT was compared with the plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 276 human serum samples were analyzed by both LAT and ELISA and percentage positives were 84.8 and 85.9%, respectively. Similarly, of 65 animal samples tested, 63.1 and 69.2% positivity were observed in LAT and ELISA, respectively. Even though the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than LAT, the rapidity, simplicity and economics of the LAT were found to fulfill the requirements of a screening test for leptospiral antibodies.
Vanderlaan, M.; Van Emon, J.; Watkins, B.; Stanker, L.
Problems in analytical chemistry may limit monitoring for trace organic residues by traditional chromatographic methods. For example, the cost and analysis time per sample may preclude adequate sampling, making the development of alternative technologies desirable. Immunoassays are one such alternative, with the potential for cost reduction by automation and parallel sample processing. A particularly significant advance in the past decade has been the development of monoclonal antibodies, which offer greater selectivity and reproducibility than conventional antisera. Immunoassays can be developed that use simple, field-portable instrumentation, give rapid results, and have detection limits of less than a part-per-billion. This paper reviews the general technology for developing monoclonal antibodies to small organic molecules using the immunoassay of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) as an example. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Zhang, Xiaohai; Reinsmoen, Nancy L
The single antigen test is widely used in the field of transplantation to determine the specificity of HLA antibodies. It will be beneficial to standardize the procedure of the single antigen test among HLA laboratories. It is not uncommon that single antigen testing on native sera fails to detect antibodies with very high concentrations. It has been shown that cleavage products of activated complement components may mask strongly binding antibodies in single antigen testing. To overcome inhibition by the activated complement products, sera are pretreated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), dithiothreitol (DTT), or heat inactivation before single antigen testing. However, no studies have been published to systemically compare the impact of these treatments on single antigen testing. The aim of this study is to understand the different effects these treatments may have on single antigen test results. We found that mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) obtained from sera treated with EDTA and heat inactivation were nearly identical, while DTT treatment was less potent to remove the inhibition. In addition, sera dilution did not further increase MFI of antibodies after EDTA treatment. Our results provide guidance to choose a pretreatment reagent for single antigen testing, and to compare studies obtained from laboratories using different treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Camargo, Z P; Gesztesi, J L; Saraiva, E C; Taborda, C P; Vicentini, A P; Lopes, J D
Four murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 17C, 21A, 21F, and 32B) raised against the 43-kDa glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested in a capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of specific human anti-gp43 immunoglobulin G in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). All MAbs reacted similarly in the assay. These MAbs, which detected anti-gp43 at levels of as low as 500 pg/ml, were demonstrated to specifically recognize at least two different epitopes in gp43 binding assays. Specific antibodies in the sera of patients with active PCM were detected at dilutions of as high as 1:819,200, and the reactivities of patient sera, as measured by optical densities, were found to be significantly higher than those of control sera. The comparison between classical ELISA and our capture enzyme immunoassay showed that both sensitivity and specificity were greatly improved by the latter. These MAbs represent the first specific reagents to P. brasiliensis described for use in serological tests for PCM. Images PMID:7814469
Katz, David; Shi, Wei; Wildes, Martin J; Krug, Peter W; Hilliard, Julia K
B virus, a natural pathogen of macaques, can cause a fatal zoonotic disease in humans. Serologic screening of macaques by titration ELISA (tELISA, screening test) and by Western blot analysis (WBA, confirmatory test) is one of the principle measures to prevent human infection. Here we slightly modified these 2 tests and reevaluated their correlation. We developed a high-throughput tELISA and used it to screen 278 sera simultaneously against the homologous BV antigen and the heterologous antigens of Papiine herpesvirus 2 and Human herpesvirus 1. More sera (35.6%) were positive by the BV-ELISA than by the HVP2-ELISA (21.6%) or HSV1-ELISA (19.8%). The superiority of the homologous tELISA over the heterologous tELISA was prominent in low-titer sera. WBA confirmed only 21% of the tELISA-positive sera with low or intermediate antibody titers. These sera might have contained antibodies to conformational epitopes that could not be detected by WBA, in which denatured antigens are used, but that could be detected by tELISA, which detects both linear and conformational epitopes. WBA confirmed 82% of the tELISA high-titer sera. However, WBA defined the remaining 18% of sera, which were negative by tELISA, as nonnegative. This finding can be attributed to the difficulties encountered with the subjective interpretation of results by WBA. Together, the current results indicate the inadequacy of WBA as a confirmatory assay for sera with low antibody titers. PMID:23561886
Larsson, Charlotte; Bramfeldt, Hanna; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl; Höök, Fredrik
Lipid bilayers containing 5% nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) lipids supported on SiO2 have been used as a template for immobilization of oligohistidine-tagged single-chained antibody fragments (scFvs) directed against cholera toxin. It was demonstrated that histidine-tagged scFvs could be equally efficiently coupled to an NTA-Ni2+-containing lipid bilayer from a purified sample as from an expression supernatant, thereby providing a coupling method that eliminates time-consuming protein prepurification steps. Irrespective of whether the coupling was made from the unpurified or purified antibody preparation, the template proved to be efficient for antigen (cholera toxin) detection, verified using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. In addition, via a secondary amplification step using lipid vesicles containing GM1 (the natural membrane receptor for cholera toxin), the detection limit of cholera toxin was less than 750 pM. To further strengthen the coupling of scFvs to the lipid bilayer, scFvs containing two histidine tags, instead of just one tag, were also evaluated. The increased coupling strength provided via the bivalent anchoring significantly reduced scFv displacement in complex solutions containing large amounts of histidine-containing proteins, verified via cholera toxin detection in serum.
MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken
Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842
Minami, Shohei; Terada, Yutaka; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Masaki; Onuma, Mamoru; Ota, Akihiko; Ota, Yuichi; Akabane, Yoshihito; Tamukai, Kenichi; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Naganuma, Yumiko; Kanagawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Kaneichi; Ohashi, Masanari; Takami, Yoshinori; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Tanoue, Tomoaki; Ohwaki, Masao; Ohta, Jouji; Une, Yumi; Maeda, Ken
Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1-179 and a.a. 180-374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180-374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1-179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1-179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection.
Petit, C; Sauron, M E; Gilbert, M; Thèze, J
The protein-blotting technique has been tested as a mean to study the expression of idiotypic determinants. A monoclonal BALB/c antipoly (Glu60-Ala30-Tyr10) GAT antibody (G5) was caused to migrate on SDS gel and transferred to a nitrocellulose filter. To facilitate the renaturation of the idiotypic determinants, the blotted proteins were incubated in NP40 buffer, immediately after the transfer. The ability of two anti-idiotypic sera to detect two defined idiotypic specificities of the blotted G5 molecules was investigated. When G5 was electrophoresed on SDS gel under non-reducing conditions, a specific detection of two idiotypic specificities of the G5-blotted molecules was obtained. On the other hand, when G5 was migrated under reducing conditions, none of the two antiidiotypic sera gave a staining of the heavy and the light chains. This result indicates that molecules expressing conformational idiotypic determinants can be detected by protein-blotting technique after migration on SDS gel. Moreover, this suggests the possible interest of this technique to analyse non-antibody molecules bearing idiotypic determinants.
Presani, G; Perticarari, S; Mangiarotti, M A
A very sensitive solid-phase fluorescent immunoassay to detect anti-alpha-gliadin IgA class antibodies is described. The solid phase consisted of polystyrene carboxylated microspheres, of 5 microns diameter, coated with alpha-gliadin. Serum-specific antibodies bound to the alpha-gliadin were measured by flow cytometry using fluorescein-conjugated anti-human IgA. 41 samples were tested and the results compared with those obtained by a standard method: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A good correlation was found between the two techniques (r = 0.96). The sera of untreated coeliac children showed significantly higher antibody values than the sera of children on a gluten-free diet or healthy control groups. The flow cytometric method was more sensitive when the Kolgomorov/Smirnov test was used to analyse the histograms. This method provides an alternative screening test for coeliac disease and may also be used to confirm borderline results obtained in the ELISA test.
Kang, Seon Joo; Lim, Young Ae; Baik, Sae Yun
Detection methods for ABO antibody (Ab) titers vary across laboratories, and the results are different depending on the method used. We aimed to compare titer values using different detection methods for the measurement of ABO Ab titers. For ABO Ab detection, pooled group A or B red blood cells (RBCs) were reacted with each of 20 sera from blood groups A, B, or O without dithiothreitol treatment. The room-temperature (RT) incubation technique and the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) were used in the tube test and gel card test. Flow cytometry (FCM) was performed by using anti-IgM and anti-IgG Abs. Regardless of the blood groups tested, the FCM assay with anti-IgM showed the highest titer compared to the tube test and gel card test with RT incubation in both. The tube test with IAT showed a higher titer than the gel card test with IAT (Gel-IAT) or FCM with anti-IgG in blood group A and B, while Gel-IAT showed the highest titer relative to the other tests, only for the anti-A Ab in blood group O. There were significant differences in the titers depending on the detection method used, and each method showed a different detection capacity for each ABO Ab depending on the ABO blood group tested. Therefore, caution should be exercised in interpreting ABO Ab titer results, taking into consideration the detection method used and the blood group.
Kang, Seon Joo; Baik, Sae Yun
Background Detection methods for ABO antibody (Ab) titers vary across laboratories, and the results are different depending on the method used. We aimed to compare titer values using different detection methods for the measurement of ABO Ab titers. Methods For ABO Ab detection, pooled group A or B red blood cells (RBCs) were reacted with each of 20 sera from blood groups A, B, or O without dithiothreitol treatment. The room-temperature (RT) incubation technique and the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) were used in the tube test and gel card test. Flow cytometry (FCM) was performed by using anti-IgM and anti-IgG Abs. Results Regardless of the blood groups tested, the FCM assay with anti-IgM showed the highest titer compared to the tube test and gel card test with RT incubation in both. The tube test with IAT showed a higher titer than the gel card test with IAT (Gel-IAT) or FCM with anti-IgG in blood group A and B, while Gel-IAT showed the highest titer relative to the other tests, only for the anti-A Ab in blood group O. Conclusions There were significant differences in the titers depending on the detection method used, and each method showed a different detection capacity for each ABO Ab depending on the ABO blood group tested. Therefore, caution should be exercised in interpreting ABO Ab titer results, taking into consideration the detection method used and the blood group. PMID:24982835
Levy, Arie; Gannot, Israel
Thermography is a well known approach for cost effective early detection of concourse tumors. However, till now - more than 5 decades after its introduction - it is not considered as a primary tool for cancer early detection, mainly because its poor performance compared to other techniques. This work offers a new thermographic approach for tumor detection which is based on the use of antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticles ("MNP") as a tumor specific marker. Wename this method "Thermal Beacon Thermography" ("TBT"), and it has the potential to provide considerable advantages over conventional thermographic approach. TBT approach is based on the fact that MNP are producing heat when subjected to an alternating magnetic field ("AMF"). Once these particles are injected to the patient blood stream, they specifically accumulate at the tumor site, providing a local heat source at the tumor that can be activated and deactivated by external control. This heat source can be used as a "thermal beacon" in order to detect and locate tumor by detecting temperature changes at the skin surface using an IR camera and comparing them to a set of pre-calculated numerical predictions. Experiments were conducted using an in vitro tissue model together with industrial inductive heating system and an IR camera. The results shows that this approach can specifically detect small tumor phantom (D=1.5mm) which was embedded below the surface of the tissue phantom.
Guntupalli, R.; Hu, Jing; Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Barbaree, James M.; Huang, T. S.; Chin, Bryan A.
Novel mass-sensitive, magnetostrictive sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted by the sensor in response to an applied, time varying, magnetic field. This magnetostrictive platform has a unique advantage over conventional sensor platforms in that measurement is wireless or remote. These biosensors can thus be used in-situ for detecting pathogens and biological threat agents. In this work, we have used a magnetostrictive platform immobilized with a polyclonal antibody (the bio-molecular recognition element) to form a biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium. Upon exposure to solutions containing Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, the bacteria were bound to the sensor and the additional mass of the bound bacteria caused a shift in the sensor's resonant frequency. Responses of the sensors to different concentrations of S. typhimurium were recorded and the results correlated with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of samples. Good agreement between the measured number of bound bacterial cells (attached mass) and frequency shifts were obtained. The longevity and specificity of the selected polyclonal antibody were also investigated and are reported.
Almeida, Marcos de Abreu; Pizzini, Cláudia Vera; Damasceno, Lisandra Serra; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; Vizzoni, Alexandre Gomes; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria
Histoplasmosis is worldwide systemic mycoses caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The isolation and identification of H. capsulatum in culture is the reference test for histoplasmosis diagnosis confirmation. However, in the absence of it, serology has been used as a presumptive diagnosis through antibody and antigen detection. The purpose of the present study was to validate an immunoassay method (western blot) for antibodies detection in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. To validate the western blot (WB) a study was conducted using 118 serum samples from patients with histoplasmosis and 118 serum controls collected from January 2000 to December 2013 in residents of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Diagnostic validation parameters were calculated based on the categorization of results obtained in a 2 × 2 table and subjected to statistical analysis. In addition, the viability of deglycosylated histoplasmin antigen (ptHMIN) onto nitrocellulose membranes previously sensitized was evaluated during the same period. The WB test showed sensitivity of 94.9 %, specificity of 94.1 %, positive predictive value of 94.1 %, negative predictive value of 94.9 %, accuracy of 94.5 %, and almost perfect precision. Besides, the strips have proved to be viable for using at least 5 years after ptHMIN antigen sensitization. Western blot test using ptHMIN provides sensitive, specific, and faster results. Therefore, could be considered a useful tool in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis being used by public health system, even in situations where laboratory facilities are relatively limited.
Zhang, Aiying; Xiu, Bingshui; Zhang, Heqiu; Li, Ning
To utilize prokaryotic gene expression and protein microarray to develop and evaluate a sensitive, accurate protein microarray assay for detecting antienterovirus antibodies in serum samples from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), two common causative agents for HFMD, were used for assay development. Serum was collected from patients with HFMD and healthy controls. EV71 and CA16 VP1 and VP3 genes were expressed in transfected Escherichia coli; the resultant VP1 and 3 proteins were used in a microarray assay for human serum EV71 and CA16 immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG. To validate the microarray assay, serum samples were tested for EV71 IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of 50 patients with HFMD, EV71 IgM and CA16 IgM was detected in 80% and 44% of serum samples, respectively, using protein microarray, and EV71 IgM was detected in 78% of samples using ELISA. Protein microarray and ELISA showed 100% specificity for EV71-IgM detection. The protein microarray assay developed in the present study shows potential as a sensitive technique for detecting EV71 IgM in serum samples from patients with HFMD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Shovman, O; Agmon-Levin, N; Gilburd, B; Martins, T; Petzold, A; Matthias, T; Shoenfeld, Y
Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is the main technique for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The fully automated IIF processor HELIOS(®) is the first IIF processor that is able to automatically prepare slides and perform automatic reading. The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic performance of this system for ANA and ANCA IIF interpretation, in comparison with visual IIF. ANA detection by visual IIF or HELIOS(®) was performed on 425 sera samples including: 218 consecutive samples submitted to a reference laboratory for routine ANA testing, 137 samples from healthy subjects and 70 ANA/ENA positive samples. For ANCA determination, 170 sera samples were collected: 40 samples for routine testing, 90 samples from healthy blood donors and 40 anti-PR3/anti-MPO positive subjects. Good correlation was found for the visual and automated ANA IIF approach regarding positive/negative discrimination of these samples (kappa = 0.633 for ANA positive samples and kappa = 0.657 for ANA negative samples, respectively). Positive/negative IIF ANCA discrimination by HELIOS(®) and visual IIF revealed a complete agreement of 100% in sera from healthy patients and PR3/MPO positive samples (kappa = 1.00). There was 95% agreement between the ANCA IIF performed by automated and visual IIF on the investigation of routine samples. Based on these results, HELIOS(®) demonstrated a high diagnostic performance for the automated ANA and ANCA IIF interpretation that was similar to a visual reading in all groups of samples.
Meriche, H; Meriche-Gadiri, S; Ghaffor, M; Abbadi, M C
In the present work, we propose, for the detection of the anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) an immunoenzymatic test in simple sandwich in heterogeneous phase (ANA-EIA) allowing the screening of the antinuclear antibodies, and its assessment in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for 292 sera of patients affected by rheumatic diseases and 40 sera of individuals presenting no pathology. The ANA-EIA test proved to have a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 96%. Moreover, it gives a global concordance of 96.6% and a discordance of 3.4% compared to IFA. Also, the analysis of correlation between this test and IFA for the positive individual gives a very good concordance according to homogeneous, speckled and nucleolar aspects. On the other hand, the results obtained for cytoplasmic aspect (74%), although acceptable, needs to be confirmed a second time with a more important sampling. According to the results obtained, this test could have an interesting routine application in laboratory of immunopathology given its analytic characteristics similar to those of IFA, and its great easiness of realisation.
Wicker, B; Wallas, C H
Antibody detection studies were undertaken in order to compare a low ionic strength (LIS) medium with a conventional albumin-fortified isotonic medium. Tests were performed in parallel with both media at room temperature and at 37 C. A 30mM NaCl solution was used as the LIS medium and in this study this enhanced antibody reactions without causing nonspecific reactions. The LIS medium detected all of more than 50 Rh and more than 75 non-Rh antibodies after 15 minutes of incubation. Often 30 to 60 minutes of incubation were required to detect these antibodies by the routine method. Several antibodies that were detected with the LIS medium after 15 minutes of incubation were either undetected or had given a nonspecific pattern of activity after 60 minutes incubation in the routine medium. When an antibody was present, the LIS medium invariably gave stronger, more clear-cut results. It is concluded that the LIS medium is generally more sensitive than a conventional medium in detecting antibodies since such a medium will detect clinically significant antibodies after only 15 minutes incubation as well as detect antibodies missed by a conventional medium. An antibody detection system utilizing this medium has obvious applicability to a hospital transfusion service.
Richer, Sarah M.; Smedema, Melinda L.; Durkin, Michelle M.; Herman, Katie M.; Hage, Chadi A.; Fuller, Deanna; Wheat, L. Joseph
Background. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis can be severe, especially following heavy inoculum exposure. Rapid diagnosis is critical and often possible by detection of antigen, but this test may be falsely negative in 17% of such cases. Antibody detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) may increase sensitivity and permit the measurement of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) classes of antibodies separately. Methods. Microplates coated with Histoplasma antigen were used for testing of serum from patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis and controls in the MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA. Results for IgG and IgM were reported independently. Results. IgG antibodies were detected in 87.5%, IgM antibodies in 67.5%, and IgG and/or IgM antibodies in 88.8% of patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis in this assay, while immunodiffusion, complement fixation, and antigen testing showed sensitivities of 55.0%, 73.1%, and 67.5%, respectively (n = 80). Combining antigen and antibody detection increased the sensitivity to 96.3%. Conclusions. The MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA offers increased sensitivity over current antibody tests while also allowing separate detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and complementing antigen detection. Combining antigen and EIA antibody testing provides an optimal method for diagnosis of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. PMID:26797210
Richer, Sarah M; Smedema, Melinda L; Durkin, Michelle M; Herman, Katie M; Hage, Chadi A; Fuller, Deanna; Wheat, L Joseph
Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis can be severe, especially following heavy inoculum exposure. Rapid diagnosis is critical and often possible by detection of antigen, but this test may be falsely negative in 17% of such cases. Antibody detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) may increase sensitivity and permit the measurement of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) classes of antibodies separately. Microplates coated with Histoplasma antigen were used for testing of serum from patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis and controls in the MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA. Results for IgG and IgM were reported independently. IgG antibodies were detected in 87.5%, IgM antibodies in 67.5%, and IgG and/or IgM antibodies in 88.8% of patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis in this assay, while immunodiffusion, complement fixation, and antigen testing showed sensitivities of 55.0%, 73.1%, and 67.5%, respectively (n = 80). Combining antigen and antibody detection increased the sensitivity to 96.3%. The MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA offers increased sensitivity over current antibody tests while also allowing separate detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and complementing antigen detection. Combining antigen and EIA antibody testing provides an optimal method for diagnosis of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.
Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples. 13 figs.
Stanker, Larry H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Watkins, Bruce E.
Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples.
Zou, H Y; Gu, X; Yu, W Z; Wang, Z; Jiao, M
We investigated the presence of serum antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and autoantibodies and their relationship with serum prognostic indicators in lymphoma patients. The study population comprised 127 patients diagnosed with lymphoma and 138 healthy control subjects. The blood samples of the participants were assayed for ANAs by immunofluorescence, and autoantibodies were detected by western blotting. Serum ANAs were detected in 31.5 (40/127) and 6.5% (9/138) of lymphoma patients and control subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the lymphoma and the control groups (P < 0.05). The level of lactate dehydrogenase in the ANA-positive subjects was significantly lower than in the ANA-negative subjects (P < 0.05). Low ANA titers (1:100) were commonly found in the ANA-positive subjects and the control subjects, and the fluorescence models were diverse. Autoantibodies were found in 35% (14/40) of the ANA-positive patients by western blotting. Detection of ANAs in lymphoma patients helps in determining the diagnosis and prognosis of lymphoma, but has no independent diagnostic value; there are still various autoantibodies of unknown significance that require further study.
Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro
Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105
Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro
Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.
Thakur, Madhukar L.
The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents.
Wilcox, Benjamin R; Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Stallknecht, David E; Gibbs, Samantha E J
Crows have been the centerpiece of avian West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance and research in North America. This work has demonstrated variation in susceptibility to WNV infection between American (Cor vus brachyrhynchos) andFish Crows (Corvus ossifragus). The higher WNV-associated mortality rate in American Crows compared with Fish Crows suggests that WNV antibody prevalence would be greater in the Fish Crow population. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine whether Fish Crows had higher WNV antibody prevalencethan American Crows, 2 ) determine th e persistence o f antibodies to WNV in naturally infected Fish Crows, and 3) develop a technique to distinguish Fish Crows from American Crows on the basis of sequence analysis and restriction enzyme digestion of a mitochondrial DNA fragment. West Nile virus antibody prevalence was 16.5% (n = 97) in Fish Crows and 5.7% in American Crows (n = 53) collected from Georgia between 2004 and 2006. Antibodies persisted at high titers for 12 mo in Fish Crows. This is the first report of WNV antibody persistence in a crow species. A polymerase chain reaction technique paired with restriction enzyme digestion easily distinguished American Crows from Fish Crows on the basis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment.
Alves, Cibele Fontes; Alves, Cintia Fontes; Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Souza, Carolina Carvalho; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Melo, Maria Norma; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Raso, Pedro; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz
Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in Latin America, where Brazil has over 27 thousand cases per year. The aim of the present study was to develop an immunohistochemical method (IHC) for ATL diagnosis. For this purpose, we used serum from a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L) infantum (canine hyperimmune serum) as the primary antibody, followed by a detection system with a secondary biotinylated antibody. Methodology Skin samples were obtained from 73 patients in an endemic area of Caratinga, Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil all testing positive for ATL with the Montenegro skin test, microscopy, and PCR. Canine hyperimmune serum of a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum was employed as a primary antibody in an immunohistochemical diagnostic method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase. To assess the specificity of this reaction, IHC assays employing two monoclonal antibodies were carried out. As the polymer-based technology is less time-consuming and labor intensive than the IHC labeled streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, we compared the two methods for all samples. Results The IHC method detected ATL in 67 of the 73 cases (91.8%). Immunolabeled parasites were primarily detected inside macrophages either in the superficial or the deep dermis. Detection was facilitated by the high contrast staining of amastigotes (dark brown) against the light blue background. A lower detection rate (71.2%) was observed with the both of the monoclonal Leishmania antibodies compared to the canine hyperimmune serum. This may have been due to a non-specific background staining observed in all histological samples rendering positive detection more difficult. The higher efficacy of the canine hyperimmune serum in the IHC method was confirmed by the method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase as well as that with the polymer-based technology (biotin-avidin-free system). Conclusions The data are encouraging with regard to validating IHC
Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R
Antibody-mediated immune function in adult and recently fledged (30 to 33 d old) American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was examined in birds exposed directly, or only in ovo, to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In 1998, 9 mature male and 9 female kestrels were fed PCBs, whereas 9 females and 10 males served as controls. A mixture of Aroclors 1248:1254:1260 suspended in safflower oil was injected into the kestrels' food items, while in control diets only the same volume of oil was added. The dosage of PCBs was approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/d, beginning in March 1998 and continuing for 120 d. In 1998, the antibody-mediated immune response was stimulated by immunization and booster vaccinations of the kestrels using a nonpathogenic antigen, dinitrophenol-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). In 1999, offspring from three treatment groups based upon maternal exposure to PCBs were similarly tested for their antibody response. None of these mothers was vaccinated with DNP-KLH the previous year. The maternal groups were: (1) exposed to PCBs in 1998 for 120 d, (2) exposed in ovo in 1998 (i.e., mothers were produced by PCB-exposed parents), or (3) unexposed to PCBs. Serum antibody levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 1998, PCB-exposed adult females had a significantly higher antibody response than did controls, whereas adult males exposed to PCBs had significantly suppressed antibody production. For the nestlings produced in 1999, maternal treatment significantly affected antibody response. Generally, the antibody response in the nestlings was much lower than that seen in adult kestrels. Yet both male and female offspring from mothers that had been fed PCBs the previous year had significantly higher postbooster anti-DNP-KLH titers than control and in ovo-exposed maternal groups, thus mimicking the response seen in the adult females the previous year. These sex-specific responses in PCB-exposed birds provide further evidence of the
Sentsui, H; Nishimori, T; Nagai, I; Nishioka, N
Some serological diagnosis methods and examinations for detection of antibodies to sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) infection were investigated. The wildebeest-associated MCF virus strain WC11 propagated on fetal bovine thyroid cell cultures was used as an antigen. Antibodies were detected by complement fixation (CF) tests in cattle pathologically diagnosed as having sheep-associated MCF, as well as in cattle experimentally infected with MCF virus strain WC11. However, immunodiffusion precipitation was only detected in cattle infected with MCF virus strain WC11. The results of serological investigation by CF tests indicated that 64.3% of sheep possessed antibodies to MCF virus in the Hokkaido district of Japan and all serum samples which contained CF antibody titers greater than 1:4 had antibody titers larger than 1:8 in indirect immunofluorescence tests. The CF test we demonstrated here is available to quantitatively detect MCF virus antibody titers in epidemiological surveys.
Kirsch, Martina Inga; Hülseweh, Birgit; Nacke, Christoph; Rülker, Torsten; Schirrmann, Thomas; Marschall, Hans-Jürgen; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan
Background Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the Alphavirus group. Several species of this family are also pathogenic to humans and are recognized as potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. The objective of this work was the generation of recombinant antibodies for the detection of VEEV after a potential bioterrorism assault or an natural outbreak of VEEV. Results In this work, human anti-VEEV single chain Fragments variable (scFv) were isolated for the first time from a human naïve antibody gene library using optimized selection processes. In total eleven different scFvs were identified and their immunological specificity was assessed. The specific detection of the VEEV strains TC83, H12/93 and 230 by the selected antibody fragments was proved. Active as well as formalin inactivated virus particles were recognized by the selected antibody fragments which could be also used for Western blot analysis of VEEV proteins and immunohistochemistry of VEEV infected cells. The anti-VEEV scFv phage clones did not show any cross-reactivity with Alphavirus species of the Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antigenic complex, nor did they react with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), if they were used as detection reagent. Conclusion For the first time, this study describes the selection of antibodies against a human pathogenic virus from a human naïve scFv antibody gene library using complete, active virus particles as antigen. The broad and sensitive applicability of scFv-presenting phage for the immunological detection and diagnosis of Alphavirus species was demonstrated. The selected antibody fragments will improve the fast identification of VEEV in case of a biological warfare or terroristic attack or a natural outbreak. PMID:18764933
Sciascia, Savino; Khamashta, Munther A; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura
Antiprothrombin antibodies have been proposed as potential new biomarkers for thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the setting of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Antiprothrombin antibodies are commonly detected by ELISA, using prothrombin coated onto irradiated plates (aPT), or prothrombin in complex with phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT), as antigen. Although these antibodies can co-exist in the same patient, aPT and aPS/PT seem to belong to different populations of autoantibodies. Early research explored the role of antibodies to prothrombin as potential antigenic targets for the lupus anticoagulant (LA). To date their clinical significance is being investigated and their potential role in identifying patients at higher risk of developing thrombotic events or pregnancy morbidity is being probed.
Background Stx2e is a primary virulence factor in STEC strains that cause edema disease in neonatal piglets. Though Stx2a and Stx2e are similar, most antibody-based Stx detection kits are designed to detect Stx2a and do not recognize the Stx2e subtype. Methods and Findings Four monoclonal antibodie...
Koren, Eugen; Smith, Holly W; Shores, Elizabeth; Shankar, Gopi; Finco-Kent, Deborah; Rup, Bonita; Barrett, Yu-Chen; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Gorovits, Boris; Gupta, Shalini; Parish, Thomas; Quarmby, Valerie; Moxness, Michael; Swanson, Steven J; Taniguchi, Gary; Zuckerman, Linda A; Stebbins, Christopher C; Mire-Sluis, Anthony
The appropriate evaluation of the immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals is of major importance for their successful development and licensure. Antibodies elicited by these products in many cases cause no detectable clinical effects in humans. However, antibodies to some therapeutic proteins have been shown to cause a variety of clinical consequences ranging from relatively mild to serious adverse events. In addition, antibodies can affect drug efficacy. In non-clinical studies, anti-drug antibodies (ADA) can complicate interpretation of the toxicity, pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data. Therefore, it is important to develop testing strategies that provide valid assessments of antibody responses in both non-clinical and clinical studies. This document provides recommendations for antibody testing strategies stemming from the experience of contributing authors. The recommendations are intended to foster a more unified approach to antibody testing across the biopharmaceutical industry. The strategies proposed are also expected to contribute to better understanding of antibody responses and to further advance immunogenicity evaluation.
Double immunodiffusion owes its success to the unique nature of antibody-antigen interactions. When polyvalent antibodies with moderate-to-high intrinsic affinities are mixed with antigen at the right ratio (called the zone of equivalence) lattices of antibody-antigen complexes form and precipitate out of solution. When, as described in this unit, gradients of antigen and antibody are established by diffusion from adjacent wells in a bed of agar, a line of practically insoluble precipitation forms at the equivalence zone (precipitin lines).
Identification of cell surface molecules that play a role in cell-cell adhesion (here called cell adhesion molecules) has been achieved by demonstrating the inhibitory effect of univalent antibodies that bind these molecules in an in vitro assay of cell-cell adhesion. A more convenient reagent, intact (divalent) antibody, has been avoided because it might agglutinate the cells rather than blocking cell-cell adhesion. In this report, we show that intact rabbit immunoglobulin directed against certain cell surface molecules of Dictyostelium discoideum blocks cell-cell adhesion when the in vitro assay is performed in the presence of univalent goat anti-rabbit antibody. Under appropriate experimental conditions, the univalent second antibody blocks agglutination induced by the rabbit antibody without significantly interfering with its effect on cell-cell adhesion. This method promises to be useful for screening monoclonal antibodies raised against potential cell adhesion molecules because: (a) it allows for the screening of large numbers of antibody samples without preparation of univalent fragments; and (b) it requires much less antibody because of the greater affinity of divalent antibodies for antigens. PMID:6970200
Lewis, Vester J.; Engelman, Helen M.; Thacker, W. Lanier
Sheep erythrocytes were treated with glutaraldehyde before sensitization for the indirect hemagglutination test to assay chlamydial antibodies. This treatment markedly increased stability during storage. PMID:809464
Garg, Sachin; Saini, Nishant; Bedi, Ravneet Kaur; Basu, Sabita
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Conventional tube technique (CTT) has been the mainstay for antibody detection in pretransfusion testing. There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking and methodology of crossmatch has been modified to improve the sensitivity of these tests and to enable automation. This study was done to compare the efficacy of three crossmatch techniques: CTT, tube low-ionic-strength-saline indirect antiglobulin test (tube LISS-IAT), and micro column technology (MCT) used in the blood bank serology laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 150 samples from patients who had received two or more transfusions on two different occasions (with at least 72 h between two transfusions) were subjected to cross match by three different techniques – CTT, LISS-IAT, and MCT. RESULTS: A total of 16 cases with antibodies were identified in 150 patients. Out of 16 cases, 14 were clinically significant (anti-c = 5, anti-K = 4, anti-E = 2, anti-S = 2, anti-Jka = 1) and 2 nonclinically significant antibody cases (anti-Lea). MCT detected all the 14 clinically significant antibody cases and no case of nonclinically significant antibody. Tube LISS-IAT detected 14 antibody cases including 2 cases of non-clinically significant antibody but failed to detect 1 case of anti-c and the only case of anti-Jka. CTT detected only 10 antibody cases including 2 cases of non-clinically significant antibody and but failed to detect 3 cases of anti-c, 1 case of anti-K, 1 case of anti-E, and the only case of anti-Jka. CONCLUSION: MCT was found to be most efficacious when compared to CTT and tube LISS-IAT in detecting clinically significant red cell antibodies; although MCT missed 2 cases of Lea antibody which were detected by CTT and LISS-IAT. PMID:28367023
Quaden, Dana H F; De Winter, Liesbeth M; Somers, Veerle
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a debilitating, chronic, rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation and new bone formation resulting in fusion of the spine and sacroiliac joints. Since early treatment is impeded by a delayed diagnosis, it is highly important to find new biomarkers that improve early diagnosis and may also contribute to a better assessment of disease activity, prognosis and therapy response in AS. Because of the absence of rheumatoid factor, AS was long assumed to have a seronegative character and antibodies are thus not considered a hallmark of the disease. However, emerging evidence suggests plasma cells and autoantibodies to be involved in the disease course. In this review, the role of B cells and antibodies in AS is discussed. Furthermore, an overview is provided of antibodies identified in AS up till now, and their diagnostic potential. Many of these antibody responses were based on small study populations and further validation is lacking. Moreover, most were identified by a hypothesis-driven approach and thus limited to antibodies against targets that are already known to be involved in AS pathogenesis. Hence, we propose an unbiased approach to identify novel diagnostic antibodies. The already successfully applied techniques cDNA phage display and serological antigen selection will be used to identify antibodies against both known and new antigen targets in AS plasma. These newly identified antibodies will enhance early diagnosis of AS and provide more insight into the underlying disease pathology, resulting in a more effective treatment strategy and eventually an improved disease outcome.
our tested for HAV IgM antibodies by SPACH and for human ELISAs was negative in our SPACH assay for HAV IgM IgM and IgG with radial immunodiffusion ...radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and ELISAs to de- RIA kits supplied by Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, tect IgM antibodies to a variety of infectious... RID ) plates antibody despite having a HAV HAI titer of 5,120. (Calbiochem Behring, La Jolla, Calif.). These results suggest there is very little if any
Monstad, S E; Storstein, A; Dørum, A; Knudsen, A; Lønning, P E; Salvesen, H B; Aarseth, J H; Vedeler, C A
Onconeural antibodies are found in patients with cancer and are associated with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). The objective of the present study was to assess the frequency of Yo antibodies in ovarian and breast cancer using a sensitive immunoprecipitation technique, and to look for any association of Yo antibodies with neurological symptoms and prognostic factors. A multiwell adapted fluid-phase immunoassay using radiolabelled recombinant cerebellar degeneration related protein (cdr2), produced by coupled in vitro transcription/translation was used for the detection of Yo antibodies. This technique combines high specificity and sensitivity with high sample analysing capacity for the antibody in question. Sera or EDTA-blood from 810 ovarian (n = 557) and breast cancer (n = 253) patients were analysed for Yo antibodies by immunoprecipitation, as well as immunofluorescence and immune blots. Two hundred healthy blood donors and sera from 17 patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Yo antibodies served as controls. Immunoprecipitation was more sensitive in detecting Yo antibodies than immunofluorescence and immune blots. The prevalence of Yo antibodies was 13/557 (2.3%) in ovarian cancer and 4/253 (1.6%) in breast cancer using immunoprecipitation. Yo antibodies were not correlated with specific histological subgroups. The Yo index of ovarian cancer patients in FIGO stage IV was higher compared to FIGO stage I-III. The prevalence of Yo antibodies was 3 times higher in patients with stage III breast cancer than in stage I and II. Only 2/17 (11.8%) patients with Yo antibodies detected during the screen of 810 cancer patients had PNS. The results show that the prevalence of Yo antibodies is low in ovarian and breast cancer. Yo antibodies may be associated with advanced cancer, but less often with PNS.
Sekigawa, Iwao; Kaneda, Kazuhiko; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Takamori, Kenji; Ogawa, Hideoki
We previously reported a close relationship between serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and anti-SSA antibody levels in mothers with foetal loss. Here, we investigated the existence of IgE class anti-SSA antibodies (IgE anti-SSA antibody) and the relationship of such antibodies with foetal loss. Serum samples from 24 women who were positive for IgG class anti-SSA antibody (IgG anti-SSA antibody) were examined for IgE anti-SSA antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, a retrospective analysis of the relationship between the IgE anti-SSA antibody positivity and the frequency of foetal loss was performed. Using our ELISA system, IgE anti-SSA antibodies were detected in the serum samples, and the frequency of foetal loss was increased among the mothers with higher IgE anti-SSA antibody titers. Our results indicate that IgE anti-SSA antibodies may be a useful marker for the risk of foetal loss in mothers with anti-SSA antibodies.
Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Shi, Kai; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun
We describe here the development of a sensitive and convenient electronic sensor for the detection of antibodies in human serums. The sensor is constructed by self-assembly formation of a mixed monolayer containing the small molecule epitope conjugated double stranded DNA probes on gold electrode. The target antibody binds the epitope on the dsDNA probe and lowers the melting temperature of the duplex, which facilitates the displacement of the antibody-linked strand of the duplex probe by an invading methylene blue-tagged single stranded DNA (MB-ssDNA) through the strand displacement reaction and leads to the capture of many MB-ssDNA on the sensor surface. Subsequent electrochemical oxidation of the methylene blue labels results in amplified current response for sensitive monitoring of the antibodies. The antibody assay conditions are optimized and the sensor exhibits a linear range between 1.0 and 25.0nM with a detection limit of 0.67nM for the target antibody. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to detect the target antibodies in human serum samples. With the advantages of using small molecule epitope as the antibody recognition element over traditional antigen, the versatile manipulability of the DNA probes and the unique properties of the electrochemical transduction technique, the developed sensor thus hold great potential for simple and sensitive detection of different antibodies and other proteins in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smits, Judit E G; Bortolotti, Gary R
Avian research involving examination of immune function or testing of immunocompetence in wild birds has been based upon information on Galliforms, (chicken and quail) even though they are precocial, whereas most wild species with which ecologists, biologists and toxicologists work are altricial; blind, naked and completely dependent at hatching. Here we begin to address this gap in knowledge, offering insight into the early, post-hatching, humoral immune response in an altricial bird, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Over two breeding seasons, nestling kestrels were immunized with a non-pathogenic antigen, dinitrophenol keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), between 3 and 9 days post-hatching and boostered 6 days later. Background levels, primary and secondary immune responses were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The specificity of our laboratory produced rabbit, anti-kestrel antibody was determined using a double immunodiffusion assay. Results showed the rabbit antiserum to have specific anti-kestrel IgG activity. Birds as young as three days old could successfully mount an antibody response, the magnitude of which increased with age at first vaccination. Early immunization did not compromise growth rate, nor did it affect the maximum secondary response. Comparatively, adult kestrels immunized during the same season and following the same protocol, had antibody levels four times higher than those of the nestlings.
Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhan, Wenbin
Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is the causative agent of lymphocystis disease affecting marine and freshwater fish worldwide. Here an antibody microarray was developed and employed to detect LCDV in fish. Rabbit anti-LCDV serum was arrayed on agarose gel-modified slides as capture antibody, and Cy3-conjugated anti-LCDV monoclonal antibody (MAbs) was added as detection antibody. The signals were imaged with a laser chip scanner and analyzed by corresponding software. To improve the sensitivity, different substrate binders (poly-L-lysine, MPTS, aldehyde, APES and agarose gel modified slides, and commercially available amino-modified slides), markers (fluorescein isothiocyanate, Cy3, horseradish peroxidase, biotin or colloidal gold) conjugated to anti-LCDV Mabs, and storage time of the antibody were assessed. The results showed that the antibody microarrays based on agarose gel-modified slides gave a lower detection limit of 0.55μg/ml of LCDV when Cy3 and HRP conjugated anti-LCDV MAbs were used as detection antibody; and the lowest detectable LCDV protein concentration was 0.0686 μg/ml when streptavidin-biotin conjugated to anti-LCDV MAbs served as detection antibody. The developed antibody microarray proved to have a high specificity for LCDV detection and a shelf-life of more than 8 months at -20°C. Furthermore, the LCDV detection results of the microarray in fish gills or fins (n=50) presented a concordance rate of 100% with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 98% with immunofluorescence assay technique (IFAT). These results revealed that the developed antibody microarray could serve as an effective tool for diagnostic and epidemiological studies of LCDV in fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, C W; Oh, E J; Lee, S B; Moon, I S; Kim, D G; Choi, B S; Park, S C; Choi, Y J; Park, Y J; Han, K
The antibody monitoring system (AMS, GTI Inc) is a solid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) crossmatch test for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to donor-specific solubilized HLA class I and class II antigens. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the AMS assay with donor-specific anti-HLA IgG antibodies (DS-HLA Abs), as determined by ELISA panel reactive antibody (PRA) and the flow cytometric crossmatch test (FCXM). A total of 107 sera were screened for the presence of HLA Abs by ELISA PRA (LAT-M, One-Lambda Inc), the DS-HLA Abs were determined in 34 serum samples (31.8%) by an ELISA panel (LAT class I and class II, One-Lambda Inc) and FCXM. The FCXM and AMS assays were performed with matched lymphocytes from 56 donors. There was a significant degree of concordance (89.7%) between the two tests (P < .001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AMS assay to detect DS-HLA Abs was 88.2%, 94.5%, 88.2%, and 94.5%, respectively. The AMS is a simple, objective test, which has several advantages over the cell-based crossmatch test, such as elimination of non-HLA antibody reactivity, elimination of non-donor-specific antibody reactivity, no need for viable cells, and preparation of the donor's HLA antigens in advance. In summary, this study suggested that AMS may be useful as a supportive crossmatch test or as a monitoring test after transplantation to detect class I or class II DS-HLA Abs.
Dusek, R.J.; Hall, J.S.; Nashold, S.W.; Teslaa, J.L.; Ip, H.S.
The utility of using Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk after infection and was preserved either as serum or whole blood absorbed onto Nobuto strips. Analysis of samples using a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed comparable results (???96% sensitivity for all methods) between sera stored at -30 C and the Nobuto strip preservation method even when the Nobuto strips were stored up to 3 mo at room temperature (RT). Significant differences were detected in the ratio of sample absorbance to negative control absorbance for Nobuto strips stored at RT compared with sera stored at -30 C, although these differences did not affect the ability of the test to reliably detect positive and negative samples. Nobuto strips are a convenient and sensitive alternative to the collection of serum samples when maintaining appropriate storage temperatures is difficult. ?? 2011 American Association of Avian Pathologists.
Kolesov, D. V.; Kiselev, G. A.; Moiseev, M. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Yaminskiy, I. V.
Control the content of the blood group antibodies in the plasma of the recipient is an important task in modern transplantation. In this paper we proposed to use micromechanical cantilever sensors for detection of the low concentrations of AB0 blood group antibodies in serum. The technique of chemical modification of cantilever surface to create the receptor layer was developed. The apparatus, which provides data acquisition from multiple microconsoles simultaneously was created. We carried out experiments by the detection in a solution the β antibodies with a concentration of 300 times less than the native content of antibodies in the blood. Change in surface stress due to formation of antigen-antibody complexes on the cantilever surface was 0.075 N/m. The resulting lateral strain, apparently, induced by repulsion between the complexes during the sorption of antibodies in layer of antigens, immobilized on the surface. The possibility of regeneration of sensory layer for repeated measurements was shown.
The method first described by Ouchterlony in 1948 is a classic and simple technique that permits evaluation and comparison of antibodies in animal or human sera directed against protein or complex carbohydrate antigens. It is a low-tech procedure that may provide information on the relative quantity of antibody activity and the nature of the antigenic epitopes in different preparations. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Girdhari M; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Williams, Kristina M; Pahlavan, Autusa
Gluten ingestion causes immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or celiac disease in sensitive individuals, and a strict gluten-free diet greatly limits food choices. Immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used to quantify gluten to ensure labeling compliance of gluten-free foods. Anti-gluten antibodies may not exhibit equal affinity to gluten from wheat, rye, and barley. Moreover, because wheat gluten is commonly used as a calibrator in ELISA, accurate gluten quantitation from rye and barley contaminated foods may be compromised. Immunoassays utilizing grain-specific antibodies and calibrators may help improve gluten quantitation. In this study, polyclonal antibodies raised against gluten-containing grain-specific peptides were characterized for their immunoreactivity to gluten from different grain sources. Strong immunoreactivity to multiple gluten polypeptides from wheat, rye, and barley was observed in the range 34 to 43 kDa with anti-gliadin, 11 to 15 and 72 to 95 kDa with anti-secalin, and 30 to 43 kDa with anti-hordein peptide antibodies, respectively. Minimal or no cross-reactivity with gluten from other grains was observed among these antibodies. The anti-consensus peptide antibody raised against a repetitive amino acid sequence of proline and glutamine exhibited immunoreactivity to gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oat. The antibodies exhibited similar immunoreactivity with most of the corresponding grain cultivars by ELISA. The high specificity and minimal cross-reactivity of grain-specific antibodies suggest their potential use in immunoassays for accurate gluten quantitation.
Lock, Brad A; Green, Linda G; Jacobson, Elliott R; Klein, Paul A
To develop mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against immunoglobulin of Argentine boa constrictors and to demonstrate the ability of these reagents to detect antibody responses in boa constrictors by use of an ELISA and western blot analysis. Two 3-year-old Argentine boa constrictors. Procedure-Boa constrictors were immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA). Each snake received biweekly inoculations of 250 microg of DNP-BSA (half SC, half IP) for a total of 6 inoculations followed by monthly inoculations for 3 months. Preimmune blood samples were collected. Subsequently, blood was collected immediately prior to each booster inoculation. Anti-DNP antibodies were isolated from immune plasma samples by affinity chromatography. Affinity-purified boa anti-DNP immunoglobulin was used for production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. An ELISA and western blot analysis were used to monitor immune responses, for purification of boa anti-DNP immunoglobulin, and for assessment of polyclonal and monoclonal antibody specificity. A 6-fold increase in optical density (OD405) of immune boa plasma, compared with preimmune plasma, was detected by the polyclonal antibody, and a 12- and 15-fold increase was detected by monoclonal antibodies HL1787 and HL1785, respectively, between weeks 4 and 8. Results of western blot analysis confirmed anti-DNP antibody activity in immunized boa plasma and in affinity column eluates. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies detected specific anti-DNP antibody responses in immunized boas. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies recognized boa constrictor immunoglobulin. These antibodies may be useful in serologic tests to determine exposure of snakes to pathogens.
Lemass, Darragh; O'Kennedy, Richard; Kijanka, Gregor S.
Protein arrays are frequently used to profile antibody repertoires in humans and animals. High-throughput protein array characterisation of complex antibody repertoires requires a platform-dependent, lot-to-lot validation of secondary detection antibodies. This article details the validation of an affinity-isolated anti-chicken IgY antibody produced in rabbit and a goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase using protein arrays consisting of 7,390 distinct human proteins. Probing protein arrays with secondary antibodies in absence of chicken serum revealed non-specific binding to 61 distinct human proteins. The cross-reactivity of the tested secondary detection antibodies points towards the necessity of platform-specific antibody characterisation studies for all secondary immunoreagents. Secondary antibody characterisation using protein arrays enables generation of reference lists of cross-reactive proteins, which can be then excluded from analysis in follow-up experiments. Furthermore, making such cross-reactivity lists accessible to the wider research community may help to interpret data generated by the same antibodies in applications not related to protein arrays such as immunoprecipitation, Western blots or other immunoassays. PMID:27335636
Peterson, Lisa K; Jaskowski, Troy D; Mayes, Maureen D; Tebo, Anne E
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and clinical relevance of a commercially available line immunoblot assay (LIA) for detecting anti-U3-RNP/fibrillarin (anti-U3-RNP), against immunoprecipitation (gold standard). This study involved a multi-ethnic cohort of 1000 American systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and 50 healthy controls. Antinuclear antibodies and centromere antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, anti-topo I by immunodiffusion and anti-RNAP III by ELISA. The presence of anti-U3-RNP in select serum samples was detected by immunoprecipitation (IP) and LIA. By IP, U3-RNP antibody was detected in 75 (7.5 %) patients with SSc. Overall agreement between LIA and IP was very good (κ = 0.966). Analytic sensitivity and specificity of the U3-RNP LIA was 100 and 94.7 %, respectively. Clinical features associated with positivity for the anti-U3-RNP antibody include diffuse cutaneous SSc and increased prevalence of renal crisis, consistent with previous studies that used IP. Testing for U3-RNP antibodies is only performed by a small number of laboratories due to the complexity of both performance and interpretation of the IP. LIA is faster and less complex than IP. Excellent agreement between IP and LIA demonstrates that LIA is an acceptable and attractive alternative to IP for anti-U3-RNP detection.
Trott, D L; Yang, M; Gonzalez, J; Larson, A E; Tepp, W H; Johnson, E A; Cook, M E
The objective of this research project was to determine the usefulness of an egg antibody platform for producing materials for the detection and neutralization of botulinum type A neurotoxin. Yield estimates for detection and neutralizing antibodies produced using methods described were calculated. Antibody specific to botulinum toxoid A (aToxoid) and toxin A (aBoNT/A) was produced by immunizing hens with botulinum toxoid A (toxoid) followed by increasing amounts of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in Freund incomplete adjuvant. Egg yolks were extracted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for antibody detection and neutralization experiments. A model aToxoid/toxoid immunoassay using only egg yolk antibody was developed and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml of toxoid. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of BoNT/A-specific antibody, the aBoNT/A contained more BoNT/A-specific antibody than did the aToxoid, and aBoNT/A was as effective as commercial rabbit antibody. The aToxoid provided no protection against BoNT/A in a standard mouse neutralization assay; however, 1 mg of PEG-extracted aBoNT/A neutralized 4,000 lethal doses of BoNT/A injected intraperitoneally. Based on these results, we calculated that in 1 month one hen could produce more than 100 liters of antibody detection reagents or enough antibody to neutralize approximately 11.6 million mouse lethal doses of botulinum toxin. Utilization of an egg antibody platform is potentially rapid (28 to 70 days) and scalable to kilogram quantities using current egg production facilities with as few as 1,000 hens.
Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Darrah, Erika; Smolik, Irene; Choromanski, Tammy L.; Robinson, David B.; Newkirk, Marianna M.; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Rosen, Antony; El-Gabalawy, Hani S.
Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether anti-peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4) antibodies were present in first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in two indigenous North American populations with high prevalence of RA. Methods Participants were recruited from two indigenous populations in Canada and the United States, including RA patients (probands), their unaffected first-degree relatives, and healthy unrelated controls. Sera were tested for the presence of anti-PAD4 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF). HLA-DRB1 subtyping was performed and participants were classified according to number of shared epitope alleles present. Results Antibodies to PAD4 were detected in 24 of 82 (29.3%) probands; 2 of 147 (1.4%) relatives; and no controls (p <0.0001). Anti-CCP was present in 39/144 (27.1%) of the relatives, and there was no overlap between positivity for anti-CCP and PAD4 in the relatives. In RA patients, anti-PAD4 antibodies were associated with disease duration (p=0.0082) and anti-CCP antibodies (p=0.008), but not smoking or shared epitope alleles. Conclusion Despite a significant prevalence of anti-CCP in first-degree relatives, anti-PAD4 antibodies were almost exclusively found in established RA. The prevalence of anti-PAD4 antibodies in RA is similar to the prevalence described in other populations and these autoantibodies are associated with disease duration and anti-CCP in RA. PMID:23908443
Crouch, C F; Raybould, T J; Acres, S D
Monoclonal antibodies reactive with three different viral polypeptides were evaluated singly and in combination as the capture antibody(s) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for the detection of bovine enteric coronavirus. Similar levels of sensitivity were found for all combinations tested. A sensitive, highly specific, and reproducible assay for the detection of bovine enteric coronavirus was developed, using a mixture of two of these monoclonal antibodies reactive with antigenic components either external or internal to the virion. These monoclonal antibodies were bound indirectly to 96-well plates via rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin. After sample application and incubation, virus was detected by using rabbit anti-coronavirus peroxidase conjugate followed by enzyme substrate and chromagen. Fecal samples from a single herd of cows were screened for the presence of coronavirus by this assay. Five percent of clinically normal cows were found to be shedding coronavirus. Images PMID:6325490
Jobe, Dean A.; Rawal, Nenoo; Schell, Ronald F.; Callister, Steven M.
The borreliacidal-antibody test has been used for the serological detection and confirmation of Lyme borreliosis. However, the presence of antimicrobial agents in serum can confound the accurate detection of borreliacidal antibodies. In this study, we developed a Bacillus subtilis agar diffusion bioassay to detect small concentrations of antimicrobial agents in serum. We also used XAD-16, a nonionic polymeric resin, to adsorb and remove high concentrations of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, doxycycline, and erythromycin without significantly affecting even small concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgG borreliacidal antibodies. High concentrations of penicillin could also be removed by adding 1 U of penicillinase without significantly influencing the levels of borreliacidal antibodies. These simple procedures greatly enhance the clinical utility of the borreliacidal-antibody test. PMID:10548588
Eng, Hui-Yan; Wang, Cheng-I; Xue, Yuezhen; Lee, Chia-Yin; Zulkifli, Sarah Binte; Chiam, Poh-Cheang; Ghadessy, Farid J; Lane, David P
The immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of mouse tissue sections using antibodies of mouse origin can result in high nonspecific background due to the staining of endogenous immunoglobulins (Igs) by enzyme-conjugated secondary antibodies. In order to obviate this issue, we developed a chimeric mouse-human anti-p53 monoclonal antibody (MH242) by grafting the variable regions of a known mouse antibody into a human Ig scaffold. This facilitated use of an anti-human secondary antibody, and resulted in near-zero background when compared with its parental mouse monoclonal antibody (PAb242). Furthermore, the chimeric antibody enabled reproducible detection of mutant p53 (homozygous R172H) expression in mouse tissue, an observation hitherto largely equivocal based on the use of existing antibodies. The approach we describe leads to the generation of tractable antibody reagents, whose integrity can be readily verified through DNA sequencing of expressor plasmids. The wide-spread adoption of such 'digitized' antibodies should reduce experimental disparities that can commonly arise through variations in antibody quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Azar, Hiba; Mourani, Chebl; Nehme Chelala, Dania; Moukarzel, Maroun
Kidney transplantation is now accepted to be the best treatment for end-stage renal disease. Despite the improvement of immunosuppressive therapy, there is still actually substantial loss of allografts, in part due to uncontrolled humoral immunity. For many years, the primary technique for the detection of anti-HLA antibodies was the CDC (complement dependent cytotoxicity). The recent use of solid phase assays, mainly the Luminex technology allowed detection of antibodies at much lower levels, and it has been shown that these antibodies have negative impact on the graft survival. We herein review the principal techniques for anti-HLA detection and the different presentations of humoral rejection.
Ierardi, Vincenzo; Ferrera, Francesca; Millo, Enrico; Damonte, Gianluca; Filaci, Gilberto; Valbusa, Ugo
Recently there has been a great develop of new antibodies immobilization procedures, that keep antibodies to retain their orientation and functionality after the binding to a solid support. This allows the formation of immune-complexes useful for the detection of biomarkers from biological samples. We have developed a new method of functionalization for solid substrates that involves an initial surface activation, then a functionalization by means of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-followed by another functionalization step with a layer of very small peptides, which have a high affinity to the Antibody Fc portion, acting as antibody linkers. These antibody binding peptides can immobilize the antibodies with a proper configuration that allows an unambiguous detection of antibody-antigen complexes by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM can act as a powerful label free detection technique, which allows to detect, in principle, single molecule interactions, with the only limitation to use substrate with low-roughness surfaces; in this case, the roughness can be interpreted as background noise in the AFM analysis. Moreover, our functionalization method can be used to obtain bioactive surfaces on a wide range of solid supports, making them capable to suitably immobilize the antibodies for the antigenic binding.
S I AD CD PLAQUE TRANSFER ASSAY FOR DETECTING NEUTRALIZING *ANTIBODIES TO HTLV-III (AIDS) 0 C\\I Subtitle: HIV-I Inactivation by Antibodies...Final Report FROM 9/15/86 TO 6/14/88 1989 May 1 37 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION SUBTITLE: HIV-l inactivation by antibodies: predominance of a group-specific...from a single viral infection event, the plaques are highly sensitive to inactivation by neutralizing antibodies. Sera of infected asymptomatic
Wellehan, James F X; Green, Linda G; Duke, Diane G; Bootorabi, Shadi; Heard, Darryl J; Klein, Paul A; Jacobson, Elliott R
Megachiropteran bats are biologically important both as endangered species and reservoirs for emerging human pathogens. Reliable detection of antibodies to specific pathogens in bats is thus epidemiologically critical. Eight variable flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) were immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA). Each bat received monthly inoculations for 2 months. Affinity-purified IgG was used for production of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-variable flying fox IgG antibodies. ELISA and western blot analysis were used to monitor immune responses and for assessment of polyclonal and monoclonal antibody species cross-reactivity. Protein G, polyclonal antibodies, and monoclonal antibodies detected specific anti-DNP antibody responses in immunized variable flying foxes, with protein G being the most sensitive, followed by monoclonal antibodies and then polyclonal antibodies. While the polyclonal antibody was found to cross-react well against IgG of all bat species tested, some non-specific background was observed. The monoclonal antibody was found to cross-react well against IgG of six other species in the genus Pteropus and to cross-react less strongly against IgG from Eidolon helvum or Phyllostomus hastatus. Protein G distinguished best between vaccinated and unvaccinated bats, and these results validate the use of protein G for detection of bat IgG. Monoclonal antibodies developed in this study recognized immunoglobulins from other members of the genus Pteropus well, and may be useful in applications where specific detection of Pteropus IgG is needed.
Basile, Alison Jane; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Kosoy, Olga L.; Junna, Shilpa R.; Panella, Nicholas A.; Powers, Ann M.; Stark, Lillian M.; Nemeth, Nicole M.
Serum antibodies from myriad species, particularly birds, can provide key information regarding the transmission and the expansion of the territory of emerging pathogens. Expedient antibody analysis is constrained by a lack of species-specific reagents, a deficiency potentially highlighted by the recent swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) outbreak. Available methodologies present difficulties that discourage thorough serologic monitoring of potential disease vectors or hosts. Rapid high-throughput procedures that combined serum amine labeling via biotinylation, contaminant removal, and microsphere-based immunoassays for antibodies to three arboviruses were developed. Agent-specific adaptations of this simple format should facilitate expanded surveillance and diagnostic capabilities regarding pathogens of human and veterinary importance. PMID:19923570
Teerds, Katja; Hoffman, Gloria E.
For several decades antibodies raised against specific proteins, peptides, or peptide epitopes have proven to be versatile and very powerful tools to demonstrate molecular identity in cells and tissues. New techniques of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence have improved both the optical resolution of such protein identification as well as its sensitivity, particularly through the use of amplification methodology. However, this improved sensitivity has also increased the risks of false-positive and false-negative staining and thereby raised the necessity for proper and adequate controls. In this review, the authors draw on many years of experience to illuminate many of the more common errors and problematic issues in immunohistochemistry, and how these may be avoided. A key factor in all of this is that techniques need to be properly documented and especially antibodies and procedures must be adequately described. Antibodies are a valuable and shared resource within the scientific community; it is essential therefore that mistakes involving antibodies and their controls are not perpetuated through inadequate reporting in the literature. PMID:24428532
Callister, Steven M.; Jobe, Dean A.; Schell, Ronald F.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Onheiber, Keysha L.; Korshus, Jon B.
Detection of borreliacidal antibodies is an accurate serodiagnostic test for confirmation of Lyme disease in humans. In this study, 13 pathogen-free beagles, 12 to 26 weeks old, were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick challenge. Dogs were monitored for clinical signs and symptoms of Lyme disease along with borreliacidal antibody production against B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates 297 and 50772. Ten (77%) dogs developed lameness in one or more legs within 210 days after attachment of Ixodes scapularis ticks. Eight (80%) of the lame animals had concurrent fever of ≥38°C. Spirochetes were also recovered from the skin and joints of 12 (92%) dogs, but rarely from other organs. Borreliacidal antibodies against B. burgdorferi isolate 297 were detected in only four (31%) dogs, and the levels of killing antibodies remained low for the duration of the infection. In contrast, borreliacidal antibodies against B. burgdorferi isolate 50772 were detected in 13 (100%) dogs within 21 days of infection. Furthermore, the borreliacidal antibody levels correlated with the severity of B. burgdorferi infection. Detection of borreliacidal antibodies, especially against B. burgdorferi isolate 50772, is also a reliable serodiagnostic test for detection of Lyme disease in dogs. PMID:11015381
Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K
A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (<15% CV) and reproducible (intra- and inter assay variability <15% CV). The assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour.
Yine, Hu; Shufang, Dai; Bin, Wang; Wei, Qu; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Junling, Gao
The application of food-specific IgG antibody detection in allergy dermatoses was explored. 181 patients with allergy dermatoses were diagnosed from January to September 2014 and 20 healthy subjects were selected. Fourteen kinds of food-specific IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA method among all the subjects. The positive rates of IgG antibody of the patient group and the healthy group were respectively 65.2% and 5.0%. The positive rates of IgG antibody of egg, milk, shrimp and crab took a large proportion in three groups of patients with three kinds of allergy dermatoses of urticaria, eczema and allergic dermatitis, the proportion of which was respectively 70.2%, 77.8% and 71.7%. Among urticaria and allergic dermatitis patients with positive antibody, the positive rate of children was significantly higher than that of adults (p<0.05) while there was no significant difference between children and adults among eczema patients with positive antibody (p>0.05). Allergy dermatoses are closely related to food-specific IgG antibodies, and the allergy dermatoses patients have a high incidence rate of food intolerance; detecting IgG antibody in the serum of patients is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy dermatoses.
Samuelsen, Simone V.; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Balboni, Imelda M.; Mellins, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Astakhova, Kira
New techniques to detect and quantify antibodies to nucleic acids would provide a significant advance over current methods, which often lack specificity. We investigate the potential of novel antigens containing locked nucleic acids (LNAs) as targets for antibodies. Particularly, employing molecular dynamics we predict optimal nucleotide composition for targeting DNA-binding antibodies. As a proof of concept, we address a problem of detecting anti-DNA antibodies that are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus, a chronic autoimmune disease with multiple manifestations. We test the best oligonucleotide binders in surface plasmon resonance studies to analyze binding and kinetic aspects of interactions between antigens and target DNA. These DNA and LNA/DNA sequences showed improved binding in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human samples of pediatric lupus patients. Our results suggest that the novel method is a promising tool to create antigens for research and point-of-care monitoring of anti-DNA antibodies. PMID:27775006
Samuelsen, Simone V.; Solov’Yov, Ilia A.; Balboni, Imelda M.; Mellins, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Astakhova, Kira
New techniques to detect and quantify antibodies to nucleic acids would provide a significant advance over current methods, which often lack specificity. We investigate the potential of novel antigens containing locked nucleic acids (LNAs) as targets for antibodies. Particularly, employing molecular dynamics we predict optimal nucleotide composition for targeting DNA-binding antibodies. As a proof of concept, we address a problem of detecting anti-DNA antibodies that are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus, a chronic autoimmune disease with multiple manifestations. We test the best oligonucleotide binders in surface plasmon resonance studies to analyze binding and kinetic aspects of interactions between antigens and target DNA. These DNA and LNA/DNA sequences showed improved binding in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human samples of pediatric lupus patients. Our results suggest that the novel method is a promising tool to create antigens for research and point-of-care monitoring of anti-DNA antibodies.
CBre3 EIA is sensitive enough to detect envelope antibodies in seropositive patients before the antibodies are detected in a viral lysate Western blot ...induced E. coli were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels and analyzed by Coomassie blue staining and Western blotting (10). Blots were blocked in 1 X... Western blot analysis was used to show that the induced protein is coded for by the HIV-2 DNA. A duplicate gel, as shown in Figure 3, was blotted and
Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Zamri, I.; Nur Sabrina, W.; B. Siti Noraini, B.; Faridah, S.; Mazidah, M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.
Rice tungro disease (RTD) causes major losses to rice crop plantation. Hence, a highly sensitive tools need to be developed for the detection of RTD which can be employed in both laboratory and field. An electrochemical immunosensor system for the detection of RTD, based on immobilized specific antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticle was developed for this purpose. However, this paper focus for RTBV interaction using the conjugated antibodies which is added with polymer and deposited on carbon screen printed working electrodes.
Odinsen, Odd; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Dompreh, Albert; Sarkodie, Francis; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Parker, David; Allain, Jean-Pierre
Antibodies to influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus are detectable in B cells during the early stages of the immune response, prior to their occurrence in plasma. To investigate similar phenomena in a model of immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, medical students in Ghana were screened for HBV markers, HBV surface (HBs) antigen (HBsAg), and HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc). Consenting volunteers, 24 of whom were seronegative (susceptible) and 2 of whom were positive for anti-HBc (prior infection), were vaccinated on day 0, day 40, and 6 months. Two sets of 10 blood samples, sequentially collected at intervals of 2 days following each immunization on days 0 and 40, were processed into B-cell lysates and plasma. Solid-phase HBsAg coated on microtiter plates for enzyme immunoassay or nitrocellulose membranes for dot blot assay was used to detect anti-HBs activity by an indirect antiglobulin assay. A commercially procured sandwich immunoassay was used, along with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a dot blot assay, for the detection of anti-HBs in B-cell lysates and plasma. Following the first injection of vaccine, a single sample of B-cell lysate collected between 5 and 21 days revealed anti-HBs in 18/21 subjects with no plasma antibodies detectable by sandwich immunoassay. After the booster dose was injected on day 40, a single sample of B-cell lysate collected between 44 and 49 days showed anti-HBs in 16/19 subjects, and this was accompanied by plasma antibodies in 8 subjects. In contrast, between 8 and 13 days, both subjects with prior HBV infection showed anti-HBs in B-cell lysates and plasma. Thus, primary immunization with the HBV vaccine appears to transiently elicit low-affinity anti-HBs in B-cell lysates into plasma.
Sakamoto, Yuki; Shimizu, Toshio; Tobisawa, Shinsuke; Isozaki, Eiji
Previous case reports and studies have shown that anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibody can be detected in patients with polyneuropathy without any detectable M-protein. Nevertheless, the frequency of and related factors have not yet been adequately investigated. The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence of anti-MAG antibody in patients with demyelinating neuropathy without M-protein and to determine their clinical characteristics. From January, 2004, to September, 2016, consecutive patients with chronic demyelinating neuropathy were recruited. Anti-MAG antibody presence was tested at the first evaluation. We determined the prevalence of anti-MAG antibody without M-protein among included patients and evaluated the clinical characteristics. A total of 44 patients were included in the present study (12 women; median age at first visit 60 years [interquartile range 47-67 years]; median duration between onset and first visit 9 months [3-26 months]). M-protein was found in eight patients (18%) at the first evaluation. Anti-MAG antibody was present in 2 of remaining 36 (5.6 [95% confidence interval 0-13.0] %) patients without M-protein. Patients with anti-MAG antibody exhibited slowly progressive and distal dominant neuropathy with elevated serum IgM levels and refractory to immunotherapy. There were no differences in clinical features between patients having anti-MAG antibody without M-protein, and those with M-protein. One patient with the anti-MAG antibody showed a delayed appearance of M-protein during a 4-year follow-up after diagnosis. The prevalence of the anti-MAG antibody in chronic demyelinating neuropathy without any detectable M-protein was 5.6%. Anti-MAG antibody may be detectable earlier than M-protein.
Tamura, Y; Makie, H; Tanaka, S
An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test using sonicated extract as the antigen was developed for the detection of antibodies to Clostridium chauvoei. This antigen can be adsorbed onto glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep red blood cells treated with tannic acid and can be destroyed by trypsin and heat treatment. It corresponded well with the flagella of the organism, when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the gel diffusion test. No serological cross-reactivity was found in the IHA test when the antigen was tested against 4 species of clostridial antibodies. Our results suggest that the IHA test mainly detects antibodies against the flagella of C. chauvoei.
Arts, Remco; den Hartog, Ilona; Zijlema, Stefan E; Thijssen, Vito; van der Beelen, Stan H E; Merkx, Maarten
Antibody detection is of fundamental importance in many diagnostic and bioanalytical assays, yet current detection techniques tend to be laborious and/or expensive. We present a new sensor platform (LUMABS) based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) that allows detection of antibodies directly in solution using a smartphone as the sole piece of equipment. LUMABS are single-protein sensors that consist of the blue-light emitting luciferase NanoLuc connected via a semiflexible linker to the green fluorescent acceptor protein mNeonGreen, which are kept close together using helper domains. Binding of an antibody to epitope sequences flanking the linker disrupts the interaction between the helper domains, resulting in a large decrease in BRET efficiency. The resulting change in color of the emitted light from green-blue to blue can be detected directly in blood plasma, even at picomolar concentrations of antibody. Moreover, the modular architecture of LUMABS allows changing of target specificity by simple exchange of epitope sequences, as demonstrated here for antibodies against HIV1-p17, hemagglutinin (HA), and dengue virus type I. The combination of sensitive ratiometric bioluminescent detection and the intrinsic modularity of the LUMABS design provides an attractive generic platform for point-of-care antibody detection that avoids the complex liquid handling steps associated with conventional immunoassays.
De Land, F.H.; Goldenberg, D.M.
Serum prostatic acid phosphates (PAP) immunoassay is used to evaluate patients with prostatic carcinoma; however, as with other tumor markers, the enzyme levels do not necessarily reflect the presence or extent of tumor. The authors investigated the use of radiolabeled PAP antibodies for the in vivo detection of prostatic carcinoma by external scintillation imaging. Nine patients with prostatic carcinoma were entered into the study. Each received from 2.0 to 2.5 mCi of I-131 labeled antibody to PAP, administered i.v. The immunogen (PAP) was purified from normal human seminal fluid. Antiserum was prepared in rabbits by injecting the purified PAP. The antibodies were labeled with I-131 by chloramine-T method (10 to 20 Ci/g of IgG). Total body images were obtained at 24 and 48 hrs following administration of the labeled antibody. Nontarget I-131 activity was diminished by computer processing. Tumor sites detected by I-131 antibodies were correlated with other diagnostic procedures. In 7 of 9 patients primary and metastatic sites of cancer were detected by antibody imaging, however, no bone lesions were detected (6 cases). In 3 patients with concomitant pulmonary tumors, one was identified as of prostate origin. The serum PAP was normal in 4 patients; however, the primary tumor was identified in 3 of these. These findings suggest that the localization of prostatic carcinoma by means of in-vivo imaging of labeled antibodies to PAP is feasible and offers diagnostic opportunities based upon the functional characteristics.
Saha, Rumpa; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Shah, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Sunil; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder
Objectives: This study was planned to determine the usefulness of anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection in saliva for neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis, along with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level to serve as a surrogate marker. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study of 14 months duration, blood and saliva samples were collected from 40 patients suspected to be suffering from NCC and were subjected to anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection by ELISA. Serum CRP levels were estimated as acute-phase reactant by high sensitivity CRP ELISA. Results: Anti-cysticercus IgG was detected in serum and saliva of 34 and 30 patients, respectively. Cases positive for salivary antibody were positive for serum antibody and their serum CRP level was higher than normal. Cases negative for salivary antibody had low serum CRP levels. Anti-cysticercus IgG detection in saliva was 88.24% sensitive, 100% specific, and had a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 60%. Positive salivary anti-cysticercus IgG and high serum CRP level showed a significant association. Difference between CRP levels of patients positive for anti-cysticercus antibody in both serum and saliva, and patients positive for antibody in serum but not saliva was highly significant. Conclusions: Saliva, being painless and noninvasive, can be used as alternative to serum for NCC diagnosis. PMID:27570404
sebaceous glands (Stewart, 1992). Both SQE and cholesterol are transported in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL (Miettien, 1982; Koivisto...containers, espe- cially containers containing yoghurt or fat products G.R. Matyas et al. / Journal of Immunological Methods 286 (2004) 47–6764(Newbook and...for mur- ine antibodies. J. Immunol. Methods 267, 119. Mayes, P.A., 1996. Cholesterol synthesis, transport , and excretion. In: Murray, R.K., Granner
Mason, Kathleen L; Gonzalez, Michael V; Chung, Chungwon; Mousel, Michelle R; White, Stephen N; Taylor, Joshua B; Scoles, Glen A
An accurate and simple-to-perform new version of a competitive ELISA (cELISA) kit that became commercially available in 2015 for testing of cattle for antibody to Anaplasma marginale was validated for detection of Anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep. True positives and negatives were identified using nested PCR (nPCR) as the gold standard. Negative bovine control sera supplied with the kit were used to calculate % inhibition (%I), designated bovine control ELISA (BcELISA), and this was compared to %I calculated from negative ovine sera derived from hand-raised, pathogen-free sheep, designated ovine control ELISA (OcELISA). The receiver operating characteristics area under the curve was 1.0 with a p value <0.001 regardless of the source of the control sera. The cutoff values for negative BcELISA and OcELISA were <30%I and <27%I, respectively. Our work confirmed that this Anaplasma antibody cELISA kit version 2 can be used with the serum controls supplied in the kit to test for A. ovis antibody in domestic sheep. Furthermore, this work confirmed the historically high infection prevalence (>93%) at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station (Dubois, Idaho), in spite of efforts to reduce the possibility for iatrogenic transmission there, suggesting high levels of tick-borne transmission.
Cherkasova, M V; Novikov, A A; Alexndrova, E N; Karateev, D E; Popkova, T V; Luchikhina, E L; Avdeeva, A S; Nasonov, E L
The main diagnostic laboratory markers of rheumatoid arthritis are IgM rheumatoid factor and antibodies to citrullinated proteins. The IgM rheumatoid factor is a sensitive but insufficiently specific marker of rheumatoid arthritis. The antibodies to citrullinated proteins have a higher specificity for diagnostic of rheumatoid arthritis. The antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide and modified citrullinated vimentin are the main representatives of family of antibodies to citrullinated proteins applying in clinical diagnostic practice. The study was carried out to deternine the role of antibodies to citrullinated proteins and modified citrullinated vimentin in diagnostic, evaluation of activity and severity of destructive alterations under rheumatoid arthritis. The samplings of 993 patients with reliable diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. 179 patients with other rheumatoid diseases and 30 healthy donors were examined. The measurement of serum concentration of IgM rheumatoid factor and C-reactive protein was implemented by immune nephelometric analysis and antibodies to citrullinated proteins were analyzed by enzymoimmunoassay The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was established using the Westergreen technique. It was established that antibodies to modified citrullinated vimentin had the highest diagnostic specificity (83%), antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide had the highest diagnostic specificity (87%). The diagnostic specificity of joint detection of IgM rheumatoid factor, antibodies to citrullinated proteins and antibodies to modified citrullinated vimentin made up to 87%. In patients negative to rheumatoid factor the rate ofdetection of antibodies to citrullinated proteins made up to 34% and antibodies to modified citrullinated vimentin made up to 48%. The diagnostic effectiveness of detection of antibodies to citrullinitted proteins (ratio of likelihood of positive and negative results of test was correspondingly 5.5 and 0.3; area under ROC curve 0
Solano-Gallego, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Iniesta, L.; Arboix, M.; Portús, M.; Alberola, J.
For years, anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies have been detected in the sera of dogs living in areas of leishmaniasis endemicity. They have also been found in the aqueous humor and cerebrospinal fluid. In contrast, a review of the literature failed to identify the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine samples from dogs with leishmaniasis. Ninety-five dog urine samples were examined for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by using a protein A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty additional urine samples were collected from healthy dogs as controls. An IgG2 ELISA was performed on 26 urine samples found positive by the protein A ELISA. Twenty-three urine samples found positive to anti-Leishmania antibodies were tested for the local production of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urinary tract by means of the urine antibody coefficient. Ten urine samples (and the corresponding serum samples) were compared by Western blot (WB) analysis. Thirty-five out of the 95 urine samples were found positive, 57 were found negative, and 3 were found inconclusive for antibody detection by the protein A ELISA. A high correlation between protein A and IgG2 levels was found in positive urine samples. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were present in the urine of dogs that had leishmaniasis, urinary protein/creatinine (U P/C) ratios of greater than one, and normal urinary sediment. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the U P/C ratios and the levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies in positive urine samples. In general, WB analysis and the urine antibody coefficient suggested that the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine was the consequence of an impairment of filtration of the glomerular barrier. However, in some dogs, WB analysis could be interpreted as suggesting that the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies was caused, to a lesser extent, by local antibody production in the urinary tract. Antibody detection in
Solano-Gallego, L; Rodríguez, A; Iniesta, L; Arboix, M; Portús, M; Alberola, J
For years, anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies have been detected in the sera of dogs living in areas of leishmaniasis endemicity. They have also been found in the aqueous humor and cerebrospinal fluid. In contrast, a review of the literature failed to identify the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine samples from dogs with leishmaniasis. Ninety-five dog urine samples were examined for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by using a protein A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty additional urine samples were collected from healthy dogs as controls. An IgG2 ELISA was performed on 26 urine samples found positive by the protein A ELISA. Twenty-three urine samples found positive to anti-Leishmania antibodies were tested for the local production of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urinary tract by means of the urine antibody coefficient. Ten urine samples (and the corresponding serum samples) were compared by Western blot (WB) analysis. Thirty-five out of the 95 urine samples were found positive, 57 were found negative, and 3 were found inconclusive for antibody detection by the protein A ELISA. A high correlation between protein A and IgG2 levels was found in positive urine samples. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were present in the urine of dogs that had leishmaniasis, urinary protein/creatinine (U P/C) ratios of greater than one, and normal urinary sediment. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the U P/C ratios and the levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies in positive urine samples. In general, WB analysis and the urine antibody coefficient suggested that the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine was the consequence of an impairment of filtration of the glomerular barrier. However, in some dogs, WB analysis could be interpreted as suggesting that the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies was caused, to a lesser extent, by local antibody production in the urinary tract. Antibody detection in
Konishi, E; Iwasa, S; Kondo, K; Hori, M
We have developed a simple and sensitive chemiluminescence-linked immunoassay (CLIA) for determining mumps virus antibodies. Luminol molecules were used as markers, and polystyrene balls were used as antigen carriers. The CLIA was compared with an enzyme-linked fluorescence assay and a hemagglutination inhibition test on a total of 40 serum specimens obtained from 29 donors with natural infection or vaccination. There was good correlation between the three methods, and the sensitivity of the CLIA was about 10 times higher than that of the hemagglutination inhibition test, although it was slightly inferior to that of the enzyme-linked fluorescence assay. Moreover, the time course of light emission from the labeled antibody was rapid, and therefore in the CLIA the quantitation of the marker takes only a short time. PMID:7014604
Bikandi, Joseba; San Millán, Rosario; Regúlez, Pilar; Moragues, María D.; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José
Identification and characterization of Candida albicans germ tube-specific antigens may be of relevance for the serodiagnosis of invasive candidiasis since they could be the basis for the development of new diagnostic tests. In this study, we have identified two antigens of 180 and >200 kDa in the cell wall of C. albicans germ tubes which are responsible for the induction of antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes. Antigens of similar molecular masses have been demonstrated in the cell walls of the Candida species C. stellatoidea, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, but not C. glabrata. The kinetics of the antibody responses to C. albicans germ tubes were studied in rabbits infected with different Candida species. Although these antibodies were detected in rabbits infected with all Candida species except C. glabrata, the kinetics of the antibody responses to C. albicans germ tubes induced by the Candida species studied were different. Both the highest titer and the earliest response of antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes were observed in rabbits infected with either of the two serotypes of C. albicans used. However, the time needed to elicit the antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes can be reduced as the result of an anamnestic antibody response. The results presented in this study show that a test designed to detect antibodies against C. albicans germ tube antigens may be suitable for the diagnosis of infections caused by most of the medically important Candida species. PMID:9605993
Fattal, Ittai; Shental, Noam; Mevorach, Dror; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Livneh, Avi; Langevitz, Pnina; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Pauzner, Rachel; Lerner, Miriam; Blank, Miri; Hincapie, Maria-Eugenia; Gafter, Uzi; Naparstek, Yaakov; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Domany, Eytan; Cohen, Irun R
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) produce antibodies to many different self-antigens. Here, we investigated antibodies in SLE sera using an antigen microarray containing many hundreds of antigens, mostly self-antigens. The aim was to detect sets of antibody reactivities characteristic of SLE patients in each of various clinical states – SLE patients with acute lupus nephritis, SLE patients in renal remission, and SLE patients who had never had renal involvement. The analysis produced two novel findings: (i) an SLE antibody profile persists independently of disease activity and despite long-term clinical remission, and (ii) this SLE antibody profile includes increases in four specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivities to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and hyaluronic acid; the profile also includes decreases in specific IgM reactivities to myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD99, collagen III, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and cardiolipin. The reactivities together showed high sensitivity (> 93%) and high specificity for SLE (> 88%). A healthy control subject who had the SLE antibody profile was later found to develop clinical SLE. The present study did not detect antibody reactivities that differentiated among the various subgroups of SLE subjects with statistical significance. Thus, SLE is characterized by an enduring antibody profile irrespective of clinical state. The association of SLE with decreased IgM natural autoantibodies suggests that these autoantibodies might enhance resistance to SLE. PMID:20201986
Yamagami, S; Adachi, T; Sugimura, T; Wada, S; Kishimoto, T; Maekawa, M; Yoshimura, R; Niwa, M; Terano, Y; Shaldon, S
Endotoxins are often seen in dialysate. They are derived from Gram-negative bacteria especially Pseudomonas, E. coli and Serratia. Endotoxins are large-molecular-weight substances with an average molecular weight of 10(8). These large units can be divided into subunits down to a molecular weight of 10,000 which are thought to pass through dialyzer membranes. To investigate this, endotoxin antibody levels were measured in two groups of patients on chronic regular hemodialysis, a low-flux group using cellulosic membrane dialyzers (cuprophan and cuproammonium rayon (CAR) and a high-flux group using synthetic polymer membrane dialyzers (PMMA, EVAL). Using an ELISA based on standard endotoxin antibodies the percentages of patients in the low flux group with endotoxin antibodies were 26.9% with Cuprophan and 25% with CAR, not significantly different from a normal control group. In the PMMA and EVAL groups, it was 53.6% and 68.4% respectively. Back filtration of dialysate into blood is understood as the main reason for the entry of endotoxin in patients treated with high-flux dialyzers.
Combs, M R; Bredehoeft, S J
The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant antibodies, we chose to implement the gel test to be used with the Tecan MegaFlex-ID. We performed a retrospective analysis of identified antibodies and transfusion reactions to compare the outcomes of one year's experience with gel and PEG. We found comparable detection of potentially clinically significant antibodies by both methods and significantly fewer unwanted or clinically insignificant antibodies detected with the use of gel. Fewer delayed serologic transfusion reactions and no transfusion-associated hemolytic events occurred in the year that gel was used. Although we initially found the selection of the gel test to be a dilemma, our ultimate decision appears to have successfully protected patient safety and balanced sensitivity with specificity.
Anderson, George P; Goldman, Ellen R
Llamas possess unique subclasses of antibodies that lack light chains, and thus are made by the pairing of two heavy chains. IgG was purified from two llamas which had been immunized with trinitrobenzene-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Conventional IgG1 and heavy chain IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses were fractionated using affinity chromatography. The effectiveness of heavy chain antibodies for the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) using a competitive fluid array immunoassay was evaluated and compared to both the llama IgG1 as well as a murine monoclonal anti-TNT antibody. It was found that heavy chain antibody bound TNT with selectivity similar to conventional antibodies, yet the heavy chain antibodies possessed greater thermal stability. The titer of the heavy chain antibodies however was found to be 10-fold lower than the IgG1; thus analytical assays were best demonstrated using the llama IgG1 conventional antibody. The TNT competitive immunoassay on the Luminex fluid analyzer had a dynamic range from approximately 100 ng/mL to 10 microg/mL. Utilizing the same two-step competitive assay format the dynamic range of the monoclonal antibody was found to have a broad range (1 ng/mL to 1 microg/mL). This method was demonstrated on TNT contaminated soil extracts using both the llama IgG1 and the mouse monoclonal validating the utility of method for analysis of field samples.
Stanker, Larry H.; Scotcher, Miles C.; Cheng, Luisa; Ching, Kathryn; McGarvey, Jeffery; Hodge, David; Hnasko, Robert
Botulism is a serious foodborne neuroparalytic disease, caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Seven toxin serotypes (A – H) have been described. The majority of human cases of botulism are caused by serotypes A and B followed by E and F. We report here a group of serotype B specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) capable of binding toxin under physiological conditions. Thus, they serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture) ELISA. The antibodies were generated using recombinant peptide fragments corresponding to the receptor-binding domain of the toxin heavy chain as immunogen. Their binding properties suggest that they bind a complex epitope with dissociation constants (KD’s) for individual antibodies ranging from 10 to 48 × 10−11 M. Assay performance for all possible combinations of capture-detector antibody pairs was evaluated and the antibody pair resulting in the lowest level of detection (L.O.D.), ~20 pg/mL was determined. Toxin was detected in spiked dairy samples with good recoveries at concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL and in ground beef samples at levels as low as 2 ng/g. Thus, the sandwich ELISA described here uses mAb for both the capture and detector antibodies (binding different epitopes on the toxin molecule) and readily detects toxin in those food samples tested. PMID:24253240
Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Adzhri, R.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Hashim, U.
This paper presents preparation and characterization of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cardiac troponin detection to determine the selectivity of the cardiac troponin monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, used to capture and bind the targets in this experiment, are cTnI monoclonal antibody (MAb-cTnI) and cTnT monoclonal antibody (MAb-cTnT), while both cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) are used as targets. ELISA is performed inside two microtiter plates for MAb-cTnI and MAb-cTnT. For each plate, monoclonal antibodies are tested by various concentrations of cTnI and cTnT ranging from 0-6400 µg/l. The binding selectivity and level of detection between monoclonal antibodies and antigen are determined through visual observation based on the color change inside each well on the plate. ELISA reader is further used to quantitatively measured the optical density of the color changes, thus produced more accurate reading. The results from this experiment are utilized to justify the use of these monoclonal antibodies as bio-receptors for cardiac troponin detection by using field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors coupled with substrate-gate in the future.
Skov, B G; Hirsch, F R; Bobrow, L
Using conventional examination (CE) of H&E stained slides from bone marrow aspirates, metastases can be detected in approximately 25% of patients with small cell lung cancer. We investigated a panel of monoclonal antibodies using immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of bone marrow infiltration from SCLC and compared the results with CE. Seven monoclonal antibodies raised against epithelial antigens (CAM 5.2, MOV 15, NCCST 433, PE 35, LCA1/L38, HMFG 1 AND HMFG 2) were applied on bone marrow sections from three groups of patients (pts): (1) 19 pts in whom SCLC-metastases were detected by CE, (2) 44 pts with SCLC in whom metastases could not be detected by CE, and (3) 20 pts with non-malignant bone marrow diseases. All the antibodies except LCA1/L38 were positive in 60-90% of the slides with infiltrating tumour cells in group 1. No positive tumour cells were detected in group 2. A few plasma cells and megakaryocytes were slightly positive for MOV 15 and NCCST 433, but no other positive cells were detected in group 3. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibodies used in this study may be useful for diagnostic purposes when a suspicious looking infiltration is detected by CE. However, these antibodies could not detect metastatic tumour cells in the bone marrow sections from patients in whom CE did not reveal any tumour cells.
Saliki, J T; Lehenbauer, T W
A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (VNT) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. The test depends on the blocking of MAb binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. Test conditions were optimized by using control VNT-negative and -positive sera specific for CDV and PDV. A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition, which represents the mean cutoff of a VNT-negative population (n = 623) plus 2 standard deviations, was adopted for the test. A total of 736 serum samples were tested by the new cELISA and by the VNT as the "gold standard." An unexpected but useful finding was the ability of this CDV- and PDV-specific cELISA to also detect antibodies against the related pair dolphin morbillivirus and porpoise morbillivirus. Based on a subpopulation of 625 sera used in statistical analyses, the overall sensitivity and specificity of cELISA relative to those of the VNT were 94.9 and 97.7%, respectively. Because the cELISA proved to be nearly as sensitive and specific as the VNT while being simpler and more rapid, it would be an adequate screening test for suspect CDV or PDV cases and would also be useful for epidemiological surveillance of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal populations.
The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents. No Drawings
Herzberg, Mendel; Kenny, Kathryn V.; Robbins, John B.
Herzberg, Mendel (University of Florida, Gainesville), Kathryn V. Kenny, and John B. Robbins. Nonabsorbable rabbit anti-Salmonella typhimurium antibody as detected by the complement-mediated bactericidal reaction. J. Bacteriol. 91:1548–1555. 1966.—A portion of antibody active in the complement-mediated bactericidal reaction against Salmonella typhimurium from hyperimmune rabbit serum has been shown to be nonabsorbable by repeated serial absorptions with whole heat-killed or living bacteria. The first two absorptions remove 90 to 95% of the activity, but 1 to 5% cannot be removed by subsequent absorptions. The nonabsorbable antibody appears to be a macroglobulin by density-gradient centrifugation and by comparison of activity and absorbability of purified γ-M and γ-G immune globulins. Alternative hypotheses involving low avidity antibody or antibody to minor cell antigenic components are offered in explanation of the phenomenon. PMID:4160234
Serisier, D J; Wong, R C W; Armstrong, J G
Anti‐glomerular basement membrane (anti‐GBM) disease represents the spectrum of disease attributable to circulating anti‐GBM antibodies. While active anti‐GBM disease in the absence of circulating anti‐GBM antibodies has been described, it is considered rare with the use of current routinely available assays. We report four subjects with features consistent with active anti‐GBM antibody disease without detectable antibodies by routinely available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot techniques. All were smokers who presented with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, minimal renal involvement, and undetectable anti‐GBM antibodies. Seronegative anti‐GBM disease with predominant pulmonary involvement may be more common than previously appreciated and should be part of the differential diagnosis for otherwise unexplained diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Renal biopsy with immunofluorescent studies should be considered in the diagnostic evaluation of such subjects, including those with idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis. PMID:16807392
Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Young, Ginger R.; Basile, Alison J.
We describe and compare 2 qualitative serologic techniques for detecting West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in mosquito blood meals. The techniques are the biotin microsphere immunoassay (b-MIA) and the inhibition platform of the VectorTest™ WNV antigen assay (VecTest-inhibition). To demonstrate the ability of these tests to detect WNV-neutralizing antibodies, we experimentally exposed feeding mosquitoes to blood containing 5 concentrations of 6B6C-1, a flavivirus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Antibody concentrations were quantified using the 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90). After 24 h of blood-meal digestion at 22.5°C, the threshold PRNT90 titer of detection was ≤18 for b-MIA and ≤50 for VecTest-inhibition. Both tests reliably detected antibodies in 3 of 3 blood meals that had been digested for up to 30 h, or were about 25% digested. The b-MIA was also applied to mosquitoes that had engorged on avian blood in Arizona following a WNV epidemic in 2010. There was no significant difference in the WNV antibody prevalence determined by b-MIA (52% of 71 avian blood meals) compared to the WNV-neutralizing antibody prevalence in birds determined by direct sampling (49% of 234 birds). VecTest-inhibition requires fewer resources and may be used in the field without a laboratory, but consumes the entire blood meal and relies on subjective interpretation of results. The b-MIA requires a laboratory and sophisticated equipment and reagents. Results for b-MIA are analyzed objectively and can be applied to mosquito blood meals with greater confidence than the VecTest-inhibition method and thus can contribute substantially to research and surveillance programs that would benefit from the detection of specific WNV antibodies in mosquito blood meals. PMID:25843170
Nimo, R E; Carmel, R
Increasing the ratio of test serum to the intrinsic factor (IF) antigen should increase the sensitivity of anti-IF antibody assay, a useful, specific tool for diagnosing pernicious anemia. We therefore designed an assay in which this ratio was increased 25-fold over that of our current standard assay and 1,000-fold over that of most described methods. This assay was then compared with our standard assay, with one of the original assays, and with a commercial kit. Both of our assays, especially the newer sensitive method, detected antibody in much greater dilutions of positive serum than the other assays. The sensitive assay also detected antibody in 17% of pernicious anemia sera negative by our standard technique. We calculated that anti-IF antibody can be detected with the sensitive assay in 78% of our patients with pernicious anemia, compared with 73% by our standard assay, 65% by the commercial kit, and 61% by the original method of Gottlieb and colleagues. No antibody was detected in 35 control sera with the new assay, which suggests that the increased sensitivity did not come at the expense of diminished specificity. The increased sensitivity enhances the value of the anti-IF antibody as a major screening and diagnostic tool in pernicious anemia.
Hu, Zonglin; Leppla, Stephen H; Li, Baoguang; Elkins, Christopher A
Detection of nucleic acids using antibodies is uncommon. This is in part because nucleic acids are poor immunogens and it is difficult to elicit antibodies having high affinity to each type of nucleic acid while lacking cross-reactivity to others. We describe the origins and applications of a variety of anti-nucleic acid antibodies, including ones reacting with modified nucleosides and nucleotides, single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, RNA, DNA:RNA hybrids, locked-nucleic acids or peptide nucleic acid:nucleic acid hybrids. Carefully selected antibodies can be excellent reagents for detecting bacteria, viruses, small RNAs, microRNAs, R-loops, cancer cells, stem cells, apoptotic cells and so on. The detection may be sensitive, simple, rapid, specific, reproducible, quantitative and cost-effective. Current microarray and diagnostic methods that depend on cDNA or cRNA can be replaced by using antibody detection of nucleic acids. Therefore, development should be encouraged to explore new utilities and create a robust arsenal of new anti-nucleic acid antibodies.
Le Potier, M F; Abiven, P; Kobisch, M; Crevat, D; Desmettre, P
A blocking ELISA was developed by using a monoclonal antibody (4082-05-344-18) which specifically detected an epitope on the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 40 kDa membrane protein without cross-reacting with M flocculare or M hyorhinis. The results obtained with sera from specific pathogen-free pigs inoculated with M flocculare or M hyorhinis confirmed the specificity of the assay. An immunoblotting procedure was used to characterise the antibody response of pigs experimentally infected with M hyopneumoniae. Antibodies to the 40 kDa antigen were detected two weeks after infection and remained as major markers for at least 20 weeks. Cross-reacting antibodies to this antigen were not detected in convalescent sera from piglets infected with M flocculare or M hyorhinis. Sera from experimentally infected pigs were compared by means of the blocking ELISA and an indirect ELISA. The kinetics of ELISA antibodies after experimental inoculation were also studied. The detection of antibody was rather more stable for a longer time with the blocking ELISA than with the indirect ELISA. In an evaluation of more than 1000 sera from the field there was excellent agreement between the two methods.
Mancho, Carolina; Sainz, Angel; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Tesouro, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando
In recent years, serologic markers for diagnosis and classification of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been used in human medicine. Perinuclear, antineutrophil, cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) are the most important of these markers. Because of their similar pattern of fluorescence, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) could cause misleading interpretations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of an indirect fluorescent antibody test to detect p-ANCA in dogs with IBD, to compare the presence of p-ANCA in dogs with IBD with the presence of the same antibodies in other dogs, and to analyze the presence of ANAs in the p-ANCA-positive samples. Using a 110 dilution as a cutoff point, a sensitivity of 0.34 and a specificity of 0.86 was obtained when dogs with IBD were compared with the other groups as a whole, and specificity increased to 0.94 when dogs with IBD were compared with animals with other chronic gastrointestinal disorders. The lowest specificity value, 0.76, was obtained when the group of dogs with IBD was compared with that of dogs with different inflammatory and infectious disorders. Globally, 78 dogs were positive for p-ANCA when the cutoff was 110. Only 1 dog from these 78 animals was also seropositive to ANA. The results suggest that 1) detection of p-ANCA might be included in the IBD diagnostic protocol as another test to differentiate between this disease and other digestive diseases with similar clinical signs, and 2) most p-ANCA-positive dogs are not ANA positive.
Burchiel, S. W.; Crockford, D. R.; Rhodes, B. A.
F(ab')/sub 2/ or Fab fragments of antibodies to: (a) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), hCG alpha subunit, hCG beta subunit, or an hCG-like material; or (b) other tumor specific or tumor associated molecules, to include carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human melanoma associated antigens, human sarcoma associated antigens or other antigens, are radiolabeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m). When the F(ab')/sub 2/ or Fab fragments of antibody to such tumor associated antigens are injected intravenously into a patient, the radiolabeled composition accumulates at tumor sites. The accumulation of the cancer seeking radiopharmaceutical at tumor sites permits detection by external gamma scintigraphy. Thus, the composition is useful in the monitoring, localization and detection of cancer in the body. In an alternative composition, a double antibody approach to tumor localization using radiolabeled F(ab')/sub 2/ or Fab fragments is utilized. In this approach, a tumor specific antibody in the form of IgG, F(ab')/sub 2/ or Fab is first administered to a patient intravenously. Following a sufficient period of time, a second antibody in the form of F(ab')/sub 2/ or Fab is administered. The second antibody is radiolabeled with Tc-99m and has the property that it is reactive with the first antibody. This double antibody method has the advantage over a single antibody approach in that smaller tumors can be localized and detected and that the total amount of radioactive trace localized at the cancer site is increased.
Süsal, Caner; Opelz, Gerhard; Morath, Christian
The complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity (CDC) method has been the classical technique to detect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in sera of patients who are listed for kidney transplantation. Because of the drawbacks of CDC, such as low sensitivity and low resolution in characterizing antibody specificities, the more specific ELISA technology was introduced in the 1990s which utilizes solubilized HLA molecules instead of lymphocytes. During the last 10 years, the introduction of the Luminex-based single antigen bead (L-SAB) technology, which uses recombinant single HLA molecules, allows detection and characterization of HLA antibodies at greater sensitivity than CDC and ELISA. A drawback associated with this technique is that the interpretation of results is demanding and requires comprehensive experience in HLA antibody diagnostics. Herein we discuss the current role and value of L-SAB technology in the clinical management of sensitized kidney transplant recipients.
Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.
In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.
Yuan, Wei; Chung, Jouku; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zheng, Jiang
Styrene is widely used as one of the most important industrial materials for the production of synthetic rubbers, plastic, insulation, fiberglass, and automobile parts. Inhaled styrene has been reported to produce respiratory toxicity in humans and animals. Styrene oxide, a reactive metabolite of styrene formed via cytochrome P450 enzymes, has been reported to form covalent bonds with proteins, such as albumin and hemoglobin. Among all of the amino acids, cysteine is the most reactive amino acid to be modified by electrophilic species. The purpose of this study is to develop polyclonal antibodies for the detection of styrene oxide cysteinyl protein adducts. Two immunogens were designed, synthesized, and used to induce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immune responses were observed from the raised antibodies by antiserum dilution tests. Competitive ELISA demonstrated that the resulting antibodies specifically recognized the styrene oxide-derived N-acetylcysteine adduct. Western blot results showed that the antibodies recognize styrene oxide-modified albumin. The binding was found to depend on the amount of protein adducts blotted and hapten loading in protein adducts. No cross reaction was observed from the native protein. Competitive Western blots further indicated that these antibodies specifically recognized styrene oxide cysteinyl–protein adducts. Immunoblots revealed the presence of several bands at a molecular weight ranging from 50 to 80 kDa in rat nasal mucosa treated with styrene. In conclusion, we successfully raised polyclonal antibodies to detect styrene oxide-derived protein/cysteine adducts. PMID:17266334
Palmer, Amy L.; Zielke, Ryszard A.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.; Beechler, Brianna R.; Jolles, Anna E.; Epps, Clinton W.
Ecoimmunology is a burgeoning field of ecology which studies immune responses in wildlife by utilizing general immune assays such as the detection of natural antibody. Unlike adaptive antibodies, natural antibodies are important in innate immune responses and often recognized conserved epitopes present in pathogens. Here, we describe a procedure for measuring natural antibodies reactive to bacterial antigens that may be applicable to a variety of organisms. IgM from desert bighorn sheep plasma samples was tested for reactivity to outer membrane proteins from Vibrio coralliilyticus, a marine bacterium to which sheep would have not been exposed. Immunoblotting demonstrated bighorn sheep IgM could bind to a variety of bacterial cell envelope proteins while ELISA analysis allowed for rapid determination of natural antibody levels in hundreds of individual animals. Natural antibody levels were correlated with the ability of plasma to kill laboratory strains of E. coli bacteria. Finally, we demonstrate that natural antibody levels varied in two distinct populations of desert bighorn sheep. These data demonstrate a novel and specific measure of natural antibody function and show that this varies in ecologically relevant ways. PMID:28662203
Correia, Lucas; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter
Leptospirosis is a relevant zoonosis that affects the reproductive performance of livestock, impairing the economy. Few studies have demonstrated the effects of vaccination against leptospirosis on naturally exposed horses. This study aimed to detect anti-Leptospira inhibitory antibodies in horses after vaccination. A total of 54 mares were studied using Growth Inhibition Test (GIT) in three moments. The present results demonstrate the usefulness of GIT for confirming inhibitory effects of specific antibody production. Results have also demonstrated that vaccination positively influenced on the presence of inhibitory antibodies in horses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pancewicz, S A; Januszkiewicz, A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, T
The aim of this work was to estimate the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants in North Eastern Poland 1765 persons from Białystok, Lomza and Suwałki voivodships were examined. Among them 1101 persons were from high-risk of exposition to ticks group (forest workers, people living close to forests). 418 (23.68%) persons from group of 1765 had antibodies against B.b. There was no difference of incidence of antibodies against B.b. in high-risk group and the others. The results show that North Eastern Poland is the endemic region of occurrence of B.b.
Helbig, J H; Lück, P C; Witzleb, W
In patients with microbiologically and clinically suspected Legionella caused pneumonia antigenuria was investigated by means of a direct two-site binding assay (ELISA) with polyclonal antibodies against Legionella (L.) pneumonia serogroup 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 and L. micdadei. By application of antibodies only against L. pneumonia serogroup 1 antigenuria was found in 27 of 66 patients (= 41%). The expanding of the used specificities of antibodies in 47 out of this cases resulted in an increase of positive urinary antigen findings from 38% to 55%. Possibilities and limits of the detection of antigenuria with regard to efficient and rapid diagnostics of legionellosis are discussed.
Wei, Lili; Shen, Zhongliang; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Yanxin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junqi; Xie, Youhua; Liu, Jing
A highly specific and broadly reactive monoclonal antibody against hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein was developed that detected, in both immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, HBx proteins of seven of the eight currently known genotypes of HBV, which were overexpressed in cultured cells. Evaluation of HBx expression levels in cultured hepatocytes using this monoclonal antibody showed that cells transiently and stably transfected with HBV genomes expressed far less HBx protein than cells transiently transfected with an HBx overexpression plasmid routinely used for studying HBx functions. The availability of such sensitive and broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies against HBx will enable more-quantitative studies of HBx functions.
Ochiai, T.; Yasutake, W.T.; Gould, R.W.
The direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) was successfully used to detect the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), Renibacterium salmoninarum, in Bouin's solution flexed and paraffinembedded egg and tissue sections. This method is superior to gram stain and may be particularly useful in detecting the BKD organism in fish with low-grade infection.
Stanker, Larry H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Watkins, Bruce E.; Van Emon, Jeanette M.; Bigbee, Carolyn L.
Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples.
Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Van Emon, J.M.; Bigbee, C.L.
Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples. 6 figs.
Sharif, Roozbeh; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Mayes, Maureen D.; Gonzalez, Emilio B.; McNearney, Terry A.; Draeger, Hilda; Baron, Murray; Furst, Daniel E.; Khanna, Dinesh; del Junco, Deborah J.; Molitor, Jerry A.; Schiopu, Elena; Phillips, Kristine; Seibold, James R.; Silver, Richard M.; Simms, Robert; Perry, Marilyn; Rojo, Carlos; Charles, Julio; Zhou, Xiaodong; Agarwal, Sandeep K.; Reveille, John D.; Assassi, Shervin; Arnett, Frank C.
Background Anti-U3-RNP or anti-fibrillarin antibodies (AFA) are detected more frequently among African American (AA) patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared to other ethnic groups and are associated with distinct clinical features. The current study examines the immunogenetic, clinical, and survival correlates of AFA in a large group of AA patients with SSc. Methods Overall, 278 AA SSc patients and 328 unaffected AA controls were enrolled from three North American cohorts. Clinical features, autoantibody profile, and HLA-class-II genotyping were captured. To compare the clinical manifestations, relevant clinical features were adjusted for disease duration. The Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the effect of AFA on survival. Results Fifty (18.5%) AA patients had AFA. After Bonferroni correction, HLA-DRB1*08:04 was associated with AFA, compared to unaffected AA controls (OR=11.5, p<0.0001) and AFA negative SSc patients (OR=5.2, p=0.0002). AFA positive AA patients had younger age of disease onset, higher frequency of digital ulcers, diarrhea, pericarditis, higher Medsger Perivascular and lower Lung Severity Indices (p=0.004, p=0.014, p=0.019, p=0.092, p=0.006, and p=0.016, respectively). After adjustment for age at enrollment, AFA positive patients did not have different survival compared with patients without AFA (p=0.493). Conclusion These findings demonstrate strong association between AFA and HLA-DRB1*08:04 allele in AA patients with SSc. Moreover, AA SSc patients with AFA had younger age of onset, higher frequency of digital ulcers, pericarditis, and severe lower gastrointestinal involvement, but less severe lung involvement compared to AA patients without AFA. However, presence of AFA did not change survival. PMID:21572159
Davison, H. C.; Thrusfield, M. V.; Muharsini, S.; Husein, A.; Partoutomo, S.; Rae, P. F.; Masake, R.; Luckins, A. G.
Two Ag-ELISAs, an IgG-specific antibody detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT) for the detection of Trypanasoma evansi infections in buffaloes in Indonesia, were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 139 Indonesian buffaloes which had been found to be infected by parasitological tests. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 263 buffaloes living in Australia. Response-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and optimal ELISA cut-off values, which minimized the number of false-negative and false-positive results, were chosen. The IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivity (89%) and the CATT had the highest specificity (100%). There was a significant difference between the sensitivities (71 and 81%), but not between the specificities (75 and 78%), of the two Ag-ELISAs. The four tests were further compared by calculation of post-test probabilities of infection for positive and negative test results using a range of prevalence values, and likelihood ratios. The results suggested that the CATT was the best test to 'rule-in' infection (i.e. the highest probability of infection in test-positive animals) and the IgG ELISA was the best test to 'rule-out' infection (i.e. the lowest probability of infection in test-negative animals). PMID:10487651
Davison, H C; Thrusfield, M V; Muharsini, S; Husein, A; Partoutomo, S; Rae, P F; Masake, R; Luckins, A G
Two Ag-ELISAs, an IgG-specific antibody detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT) for the detection of Trypanasoma evansi infections in buffaloes in Indonesia, were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 139 Indonesian buffaloes which had been found to be infected by parasitological tests. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 263 buffaloes living in Australia. Response-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and optimal ELISA cut-off values, which minimized the number of false-negative and false-positive results, were chosen. The IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivity (89%) and the CATT had the highest specificity (100%). There was a significant difference between the sensitivities (71 and 81%), but not between the specificities (75 and 78%), of the two Ag-ELISAs. The four tests were further compared by calculation of post-test probabilities of infection for positive and negative test results using a range of prevalence values, and likelihood ratios. The results suggested that the CATT was the best test to 'rule-in' infection (i.e. the highest probability of infection in test-positive animals) and the IgG ELISA was the best test to 'rule-out' infection (i.e. the lowest probability of infection in test-negative animals).
Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack
By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.
Di Cristofaro, Julie; Frassati, Coralie; Montagnie, Rolande; Basire, Agnes; Merieux, Yves; Picard, Christophe
Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia is the most frequent and the most dangerous clinical condition involving anti-human platelet antigens (HPA)-1a allo-antibodies. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunization requires rapid and accurate diagnosis to determine appropriate treatment. The Capture-P Ready-Screen assay (C-PRS) is a new qualitative immunoassay to detect IgG anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and anti-HPA allo-antibodies. The aim of this study is to assess the identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using the C-PRS assay, associated with HLA class I stripping reagents, on the automated benchtop analyzer Galileo Echo. Forty-nine sera were analyzed: without anti-HLA class I or anti-HPA allo-antibodies, with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies, with anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies, among which with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies. None of the samples without allo-antibodies were reactive. Only anti-HLA antibodies, detected by cytotoxicity-dependent complement and not by Luminex, remained positive before and after stripping reagents. Of the 13 samples, anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies that were correctly identified before and after incubation with HLA assassin reagent were 70% and 85%, respectively. Anti-glycoprotein auto-antibodies and anti-HLA allo-antibodies do not interfere with the detection of anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This preliminary study indicates that further improvement of the test will be helpful in developing a clinically useful assay in the future.
Zhou, Y; Song, F; Li, Y S; Liu, J Q; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, Y Y; Yang, L; Li, Z H; Zhang, J H; Wang, X R
The concentration of casein (CN) is one of the most important parameters for measuring the quality of bovine milk. Traditional approach to CN concentration determination is Kjeldahl, which is an indirect method for determination of total nitrogen content. Here, we described a double-antibody based direct immunoassay for the detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples. Monoclonal antibody (McAb) was used as capture antibody and polyclonal antibody (PcAb) labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as detection antibody. With the direct immunoassay format, the linear range of the detection was 0.1-10.0 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was 0.04 μg mL(-1). In addition, the concentration of β-CN in real bovine milk samples has been detected by the developed immunoassay. There was a good correlation between the results obtained by the developed technique and Kjeldahl method from commercial samples. Compared to the traditional approach, the advantage of the assay is no need of time-consuming sample pretreatment.
Chatrathi, Madhu Prakash; Wang, Joseph; Collins, Greg E
A new approach for the sensitive detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is presented based upon an electrochemical enzymatic immunoassay that utilizes thiolated antibodies immobilized on a gold surface. This method relies on the use of amine- or sulfhydryl-reactive heterobifunctional cross-linkers for the introduction of 2-pyridyl-disulfide groups to the antibody. The disulfide-containing linkages are subsequently cleaved with a suitable reducing agent, such as dithiothreitol (DTT), and the thiolated antibody-gold bond is covalently formed on a gold working electrode. Various cross-linking agents for immobilization of the capture antibody onto the gold electrode were investigated and compared. Factors influencing the thiolation and immobilization were investigated and optimized. The feasibility of such antibody immobilization and the subsequent sandwich enzyme immunoassay is demonstrated for the sensitive detection of SEB. The detection limit estimated from a representative dose-response curve is 1 ng/mL, corresponding to 5 pg in a 5-microL sample. Coupling the specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and low detection limits of electrochemical detection shows real promise for future sensing technology in enabling the development of single-use disposable devices.
Baniukevic, Julija; Hakki Boyaci, Ismail; Goktug Bozkurt, Akif; Tamer, Ugur; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Ramanaviciene, Almira
The aim of the study was to develop an indirect, robust and simple in application method for the detection of bovine leukemia virus antigen gp51. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was applied as detection method. Magnetic gold nanoparticles (MNP-Au) modified by antibodies in oriented or random manner were used for the binding of gp51. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the best antibody immobilization and antigen capturing efficiency was achieved using fragmented antibodies obtained after reduction of intact antibodies with dithiothreitol. In order to increase efficiency and sensitivity of immunoassay Raman labels consisting of gold nanorods coated by 5-thio-nitrobenzoic acid layer with covalently bounded antibodies have been constructed. The LOD and LOQ of the proposed immunoassay for antigen gp51 detection were found to be 0.95μgmL(-1) and 3.14μgmL(-1), respectively. This immunoassay was successfully applied for the detection of gp51 in milk samples in a rapid, reliable and selective manner. We believe that the proposed SERS-based immunoassay format can be applied for the detection of other proteins.
Przewodowski, Włodzimierz; Przewodowska, Agnieszka
The quarantine bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) causes bacterial ring rot (BRR) in potato but is difficult to detect, hampering the diagnosis of this disease. ELISA immunoassays have not been widely used to detect Cms because commercially available anti-Cms antibodies detect mainly EPS-producing bacteria and can fail to detect strains that do not produce EPS. In the current study, we developed a new type of polyclonal antibody that specifically detects Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus bacteria irrespective of their EPS level. We first found that the presence of bacterial EPS precluded quantitative measurement of bacteria by currently available immunoenzymatic methods, but that washing Cms cells with acidic and basic buffers to remove EPS before analysis successfully standardized ELISA results. We used a mix of three strains of Cms with diverse EPS levels to generate antigen for production of antibodies recognizing Cms cells with and without an EPS layer (IgG-EPS and IgG-N-EPS, respectively). The resulting IgG-N-EPS recognized almost all Cms strains tested in this work regardless of their mucoidal level. The availability of this new antibody renders immunological diagnostics of Cms more sensitive and reliable, as our newly developed antibodies can be used in many type of immunoassays. This work represents an important step forward in efforts to diagnose and prevent the spread of BRR, and the methods and solutions developed in this work are covered by six Polish, one European and one US patents.
The quarantine bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) causes bacterial ring rot (BRR) in potato but is difficult to detect, hampering the diagnosis of this disease. ELISA immunoassays have not been widely used to detect Cms because commercially available anti-Cms antibodies detect mainly EPS-producing bacteria and can fail to detect strains that do not produce EPS. In the current study, we developed a new type of polyclonal antibody that specifically detects Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus bacteria irrespective of their EPS level. We first found that the presence of bacterial EPS precluded quantitative measurement of bacteria by currently available immunoenzymatic methods, but that washing Cms cells with acidic and basic buffers to remove EPS before analysis successfully standardized ELISA results. We used a mix of three strains of Cms with diverse EPS levels to generate antigen for production of antibodies recognizing Cms cells with and without an EPS layer (IgG-EPS and IgG-N-EPS, respectively). The resulting IgG-N-EPS recognized almost all Cms strains tested in this work regardless of their mucoidal level. The availability of this new antibody renders immunological diagnostics of Cms more sensitive and reliable, as our newly developed antibodies can be used in many type of immunoassays. This work represents an important step forward in efforts to diagnose and prevent the spread of BRR, and the methods and solutions developed in this work are covered by six Polish, one European and one US patents. PMID:28068400
van Dongen, G A M S; Visser, G W M; Vrouenraets, M B
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising approach for the treatment of superficially localized tumors. A limitation, however, is the lack of selectivity of the photosensitizers, which can result in severe toxicity. In this overview, the possibilities for using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for selective delivery of photosensitizers to tumors, are discussed. This approach is called photoimmunotherapy (PIT). For PIT to be successful, sufficient amounts of sensitizer should be coupled to the MAb without altering its biological properties. A challenging aspect herein is the hydrophobicity of therapeutic photosensitizers. Options for direct and indirect coupling of photosensitizers to MAbs are evaluated, while pros and cons are indicated. Special attention is paid to the quality testing of photoimmunoconjugates, as this information is important for further optimization of PIT. Results obtained thus far with PIT in in vitro and in vivo model systems are discussed. Despite the encouraging progress made, showing the high selectivity of photoimmunoconjugates, PIT still awaits initial clinical evaluation.
Tong, Sheng-quan; Shi, Qun; Wen, Xiao-hong; Gan, Xiao-dan; Shi, Yan-ping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Feng-chun; Dong, Yi
To compare the specificity and sensitivity of ELISA, double immunodiffusion (ID), and immunoblotting (IB) in detection of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies in the sera of patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). ELISA, double ID, and IB were used to detect the serum levels of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies in 7736 patients undergoing screening of CTD, 122 healthy blood donors, and 166 CTD patients positive in antinuclear antibody (ANA) and/or anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA). (1) The sera of the 122 healthy blood donors were all negative in anti-SSA/Ro antibodies by these three methods. (2) 1085 of the 7736 sera undergoing screening of CTD were positive in the anti-SSA/R0 antibody of the relative molecular quantity of 52,000. Ninety-two of the 1085 patient, ANA and/or anti-ENA negative, were all confirmed by ELISA and ID to be negative in anti-SSA/R0 antibodies. And 993 of these 1085 patients were positive in ANA and/or anti-ENA antibody, 917 of which were shown to be anti-SSA/R0 antibodies positive by ELISA (92.3%, 917/993), and 860 of which were shown to be anti-SSA/R0 antibodies positive by ID (86.6%, 860/993). (3) The prevalence rates of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies in the 166 CTD patients detected by ELISA, ID, and IB respectively were 76.5% (127/166), 65.1% (108/166), and 49.4% (82/166) respectively. (4) 127 of the 166 sera of the CTD group were anti-SSA/Ro antibody positive By ELISA, and 108 of the 166 sera were anti-SSA/R0 antibody positive by ID, with a coincidence rate of ELISA and ID of 88.6% (147/166), and there was a significant difference in positive rate of anti-SSA/Ro antibody between these two methods (P < 0.001). 81 of the 166 CTD sera were anti-SSA/Ro antibody positive with a positive rate of 63.8%. The coincidence rate of ID and IB was 75.9% (126/166) and there was a significant difference in positive rate of anti-SSA/Ro antibody between ID and IB methods too (P < 0.001). (5) Spearman's rank correlation study showed that the correlation coefficient between
Wood, Britta A; Carver, Scott; Troyer, Ryan M; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue
Microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) allow rapid and accurate evaluation of multiple analytes simultaneously within a biological sample. Here we describe the development and validation of domestic cat-specific MIAs for a) the quantification of total IgG and IgA levels in plasma, and b) the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid (CA) and surface (SU) proteins, and feline CD134 in plasma. These assays were used to examine the temporal antibody response of domestic cats infected with apathogenic and pathogenic FIVs, and domestic cats infected with parental and chimeric FIVs of varying pathogenicity. The results from these studies demonstrated that a) total IgG antibodies increase over time after infection; b) α-CA and α-SU IgG antibodies are detectable between 9 and 28 days post-infection and increase over time, and these antibodies combined represent a fraction (1.8 to 21.8%) of the total IgG increase due to infection; c) measurable α-CD134 IgG antibody levels vary among individuals and over time, and are not strongly correlated with viral load; d) circulating IgA antibodies, in general, do not increase during the early stage of infection; and e) total IgG, and α-CA and α-SU IgG antibody kinetics and levels vary with FIV viral strain/pathogenicity. The MIAs described here could be used to screen domestic cats for FIV infection, and to evaluate the FIV-specific or total antibody response elicited by various FIV strains/other diseases.
Ricciuti, Adriana; De Remigis, Alessandra; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A.; De Vincentiis, Ludovica; Guaraldi, Federica; Lupi, Isabella; Iwama, Shintaro; Wand, Gary S.; Salvatori, Roberto
Context: Pituitary antibodies have been measured mainly to identify patients whose disease is caused or sustained by pituitary-specific autoimmunity. Although reported in over 100 publications, they have yielded variable results and are thus considered of limited clinical utility. Objectives: Our objectives were to analyze all publications reporting pituitary antibodies by immunofluorescence for detecting the major sources of variability, to experimentally test these sources and devise an optimized immunofluorescence protocol, and to assess prevalence and significance of pituitary antibodies in patients with pituitary diseases. Study Design and Outcome Measures: We first evaluated the effect of pituitary gland species, section fixation, autofluorescence quenching, blockade of unwanted antibody binding, and use of purified IgG on the performance of this antibody assay. We then measured cross-sectionally the prevalence of pituitary antibodies in 390 pituitary cases and 60 healthy controls, expressing results as present or absent and according to the (granular, diffuse, perinuclear, or mixed) staining pattern. Results: Human pituitary was the best substrate to detect pituitary antibodies and yielded an optimal signal-to-noise ratio when treated with Sudan black B to reduce autofluorescence. Pituitary antibodies were more common in cases (95 of 390, 24%) than controls (3 of 60, 5%, P = .001) but did not discriminate among pituitary diseases when reported dichotomously. However, when expressed according to their cytosolic staining, a granular pattern was highly predictive of pituitary autoimmunity (P < .0001). Conclusion: We report a comprehensive study of pituitary antibodies by immunofluorescence and provide a method and an interpretation scheme that should be useful for identifying and monitoring patients with pituitary autoimmunity. PMID:24606106
Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang
A rapid, simple, facile, sensitive and enzyme-amplified chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method to detect antibodies against porcine parvovirus has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the detection antibody were simultaneously co-immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles using the electrostatic method to form gold nanoparticle-based nanoprobes. This nanoprobe was employed in a sandwich-type CLIA, which enables CL signal readout from enzymatic catalysis and results in signal amplification. The presence of porcine parvovirus infection was determined in porcine parvovirus antibodies by measuring the CL intensity caused by the reaction of HRP-luminol with H2 O2 . Under optimal conditions, the obtained calibration plot for the standard positive serum was approximately linear within the dilution range of 1:80 to 1:5120. The limit of detection for the assay was 1:10,240 (S/N = 3), which is much lower than that typically achieved with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (1:160; S/N = 3). A series of repeatability measurements using 1:320-fold diluted standard positive serum gave reproducible results with a relative standard deviation of 4.9% (n = 11). The ability of the immunosensor to analyze clinical samples was tested on porcine sera. The immunosensor had an efficiency of 90%, a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 87.5% relative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Utkin, D V; Osina, N A; Spitsin, A N; Kireev, M N; Gromova, O V; Zakharova, T L; Naidenova, E V; Kuklev, V E
The full-scaled agglutinating immunoassay is commonly applied to detect content of antibodies to cholera agent Vibrio cholerae human in blood serum under application of serological diagnostic. The time of analysis implementation amounts to 18 hours. To shorten time of detection of antibodies a biological microchip (biochip) was developed. The biochip represents an activated slide with immobilized corpuscle and soluble antigen cholera agent (O-antigens, cholera toxin). The experimental work resulted in development of scheme of biochip and selection of optimal conditions of sorption and implementation of immunologic analysis using biochip. The application of biochip facilitated to detect specific antibodies to antigens of cholera agent in commercial experimental animal serums and blood serums of ill patients. The time of analysis implementation amounted to 2-3 hours. The results are substantiated by bacteriological and serological methods.
Nakayama, Eri; Yokoyama, Ayaka; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Igarashi, Manabu; Kishida, Noriko; Matsuno, Keita; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Heinz; Ito, Kimihito; Saijo, Masayuki; Takada, Ayato
Several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of filovirus-specific antibodies have been developed. However, diagnostic methods to distinguish antibodies specific to the respective species of filoviruses, which provide the basis for serological classification, are not readily available. We established an ELISA using His-tagged secreted forms of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GPs) of five different Ebola virus (EBOV) species and one Marburg virus (MARV) strain as antigens for the detection of filovirus species-specific antibodies. The GP-based ELISA was evaluated by testing antisera collected from mice immunized with virus-like particles as well as from humans and nonhuman primates infected with EBOV or MARV. In our ELISA, little cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies was observed in most of the mouse antisera. Although sera and plasma from some patients and monkeys showed notable cross-reactivity with the GPs from multiple filovirus species, the highest reactions of IgG were uniformly detected against the GP antigen homologous to the virus species that infected individuals. We further confirmed that MARV-specific IgM antibodies were specifically detected in specimens collected from patients during the acute phase of infection. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our ELISA for diagnostics as well as ecological and serosurvey studies.
Ivanoska, D.; Cuperlovic, K.; Gamble, H.R.; Murrell, K.D.
Sera collected from patients with suspected or confirmed exposure to Trichinella spiralis were tested for circulating parasite antigens and antiparasite antibodies. Using an immunoradiometric assay, excretory--secretory antigens from muscle-stage larvae of T. spiralis were detected in the sera of 47% of 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 13% of 39 patients without clinical signs but suspected of exposure to infected meat. In comparison, antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent test in the circulation of 100% of the 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 46% of the 39 patients with suspected exposure. The presence of antibodies specific to excretory-secretory products of T. spiralis muscle larvae was confirmed in the majority of the samples tested by a monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition assay. These results indicate that antibody detection is a more sensitive diagnostic method for human trichinellosis, but that antigen detection might be a useful confirmatory test because it is a direct demonstration of parasite products in the circulation.
Funari, Riccardo; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Schiavo, Luigi; Esposito, Rosario; Altucci, Carlo; Velotta, Raffaele
Photonic immobilization technique (PIT) has been used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of parathion. An antibody solution has been activated by breaking the disulfide bridge in the triad Trp/Cys-Cys through absorption of ultrashort UV laser pulses. The free thiol groups so produced interact with gold lamina making the antibody oriented upside, that is, with its variable parts exposed to the environment, thereby greatly increasing the detection efficiency. PIT has been applied to anchor polyclonal antiparathion antibodies to the gold electrode of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) giving rise to very high detection sensitivity once the parathion is made heavier by complexion with BSA (bovine serum albumin), this latter step only required by the mass based transducer used in this case. The comparison of the sensor response with irradiated antibodies against different analytes shows that the high degree of antibody specificity is not affected by PIT nor is it by the complexion of parathion with BSA. These results pave the way to important applications in biosensing, since the widespread occurrence of the Trp/Cys-Cys residues triads in proteins make our procedure very general and effective to detect light analytes.
Uto, Kenichi; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Kinoshita, Shouhiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi
BioPlex2200 is a fully automated analyzer using multiplexed technology and BioPlex2200 ANA Screen can analyze 11 antinuclear antibodies (ANA). We evaluated simultaneous detection of 11 ANA and clinical utility as ANA screening test. We collected sera from 317 connective tissue disease (CTD) patients, 166 healthy subjects, and 105 sera in which anti dsDNA antibody(RIA) is requested. Detection of 11 ANA were measured by BioPlex2200 ANA Screen using BioPlex2200 along with conventional methods. We evaluated positive ratio for healthy subjects and CTD patients and concordance rate between BioPlex2200 and IF. The prevalence of disease specific ANA in CTD patients were comparable with general occurrence rate except anti dsDNA antibody (39.3%) in SLE. Concordance rate between BioPlex2200 and conventional methods were high(89.0-99.7%) except anti dsDNA antibody(ELISA: 68.8%, RIA: 58.1%). Discordant sera of Bioplex2200+/DID- for anti SS-A antibodies were observed in 30 sera, and 20 sera were positive only for anti 52kD SS-A/Ro antibody. As ANA screening test, positive ratio was low (7.2%) in healthy subjects, and comparable with that of IF(1:160). Concordance rate between BioPlex2200 and IF was low (75.1%). However, 44 sera of BioPlex2200+/IF- contained 6 samples positive for anti Jo-1 antibodies and 29 samples positive for anti-52kD SS-A/Ro antibodies. Diagnostic accuracy of the Medical Decision Support Software (MDSS) by BioPlex2200 as compared to clinical diagnosis is good for specificity. Taken together, BioPlex2200 can appropriately perform simultaneous detection of 11 ANA and detect independently anti-52kD SS-A/Ro antibody. However, detection for anti dsDNA antibody of low titers is needed to be improved.
Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.
A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (VNT) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. The test depends on the blocking of MAb binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. Test conditions were optimized by using control VNT-negative and -positive sera specific for CDV and PDV. A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition, which represents the mean cutoff of a VNT-negative population (n = 623) plus 2 standard deviations, was adopted for the test. A total of 736 serum samples were tested by the new cELISA and by the VNT as the “gold standard.” An unexpected but useful finding was the ability of this CDV- and PDV-specific cELISA to also detect antibodies against the related pair dolphin morbillivirus and porpoise morbillivirus. Based on a subpopulation of 625 sera used in statistical analyses, the overall sensitivity and specificity of cELISA relative to those of the VNT were 94.9 and 97.7%, respectively. Because the cELISA proved to be nearly as sensitive and specific as the VNT while being simpler and more rapid, it would be an adequate screening test for suspect CDV or PDV cases and would also be useful for epidemiological surveillance of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal populations. PMID:11326007
Moroff, Scott; Sokolchik, Irene; Woodring, Todd; Woodruff, Colby; Atkinson, Brett; Lappin, Michael R
Ehrlichia canis is the most common cause of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs around the world. The purpose of the present study was to validate a new automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4™ BioCD system; Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York) to detect antibodies against the E. canis immunodominant glycoprotein 36 (gp36). Sera and blood samples (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) were collected from mixed sex beagles ( n = 8) on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, and 98 after intravenous inoculation with culture-derived E. canis. Sera were assayed using the Accuplex4 BioCD system (Accuplex4), an E. canis indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and a commercially available kit. A complete blood cell count and a proprietary E. canis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on each blood sample. On the day thrombocytopenia was first detected for each dog, E. canis DNA was amplified from blood of all dogs. At those times, E. canis antibodies were detected in 7 of 8 dogs by the Accuplex4, 1 of 8 dogs by the commercial kit, and 4 of 8 dogs by IFAT. Ehrlichia canis DNA was amplified from blood before seroconversion in any antibody assay for 6 dogs. Antibodies against gp36 were detected by Accuplex4 within 3 days of PCR-positive test results and were detected up to 25 days sooner than the commercial kit. After starting doxycycline treatment, E. canis DNA was no longer amplified by PCR assay, but serum antibodies remained detectable by all assays.
Oguchi, Kaoru; Miyata, Akiko; Kazuyama, Yukimasa; Noda, Atsuya; Suzuki, Eri; Watanabe, Mineo; Nakayama, Tetsuo
Isolation of Bordetella pertussis and detection of the pertussis genome are not always successful because of low bacterial loads in adult patients with pertussis. Antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) are measured but have low sensitivity in vaccinated subjects. There is no reliable diagnostic method at present. In this study, a fluorescent-EIA against several pertussis antigens and genome detection were investigated to establish clinical laboratory diagnostic methods for pertussis. The study was conducted in an outpatient clinic between September 2007 and 2013. Subjects consisted of 209 patients including adults suspected of pertussis and 35 staff members of the clinic. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was performed to detect the pertussis genome in 5' UTR of the pertussis toxin (PT) gene. The catalytic region of the adenylate cyclase toxin (catACT), C-terminal of filamentous hemagglutinin (cFHA), and type 3 fimbria (Fim3) were selected, which are not pertussis vaccine component. Conventional PT and FHA antibodies were examined together with type 2 fimbria (Fim2) antibodies, and these are vaccine antigens. Pertussis DNA was detected in 23 (11%) out of 209. Detection sensitivity was high in young infants. Antibodies against Fim3 showed a higher positive rate in all age groups. Staff members at the pediatric outpatient clinic showed serological booster responses in Fim2 and Fim3 antibodies more sensitively than those in PT antibodies during outbreaks. LAMP was useful for detecting the pertussis genome in young infants, whereas a serological assay for fluorescent-EIA against Fim2 and Fim3 was preferable for adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gorovits, Boris; Alley, Stephen C; Bilic, Sanela; Booth, Brian; Kaur, Surinder; Oldfield, Phillip; Purushothama, Shobha; Rao, Chetana; Shord, Stacy; Siguenza, Patricia
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) typically consist of a cytotoxic drug covalently bound to an antibody by a linker. These conjugates have the potential to substantially improve efficacy and reduce toxicity compared with cytotoxic small-molecule drugs. Since ADCs are generally complex heterogeneous mixtures of multiple species, these novel therapeutic products present unique bioanalytical challenges. The growing number of ADCs being developed across the industry suggests the need for alignment of the bioanalytical methods or approaches used to assess the multiple species and facilitate consistent interpretation of the bioanalytical data. With limited clinical data, the current strategies that can be used to provide insight into the relationship between the multiple species and the observed clinical safety and efficacy are still evolving. Considerations of the bioanalytical strategies for ADCs based on the current industry practices that take into account the complexity and heterogeneity of ADCs are discussed.
Mishima, Eikan; Jinno, Daisuke; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki
The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.
Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki
The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism. PMID:26606401
Waddington, W A; Davidson, B R; Todd-Pokropek, A; Boulos, P B; Short, M D
Occult tumour deposits may be localised at operation with a radiation detecting probe following the administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognising a tumour-associated antigen. We have recently evaluated the clinical usefulness of this technique in detecting primary colorectal tumours targetted with an indium-111 MoAb. In the present study the physical characteristics of the two detector systems used were investigated; a sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector and a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor probe. Limitations of the technique in use have been examined by testing the statistical significance of tumour detection using an abdominal phantom based on the currently available clinical biodistribution data for tumour uptake of radiolabelled MoAbs. The effect of tumour volume, antibody uptake, collimation and counting conditions was examined. Results indicate that tumours of 10 ml volume may be detected with the NaI(Tl) probe at the lowest levels of radiolabelled antibody uptake currently reported in the literature but that at higher published levels, lesions as small as 1 ml may be identified with both detector systems. Detector sensitivity and limited antibody specificity restrict the usefulness of the technique, although moderate improvements in tumour uptake may allow the detection of tumour deposits not clinically apparent. The statistical significance criterion used for this study could be an accurate and reliable indicator for tumour detection in vivo.
Rommel, Frank R.; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe
Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288
Bailey, J. V.; Corsetti, F. A.; Moldowan, J. M.; Fago, F.; Caron, D.
Sedimentary geolipids can serve as powerful tools for reconstructing ancient ecosystems, but only if investigators can demonstrate that the hydrocarbons are indigenous to their host rocks. The association of molecules with primary sedimentary fabrics could indicate a syngenetic relationship. However, traditional biomarker analyses require extraction from large quantities of powdered rock, confounding detailed spatial correlations. Biological studies commonly use antibodies as extremely sensitive molecular probes. When coupled with fluorescent labels, antibodies allow for the visual localization of molecules. Here we show that monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to geolipid compounds can be used for in situ detection and labeling of such compounds in mineral-bound organic macerals. Monoclonal antibodies to squalene, produced for human health studies, also react with the geolipid, squalane. We show that squalene antibodies do not react with other common sedimentary hydrocarbons. We also show that squalane antibodies bind specifically to isolated organic-rich lamina in Eocene-age, squalane-containing rocks. These results suggest that squalane is confined to discrete organo-sedimentary fabrics within those rocks, providing evidence for its syngeneity. The chemical similarity of squalane to other sedimentary hydrocarbons hints at the potential for developing monoclonal antibodies to a variety of biomarkers that could then be localized in rocks, sediments, and extant cells.
Thomason, Berenice M.; Hebert, G. Ann
Fluorescent antibody (FA) reagents for Salmonella produced by Difco, Sylvana, and Clinical Sciences, Inc., were evaluated for physicochemical and performance characteristics. The Difco panvalent (A through 064) and the Difco polyvalent (A through S) were similar in physicochemical characteristics. They had less than 60% gamma globulin with 3% albumin and had fluorescein to protein (F/P) ratios of less than 10. The Sylvana conjugate had 81% gamma globulin with less than 1% albumin. Its F/P was 33.9. The Clinical Sciences reagent contained 75% unlabeled albumin as packaged in the Fluoro-kit. Analysis of the original conjugate showed 86.5% gamma globulin with only 0.5% albumin. The (F/P) was 32.8. The performance characteristics were determined by using a variety of Enterobacteriaceae and food and feed samples. All conjugates stained the homologous Salmonella strains. The majority of cross-reactions were limited primarily to the Arizona, Citrobacter, and Escherichia coli groups. The Difco panvalent was more reactive with heterologous organisms. It stained 89% of the Arizona compared with 42% stained by the Difco polyvalent (A through S) and 39% stained by the Sylvana and Clinical Sciences reagents. We found 90% agreement between FA and culture when the Difco polyvalent was used to examine food and feed samples and 94% agreement when the Clinical Sciences Fluoro-kit was used on another group of samples. PMID:4133829
Thurman, Joshua M; Kulik, Liudmila; Orth, Heather; Wong, Maria; Renner, Brandon; Sargsyan, Siranush A; Mitchell, Lynne M; Hourcade, Dennis E; Hannan, Jonathan P; Kovacs, James M; Coughlin, Beth; Woodell, Alex S; Pickering, Matthew C; Rohrer, Bärbel; Holers, V Michael
During complement activation the C3 protein is cleaved, and C3 activation fragments are covalently fixed to tissues. Tissue-bound C3 fragments are a durable biomarker of tissue inflammation, and these fragments have been exploited as addressable binding ligands for targeted therapeutics and diagnostic agents. We have generated cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies against human and mouse C3d, the final C3 degradation fragment generated during complement activation. We developed 3 monoclonal antibodies (3d8b, 3d9a, and 3d29) that preferentially bind to the iC3b, C3dg, and C3d fragments in solution, but do not bind to intact C3 or C3b. The same 3 clones also bind to tissue-bound C3 activation fragments when injected systemically. Using mouse models of renal and ocular disease, we confirmed that, following systemic injection, the antibodies accumulated at sites of C3 fragment deposition within the glomerulus, the renal tubulointerstitium, and the posterior pole of the eye. To detect antibodies bound within the eye, we used optical imaging and observed accumulation of the antibodies within retinal lesions in a model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Our results demonstrate that imaging methods that use these antibodies may provide a sensitive means of detecting and monitoring complement activation-associated tissue inflammation.
Thurman, Joshua M.; Kulik, Liudmila; Orth, Heather; Wong, Maria; Renner, Brandon; Sargsyan, Siranush A.; Mitchell, Lynne M.; Hourcade, Dennis E.; Hannan, Jonathan P.; Kovacs, James M.; Coughlin, Beth; Woodell, Alex S.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Rohrer, Bärbel; Holers, V. Michael
During complement activation the C3 protein is cleaved, and C3 activation fragments are covalently fixed to tissues. Tissue-bound C3 fragments are a durable biomarker of tissue inflammation, and these fragments have been exploited as addressable binding ligands for targeted therapeutics and diagnostic agents. We have generated cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies against human and mouse C3d, the final C3 degradation fragment generated during complement activation. We developed 3 monoclonal antibodies (3d8b, 3d9a, and 3d29) that preferentially bind to the iC3b, C3dg, and C3d fragments in solution, but do not bind to intact C3 or C3b. The same 3 clones also bind to tissue-bound C3 activation fragments when injected systemically. Using mouse models of renal and ocular disease, we confirmed that, following systemic injection, the antibodies accumulated at sites of C3 fragment deposition within the glomerulus, the renal tubulointerstitium, and the posterior pole of the eye. To detect antibodies bound within the eye, we used optical imaging and observed accumulation of the antibodies within retinal lesions in a model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Our results demonstrate that imaging methods that use these antibodies may provide a sensitive means of detecting and monitoring complement activation–associated tissue inflammation. PMID:23619360
Gutiérrez, R; González, I; García, T; Carrera, E; Sanz, B; Hernández, P E; Martín, R
Monoclonal antibodies generated against live cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens have been used in an indirect ELISA format for the detection of Pseudomonas spp. and related psychrotrophic bacteria in refrigerated milk. The immunorecognition of monoclonal antibodies adsorbed to bacteria bound to the wells of a microtiter plate was performed with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Subsequent enzymic conversion of the substrate resulted in distinct absorbance differences when assaying milk samples containing psychrotrophic bacteria in the range 10(5) to 10(9) CFU ml(-1) . The detection threshold for the ELISA assay developed in this work is 10(5) CFU ml(-1).
Chow, Siu-Kei; Atienza, Ederlyn E.; Cook, Linda; Prince, Harry; Slev, Patricia; Lapé-Nixon, Mary
Serology remains critical for diagnosing hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, which affects 15 to 20 million people worldwide, but the literature on characterizing commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) dates back to 15 years ago. We evaluated 2 commercial EIAs currently available for detecting anti-HDV antibodies. The DiaSorin assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity. Using a modified cutoff value, the Cusabio assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 90.9%. Our data show that recently developed EIAs are reliable for anti-HDV antibody detection. PMID:27280621
Castillo, R M; Grados, P; Carcamo, C; Miranda, E; Montenegro, T; Guevara, A; Gilman, R H
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure serum immunoglobulin G antibodies in 65 patients infected with Hymenolepis nana and 30 noninfected patients. Antibody was detected in 51 of 65 (sensitivity, 79%) and 5 of 30 H. nana-negative patients (specificity, 83%). Nine patients infected with H. nana were treated with praziquantel (20 to 25 mg/kg of body weight). Antibody disappeared from the sera at 90 days in six patients, five of whom had eliminated H. nana. Antibody persisted in three patients in whom H. nana infection did not clear after treatment. The H. nana ELISA had a high rate of cross-reactions with sera from patients with cysticercosis (8 of 29 [28%]) and hydatidosis (8 of 23 [35%]). The ELISA for H. nana may be useful for defining the epidemiology of H. nana infections, especially in areas free from cysticercosis and hydatidosis.
Castillo, R M; Grados, P; Carcamo, C; Miranda, E; Montenegro, T; Guevara, A; Gilman, R H
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure serum immunoglobulin G antibodies in 65 patients infected with Hymenolepis nana and 30 noninfected patients. Antibody was detected in 51 of 65 (sensitivity, 79%) and 5 of 30 H. nana-negative patients (specificity, 83%). Nine patients infected with H. nana were treated with praziquantel (20 to 25 mg/kg of body weight). Antibody disappeared from the sera at 90 days in six patients, five of whom had eliminated H. nana. Antibody persisted in three patients in whom H. nana infection did not clear after treatment. The H. nana ELISA had a high rate of cross-reactions with sera from patients with cysticercosis (8 of 29 [28%]) and hydatidosis (8 of 23 [35%]). The ELISA for H. nana may be useful for defining the epidemiology of H. nana infections, especially in areas free from cysticercosis and hydatidosis. PMID:2007652
Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.
The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.
Partridge, Michael A; Purushothama, Shobha; Elango, Chinnasamy; Lu, Yanmei
Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies. The most commonly used method is a bridging assay, performed in an ELISA or on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. In this report, we aim to review the emerging new assay technologies that can complement or address challenges associated with the bridging assay format in screening and confirmation of ADAs. We also summarize generic anti-drug antibody assays that do not require drug-specific reagents for nonclinical studies. These generic assays significantly reduce assay development efforts and, therefore, shorten the assay readiness timeline.
Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies. The most commonly used method is a bridging assay, performed in an ELISA or on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. In this report, we aim to review the emerging new assay technologies that can complement or address challenges associated with the bridging assay format in screening and confirmation of ADAs. We also summarize generic anti-drug antibody assays that do not require drug-specific reagents for nonclinical studies. These generic assays significantly reduce assay development efforts and, therefore, shorten the assay readiness timeline. PMID:27556048
Duquesnoy, Rene J; Marrari, Marilyn
Although HLA-C matching is not considered in kidney transplantation, several reports have shown that anti-HLA-C antibodies are associated with rejection and graft failure. DNA-based typing methods can now accurately determine HLA-C compatibility and sensitive assays such as Luminex with single alleles can identify HLA-C antibodies. HLA-C displays considerable amino acid polymorphism that can be translated into a structurally defined epitope repertoire. We have analyzed post-allograft nephrectomy sera from 45 HLA-C mismatched cases submitted by 15 laboratories worldwide participating in the 15th International Histocompatibility Workshop. All of them had HLA class I antibodies detected by a Luminex-based solid phase method using single-allele beads. This study addressed the determination of antibodies against donor HLA-C mismatches. Analysis of antibody reactivity patterns was performed using HLAMatchmaker, a structurally based matching program that considers 56 HLA-C eplets to define antibody-reactive epitopes. Many eplets shared by groups of HLA-C antigens, whereas others are also shared with HLA-A and/or HLA-B antigens. Twenty-seven patients (60%) had donor-specific HLA-C antibodies, significantly less than the donor-specific antibodies induced by HLA-A and HLA-B mismatches. HLA-C antibody responses correlated with the eplet loads of the HLA-C mismatches. There were 352 instances whereby a donor HLA-C eplet was mismatched and for 84 (24%) of them there was antibody reactivity with a particular eplet (69 instances) or an eplet pair (15 instances). The latter generally consisted of mismatched eplets paired with self-eplets shared between the immunizing HLA-C alleles and HLA alleles of the patient. Several HLA-C eplets exhibited a relatively high immunogenicity as evidenced by their frequencies of specific antibodies. These findings demonstrate the importance of HLA-C mismatching in humoral sensitization and that HLA-C epitopes can induce specific antibodies. They
McHugh, T M; Viele, M K; Chase, E S; Recktenwald, D J
Antibody to HCV core and NS3 was quantified by using a microsphere immunoassay and flow cytometry. Antibody to core and NS3 was elevated in the 85 seropositive blood donors tested. The amount of either antibody varied over two logs although greater variation was seen with the antibody to NS3 than was seen with antibody to core. In three documented acute HCV cases, the microsphere assay detected antibody prior to antibody detection using the reference methods. Twenty donor samples were indeterminate by the reference methods: 45% of these were indeterminate with the microsphere assay while 25% were negative and 30% were positive. As compared to enzyme immunoassay the microsphere assay showed a 5-fold increase in sensitivity. The microsphere assay demonstrated increased sensitivity for the quantification of specific antibody to HCV core and NS3 and was useful in resolving a significant proportion of indeterminate samples.
Schuetz, A.; Fritsch, S.; Kemkes, B.M.; Kugler, C.; Angermann, C.; Spes, C.; Anthuber, M.; Weiler, A.; Wenke, K.; Gokel, J.M. )
Sixty-eight indium 111-labeled antimyosin Fab-DTPA imaging studies (0.5 mg intravenously with a radioactivity of 65 to 75 MBq) were executed on 37 of 116 patients undergoing heart transplantation to assess diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility. As controls, 21 patients with cardiomyopathy (n = 8), unstable angina (n = 9), and myocardial infarction (n = 4) were selected. After 48 hours, single photon emission computed tomographic images were evaluated visually, and heart/lung ratios were measured, using the region of interest technique. They were compared with echocardiographic and endomyocardial biopsy results. In 40 studies a heart/lung ratio less than or equal to 1.6 corresponded to a negative biopsy result in 98% (40/41). Echocardiography enabled correct identification of 95% of the patients with normal biopsy findings. In 91% (22/24) a positive biopsy finding correlated with a heart/lung ratio greater than 1.6 including 20 mild rejections, but in only 64%, with an increase in wall thickness and/or decrease of fractional diameter shortening seen on echocardiogram. In addition, the various stages of rejection episodes determined the amount of the heart-lung ratio. There was a significant relationship between the histologic findings and the antimyosin uptake. In 13 patients a second investigation was performed after rejection therapy. All patients had a negative biopsy result, and the heart/lung ratio decreased to normal ranges (less than or equal to 1.6). Five antimyosin antibody studies were excluded, as in these cases, negative uptake results were found during rejection therapy with high-dose steroids. The overall sensitivity was calculated at 93% and the specificity at 98%.
Cha, Go Woon; Cho, Jung Eun; Ju, Young Ran; Hong, Young-Jin; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Eui Yul; Jeong, Young Eui
Objectives Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV. Methods The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests. Results All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children. Conclusion These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered. PMID:25389515
Yuan, B; Ai, C-X; Yuan, L; Gao, W; Hu, J-P; Chen, J; Ren, W-Z
This study aimed to prepare monoclonal antibody of feline calicivirus (FCV) and identify its basic biological characteristics. Saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, combined differential centrifugation, and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation were used for the purification of FCV. The purified FCV was used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice. The hybridoma lines of anti-FCV monoclonal antibodies were established using cell fusion and hybridoma screening techniques. The subtypes of the monoclonal antibody were identified. The results showed that 3 strains of hybridoma cell lines stably secreted anti-FCV monoclonal antibody; they were named as D8, E5, and H4. The D8 and E5 were IgM subtype antibodies, and H4 was IgG2b subtype antibody. The monoclonal antibody obtained shared no cross-reactivity with feline parvovirus, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus. According to the different recognition sites of 2 monoclonal antibodies E5 and H4 to the FCV, they were used to coat microtiter plates and prepare 2 enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies to establish double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting method.
Neeli, Indira; Radic, Marko
Studies on NETosis demand reliable and convenient markers to monitor the progress of this form of cell death. Because a determining step in the release of nuclear chromatin NETs requires the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues in histones by peptidylarginine deiminase, citrullinated histones can provide such a marker. Here, we evaluate antibody reagents for the detection of citrulline residues in histones and observe alarming differences between commercial antisera and mouse and rabbit monoclonal antibodies in their ability to detect their nominal target residues. Differences between antibodies that are currently used to detect citrulline residues in histones could jeopardize efforts to reach a scientific consensus and instead lead to inconsistent and even conflicting conclusions regarding the regulation of histone deimination. Our results will assist others in planning their initial or ongoing studies on peptidylarginine deiminase activity with the use of currently available antibodies. Furthermore, we argue that, along with the careful attention to experimental conditions and calcium concentrations, validated antibody reagents are urgently needed to avoid possible setbacks in the research on NETosis. PMID:27933065
Barbee, Kristopher D.; Hsiao, Alexander P.; Roller, Eric E.; Huang, Xiaohua
We report the development of a microfabricated electrophoretic device for assembling high-density arrays of antibody-conjugated microbeads for chip-based protein detection. The device consists of a flow cell formed between a gold-coated silicon chip with an array of microwells etched in a silicon dioxide film and a glass coverslip with a series of thin gold counter electrode lines. We have demonstrated that 0.4 and 1 μm beads conjugated with antibodies can be rapidly assembled into the microwells by applying a pulsed electric field across the chamber. By assembling step-wise a mixture of fluorescently labeled antibody-conjugated microbeads, we incorporated both spatial and fluorescence encoding strategies to demonstrate significant multiplexing capabilities. We have shown that these antibody-conjugated microbead arrays can be used to perform on-chip sandwich immunoassays to detect test antigens at concentrations as low as 40 pM (6 ng/mL). A finite element model was also developed to examine the electric field distribution within the device for different counter electrode configurations over a range of line pitches and chamber heights. This device will be useful for assembling high-density, encoded antibody arrays for multiplexed detection of proteins and other types of protein-conjugated microbeads for applications such as the analysis of protein-protein interactions. PMID:20820631
Op De Beeck, Katrijn; Vermeersch, Pieter; Verschueren, Patrick; Westhovens, René; Mariën, Godelieve; Blockmans, Daniel; Bossuyt, Xavier
Testing for antinuclear antibodies is useful for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases. Solid phase assays are increasingly replacing indirect immunofluorescence for detection of antinuclear antibodies. In the most recent generation of solid phase assays, manufacturers attempt to improve the performance of the assays by adding extra antigens. Solid phase assay (EliA CTD Screen, Phadia, in which antibodies to 17 antigens are detected) was compared to indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies in diagnostic samples of 236 patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases, in 149 healthy blood donors, 139 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and 134 diseased controls. The sensitivity of EliA CTD Screen for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, primary Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, and inflammatory myopathy was 74%, 72%, 89%, 100%, and 39%, respectively. The reactivity in blood donors, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and in diseased controls was <4%. Likelihood ratios increased with increasing antibody concentrations. Generally, a positive test result by EliA CTD Screen had a higher likelihood ratio for systemic rheumatic disease than a positive test result by indirect immunofluorescence. A negative test result by indirect immunofluorescence, however, had a lower likelihood ratio than a negative test result by EliA CTD Screen, indicating that the negative predictive value was higher for indirect immunofluorescence than for EliA CTD screen.
Sanderson, T P; Andersen, A A; Miller, L D; Andrews, J J; Janke, B H; Larson, D L; Schwartz, K J
The objective of this study was to evaluate an indirect microimmunofluorescence test (IMIF) for detection of chlamydial antibodies in serum and/or thoracic fluids of aborted ovine fetuses. One hundred eighty-two ovine fetuses, including 64 fetuses from 40 ewes that were experimentally infected with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci at gestation days 90-100, 10 fetuses from 6 normal ewes, and 108 fetuses selected from those received at the Iowa Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, were evaluated in this study. Fetuses from experimentally infected ewes were examined 4-60 days after inoculation. The IMIF findings were compared with the results of complement fixation serology for chlamydiae and concentrations of immunoglobulin (IgG). Chlamydiae-specific antibodies were detected by IMIF in 28 of 38 fetuses infected with C. psittaci. Elevated levels of IgG and IMIF titers > or = 1:8 were consistent findings in ovine fetuses infected with chlamydiae for more than 24 days. IgG levels and titers of chlamydial antibodies increased with maturity of the fetus and duration of chlamydial infection. Chlamydial antibodies were not detected with the complement fixation test. Fluids from ovine fetuses aborted as a result of other causes also were examined, and IMIF results were negative. The results of this study indicate that the IMIF is a useful and relatively rapid test for identification of chlamydial antibodies in ovine fetuses.
Borowy, N K; Schell, D; Schäfer, C; Overath, P
A sensitive diagnostic assay for parasitic infections based on the detection of anti-enzyme antibodies is presented. All serum antibodies produced in response to parasite antigens are immobilized via their Fc domain on matrix-bound protein G. Incubation of the immobilized antibodies with saturating amounts of parasite extract results in the binding of all recognized antigens, including those directed against a specific and readily measurable enzyme. The amount of bound enzyme is proportional to the anti-enzyme antibody concentration in the serum. The application of this principle is demonstrated for the diagnosis of both human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis by the detection of antibodies against parasite acid phosphatases.
Shepherd, A J; Hummitzsch, D E; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R; Searle, L A
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with other standard tests for detection of plague (Yersinia pestis) antibody and antigen in multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha and M. natalensis) which were experimentally infected and then killed at daily intervals postinoculation. For detection of antibody in sera from M. natalensis, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA was equivalent in sensitivity to passive hemagglutination and more sensitive than the IgM ELISA and complement fixation. Antibody was first detected on postinfection day 6 by all four tests, but IgM ELISA titers had declined to undetectable levels after 8 weeks. For detection of fraction 1 Y. pestis antigen in rodent organs, the ELISA was less sensitive than fluorescent antibody but more sensitive than complement fixation or immunodiffusion. Plague fraction 1 antigen was detected in 16 of 34 bacteremic sera from M. coucha and M. natalensis. The threshold sensitivity of the ELISA was approximately 10(5) Y. pestis per ml. PMID:3097065
Cardoso, Ana R; Cabral-Miranda, Gustavo; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Bachmann, Martin F; Sales, M Goreti F
Sensitive detection of specific antibodies by biosensors has become of major importance for monitoring and controlling epidemics. Here we report a development of a biosensor able to specifically measure antibodies in a drop of unmodified blood serum. Within minutes, the detection system measures presence of antibodies against Plasmodium vivax, a causing agent for malaria. The biosensor consists of a layer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which were casted on a carbon working electrode area of a three-electrode system and oxidized. An amine layer was produced next by modifying the surface with EDAC/NHS followed by reaction with a diamine compound. Finally, the protein fragments derived from P. vivax containing well-known antigen sequences were casted on this layer and bound through electrostatic interactions, involving hydrogen and ionic bonding. All these chemical changes occurring at the carbon surface along the biosensor assembly were followed and confirmed by Fourier Transformed Infrared s pectrometry (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of antibodies in serum was detected by monitoring the electrical properties of the layer, making use of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), against a standard iron probe. Overall, the charge-transfer resistance decreased after antibody binding, because there was an additional amount of protein bound to the surface. This hindered the access of the iron redox probe to the conductive support at the electrode surface. Electrical changes could be measured at antibody concentration as low as ~6-50pg/L (concentrations in the range of 10-15M) and as high as ~70μg/L. Specific measurement with low background was even possible in undiluted serum. Hence, this novel biosensor allows assessing serum antibody levels in real time and in un-manipulated serum samples on-site where needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garringer, Todd O.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Brizendine, Edward J.
The Histoplasma antigen immunoassay utilizes an antibody sandwich method that provides a rapid and reliable means of diagnosing the more severe forms of histoplasmosis. Inhibition assays have been developed for antigen detection and offer at least one potential advantage, namely, reduced antibody requirements. We have developed an inhibition assay using the polyclonal antibody employed in our standard sandwich assay. Urine and serum specimens from patients with culture-proven histoplasmosis and controls were tested using both methods. The two methods had similar sensitivities for detection of antigen in urine (antibody sandwich = 92.5% versus inhibition = 87.5%, P = 0.500) and serum (82.5% versus 80.0%, P = 1.000). With serum, the specificities of both methods were similar (antibody sandwich assay = 95.0% versus inhibition assay = 92.5%, P = 1.000), and with urine, the specificity of the antibody sandwich method was superior (97.5% versus 80.0%, P = 0.039). While the overall reproducibility of both methods was excellent (with urine, antibody sandwich assay intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.9975 and with serum = 0.9949; correlation coefficient of the inhibition assay with urine = 0.9736 and with serum = 0.9850), that of the inhibition method was only fair to poor for the controls: urine = −0.0152, serum = 0.5595. Reproducibility was good for the controls using the sandwich method: urine = 0.7717, serum = 0.9470. Cross-reactivity was observed in specimens from patients infected with Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Penicillium marneffei. In conclusion, the decreased specificity and inferior reproducibility with control specimens suggest that the inhibition assay has poorer precision toward the lower end of the detection range. PMID:10921949
Nollens, Hendrik H; Green, Linda G; Duke, Diane; Walsh, Michael T; Chittick, Beth; Gearhart, Scott; Klein, Paul A; Jacobson, Elliott R
Antibodies directed against species-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) have a broad range of applications in serologic and immunologic research and in the development of clinical assays. Validated anti-IgG antibodies for marine mammal species are in short supply. The objective of this study was to produce and validate antibodies with specificity for IgG of the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Bottlenose dolphin IgG was purified using protein G. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal antibody were developed from mice and rabbits immunized with bottlenose dolphin IgG. The specificity of the monoclonal antibodies and the polyclonal antibody for bottlenose dolphin IgG was first verified by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For further validation, both monoclonal antibodies and the polyclonal antibody were incorporated in an indirect ELISA for the detection of the immune response of bottlenose dolphins to a vaccine antigen. Three bottlenose dolphins were immunized with a commercial Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine, and serial blood samples were collected from all dolphins for measurement of levels of circulating antibodies. Seroconversion was observed in all 3 dolphins by use of both monoclonal antibodies and the polyclonal antibody. Circulating antibodies were detectable as early as 6 days after immunization in 1 dolphin. Peak antibody levels were detected 14 days after the immunization. The ability to detect seroconversion in all 3 immunized bottlenose dolphins firmly establishes the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies and the polyclonal antibody for IgG of the common bottlenose dolphin.
Cişmileanu, Ana; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin
A quantum dot - immunoglobulin conjugate specific for pig IgG, was obtained by carbodiimide chemistry. We used a Western blot technique for detecting specific antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pp), which cause porcine pleuropneumonia. The antigen used in this technique was Apx haemolysin which is an important virulence factor of A. pp and it induces protective immunity in vaccined pigs. The detection on Western blot membrane was possible at 1/50 dilution of quantum dot conjugate at a dilution of pig serum till 1/6400. The results for pig serum demonstrated a higher sensitivity of QD-based Western blot technique for the presence of antibodies specific for Apx haemolysin in comparison with similar classical techniques (with coloured substrate for enzyme present in secondary antibody conjugate).
Lizak, G.E.; Grumet, F.C.
A new microtechnique, C-FDA, for the in vitro detection of antiplatelet antibodies, is described. This technique is faster and simpler than either 51Cr thrombocytotoxicity or immunofluorescence (IF). C-FDA is more sensitive than 51Cr for all (anti-HLA, --P1A1, ABO, drug-related, and ITP-related) antibodies tested. Although IF was more sensitive for many types of antibodies, C-FDA was as good or better a clinical test method for all drug-related and isoimmune neonatal thrombocytopenia patient sera tested. Preliminary data also suggest that this method detects possible new non-HLA, non-ABO, nonP1A1 platelet antigens.
Gorczyńska, Iwona; Wyszkowska, Joanna; Bukowska, Danuta; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej
We show results of a project which focuses on detection of activity in neural tissue with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) methods. Experiments were performed in neural cords dissected from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Functional OCT imaging was performed with ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT system (axial resolution 2.5 μm). Electrical stimulation (voltage pulses) was applied to the sensory cercal nerve of the neural cord. Optical detection of functional activation of the sample was performed in the connective between the terminal abdominal ganglion and the fifth abdominal ganglion. Functional OCT data were collected over time with the OCT beam illuminating selected single point in the connectives (i.e. OCT M-scans were acquired). Phase changes of the OCT signal were analyzed to visualize occurrence of activation in the neural cord. Electrophysiology recordings (microelectrode method) were also performed as a reference method to demonstrate electrical response of the sample to stimulation.
Background The form(s) of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) associated with the pathology characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. In particular, the neurotoxicity of intraneuronal Aβ accumulation is an issue of considerable controversy; even the existence of Aβ deposits within neurons has recently been challenged by Winton and co-workers. These authors purport that it is actually intraneuronal APP that is being detected by antibodies thought to be specific for Aβ. To further address this issue, an anti-Aβ antibody was developed (MOAB-2) that specifically detects Aβ, but not APP. This antibody allows for the further evaluation of the early accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ in transgenic mice with increased levels of human Aβ in 5xFAD and 3xTg mice. Results MOAB-2 (mouse IgG2b) is a pan-specific, high-titer antibody to Aβ residues 1-4 as demonstrated by biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses (IHC), particularly compared to 6E10 (a commonly used commercial antibody to Aβ residues 3-8). MOAB-2 did not detect APP or APP-CTFs in cell culture media/lysates (HEK-APPSwe or HEK-APPSwe/BACE1) or in brain homogenates from transgenic mice expressing 5 familial AD (FAD) mutation (5xFAD mice). Using IHC on 5xFAD brain tissue, MOAB-2 immunoreactivity co-localized with C-terminal antibodies specific for Aβ40 and Aβ42. MOAB-2 did not co-localize with either N- or C-terminal antibodies to APP. In addition, no MOAB-2-immunreactivity was observed in the brains of 5xFAD/BACE-/- mice, although significant amounts of APP were detected by N- and C-terminal antibodies to APP, as well as by 6E10. In both 5xFAD and 3xTg mouse brain tissue, MOAB-2 co-localized with cathepsin-D, a marker for acidic organelles, further evidence for intraneuronal Aβ, distinct from Aβ associated with the cell membrane. MOAB-2 demonstrated strong intraneuronal and extra-cellular immunoreactivity in 5xFAD and 3xTg mouse brain tissues. Conclusions Both intraneuronal Aβ accumulation and
Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian
We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...
Seo, Sang won; Sunwoo, Sun young; Hyun, Bang hoon; Lyoo, Young S
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious viral disease that affects pigs. Wild boars can play an important epidemiological role in CSF outbreaks. In the past decades, studies conducted in many countries have reported that the CSF virus (CSFV) may persist in wild boar populations. The existence of CSFV in the free-ranging wild boar populations was indirectly confirmed by determining the prevalence of antibodies against CSFV in the serum of hunted wild boars. However, analyzing sero-prevalence in hunted wild boars to study the risk of CSF outbreaks is difficult due to insufficient number of samples, limitation of hunting area and biased age distribution of hunted wild boars. To improve this survey method, we collected feces of wild boars from their habitat and tested them using CSFV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and CSF virus neutralization (VN) test. In this study, ELISA was found to be highly sensitive for detecting antibodies against CSFV in fecal samples. Most of doubtful or positive results obtained in CSFV ELISA were confirmed by VN tests. Despite the high coincidence rate of antibody-positive samples between CSFV ELISA and VN test, the possibility of false positive reaction should be considered. In the regional distribution, a fact that antibody-positive fecal and serum samples were found in geographically close area was shown. Hence, presence of antibodies in fecal samples may provide vital information regarding the risk of CSF outbreaks in wild boar groups in geographical proximity.
van Venrooij, Walther J; van Beers, Joyce J B C; Pruijn, Ger J M
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of synovial joints. In most cases this will lead to the formation of pannus tissue, ultimately leading to joint destruction. Early diagnosis, coupled with aggressive use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, has been shown to have a favorable effect on the course of the disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis has become increasingly important. Several sets of criteria have been published to achieve such an early diagnosis, and all of them include measurement of antibodies directed to citrullinated peptides or proteins. This review summarizes our present knowledge about the most well-known and established test to measure these antibodies, the anti-CCP test, which measures antibodies directed to cyclic citrullinated peptides. We describe the current views on how these antibodies are generated and how genetic and environmental parameters are important in this process. The anti-CCP test is more specific than the commonly used RF test (95% versus less than 90%) and has a comparable sensitivity (more than 70%). These antibodies are detectable very early in the disease and are reported to predict the development of erosive RA. Increasing evidence supports a role for these antibodies in the pathology of the disease. In conclusion, testing for anti-CCP autoantibodies is widely accepted as an indispensable tool for diagnosis and early treatment in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Zhu, Kui; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Doyscher, Dominik; Märtlbauer, Erwin
Considering the urgent demand for rapid and accurate determination of bacterial toxins and the recent promising developments in nanotechnology and microfluidics, this review summarizes new achievements of the past five years. Firstly, bacterial toxins will be categorized according to their antibody binding properties into low and high molecular weight compounds. Secondly, the types of antibodies and new techniques for producing antibodies are discussed, including poly- and mono-clonal antibodies, single-chain variable fragments (scFv), as well as heavy-chain and recombinant antibodies. Thirdly, the use of different nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), quantum dots (QDs) and carbon nanomaterials (graphene and carbon nanotube), for labeling antibodies and toxins or for readout techniques will be summarized. Fourthly, microscale analysis or minimized devices, for example microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip (LOC), which have attracted increasing attention in combination with immunoassays for the robust detection or point-of-care testing (POCT), will be reviewed. Finally, some new materials and analytical strategies, which might be promising for analyzing toxins in the near future, will be shortly introduced.
Zhu, Kui; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Doyscher, Dominik; Märtlbauer, Erwin
Considering the urgent demand for rapid and accurate determination of bacterial toxins and the recent promising developments in nanotechnology and microfluidics, this review summarizes new achievements of the past five years. Firstly, bacterial toxins will be categorized according to their antibody binding properties into low and high molecular weight compounds. Secondly, the types of antibodies and new techniques for producing antibodies are discussed, including poly- and mono-clonal antibodies, single-chain variable fragments (scFv), as well as heavy-chain and recombinant antibodies. Thirdly, the use of different nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), quantum dots (QDs) and carbon nanomaterials (graphene and carbon nanotube), for labeling antibodies and toxins or for readout techniques will be summarized. Fourthly, microscale analysis or minimized devices, for example microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip (LOC), which have attracted increasing attention in combination with immunoassays for the robust detection or point-of-care testing (POCT), will be reviewed. Finally, some new materials and analytical strategies, which might be promising for analyzing toxins in the near future, will be shortly introduced. PMID:24732203
Lobo-Yeo, A.; McSorley, C.; McFarlane, B.M.; Mieli-Vergani, G.; Mowat, A.P.; Vergani, D.
A radioimmunometric technique for the detection of autoantibodies to liver membrane antigens has been developed using Alexander cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. After incubation of Alexander cells with serum, antimembrane antibodies were detected by addition of /sup 125/I-labeled Protein A. Binding ratios in 15 children with uncontrolled autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and in seven children with primary sclerosing cholangitis were significantly higher than in 18 age-matched normal controls. Nine patients with inactive autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, 13 with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and five with fulminant hepatic failure had ratios similar to controls. In nine patients with Wilson's disease, there was a modest but significant increase in binding ratio. In four children with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, binding ratios fell during effective immunosuppressive therapy. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis gave normal results, excluding that binding derives from Fc-mediated immune complex capture. A positive correlation was found between Alexander cell binding values and anti-liver-specific protein antibody titers, suggesting that the two assays detect antibodies against shared antigenic determinants. The Alexander cell assay is a simple, rapid and sensitive technique to detect antibody to liver cell membrane antigens.
A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...
Here we report the development and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect parvovirus-specific antibodies in chicken sera. We used an approach previously described for other parvoviruses to clone and express viral structural proteins in insect cells from recombinant baculovirus...
A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...
Zhu, Kui; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Acar, Gabriele; Märtlbauer, Erwin
We present an OR gate based on monoclonal antibodies for the simultaneous detection of multiple toxins in a single tube. To further simplify the operating procedure, the Boolean rule of simplification was used to guide the selection of a marker toxin among the natural toxin profiles.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...
Barril, Guillermina; Quiroga, Juan A; Arenas, María Dolores; Espinosa, Mario; García-Fernández, Nuria; Cigarrán, Secundino; Herrero, José A; del Peso, Gloria; Caro, Pilar; García-Agudo, Rebeca; Amézquita, Yésica; Blanco, Ana; Martínez-Rubio, Pilar; Alcázar, José M; González-Parra, Emilio; Martín-Gómez, Adoración; Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Carreño, Vicente
Amplification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA from blood detected occult HCV infections in 30.9% of 210 HCV-seronegative dialysis patients with abnormal liver enzyme levels that had evaded standard HCV testing practices. Isolated HCV core-specific antibody detection identified three additional anti-HCV screening-negative patients lacking HCV RNA amplification in blood who were considered potentially infectious. Together, these findings may affect management of the dialysis setting. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Gao, Guohui; Chen, Chong; Yang, Yanmei; Yang, Han; Wang, Jindan; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Qidi; Hu, Xiaoqu
To verify the reliability of targeted detecting HER2 positive cancer cells and clinical pathological tissue specimens with a recombinant anti HER2 single chain antibody in single chain Fv fragment (scFv) format, we have constructed the fusion variable regions of the ScFv specific for HER2/neu. labeled a green-fluorescent protein(GFP). The humanized recombinant Anti HER2 ScFv-GFP gene was inserted into pFast Bac HT A, and expressed in insect cells sf9. Then the recombinant fusion protein Anti HER2 ScFv-GFP was properly purified with Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography from the infected sf9 cells used to test the specificity of the fusion antibody for HER2 positive cancer cells. Firstly, the purified antibody incubated with HER2 positive breast cancer cells SKBR3, BT474 and HER2 negative breast cancer cells MCF7 for 12 h/24 h/48 h at 37 degrees C, in order to confirm targeted detecting HER2 positive breast cancer cells by Laser Confocal Microscopy. Furthermore, the same clinical pathological tissue samples were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the fusion antibody Anti HER2 ScFv-GFP in the meanwhile. The data obtained indicated that the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pFast Bac HT A/Anti HER2 ScFv-GFP was constructed successfully In addition, obvious green fluorescent was observed in insect cells sf9. When the purified fusion antibody was incubated with different cancer cells, much more green fluorescent was observed on the surface of the HER2 positive cancer cells SKBR3 and BT474. In contrast, no green fluorescent on the surface of the HER2 negative cancer cells MCF7 was detected. The concentration of the purified fusion antibody was 115.5 microg/mL, of which protein relative molecular weight was 60 kDa. The analysis showed the purity was about 97% and the titer was about 1:64. The detection results of IHC and fusion antibody testing indicated the conformity. In summary, the study showed that the new fusion antibody Anti HER2 ScFv-GFP can test HER2
Moldofsky, P.J.; Sears, H.F.; Mulhern, C.B. Jr.; Hammond, N.D.; Powe, J.; Gatenby, R.A.; Steplewski, Z.; Koprowski, H.
Detection of metastatic colon carcinoma is reported in retroperitoneal lymph nodes that were visible but normal in size (less than 1 cm) and number on CT scanning and at surgery. A case history is presented of 1 of 27 patients with colon carcinoma, metastatic or primary, evaluated with intravenously administered, radiolabeled monoclonal-antibody fragments and subsequent nuclear medicine imaging. Images of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells corresponding to each (/sup 131/I)antibody view of the abdomen were obtained as a control, to avoid interpretation of simple blood-pool radioactivity as specific localization of antibody on tumor. Antibody images were evaluated both without and with computer blood-pool image substraction. Directed to the level of the left renal hilum by the antibody scan, the surgeon removed the largest palpable node, which measured slightly less than 1 cm in diameter and was not palpably or visibly abnormal to the surgeon until it was removed and sectioned. Pathological evaluation of frozen and permanent sections revealed microscopic foci of adenocarcinoma consistent with a colonic primary tumor. Immunoperoxidase staining for the 1083-17-1A colorectal-carcinoma antigen demonstrated the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. As a result of the detection of this metastasis outside the liver, the patient did not receive the planned hepatic-artery chemotherapy pump but instead received intravenous chemotherapy.
Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Albers, Willem M
C-reactive protein, CRP antibody Fab'-fragments have been attached on pre-cleaned gold slides and protein repellent polymers have been used to block the remaining free space in between the antibody fragments. At optimal conditions the antibody fragments are site-directly immobilised on the surface and non-specific binding is reduced. The amount of Fab'-fragments in the polymer host monolayer has been optimised for various buffers. Binding of CRP to Fab'-fragment/polymer layers produced in phosphate buffered saline decreased with NaCl salt concentration. In a 1M NaCl phosphate buffer, the antibodies seem to be randomly oriented on the surface with a similar response to CRP as that of an antibody F(ab)(2)-fragment layer. In a 150 mM NaCl phosphate buffer, on the other hand, the fragments seem to be site-directly oriented and the response to CRP was fivefold. The highest response to CRP was obtained to a layer with a Fab'-fragment concentration of 60 microg/ml. CRP could be detected in a concentration range of 1 ng/ml to 50 microg/ml from a standard solution in phosphate buffer and in a range of 4 ng/ml to 50 microg/ml from serum/PBS. CRP was, moreover, successfully detected in patient samples with good reproducibility. The layer would thus be sensitive enough to analyse the CRP concentration in human serum for predicting cardiovascular disease.
Meulenbroek, Elisabeth M.; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha
Antibodies against red blood cells (RBCs) can lead to complement activation resulting in an accelerated clearance via complement receptors in the liver (extravascular hemolysis) or leading to intravascular lysis of RBCs. Alloantibodies (e.g. ABO) or autoantibodies to RBC antigens (as seen in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, AIHA) leading to complement activation are potentially harmful and can be - especially when leading to intravascular lysis - fatal1. Currently, complement activation due to (auto)-antibodies on RBCs is assessed in vitro by using the Coombs test reflecting complement deposition on RBC or by a nonquantitative hemolytic assay reflecting RBC lysis1-4. However, to assess the efficacy of complement inhibitors, it is mandatory to have quantitative techniques. Here we describe two such techniques. First, an assay to detect C3 and C4 deposition on red blood cells that is induced by antibodies in patient serum is presented. For this, FACS analysis is used with fluorescently labeled anti-C3 or anti-C4 antibodies. Next, a quantitative hemolytic assay is described. In this assay, complement-mediated hemolysis induced by patient serum is measured making use of spectrophotometric detection of the released hemoglobin. Both of these assays are very reproducible and quantitative, facilitating studies of antibody-induced complement activation. PMID:24514151
Mangayil, Rahul; Karp, Matti; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Santala, Ville
Biological hydrogen production is based on activity of specific enzymes called hydrogenases. Hydrogenases are oxygen sensitive metalloenzymes containing Ni and/or Fe atoms at the active site, catalyzing reversible reduction of protons. Generally, [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases prefer proton reduction to molecular hydrogen, a potential energy carrier molecule that can be produced by bioprocesses in sustainable manner. Thus, monitoring tools have been developed to study the relationship between [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases and biohydrogen production in bioreactors at DNA and RNA levels. In the present study, novel molecular tools are introduced for quantitative monitoring of clostridial [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases at the protein level. Aerobic and anaerobic biopanning (for inactive and active [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase, respectively) of phage displayed single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries aided in isolating nine potential scFvs. The enriched antibodies demonstrated high specificity towards Clostridium spp. [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases allowing detection from pure and mixed cultures. Additionally, the antibodies showed different binding characteristics towards hydrogenase catalytic states, providing a possible means for functional detection of clostridial [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases. From hydrogenase-antibody interaction studies we observed that though antibody binding reduced the enzyme catalytic activity, it facilitated to retain hydrogen evolution from oxygen exposed hydrogenases.
Mangayil, Rahul; Karp, Matti; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Santala, Ville
Biological hydrogen production is based on activity of specific enzymes called hydrogenases. Hydrogenases are oxygen sensitive metalloenzymes containing Ni and/or Fe atoms at the active site, catalyzing reversible reduction of protons. Generally, [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases prefer proton reduction to molecular hydrogen, a potential energy carrier molecule that can be produced by bioprocesses in sustainable manner. Thus, monitoring tools have been developed to study the relationship between [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases and biohydrogen production in bioreactors at DNA and RNA levels. In the present study, novel molecular tools are introduced for quantitative monitoring of clostridial [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases at the protein level. Aerobic and anaerobic biopanning (for inactive and active [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase, respectively) of phage displayed single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries aided in isolating nine potential scFvs. The enriched antibodies demonstrated high specificity towards Clostridium spp. [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases allowing detection from pure and mixed cultures. Additionally, the antibodies showed different binding characteristics towards hydrogenase catalytic states, providing a possible means for functional detection of clostridial [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases. From hydrogenase-antibody interaction studies we observed that though antibody binding reduced the enzyme catalytic activity, it facilitated to retain hydrogen evolution from oxygen exposed hydrogenases. PMID:27786270
Shimizu, M; Shimizu, Y
A micro-indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was developed for detecting antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus of pigs. TGE virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures was highly purified and concentrated by the combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, treatment with fluorocarbon, and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Tanned sheep erythrocytes were sensitized with purified virus for use in the IHA test. The results of testing 104 serum samples collected from pigs in the field indicated that the IHA antibody titers were approximately five times higher than those obtained by a serum neutralization test and that there was good correlation between the antibody titers determined by the two tests. High IHA antibody titers developed in pigs experimentally exposed to virulent TGE virus. Sensitized sheep erythrocytes were stable under long-term storage at 4 degrees C (at least for 50 days). The conclusions made are that the IHA test described is more sensitive than the serum neutralization test for the detection of TGE antibody and may be of value for serodiagnosis of TGE. Images PMID:197119
Basile, Umberto; Gulli, Francesca; Torti, Eleonora; De Matthaeis, Nicoletta; Colacicco, Luigi; Cattani, Paola; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico
Anti-nuclear antibodies are immunoglobulins directed against nuclear antigens. They are associated with many autoimmune disorders, but are frequently found in patients infected with hepatitis C virus, possibly indicating an underlying common origin. Likewise, mixed cryoglobulinemia often accompanies autoimmune diseases and hepatitis C infection. To compare anti-nuclear antibodies and immunoglobulin content of cryoprecipitates from hepatitis C virus-positive patients in order to assess their predictive value in the onset of hepatitis C virus-driven extrahepatic disorders. Serum from 40 hepatitis C virus-positive patients and 50 controls with rheumatoid arthritis was processed for cryoglobulin detection: all subjects presented with Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. Immunoglobulin content and immunoglobulin subclasses of cryoprecipitates were assessed by immunofixation and tested by ELISA for rheumatoid factor. Cryoprecipitates were also analysed for anti-nuclear antibodies by indirect immuno-fluorescence to identify specific patterns typical of each condition. Anti-nuclear antibody patterns differed significantly; 26 infected subjects (65%) were IgG3 positive: of these, 25 were also anti-nuclear antibody-positive (96.1%). IgG3 are autoreactive clones unrelated to viral recognition and possibly involved in autoimmune disorders. Altogether, these results may represent useful diagnostic device for early detection of hepatitis C virus-induced autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Braun, R P; Lee, J S
Four monoclonal antibodies (Jel 229, 239, 241, 242) which bound to duplex DNA were prepared from two autoimmune female NZB/NZW mice. Their binding to various nucleic acids was investigated by a competitive solid phase radioimmune assay which allows the estimation of relative binding constants. None of the antibodies showed any consistent variation of binding constant with base composition and thus they must recognize features of the DNA backbone. Jel 241 binds across the major groove but the interaction with poly(pyrimidine) X poly(purine) DNAs was barely detectable. This antibody appears to recognize the "alternating-B" conformation which is promoted by methylation of pyrimidines in alternating sequences. The other three antibodies bind in the minor groove. In particular, for Jel 229 the preferred antigen was poly(dG) X poly(dC) with only weak binding to poly(dA) X poly(dT). This suggests a requirement for a wide minor groove. Thus autoimmune antibodies provide examples of "analogue" recognition and can be used to detect structural variations in the grooves of duplex DNA. PMID:3725591
Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar; Stockmarr, Anders; Halasa, Tariq
A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after a fixed threshold prevalence of seroconverted milking cows was reached in the herd. Different thresholds were set for each ELISA, according to previous studies. For each test, antibody detection was simulated in small (70 cows), medium (150 cows) and large (320 cows) herds. The assays included were: (1) the Danish blocking ELISA, (2) the SVANOVIR(®)BVDV-Ab ELISA, and (3) the ELISA BVD/MD p80 Institute Pourquier. The validation of the model was mainly carried out by comparing the predicted incidence of persistently infected (PI) calves and the predicted detection time, with records from a BVD infected herd. Results showed that the SVANOVIR, which was the most efficient ELISA, could detect antibodies in the BTM of a large herd 280 days (95% prediction interval: 218; 568) after a transiently infected (TI) milking cow has been introduced into the herd. The estimated time to detection after introduction of one PI calf was 111 days (44; 605). With SVANOVIR ELISA the incidence of PIs and dead born calves could be limited and the impact of the disease on the animal welfare and income of farmers (before detection) could be minimized. The results from the simulation modeling can be used to improve the current Danish BVD surveillance program in detecting early infected herds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McClelland, R G; Pinder, A C
Flow cytometry, combined with fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibodies, offers advantages of speed and sensitivity for the detection of specific pathogenic bacteria in foods. We investigated the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in eggs and milk. Using a sample clearing procedure, we determined that the detection limit was on the order of 10(3) cells per ml after a total analysis time of 40 min. After 6 h of nonselective enrichment, the detection limits were 10 cells per ml for milk and 1 cell per ml for eggs, even in the presence of a 10,000-fold excess of Escherichia coli cells. Images PMID:7811064
Goodell, C K; Prickett, J; Kittawornrat, A; Johnson, J; Zhang, J; Wang, C; Zimmerman, J J
Increased surveillance of influenza A virus (IAV) infections in human and swine populations is mandated by public health and animal health concerns. Antibody assays have proven useful in previous surveillance programmes because antibodies provide a record of prior exposure and the technology is inexpensive. The objective of this research was to compare the performance of influenza serum antibody assays using samples collected from pigs (vaccinated or unvaccinated) inoculated with either A/Swine/OH/511445/2007 γ H1N1 virus or A/Swine/Illinois/02907/2009 Cluster IV H3N2 virus and followed for 42 days. Weekly serum samples were tested for anti-IAV antibodies using homologous and heterologous haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays, commercial swine influenza H1N1 and H3N2 indirect ELISAs, and a commercial influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-blocking ELISA. The homologous HIs showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity, but largely failed to detect infection with the heterologous virus. With diagnostic sensitivities of 1.4% and 4.9%, respectively, the H1N1 and H3N2 indirect ELISAs were ineffective at detecting IAV antibodies in swine infected with the contemporary influenza viruses used in the study. At a cut-off of S/N ≤ 0.60, the sensitivity and specificity of the NP-blocking ELISA were estimated at 95.5% and 99.6%, respectively. Statistically significant factors which affected S/N results include vaccination status, inoculum (virus subtype), day post-inoculation and the interactions between those factors (P < 0.0001). Serum antibodies against NP provide an ideal universal diagnostic screening target and could provide a cost-effective approach for the detection and surveillance of IAV infections in swine populations.
Roth, F; Jansen, K; Petzke, S
Clostridium septicum, a ubiquitious organism, is the pathogen which causes the classical malignant edema after injuries. Because of its strong cytotoxic alpha-toxin, infections are often lethal. To prevent losses in animals, vaccination with alpha-toxoid vaccines is carried out. Quality control of the vaccines is done by a neutralization test in mice. A cytotoxin test and as an alternative method to detect neutralizing antibodies, a cytotoxin inhibition test was standardized. In the studies, alpha-toxin of the C. septicum reference strain (NC 547) from the National Collection of Type Cultures was compared with alpha-toxin of a field strain from an outbreak in Germany. Sera from five heterologous polyvalent and three monovalent vaccines from eight rabbit groups were available. Each vaccination had been carried out according to the procedure of the German Pharmacopoeia. In three out of the five sera of the groups vaccinated with the heterologous polyvalent vaccine, cytotoxin neutralizing antibodies were detected. High antibody titers were observed in sera of rabbits vaccinated with a vaccine of strain NC 547, lower titers in the sera of rabbits vaccinated with a vaccine of the field strain. No cytotoxin neutralizing antibodies could be found in the sera of rabbits vaccinated with the monovalent C. chauvoei vaccine. The toxins of all strains showed the same ranking of the vaccines. Vaccines which caused high antibody titers in the animals were detected by all toxins as such, as well as vaccines which had medium or low antibody inducing capacity. The results were independent of the C. septicum strain used for the production of alpha-toxin.
Reiner, A P; Teramura, G; Nelson, K A; Slichter, S J
Post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAT) result from formation of alloantibodies to platelet membrane glycoprotein-associated antigens. The detection and identification of platelet-specific alloantibodies in patient sera is often complicated by the presence of co-existing HLA antibodies and/or more than one platelet specificity in the same serum. We describe a solid phase assay that specifically detects antibodies to platelet membrane associated alloantigens by measuring the ability of patient antisera to inhibit the binding of glycoprotein GPIIb or GPIIIa monoclonal antibodies to intact platelets. When tested in the GPIIIa assay against a panel of random platelet donors, the reactivities of two known PLAI antisera that also contained different HLA antibodies were highly correlated (r = 0.99) and allowed PLA phenotyping of the population. A standard direct binding platelet ELISA, on the other hand, was unable to accurately PLA phenotype the same population. The reactivities of two known Baka antisera (one containing additional anti-PLA2 and the other anti-Brb specificities) were highly correlated (r = 0.95) in the GPIIb assay, and Bak phenotype determination was similarly accomplished for a random platelet panel. Furthermore, a comparison of platelet phenotype results (using the monoclonal inhibition assay) and genotype results (using DNA analysis) for the PLA and Bak systems showed a concordance of 98% for 146 alleles tested. In conclusion, the platelet monoclonal antibody inhibition assay: (1) allows determination of platelet-specific alloantibodies in the presence of contaminating HLA antibodies and/or in sera containing multiple platelet alloantibodies; (2) allows accurate platelet phenotyping for the GPIIIa-associated PLA and GPIIb-associated Bak antigen systems; and (3) may be applicable to the detection of other known or even novel platelet glycoprotein-associated antigens.
Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo
Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry.
Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo
Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630
Ferrari-Lacraz, S; Tiercy, J-M; Villard, J
Pre-formed and de novo anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies induce antibody-mediated rejection and are also involved in mechanisms leading to chronic graft nephropathy. The detection of anti-HLA antibodies by solid-phase assay (SPA) has revolutionized the management of immunized patients before and after kidney transplantation. Characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, the clinical relevance of anti-HLA antibodies by SPA has to be clarified. The presence of donor-specific antibody at the epitope level, their titer, and the use of different crossmatch technologies could help to determine which of the anti-HLA antibodies are friends and which are foes in kidney transplantation. In this review, we summarize the current state of the art on this debated topic, and give clinical guidelines for the management of antibody detection pre- and post-transplantation, based on these evidences and our own clinical expertise. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Roehl, Katherine; Jankowski, Mark D.; Hofmeister, Erik K.
Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or an immunofluorescence assay, antibody is detected using an antitarget species secondary conjugated antibody. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the avidity of the binding reaction between the bound antibody and the detection antibody. A commercial polyclonal antidog IgG conjugated antibody was tested in an EIA for its ability to sensitively detect the IgG of seven marine mammals including sea otter (Enhydra lutris), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and one freshwater mammal: Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). With the exception of Asian small-clawed sea otters, the detection of IgG in these marine mammals either exceeded or was nearly equal to detection of dog IgG. The use of the tested commercial antidog IgG antibody may be a valid approach to the detection of antibody response to disease in sea mammals.
Cho, Hyun Ju; Entz, Susan C.; Green, G. Tom; Jordan, Lorne T.
Four serological tests were evaluated for their ability to detect passively acquired maternal antibodies to Bovine herpesvirus 1. A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated superior sensitivity in the detection of such antibodies in calves up to 9–11 months old, versus calves up to 7 months old for other tests. PMID:11802669
Marshall, John D.; Mangiafico, Joseph A.; Cavanaugh, Dan C.
Three serological procedures, the agar-gel precipitin inhibition, the complement fixation, and the indirect hemagglutination tests, were used to detect and measure antibody to Yersinia pestis in the sera from 383 individuals. Although all three tests were useful in detecting plague antibody, the most reliable and sensitive test procedure was indirect hemagglutination. PMID:5071650
Roehl, Katherine; Jankowski, Mark; Hofmeister, Erik
Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or an immunofluorescence assay, antibody is detected using an antitarget species secondary conjugated antibody. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the avidity of the binding reaction between the bound antibody and the detection antibody. A commercial polyclonal antidog IgG conjugated antibody was tested in an EIA for its ability to sensitively detect the IgG of seven marine mammals including sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ), polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ), harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina ), northern elephant seal ( Mirounga angustirostris ), California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ), Pacific walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ) and one freshwater mammal: Asian small-clawed otter ( Aonyx cinerea ). With the exception of Asian small-clawed sea otters, the detection of IgG in these marine mammals either exceeded or was nearly equal to detection of dog IgG. The use of the tested commercial antidog IgG antibody may be a valid approach to the detection of antibody response to disease in sea mammals.
Mañas, Sisco; Gómez, Asunción; Asensio, Victoria; Palazón, Santiago; Podra, Madis; Alarcia, Olga Esther; Ruiz-Olmo, Jordi; Casal, Jordi
The European mink (Mustela lutreola) has undergone a dramatic decline and is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. The invasive American mink (Neovison vison) is considered the main factor for this decline. However, the American mink's introduction and the subsequent ecological concurrence of the two species cannot solely explain the decline or disappearance of the European mink. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the main health problem in fur farming worldwide, causing varied clinical syndromes that depend on the viral strain and host factors. Infection with AMDV has been speculated to contribute to the decline of the European mink, but a detailed study has not been performed. To assess the potential effects of AMDV infection on the conservation of the European mink, we surveyed AMDV antibody in samples from 492 native European mink and 1,735 feral American mink collected over 16 yr. The antibody prevalence in European mink was 32%. There were no statistically significant differences in antibody prevalence between sexes, among years, or among weight classes. For recaptured European mink, incidence of seroconversion (negative to positive) was 0.46 cases per animal-year at risk. For positive animals, the incidence of conversion from positive to negative was 0.18 cases per animal-year at risk. In 1,735 feral American minks, the overall prevalence was 32.4% and varied among the six wild populations studied. Infection with AMDV appears to be endemic, distributed across the entire ranges of both species, and no effects on the population dynamics of either species were observed.
Villalba, E; Yegres, J F
The antibodies in sera of patients affected by Chromoblastomycosis are detected using the technique of double immunodiffusion and the mycelial somatic antigens and the culture filtrates antigens of Cladosporium carrionii. From the 13 sera tested 8 have given positive results. The fresh serum from a patient under treatment gives 2 bands, while fresh serum from a non-treated patient gives 3 bands. The titre of antibodies was also determined for the two fresh sera, having found 1/4 for the patient under treatment and 1/32 for the non-treated one.
Sánchez, A; Jiménez, R; Burgos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R
Biological reagents used in the serological detection of Sxs antigen by antibody-mediated cytotoxicity tests were compared in order to optimize the method. Our analyses showed that: (a) red cell-free spleen cells are the best target cells, (b) rabbit serum used as the complement source should be obtained from females, and absorbed with female spleen cells before use, (c) antiserum obtained by immunizing females with repeated injections of syngenic male spleen cells provides the highest anti-Sxs antibody titer, and (d) of the different biological fluids investigated, testis supernatant has highest concentration of Sxs antigen.
Logan, Cathy; Todorof, Kathryn; Fiorillo, Suzanne P; Campbell, Thomas B; Elder, John H; Borok, Margaret; Gudza, Ivy; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Ndemera, Buxton; Lochhead, Michael J; Benson, Constance A; Schooley, Robert T
Diagnosis of KSHV-infected individuals remains a challenge. KSHV prevalence is high in several populations with high prevalence of HIV, leading to increased risk of development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). While current assays are reliable for detecting antibodies to KSHV, none are routinely utilized to identify individuals with KSHV infection and thus at increased risk for KS due to assay complexity, lack of access to testing, and cost, particularly in resource-limited settings. Here we describe the addition of KSHV proteins LANA and K8.1 to a previously evaluated HIV/co-infection multiplexed fluorescence immunoassay system. This study demonstrates assay performance by measuring antibody reactivity for KSHV and HIV-1 in a collection of clinical specimens from patients with biopsy-proven KS and sourced negative controls. The KSHV assay correctly identified 155 of 164 plasma samples from patients with biopsy-proven KS and 85 of 93 KSHV antibody (Ab)-negative samples for a sensitivity of 95.1% and specificity of 91.4%. Assay performance for HIV-1 detection was also assessed with 100% agreement with independently verified HIV-1 Ab-positive and Ab-negative samples. These results demonstrate good sensitivity and specificity for detection of antibody to KSHV antigens, and demonstrate the potential for multiplexed co-infection testing in resource-limited settings to identify those at increased risk for HIV-1-related complications.
Abstract An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of bovine antibodies to multiple pathogenic Leptospira serovars, including canicola, copenhageni (represents icterohaemorrhagiae), grippotyphosa, hardjobovis, pomona, and sejroe. The antigen utilized in this assay was a sonicated mixture of equal parts of killed whole cells of each of the 6 serovars named above. A mouse monoclonal antibody against bovine immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 that was conjugated with horseradish peroxidase was used for detection of bound antibodies. This assay was evaluated with sera (n = 3107) that were microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative (at a 1:100 dilution) for each of the 6 serovars listed above and sera (n = 601) that were MAT-positive (at a 1:100 dilution) for 1, or any combination of the 6 listed serovars. In addition, sera from serial weekly bleedings of cows, which were individually experimentally infected with serovars hardjobovis, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, or canicola, were also tested in this assay. At an optimal cut-off point determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 93.5% (95% confidence interval = 91.2% to 95.3%) and 94.7% (95% confidence interval = 93.9% to 95.5%), respectively. This assay was able to detect antibody in the sera of animals experimentally infected with serovar hardjobovis as early as 1 week postinoculation PMID:14979428
Surujballi, Om; Mallory, Maria
An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of bovine antibodies to multiple pathogenic Leptospira serovars, including canicola, copenhageni (represents icterohaemorrhagiae), grippotyphosa, hardjobovis, pomona, and sejroe. The antigen utilized in this assay was a sonicated mixture of equal parts of killed whole cells of each of the 6 serovars named above. A mouse monoclonal antibody against bovine immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 that was conjugated with horseradish peroxidase was used for detection of bound antibodies. This assay was evaluated with sera (n = 3107) that were microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative (at a 1:100 dilution) for each of the 6 serovars listed above and sera (n = 601) that were MAT-positive (at a 1:100 dilution) for 1, or any combination of the 6 listed serovars. In addition, sera from serial weekly bleedings of cows, which were individually experimentally infected with serovars hardjobovis, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, or canicola, were also tested in this assay. At an optimal cut-off point determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 93.5% (95% confidence interval = 91.2% to 95.3%) and 94.7% (95% confidence interval = 93.9% to 95.5%), respectively. This assay was able to detect antibody in the sera of animals experimentally infected with serovar hardjobovis as early as 1 week postinoculation.
Shia, Winnie W; Bailey, Ryan C
Ricin is a lethal protein toxin derived from the castor bean plant. Given its notorious history as a biowarfare agent and homicidal weapon, ricin has been classified as a category B bioterrorism agent. Current ricin detection methods based on immunoassays lack the required sensitivity and specificity for many homeland security surveillance applications. Importantly, many conventional antibody-based methodologies are unable to distinguish ricin from RCA 120, a nontoxic protein also found in the castor bean plant. Single domain antibodies (sdAbs), which are recombinantly derived from immunized llamas, are known to have high affinities for ricin A or B chains and low cross-reactivity with RCA 120. Herein, we demonstrate the use of silicon photonic microring resonators for antibody affinity profiling and one-step ricin detection at concentrations down to 300 pM using a 15 min, label-free assay format. These sdAbs were also simultaneously compared with a commercial anti-RCA IgG antibody in a multicapture agent, single target immunoassay using arrays of microrings, which allowed direct comparison of sensitivity and specificity. A selected sdAb was also found to exhibit outstanding specificity against another biotoxin, saporin, which has mechanism of action similar to ricin. Given the rapidity, scalability, and multiplexing capability of this silicon-based technology, this work represents a step toward using microring resonator arrays for the sensitive and specific detection of biowarfare agents.
Lee, Jonathan; Gulzar, Naveed; Scott, Jamie K.; Li, Paul C. H.
Immunoassays have become a standard in secretome analysis in clinical and research analysis. In this field there is a need for a high throughput method that uses low sample volumes. Microfluidics and nanofluidics have been developed for this purpose. Our lab has developed a nanofluidic bioarray (NBA) chip with the goal being a high throughput system that assays low sample volumes against multiple probes. A combination of horizontal and vertical channels are produced to create an array antigens on the surface of the NBA chip in one dimension that is probed by flowing in the other dimension antibodies from biological fluids. We have tested the NBA chip by immobilizing streptavidin and then biotinylated peptide to detect the presence of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) that is specific for the peptide. Bound antibody is detected by an AlexaFluor 647 labeled goat (anti-mouse IgG) polyclonal antibody. Using the NBA chip, we have successfully detected peptide binding by small-volume (0.5 μl) samples containing 50 attomoles (100 pM) MAb.
Jain, Swati; Chattopadhyay, Sruti; Jackeray, Richa; Zainul Abid, C K V; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Harpal
Accurate determination of concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) to tetanus toxoid is important in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid vaccines, immune competence in individual patients and to measure the prevalence of immunity in populations. Surface modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were evaluated as a matrix to develop highly sensitive method for the detection of anti-tetanus antibody in a sandwich ELISA format. In the proposed method tetanus toxoid immobilized on modified PAN fibers was used to detect anti-tetanus antibody (raised in horse hence represented as horse anti-tetanus toxoid or HAT-Ab) with horse raddish peroxidase enzyme conjugated with Rabbit anti-Horse IgG (RAH-HRP) as the label within 2.5h. A sigmoidal pattern for the detection of different concentration of antibody ranging from 1.0 to 0.0001 IU mL(-1) was validated. The immunoassay recorded a very high sensitivity as concentration as low as 0.0005 IU mL(-1) of HAT-Ab was detected. The intra- and inter-assay precision for 3 parallel measurements of 0.01 and for 0.001 IU mL(-1) of antibody varied from 5.4% to 11% and 5.7% to 20% respectively. PAN fibers were also used to qualitatively access the presence of different level of anti-tetanus antibody spiked in human blood. Seroepidemiological studies to measure the immunity against tetanus were conducted with twenty-five human beings belonging to various age groups using modified PAN-ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and the reproducibility of the developed immunoassay indicate the potential application of modified PAN fibers in the field of immunodiagnostics.
Makin, T.; Hart, C. A.
Sixty-three environmental water samples from various sources were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila with a commercially available direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody (GS), an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and culture. GS detected L. pneumophila in 94% and 100% of environmental water samples which were culture and IFAT positive for L. pneumophila, respectively. IFAT detected 69% of L. pneumophila culture positive samples. Cultures of L. pneumophila serogroups 1 to 12, 14 and non-L. pneumophila bacteria which may be found in water, and bacteria containing non-specific binding proteins, were stained by GS and IFAT. GS identified all serogroups of L. pneumophila and did not cross react with any non-L. pneumophila bacteria. L. pneumophila in environmental samples was easy to detect against a clear dark background when stained with GS. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2673821
Javid, Khojasteh V; Foster, HA
Objective The aim of study was to develop a rapid assay, dye labelled monoclonal antibody assay (DLMAA), using non-radioactive organic synthetic dyes for identification of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1) producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods The assay protocol required only two simple steps; addition of TSST-1 antigen to a nitrocellulose membrane and then adding a colloidal dye labelled antibody (D/A) suspension detection reagent. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the assay was determined relative to positive and negative strains compared to an ELISA assay. Overall 100% agreement was found between both assays. The sensitivity for detection of TSST-1 was 30 ng. Conclusion The DLMAA did not require handling and disposal of radioactive materials. It is a rapid qualitative technique for detection of TSST-1 toxin at room temperature within a short time. PMID:22530084
Zhu, Longjiao; He, Jing; Cao, Xiaohan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao
Bacillus cereus is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of food poisoning in the industrialized world. In this paper, we describe a sensitive double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that was developed for rapid detection of B. cereus in food to minimize the risk of contamination. The polyclonal antibody (pAb) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to B. cereus were generated from rabbit antiserum and mouse ascites, respectively, using the octanoic acid/saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation method and protein A-sepharose columns. IgG-isotype mAbs were specially developed to undergo a novel peripheral multiple sites immunization for rapid gain of hybridomas and a subtractive screen was used to eliminate cross reactivity with closely related species such as Bacillus thuringiensis, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. perfringens. The linear detection range of the method was approximately 1 × 104–2.8 × 106 cells/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.9 × 103 cells/mL. The assay was able to detect B. cereus when the samples were prepared in meat with various pathogens. The newly developed analytical method provides a rapid method to sensitively detect B. cereus in food specimens. PMID:26976753
Zhang, Can; Han, Yufeng; Lin, Li; Deng, Nannan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Yuan
Quantum dots (QDs)-labeled antibody fluorescence immunoassays (FLISA) for the detection of morphine were developed. Quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS), which contained carboxyl, were used to label antimorphine antibody by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminoprophyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide, which were used as coupling reagents. The CdSe/ZnS QDs labeled antimorphine antibody (QDs labeled Ab) was characterized by fluorescence spectrum and gel electrophoresis. Plate-based FLISA and nitrocellulose membrane-based flow-through FLISA were developed and applied to quantitative and qualitative detection of morphine. Under the optimal conditions for plate-based FLISA, the linear range spanned from 3.2 × 10(-4) to 1 mg/L (R(2) = 0.9905), and the detection limit was 2.7 × 10(-4) mg/L. The visual detection limit for morphine by membrane-based flow-through FLISA was 0.01 mg/L. These results demonstrated that the developed fluorescence immunoassays could be applied as highly sensitive and convenient tools for rapid detection of morphine, which make it ideally suited for on-site screening of poppy shell added illegally in hot pot soup base.
Zhu, Longjiao; He, Jing; Cao, Xiaohan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao
Bacillus cereus is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of food poisoning in the industrialized world. In this paper, we describe a sensitive double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that was developed for rapid detection of B. cereus in food to minimize the risk of contamination. The polyclonal antibody (pAb) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to B. cereus were generated from rabbit antiserum and mouse ascites, respectively, using the octanoic acid/saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation method and protein A-sepharose columns. IgG-isotype mAbs were specially developed to undergo a novel peripheral multiple sites immunization for rapid gain of hybridomas and a subtractive screen was used to eliminate cross reactivity with closely related species such as Bacillus thuringiensis, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. perfringens. The linear detection range of the method was approximately 1 × 10(4)-2.8 × 10(6) cells/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.9 × 10(3) cells/mL. The assay was able to detect B. cereus when the samples were prepared in meat with various pathogens. The newly developed analytical method provides a rapid method to sensitively detect B. cereus in food specimens.
Cheng, Luisa W; Henderson, Thomas D; Lam, Tina I; Stanker, Larry H
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of nature's most potent toxins. Due to potential food contamination, and bioterrorism concerns, the development of detection reagents, therapeutics and countermeasures are of urgent interest. Recently, we have developed a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for BoNT/B, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) MCS6-27 and anti-BoNT/B rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector. The ECL assay detected as little as 1 pg/mL BoNT/B in the buffer matrix, surpassing the detection sensitivities of the gold standard mouse bioassays. The ECL assay also allowed detection of BoNT/B in sera matrices of up to 100% sera with negligible matrix effects. This highly-sensitive assay allowed the determination of the biological half-lives of BoNT/B holotoxin in vivo. We further tested the toxin neutralization potential of our monoclonal antibodies using the mouse systemic and oral intoxication models. A combination of mAbs protected mice in both pre- and post-exposure models to lethal doses of BoNT/B. MAbs were capable of increasing survival of animals when administered even 10 h post-intoxication in an oral model, suggesting a likely time for BoNT/B complexes to reach the blood stream. More sensitive detection assays and treatments against BoNT intoxication will greatly enhance efforts to combat botulism.
Shao, Ning; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji
Recent reports have shown that nanoscale electronic devices can be used to detect a change in electrical properties when receptor proteins bind to their corresponding antibodies functionalized on the surface of the device, in extracts from as few as ten lysed tumor cells. We hypothesized that nanotube-antibody devices could sensitively and specifically detect entire live cancer cells. We report for the first time a single nanotube field effect transistor array, functionalized with IGF1R-specific and Her2-specific antibodies, which exhibits highly sensitive and selective sensing of live, intact MCF7 and BT474 human breast cancer cells in human blood. Those two cell lines both overexpress IGF1R and Her2, at different levels. Single or small bundle of nanotube devices that were functionalized with IGF1R-specific or Her2-specific antibodies showed 60% decreases in conductivity upon interaction with BT474 or MCF7 breast cancer cells in two µl drops of blood. Control experiments with non-specific antibodies or with MCF10A control breast cells produced a less than 5% decrease in electrical conductivity, illustrating the high sensitivity for whole cell binding by these single nanotube-antibody devices. We postulate that the free energy change due to multiple simultaneous cell-antibody binding events exerted stress along the nanotube surface, decreasing its electrical conductivity due to an increase in band gap. Because the free energy change upon cell-antibody binding, the stress exerted on the nanotube, and the change in conductivity are specific to a specific antigen-antibody interaction; these properties might be used as a fingerprint for the molecular sensing of circulating cancer cells. From optical microscopy observations during sensing, it appears that the binding of a single cell to a single nanotube field effect transistor produced the change in electrical conductivity. Thus we report a nanoscale oncometer with single cell sensitivity with a diameter 1000 times
Waters, H M; Smith, C; Howarth, J E; Dawson, D W; Delamore, I W
A method for the detection of total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies was devised. The technique comprises a two-site solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with human intrinsic factor conjugated with horseradish peroxidase as label and attached to polystyrene tubes as solid phase. One conjugation provides sufficient material to assay more than 10,000 patient samples. The label proved stable during the course of this evaluation and was still in use more than 12 months after preparation. When applied to 45 serum samples from cases of pernicious anaemia, intrinsic factor antibodies were shown in 30 (67%). Simplicity, high capacity, low cost and label stability, combined with relatively high clinical sensitivity make the method suitable for cost effective screening of large numbers of samples. Simple modifications to the basic assay reagents permitted type I and type II intrinsic factor antibodies to be differentiated.
Choudhury, B; Finnegan, C; Phillips, A; Horigan, M; Pollard, T; Steinbach, F
Great Britain has been bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) disease free since 1999. We recently reported three separate incidents of BLV seropositivity on farms with home-reared cattle due to the use of colostrum replacer rather than infection with BLV (Emerg. Infect. Dis., 19, 2013, 1027). These cases were all linked via the use of the same brand of colostrum replacer. Here, we investigate further by examining multiple brands of colostrum replacer for proviral DNA and BLV antibodies. BLV antibodies were detected in 7 of the colostrum replacers tested, with PCR concurring in two cases. Thus, the use of these BLV antibody-positive colostrum replacers may also lead to false-positive serological diagnostics. © 2013 Crown copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO/Queen's Printer for Scotland and Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency.
Lippok, Svenja; Seidel, Susanne A I; Duhr, Stefan; Uhland, Kerstin; Holthoff, Hans-Peter; Jenne, Dieter; Braun, Dieter
The direct quantification of both the binding affinity and absolute concentration of disease-related biomarkers in biological fluids is particularly beneficial for differential diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Here, we extend microscale thermophoresis to target immunological questions. Optically generated thermal gradients were used to deplete fluorescently marked antigens in 2- and 10-fold-diluted human serum. We devised and validated an autocompetitive strategy to independently fit the concentration and dissociation constant of autoimmune antibodies against the cardiac β1-adrenergic receptor related to dilated cardiomyopathy. As an artificial antigen, the peptide COR1 was designed to mimic the second extracellular receptor loop. Thermophoresis resolved antibody concentrations from 2 to 200 nM and measured the dissociation constant as 75 nM. The approach quantifies antibody binding in its native serum environment within microliter volumes and without any surface attachments. The simplicity of the mix and probe protocol minimizes systematic errors, making thermophoresis a promising detection method for personalized medicine.
Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Fleischer, B.; Winokur, A.; Amsterdam, J.; Dyson, W.; Koprowski, H.
Borna disease virus causes a rare meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep and has been shown to produce behavioral effects in some species. The possibility that the Borna virus is associated with mental disorders in humans was evaluated by examining serum samples from 979 psychiatric patients and 200 normal volunteers for the presence of Borna virus-specific antibodies. Antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence focus assay. Antibodies to the virus were demonstrated in 16 of the patients but none of the normal volunteers. The patients with the positive serum samples were characterized by having histories of affective disorders, particularly of a cyclic nature. Further studies are needed to define the possible involvement of Borna virus in human psychiatric disturbances.
Koper, N P; Massuger, L F; Thomas, C M; Beyer, C; Crooy, M J
Elevated Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) serum concentrations (up to 221 kU/1) were measured in a 39 year old woman with a positive family history of breast cancer. The serum determinations were performed with the automated Immulite OM-MA chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system (Diagnostic Products). Laparoscopic evaluation of the ovaries did not reveal any abnormalities. CA 125 measurements in the same patient using the automated IMx immunoassay system (Abbott) demonstrated normal serum levels. Using a previously reported chromatography procedure IgG type human antimouse antibody activity was found to be present in the serum samples explaining the falsely elevated levels. To prevent this interference the manufacturer modified the assay system by replacing the monoclonal M11 detection antibody with a rabbit polyclonal antibody. Using the modified OM-MA CA 125 assay results were comparable with the IMx values.
Marcos, L A; Bussalleu, A; Terashima, A; Espinoza, J R
The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection, in endemic countries, in patients with established cirrhosis is unknown. We hypothesized that, in endemic countries, the presence of fascioliasis may be detected in a serum pool of cirrhotic patients. Forty-four previously stored serum samples of patients with established liver cirrhosis, in the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, were collected from 1998 to 2003 and assessed for hepatitis B, C and fascioliasis antibodies (Fas2 ELISA). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was positive in 8.8% (n = 34), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in 32.5% (n = 34), hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) in 9.1% (n = 33), and 9.1% (n = 44) were Fas2 ELISA positive. This disease is an example of an emerging tropical infection which can be present in chronic liver diseases, requiring greater clinician awareness especially in endemic rural areas. Further clinical studies are warranted.
Stravalaci, Matteo; Tapella, Laura; Beeg, Marten; Rossi, Alessandro; Joshi, Pooja; Pizzi, Erika; Mazzanti, Michele; Balducci, Claudia; Forloni, Gianluigi; Biasini, Emiliano; Salmona, Mario; Diomede, Luisa; Chiesa, Roberto; Gobbi, Marco
15B3 is a monoclonal IgM antibody that selectively detects pathological aggregates of the prion protein (PrP). We report the unexpected finding that 15B3 also recognizes oligomeric but not monomeric forms of amyloid-β (Aβ)42, an aggregating peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The 15B3 antibody: i) inhibits the binding of synthetic Aβ42 oligomers to recombinant PrP and neuronal membranes; ii) prevents oligomer-induced membrane depolarization; iii) antagonizes the inhibitory effects of oligomers on the physiological pharyngeal contractions of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; and iv) counteracts the memory deficits induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ42 oligomers in mice. Thus this antibody binds to pathologically relevant forms of Aβ, and offers a potential research, diagnostic, and therapeutic tool for AD. PMID:27392850
Bailey, G. D.; Tenoso, H. J.
An attempt was made to develop a test requiring no preadsorption steps for the assessment of antibodies to rubella and mumps viruses using the passive immune agglutination (PIA) method. Both rubella and mumps antigens and antibodies were prepared. Direct PIA tests, using rubella antigen-coated beads, and indirect PIA tests, using rubella antibody-coated beads, were investigated. Attempts, using either method, were unsuccessful. Serum interference along with nonspecific agglutination of beads by the rubella antigen resulted in no specific response under the test conditions investigated. A new, highly sensitive approach, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test system, is recommended to overcome the nonspecificity. This system is a logical outgrowth of some of the solid phase work done on MEMS and represents the next generation tests system that can be directly applied to early disease detection and monitoring.
Flege, J E
The five experiments presented here examine the ability of listeners to detect a foreign accent. Computer editing techniques were used to isolate progressively shorter excerpts of the English spoken by native speakers of American English and French. Native English-speaking listeners judged the speech samples in one- and two-interval forced-choiced tests. They were able to detect foreign accent equally well when presented with speech edited from phrases read in isolation and produced in a spontaneous story. The listeners accurately identified the French talkers (63%-95% of the time) no matter how short were the speech samples presented: entire phrases (e.g., "two little dogs"), syllables (/tu/ or /ti/), portions of syllables corresponding to the phonetic segments /t/,/i/,/u/, and even just the first 30 ms of "two" (roughly, the release burst of /t/). Both phonetically trained listeners familiar with French-accented English and unsophisticated listeners were able to accurately detect accent. These results suggest that listeners develop very detailed phonetic category prototypes against which to evaluate speech sounds occurring in their native language.
Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya
We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jarvi, S.I.; Farias, M.E.M.; Baker, H.; Freifeld, H.B.; Baker, P.E.; Van Gelder, E.; Massey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.T.
This study documents the presence of Plasmodium spp. in landbirds of central Polynesia. Blood samples collected from eight native and introduced species from the island of Tutuila, American Samoa were evaluated for the presence of Plasmodium spp. by nested rDNA PCR, serology and/or microscopy. A total of 111/188 birds (59%) screened by nested PCR were positive. Detection of Plasmodium spp. was verified by nucleotide sequence comparisons of partial 18S ribosomal RNA and TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) genes using phylogenetic analyses. All samples screened by immunoblot to detect antibodies that cross-react with Hawaiian isolates of Plasmodium relictum (153) were negative. Lack of cross-reactivity is probably due to antigenic differences between the Hawaiian and Samoan Plasmodium isolates. Similarly, all samples examined by microscopy (214) were negative. The fact that malaria is present, but not detectable by blood smear evaluation is consistent with low peripheral parasitemia characteristic of chronic infections. High prevalence of apparently chronic infections, the relative stability of the native land bird communities, and the presence of mosquito vectors which are considered endemic and capable of transmitting avian Plasmodia, suggest that these parasites are indigenous to Samoa and have a long coevolutionary history with their hosts.
Makkoch, Jarika; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Payungporn, Sunchai; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Songserm, Thaweesak; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Poovorawan, Yong
Validation of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays is important for evaluating antibody responses to influenza virus, and selection of erythrocytes for use in these assays is important. This study aimed to determine the correlation between receptor binding specificity and effectiveness of the HI assay for detecting antibody response to pandemic influenza H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. Hemagglutination (HA) tests were performed using erythrocytes from 6 species. Subsequently, 8 hemagglutinating units of pH1N1 from each species were titrated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. To investigate the effect of erythrocyte binding preference on HI antibody titers, comparisons of HI with microneutralization (MN) assays were performed. Goose erythrocytes showed most specific binding with pH1N1, while HA titers using human erythrocytes were comparable to those using turkey erythrocytes. The erythrocyte binding efficiency was shown to have an impact on antibody detection. Comparing MN titers, HI titers using turkey erythrocytes yielded the most accurate results, while those using goose erythrocytes produced the highest geometric mean titer. Human blood group O erythrocytes lacking a specific antibody yielded results most comparable to those obtained using turkey erythrocytes. Further, pre-existing antibody to pH1N1 and different erythrocyte species can distort HI assay results. HI assay, using turkey and human erythrocytes, yielded the most comparable and applicable results for pH1N1 than those by MN assay, and using goose erythrocytes may lead to overestimated titers. Selection of appropriate erythrocyte species for HI assay allows construction of a more reliable database, which is essential for further investigations and control of virus epidemics.
Pultar, Johanna; Sauer, Ursula; Domnanich, Patrick; Preininger, Claudia
This study describes a RNA aptamer-based biochip with high affinity and specificity for C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP, which exists in concentrations of 1-3mg/l in the serum of healthy patients, has been identified as a reliable biomarker for inflammation and as a potential marker for sepsis and tissue necrosis. The CRP-specific aptamer was covalently immobilized with its 5'-end on ARChip Epoxy. The detection of bound CRP was carried out optically using labelled secondary antibody in a sandwich format. Assay conditions were optimized with respect to the CRP binding buffer (buffer system, pH and additives) and Ca(2+) concentration (10 mM). Moreover, two sandwich immunoassay formats were tested, the one using dye-labelled antibodies and the other with biotin-modified antibodies/Dy647-labelled streptavidin. In comparison with an antibody-based chip assay, the aptamer chip is superior in terms of CRP measuring range (10 microg/l to 100mg/l) in human serum whereas antibody-based chips result in superior data reproducibility (CV of 8-15%). In contrast to antibody chips, aptamer microarrays provide the unique potential of detecting CRP in serum samples of low risk patients (1-3mg/l) as well as high risk patients (>500 mg/l), furthermore elevated CRP levels (20-350 mg/l) with acceptable recovery (70-130%) by including only one serum sample dilution step (1:100) for the complete measuring range.
Dick, Jeffrey E.; Hilterbrand, Adam T.; Boika, Aliaksei; Upton, Jason W.; Bard, Allen J.
We report observations of stochastic collisions of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) on ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs), extending the observation of discrete collision events on UMEs to biologically relevant analytes. Adsorption of an antibody specific for a virion surface glycoprotein allowed differentiation of MCMV from MCMV bound by antibody from the collision frequency decrease and current magnitudes in the electrochemical collision experiments, which shows the efficacy of the method to size viral samples. To add selectivity to the technique, interactions between MCMV, a glycoprotein-specific primary antibody to MCMV, and polystyrene bead “anchors,” which were functionalized with a secondary antibody specific to the Fc region of the primary antibody, were used to affect virus mobility. Bead aggregation was observed, and the extent of aggregation was measured using the electrochemical collision technique. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy further supported aggregate shape and extent of aggregation with and without MCMV. This work extends the field of collisions to biologically relevant antigens and provides a novel foundation upon which qualitative sensor technology might be built for selective detection of viruses and other biologically relevant analytes. PMID:25870261
Hostetler, C L; Sawyer, K P; Nachamkin, I
Three commercial systems were compared for ability to detect antibodies to streptolysin O (ASO) and DNase B (ADB). Streptozyme (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) exhibited high sensitivity (100%) for detecting ASO but low sensitivity for ADB (22.2%). The LeapStrep (Organon Teknika, Malvern, Pa.) and Check-Spectra (Diagnostic Technology, Hauppauge, N.Y.) tests had low sensitivities for detecting ASO (35.3 and 21.4%, respectively) and ADB (22.2 and 33.3%, respectively). PMID:3045154
Hervé, Cécile; Marcus, Susan E; Knox, J Paul
Plant cell walls are diverse composites of complex polysaccharides. Molecular probes such as monoclonal antibodies (MABs) and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are important tools to detect and dissect cell wall structures in plant materials. We provide an account of methods that can be used to detect cell wall polysaccharide structures (epitopes) in plant materials and also describe treatments that can provide information on the masking of sets of polysaccharides that may prevent detection. These masking -phenomena may indicate potential interactions between sets of cell wall polysaccharides, and methods to uncover them are an important aspect of cell wall immunocytochemistry.
Andersson, Sandra; Konrad, Anna; Ashok, Nikhil; Pontén, Fredrik; Hober, Sophia; Asplund, Anna
Antibody-based protein profiling on a global scale using immunohistochemistry constitutes an emerging strategy for mapping of the human proteome, which is crucial for an increased understanding of biological processes in the cell. Immunohistochemistry is often performed indirectly using secondary antibodies for detection, with the benefit of signal amplification. Direct immunohistochemistry instead brings the advantage of multiplexing; however, it requires labeling of the primary antibody. Many antibody-labeling kits do not specifically target IgG and may therefore cause labeling of stabilizing proteins present in the antibody solution. A new conjugation method has been developed that utilizes a modified Z-domain of protein A (ZBPA) to specifically target the Fc part of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ZBPA conjugation method and a commercially available labeling kit, Lightning-Link, for in situ protein detection. Fourteen antibodies were biotinylated with each method and stained using immunohistochemistry. For all antibodies tested, ZBPA biotinylation resulted in distinct immunoreactivity without off-target staining, regardless of the presence of stabilizing proteins in the buffer, whereas the majority of the Lightning-Link biotinylated antibodies displayed a characteristic pattern of nonspecific staining. We conclude that biotinylated ZBPA domain provides a stringent method for antibody biotinylation, advantageous for in situ protein detection in tissues.
Konrad, Anna; Ashok, Nikhil; Pontén, Fredrik; Hober, Sophia; Asplund, Anna
Antibody-based protein profiling on a global scale using immunohistochemistry constitutes an emerging strategy for mapping of the human proteome, which is crucial for an increased understanding of biological processes in the cell. Immunohistochemistry is often performed indirectly using secondary antibodies for detection, with the benefit of signal amplification. Direct immunohistochemistry instead brings the advantage of multiplexing; however, it requires labeling of the primary antibody. Many antibody-labeling kits do not specifically target IgG and may therefore cause labeling of stabilizing proteins present in the antibody solution. A new conjugation method has been developed that utilizes a modified Z-domain of protein A (ZBPA) to specifically target the Fc part of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ZBPA conjugation method and a commercially available labeling kit, Lightning-Link, for in situ protein detection. Fourteen antibodies were biotinylated with each method and stained using immunohistochemistry. For all antibodies tested, ZBPA biotinylation resulted in distinct immunoreactivity without off-target staining, regardless of the presence of stabilizing proteins in the buffer, whereas the majority of the Lightning-Link biotinylated antibodies displayed a characteristic pattern of nonspecific staining. We conclude that biotinylated ZBPA domain provides a stringent method for antibody biotinylation, advantageous for in situ protein detection in tissues. PMID:23920108
Martinez, P; Ortiz de Lejarazu, R; Eiros, J M; Perlado, E; Flores, M; del Pozo, M A; Rodríguez-Torres, A
The presence of HIV antibodies was screened in 241 paired samples of serum and saliva from seronegative subjects with risk factors for human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection (n = 99), asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-seropositive patients (n = 104) and healthy blood donors (n = 38) as negative controls, in order to assess the reliability of two saliva tests for the detection of HIV antibodies. These results were confirmed by Western blot. The saliva samples were collected using an oral device (Salivette) maintained in the lateral gingival fold until the individual perceived that it was becoming less rigid due to hydration with saliva. The two tests were a rapid one (Test Pack) and a conventional one (GACELISA). The results for antibody detection in saliva show 99% specificity and 99% sensitivity for the rapid test versus 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for the conventional test. All results for the saliva samples which were positive in the rapid test were confirmed by Western blot (WHO criteria), and there were no indeterminate Western blot results among the samples which were false-positive in the conventional enzyme immunoassay. No statistically significant differences were observed between the absorbance values of HIV-infected symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The correlation for the results of the HIV-antibody analysis in the paired sera was 98%. This method of saliva sampling in combination with a rapid and sensitive test for HIV-antibody detection may be applicable in studies conducted with limited technical resources or insufficiently trained health personnel or where blood sample collection is difficult.
Matteri, R L; Roser, J F; Baldwin, D M; Lipovetsky, V; Papkoff, H
The present study describes the development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody (518B7) generated against bovine LH (bLH). Although 518B7 was extremely specific for LH, very low species specificity was observed. A RIA using this antibody and radioiodinated equine LH (eLH) showed good sensitivity for all mammalian LH preparations tested, with the exception of human LH (15%, relative to the eLH reference standard). Activities of most mammalian LH's ranged between approximately 50-200%. Much less activity was detected with reptilian LH (less than 1.5%). Amphibian and avian LH fractions were essentially inactive. The reactivities of LH alpha and beta subunits from a variety of mammals clearly showed that the antibody reacts with the beta subunit. Sensitive RIAs were also developed utilizing 125I-bovine and 125I-rat LH. Interestingly, all hormone preparations which showed sufficient reactivity for statistical analysis within the dose ranges used in the present study (0.01-1000 ng/tube) produced a displacement curve parallel to the reference standard. We have also validated the use of 518B7 in detecting LH in serum. Parallel dilution curves relative to purified LH reference standards were observed with equine and bovine serum samples and equine pituitary extract. High (average 94%) recoveries were also seen with bovine serum with known amounts of exogenously added bLH. Similar patterns of LH secretion were detected with a RIA based upon 125I-bLH and 518B7 and a previously described polyclonal antibody-based RIA in bovine serum samples during estrus. Thus, a monoclonal antibody for LH has been produced which can be used to develop sensitive and specific RIAs in many different mammalian species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Yongvanit, Puangrat
Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini; known as human liver fluke) is a major health problem in the northeastern region of Thailand. Infection with O. viverrini is the cause of hepatobiliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Previous studies demonstrated specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in serum from O. viverrini-infected patients. However, no studies have measured specific antibodies to O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. The objective of the study was to detect specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA, and to evaluate their use for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection. Saliva samples from 23 control subjects, 30 opisthorchiasis patients, and 38 CCA patients were collected. ELISA was established for detection of salivary IgA and IgG to crude O. viverrini antigens. ANOVA was used to compare salivary IgA and IgG levels among groups. Salivary IgA to crude O. viverrini antigens in CCA patients was significantly higher than controls (p = 0.007). Salivary IgG in CCA patients was significantly higher than opisthorchiasis patients and controls (p = 0.010 and p < 0.001, respectively). The cut-off value from salivary IgG test demonstrated higher accuracy for positivity of O. viverrini infection than salivary IgA. In conclusion, specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens were detected in saliva of patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. Salivary antibodies reflect serum immune response to O. viverrini infection, and salivary IgG tends to be a good candidate for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection.
Singh, Amit Kumar; Agarwal, Loveleena; Lakhmani, Krishna; Sengupta, Chandrim; Singh, Ravinder Pal
Background: The knowledge of the current prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and its transmission will be helpful in its elimination. Thus, the present study is aimed to determine its prevalence among hydrocele patients which is a common presentation in chronically infected cases. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients suffering from hydrocele admitted to the surgical ward were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the patients during the day hours for the detection of anti-filarial antibody and during night hours to detect the presence of microfilaria by smear examination. Blood samples were also collected from the family member attending the ward along with the patients to determine the presence of anti-filarial antibodies. Serum IgE level and eosinophil count were also determined in the patients showing a positive result for the anti-filarial antibody test. Results: Out of 100 hydrocele patients, 21% patients showed anti-filarial antibody card test positive with maximum patients belonging to age group of 20–40 years. Microfilaria was detected in 5% of the hydrocele patients, whereas none of the family members showed positive anti-filarial antibody test. Serum IgE level and eosinophil count were more than 1000 ng/ml and 500/mm3, respectively. Conclusions: The study has found a high prevalence of filariasis among hydrocele patients. It is suggested that more studies are needed to know the real time prevalence of the cases showing manifestations of the filariasis in the acute stage which will help the eradication program to formulate new strategies. PMID:28217582
Moskwa, Bozena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Reiterová, Katarína; Cabaj, Władysław
Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 is a protozoan parasite originally reported as a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide. It is documented that the parasite is widely spread among non-carnivorous cervids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in moose (Alces alces Linnaeus). Blood samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in the northeastern Poland were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by agglutination test (NAT), a commercial competitive screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by western blot (WB) analysis to verify the presence of antibodies. Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in one of seven moose. The antibody titer was confirmed by NAT (1 : 1 280), cELISA (I = 91%) and ELISA (OD = 0.736). The main immunodominant antigens detected by WB were 120, 70, 55, 35 and 16 kDa proteins. This is the first evidence of N. caninum seropositivity in moose living in a natural environment in Europe.
Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien
Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.
Ochratoxin A (OTA)—a toxin produced by Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Penicillium verrucosum—is one of the most-abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins. To avoid the risk of OTA consumption for humans and animals, the rapid detection and quantitation of OTA level in different commodities are of great importance. In this work, an impedimetric immunosensor for ochratoxin A (OTA) detection, a common toxic botanical contaminant, was developed via the immobilization of anti-OTA antibody on bovine serum albumin modified gold electrodes. A four-step reaction protocol was tested to modify the gold electrode and obtain the sensing substrate. All the steps of the immunosensor elaboration and also the immunochemical reaction between surface-bound antibody and ochratoxin A were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Modification of the impedance due to the specific antigen-antibody reaction at immunosensor surface, was used in order to detect ochratoxin A. Linear proportionality of the charge transfer resistance to the concentration of OTA allows ochratoxin A detection in the range of 2.5–100 ng/mL. PMID:27467684
McNabb, Leanne; Barr, J; Crameri, G; Juzva, S; Riddell, S; Colling, A; Boyd, V; Broder, C; Wang, L-F; Lunt, R
Hendra and Nipah viruses (HeV and NiV) are closely related zoonotic pathogens of the Paramyxoviridae family. Both viruses belong to the Henipavirus genus and cause fatal disease in animals and humans, though only HeV is endemic in Australia. In general and due to the acute nature of the disease, agent detection by PCR and virus isolation are the primary tools for diagnostic investigations. Assays for the detection of antibodies against HeV are fit more readily for the purpose of surveillance testing in disease epidemiology and to meet certification requirements in the international movement of horses. The first generation indirect ELISA has been affected by non-specific reactions which must be resolved using virus neutralisation serology conducted at laboratory bio-safety level 4 containment (PC4). Recent developments have enabled improvements in the available serology assays. The production of an expressed recombinant truncated HeV G protein has been utilised in ELISA and in Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assays. In the latter format, two Luminex assays have been developed for use in henipavirus serology: a binding assay (designed for antibody detection and differentiation) and a blocking assay (designed as a surrogate for virus neutralisation). Equine and canine field sera were used to evaluate the two Luminex assays relative to ELISA and virus neutralisation serology. Results showed that Luminex assays can be effective as rapid, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of HeV antibody in horse and dog sera. The tests do not require PC4 containment and are appropriate for high throughput applications as might be required for disease investigations and other epidemiological surveillance. Also, the results show that the Luminex assays detect effectively HeV vaccine-induced antibodies.
Novikov, A A; Cherkasova, M V; Aleksandrova, E N; Popkova, T V; Luchikhina, E L; Rytikova, N S; Nasonov, E L
The hyper production of large specter of autoantibodies, primarily rheumatoid factors and antibodies to citrullinized proteins, is a characteristic sign of rheumatoid arthritis. The detection of these antibodies plays an important role in diagnosing the disease, especially on its early stages. The study compared the diagnostic accuracy of different methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins under rheumatoid arthritis. The examined sample included 144 patients aged 33-58 years with reliable diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The patients with systemic lupus erythematous, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, OVERLAP syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis and conditionally healthy donors consisted the comparative group. To detect antibodies to citrullinized proteins the methods of enzyme immunoassay, electrochemiluminescence, immunochromatography were applied. The study demonstrated that all the methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins have adequate diagnostic value to be implemented both in a routine clinical diagnostic practice and on the stage of screening of patients.
Shibata, Hiroko; Nishimura, Kazuko; Miyama, Chizuru; Tada, Minoru; Suzuki, Takuo; Saito, Yoshiro; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko
Development of an appropriate assay to detect anti-drug antibody (ADA) is important for assessing immunogenicity to therapeutic protein products. However, characterizing ADA assay methods is difficult because human ADA as a reference standard is not available in most cases. We compared the analytical performance of three ligand-binding assay methods for ADA, namely, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), electrochemiluminescence (ECL), and biolayer interferometry (BLI) methods, by using the anti-erythropoietin (EPO) monoclonal antibody reference panel developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. Dose-dependent binding responses were observed for all nine anti-EPO antibodies in the anti-EPO panel by the SPR and BLI methods. In contrast, the ECL method did not clearly detect binding of low-affinity anti-EPO antibodies. Regarding IgG2 and IgM antibodies derived from the same clone, IgG2 exhibited a higher binding response in the SPR assay, whereas the IgM binding response was higher than that of IgG2 in the ECL assay. In the case of the BLI method, there was no consistent pattern observed in the binding responses of IgG2 or IgM. Results of the anti-EPO antibody reference panel, which contains a variety of monoclonal antibodies, indicated that the ability to detect ADAs differed among these assay methods. Therefore, with ligand-binding assays, differences in assay platforms can affect the sensitivity and other characteristics of assays to detect ADAs. These results show that understanding the analytical performance of ADA assays is important for an appropriate assessment of immunogenicity. Our study also indicated the benefits of using the established human ADA reference panel to assess the assay methods for ADA detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Simpson, C.; Shirodaria, P. V.; Evans, J. P.; Simpson, D. I.; Stanford, C. F.
AIMS: To compare the sensitivity of two methods for the detection of serum antibodies to pigeon faecal antigens in patients with pigeon breeder's disease. METHODS: Serum samples stored at -20 degrees C from 50 patients with pigeon breeder's disease, 50 control samples from patients with other respiratory diseases, and 50 healthy blood donors were examined for the precipitating antibodies and IgG antibodies to antigens present in extract of pigeon droppings by immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. RESULTS: Both antigen preparations of pigeon dropping extract were equally effective. A positive immunodiffusion reaction gave one or more precipitin lines and these antibodies were detected only in undiluted sera from 80% of the patients with pigeon breeder's disease. In the ELISA the sera were tested at a starting dilution of 1 in 100 because positive reactions were observed with sera from healthy blood donors at lower dilutions. All sera which gave optical density readings above 3 SD of the control value were considered to have IgG antibodies. These antibodies were detected in sera from all the patients with pigeon breeder's disease. The antibody titres were much higher in those patients who had precipitating antibodies (range 800-51,200) than those without (range 100-800). The antibodies were not detected in the sera of patients with respiratory diseases or healthy blood donors by either method. CONCLUSIONS: Antibodies to pigeon dropping antigens were detected by immunodiffusion and ELISA in sera from patients with pigeon breeder's disease but not in control sera. ELISA was a more sensitive method for detecting antibodies and therefore seems to have considerable potential as a routine technique in the serological diagnosis of pigeon breeder's disease. PMID:1624596
Zhao, Yinli; Li, Guoxi
A sandwich ELISA has been developed using polyclonal and monoclonal antibody for the determination of penicillinase in milk. For this purpose, specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against penicillinase were generated and characterized. Using penicillinase standards prepared from 1-128 ng/mL, the method indicated that the detection limit of the sandwich ELISA, as measured in an ELISA plate reader, was as low as 0.86 ng/mL of penicillinase. For determine the accuracy, raw milk containing 2, 8, 32, and 64 ng/mL of penicillinase were tested by sandwich ELISA. Recoveries were from 93-97.5%, and the coefficient of variation [CV (%)] were from 5.55-8.38%. For interassay reproducibility, recoveries were from 89.5-95.1%, the coefficient of variation [CV (%)] were from 5.26-9.58%. This sandwich ELISA provides a useful screening method for quantitative detection of penicillinase in milk.
Timurdogan, Erman; Ozber, Natali; Nargul, Sezin; Yavuz, Serhat; Kilic, M Salih; Kavakli, I Halil; Urey, Hakan; Alaca, B Erdem
Label-free detection of the interaction between hexahistidine-tagged human κ-opioid receptor membrane protein and anti-His antibody is demonstrated in liquid by an optical microelectromechanical system utilizing electromagnetically actuated microresonators. Shift in resonance frequency due to accretion of mass on the sensitive surface of microresonators is monitored via an integrated optical readout. A frequency resolution of 2Hz is obtained. Together with a sensitivity of 7 ppm/(ng/ml) this leads to a minimum detectable antibody concentration of 5.7 ng/ml for a 50-kHz device. The measurement principle is shown to impart immunity to environmental noise, facilitate operation in liquid media and bring about the prospect for further miniaturization of actuator and readout leading to a portable biochemical sensor.
Kolberg, J; Nordhagen, R
Some factors affecting the sensitivity of the automated methods for blood group antibody detection have been evaluated. The experiments revealed influencing differences between various albumin preparations. In the BMC method, one lot of albumin permitted no significant antibody detection. In the LISP technique, a plateau of maximum Polybrene activity was found. The beginning of this plateau depended on both the albumin preparation and the Polybrene lot. In the BMC method, methyl cellulose gave optimal sensitivity within a concentration range of 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. The stability of test cells stored in ACD at 4 C was studied. All test cells could be used safely up to two weeks. Cells from different donors showed variable reactivity after three weeks.
Appleyard, S. T.; Dunn, M. J.; Dubowitz, V.; Scott, M. L.; Pittman, S. J.; Shotton, D. M.
Spectrin is the major protein of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, which is bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane's lipid bilayer and is responsible for cell shape and membrane elasticity. Inability to identify spectrin in other cell types led to the assumption that this protein was unique to erythrocytes. However, spectrin-like proteins have been demonstrated recently in a variety of cell types, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, in several species. We used monoclonal antibodies against human erythrocyte spectrin subunits in an immunocytochemical study to detect related proteins in normal and diseased human skeletal muscle. Six of seven monoclonal antibodies against β -spectrin determinants were bound at the cytoplasmic surface of muscle fiber plasma membranes, whereas none of six monoclonal antibodies against α -spectrin determinants was bound. Muscle fibers of patients with neuromuscular diseases showed similar distribution and specificity of antibody binding to those of normal subjects, but the intensity of binding was increased. In contrast, probable regenerating fibers in muscle of patients with muscular dystrophies showed reduced binding of antibodies, but reduced binding was not seen in fetal muscle fibers nor in those of a patient with a myotubular myopathy. We conclude that human skeletal muscle fibers possess a spectrin-related protein associated with their plasma membrane that shows extensive β -chain similarities to erythrocyte spectrin but differs significantly with respect to the α -subunit. Its function may be associated with the maintenance of membrane and myofibril integrity during contraction, and the increased antibody binding in diseased muscle may reflect a structural rearrangement of spectrin or a compensatory increase in spectrin abundance in response to increased stress on these systems.
Grimstad, P R; Artsob, H; Karabatsos, N; Calisher, C H
A procedure was developed for producing a hemagglutinin for the California serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) virus Jamestown Canyon, a human pathogen. Serum samples from humans putatively infected with this virus or with La Crosse virus were tested by hemagglutination inhibition. Each antigen detected antibody to the respective virus, with little cross-reactivity. These results suggest that both antigens should be used when the hemagglutination inhibition test is applied to the diagnosis of human infections with California serogroup viruses in North America.
Byrne, Barry; Stack, Edwina; Gilmartin, Niamh; O'Kennedy, Richard
Antibody-based sensors permit the rapid and sensitive analysis of a range of pathogens and associated toxins. A critical assessment of the implementation of such formats is provided, with reference to their principles, problems and potential for ‘on-site’ analysis. Particular emphasis is placed on the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and additional examples relating to the monitoring of fungal pathogens, viruses, mycotoxins, marine toxins and parasites are also provided. PMID:22408533
Schmitz, H; Shimizu, H; Kampa, D; Doerr, H W
Immunoglobulin (Ig) G was removed from serum specimens by precipitation with gamma chain-specific anti-human IgG of rabbit origin. The remaining rubella virus-specific IgM (and IgA) antibodies were then detected by the rubella hemagglutination-inhibition test. This procedure has proven to be as reliable as estimations carried out with IgM fractions separated on a sucrose density gradient. PMID:1176596
Afonso, Joana; Lopes, Susana; Gonçalves, Raquel; Caldeira, Paulo; Lago, Paula; Tavares de Sousa, Helena; Ramos, Jaime; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Ministro, Paula; Rosa, Isadora; Vieira, Ana Isabel; Coelho, Rosa; Tavares, Patrícia; Soares, João; Sousa, Ana Lúcia; Carvalho, Diana; Sousa, Paula; da Silva, João Pereira; Meira, Tânia; Silva Ferreira, Filipa; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Chowers, Yehuda; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Magro, Fernando
Background: There is scant information on the accuracy of different assays used to measure anti-infliximab antibodies (ADAs), especially in the presence of detectable infliximab (IFX). We thus aimed to evaluate and compare three different assays for the detection of IFX and ADAs and to clarify the impact of the presence of circulating IFX on the accuracy of the ADA assays. Methods: Blood samples from 79 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients treated with infliximab were assessed for IFX levels and ADAs using three different assays: an in-house assay and two commercial kits, Immundiagnostik and Theradiag. Sera samples with ADAs and undetectable levels of IFX were spiked with exogenous IFX and analyzed for ADAs. Results: The three assays showed 81–96% agreement for the measured IFX level. However, the in-house assay and Immundiagnostik assays detected ADAs in 34 out of 79 samples, whereas Theradiag only detected ADAs in 24 samples. Samples negative for ADAs with Theradiag, but ADA-positive in both the in-house and Immundiagnostik assays, were positive for IFX or IgG4 ADAs. In spiking experiments, a low concentration of exogenous IFX (5 µg/ml) hampered ADA detection with Theradiag in sera samples with ADA levels of between 3 and 10 µg/ml. In the Immundiagnostik assay detection interference was only observed at concentrations of exogenous IFX higher than 30 µg/ml. However, in samples with high levels of ADAs (>25 µg/ml) interference was only observed at IFX concentrations higher than 100 µg/ml in all three assays. Binary (IFX/ADA) stratification of the results showed that IFX+/ADA- and IFX-/ADAs+ were less influenced by the assay results than the double-positive (IFX+/ADAs+) and double-negative (IFX-/ADAs-) combination. Conclusions: All three methodologies are equally suitable for measuring IFX levels. However, erroneous therapeutic decisions may occur when patients show double-negative (IFX-/ADAs-) or double-positive (IFX+/ADAs+) status, since agreement between
Nath, Nidhi; Flemming, Rod; Godat, Becky; Urh, Marjeta
Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) are generated in-vivo as an immune response to therapeutic antibody drugs and can significantly affect the efficacy and safety of the drugs. Hence, detection of ADAs is recommended by regulatory agencies during drug development process. A widely accepted method for measuring ADAs is "bridging" immunoassay and is frequently performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or electrochemiluminescence (ECL) platform developed by Meso Scale Discovery (MSD). ELISA is preferable due to widely available reagents and instruments and broad familiarity with the technology; however, MSD platform has gained wide acceptability due to a simpler workflow, higher sensitivity, and a broad dynamic range but requires proprietary reagents and instruments. We describe the development of a new bridging immunoassay where a small (19kDa) but ultra-bright NanoLuc luciferase enzyme is used as an antibody label and signal is luminescence. The method combines the convenience of ELISA format with assay performance similar to that of the MSD platform. Advantages of the NanoLuc bridging immunoassay are highlighted by using Trastuzumab and Cetuximab as model drugs and developing assays for detection of anti-Trastuzumab antibodies (ATA) and anti-Cetuximab antibodies (ACA). During development of the assay several aspects of the method were optimized including: (a) two different approaches for labeling drugs with NanoLuc; (b) sensitivity and dynamic range; and (c) compatibility with the acid dissociation step for improved drug tolerance. Assays showed high sensitivity of at least 1.0ng/mL, dynamic range of greater than four log orders, and drug tolerance of >500. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marnetto, Fabiana; Valentino, Paola; Caldano, Marzia; Bertolotto, Antonio
The presence of KIR4.1 antibodies has been proposed to be a characteristic of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This could have a significant impact on disease management. However, the validation of the initial findings has failed till date. Conflicting results have been attributed to difficulties in isolating the lower-glycosylated (LG) KIR4.1 expressed in oligodendrocytes, the putative target antigen of autoantibodies. The aim of this study is to verify the presence of KIR4.1 antibodies in MS patients, by independently replicating the originally-described procedure. Assay procedure consisted of KIR4.1 expression in HEK293 cells, 3-step elution to isolate LG-KIR4.1 in elution fraction 3, and ELISA. Sera of 48 MS patients and 46 HCs were studied in 21 working sessions. In a preliminary analysis, we observed different KIR4.1 antibody levels between MS patients and Healthy Controls (HCs). However, a high variability across working sessions was observed and the sensitivity of the assay was very low. Thus, stringent criteria were established in order to identify working sessions in which the pure LG-KIR4.1 was isolated. As per these criteria, we detected LG-KIR4.1 antibodies in 28% of MS patients and 5% of HCs. Unlike previous findings, this study is in agreement with the original report. We propose further efforts be made towards the development of a uniform method to establish the detection of KIR4.1 antibodies in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Baoyuan; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Wang, Xinjie; Zhao, Jinan; Du, Taofeng; Wang, Chengbao; Xiao, Shuqi; Mu, Yang; Zhang, Gaiping; Luo, Jianxun; Hsu, Walter H; Zhou, En-Min
A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) was developed for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies against avian hepatitis E virus (HEV). In the bELISA, the coating antigen was a truncated protein containing C-terminal 268-amino acid region of ORF2 from an avian HEV strain isolated in China (CaHEV) and blocking antibody was a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1H5 recognizing the epitope within amino acids 384-414 in the C-terminal 268-amino acid region. The concentration of blocking mAb 1H5 was determined as that yielded an OD450nm value of 1.0 for binding to the coating antigen and the antigen concentration and serum dilution were optimized using a checkerboard titration. A cut-off value of 20.7% at the mean percent inhibition plus 3 standard deviations was determined by testing 265 negative sera. The bELISA had a sensitivity of 98.3% by testing 116 positive sera from chickens infected experimentally with CaHEV and had no cross-reaction with other anti-avian virus antibodies. The compliance rates of the bELISA with indirect ELISA and Western blot were 83.7% and 93.3%, respectively, by testing 300 field chicken sera. These results suggested that the bELISA developed in this study can be used for detection of antibodies against avian HEV and showed high reproducibility compared with indirect ELISA and Western blot methods.
Saha, Debjani; Acharya, Debopam; Dhar, Tarun K
Membrane-based dot immunoassays are now widely used in almost every branch of biology and medicine. However, the quality of the immobilized antigen or antibody spots on the membranes was found to be highly operator-dependent and spotting by conventional methods often leads to heterogeneous spot morphologies and deposition inconsistencies. To circumvent these problems, a spotting method has been developed which is based on focussed absorption of an applied antibody solution through an aqueous network of capillary channels formed between the membrane and a wetted absorbent body. The method does not require any equipment for creating vacuum and according to assay requirements highly homogeneous spots of uniform size, in the range of 0.8- to 9-mm diameter, can be obtained by varying the volume of the applied antibody solution. Spot intensities were sufficiently high even at high antibody dilutions. Immobilization of anti-ochratoxin A (anti-OA) antibody by this method gave 2-fold increased sensitivity in a competitive assay of the toxin compared to conventional spotting methods. The calculated CV of the colour intensity for spots of different sizes (0.8 to 9 mm) was between 4.5 and 1%. Application of this spotting technique has been demonstrated for detection of OA in wine and coffee samples with the elimination of matrix interferences in the same immunoassay system. This was achieved by selective removal of nonspecific interfering substances from the sample extract during the assay. The detection limit of OA in wine (1 microg L(-1)) and coffee (2.5 microg kg(-1)) obtained by the present new method is superior to values reported recently. Thus, the present new method will be highly useful for improved performance of membrane-based immunoassays in almost every branch of biology and medicine.
Hong, Dong-Gu; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Kim, Min-Gon
In this study, we used a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with immobilizing antibodies on its surface to detect human cytokines, which are activators that mediate intercellular communication including expression and control of immune responses. The CMOS image sensor has many advantages over the Charge Couple Device, including lower power consumption, operation voltage, and cost. The photodiode, a unit pixel component in the CMOS image sensor, receives light from the detection area and generates digital image data. About a million pixels are embedded, and size of each pixel is 3 x 3 μm. The chemiluminescence reaction produces light from the chemical reaction of luminol and hydrogen peroxide. To detect cytokines, antibodies were immobilized on the surface of the CMOS image sensor, and a sandwich immunoassay using an HRP-labeled antibody was performed. An HRP-catalyzed chemiluminescence reaction was measured by each pixel of the CMOS image sensor. Pixels with stronger signals indicated higher cytokine concentrations; thus, we were able to measure human interleukin-5 (IL-5) at femtomolar concentrations.
Steingart, Karen R; Henry, Megan; Laal, Suman; Hopewell, Philip C; Ramsay, Andrew; Menzies, Dick; Cunningham, Jane; Weldingh, Karin; Pai, Madhukar
Conventional diagnostic tests for tuberculosis have several limitations and are often unhelpful in establishing the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Although commercial serological antibody based tests are available, their usefulness in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is unknown. A systematic review was conducted to assess the accuracy of commercial serological antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In a comprehensive search, 21 studies that reported data on sensitivity and specificity for extrapulmonary tuberculosis were identified. These studies evaluated seven different commercial tests, with Anda‐TB IgG accounting for 48% of the studies. The results showed that (1) all commercial tests provided highly variable estimates of sensitivity (range 0.00–1.00) and specificity (range 0.59–1.00) for all extrapulmonary sites combined; (2) the Anda‐TB IgG kit showed highly variable sensitivity (range 0.26–1.00) and specificity (range 0.59–1.00) for all extrapulmonary sites combined; (3) for all tests combined, sensitivity estimates for both lymph node tuberculosis (range 0.23–1.00) and pleural tuberculosis (range 0.26–0.59) were poor and inconsistent; and (4) there were no data to determine the accuracy of the tests in children or in patients with HIV infection, the two groups for which the test would be most useful. At present, commercial antibody detection tests for extrapulmonary tuberculosis have no role in clinical care or case detection. PMID:17989270
Steingart, Karen R; Henry, Megan; Laal, Suman; Hopewell, Philip C; Ramsay, Andrew; Menzies, Dick; Cunningham, Jane; Weldingh, Karin; Pai, Madhukar
Conventional diagnostic tests for tuberculosis have several limitations and are often unhelpful in establishing the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Although commercial serological antibody based tests are available, their usefulness in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is unknown. A systematic review was conducted to assess the accuracy of commercial serological antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In a comprehensive search, 21 studies that reported data on sensitivity and specificity for extrapulmonary tuberculosis were identified. These studies evaluated seven different commercial tests, with Anda‐TB IgG accounting for 48% of the studies. The results showed that (1) all commercial tests provided highly variable estimates of sensitivity (range 0.00–1.00) and specificity (range 0.59–1.00) for all extrapulmonary sites combined; (2) the Anda‐TB IgG kit showed highly variable sensitivity (range 0.26–1.00) and specificity (range 0.59–1.00) for all extrapulmonary sites combined; (3) for all tests combined, sensitivity estimates for both lymph node tuberculosis (range 0.23–1.00) and pleural tuberculosis (range 0.26–0.59) were poor and inconsistent; and (4) there were no data to determine the accuracy of the tests in children or in patients with HIV infection, the two groups for which the test would be most useful. At present, commercial antibody detection tests for extrapulmonary tuberculosis have no role in clinical care or case detection. PMID:17675320
Melero, Mar; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Crespo-Picazo, José Luis; Sierra, Eva; García-Párraga, Daniel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Arbelo, Manuel; Álvaro, Teresa; Valls, Mónica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel
A fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for detection of anti-Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibodies in pigs was adapted for use in cetaceans. The FMIA was validated and adjusted using serum samples from 10 vaccinated captive bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus collected between 1 and 13 mo after immunization. The technique was then used to analyze specimens from 15 free-ranging cetaceans stranded alive on the Valencian Mediterranean coast between 2006 and 2014: 11 striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, 3 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus and 1 bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. One of these wild animals was confirmed to have died from E. rhusiopathiae septicemia, but no anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibodies were detected in its serum, pericardial fluid or milk samples. Another free-ranging individual, which lacked any signs or lesions that might be indicative of E. rhusiopathiae infection, showed high fluorescence intensity similar to that measured in captive dolphins at 6-13 mo after vaccination. These results suggest that this animal underwent an E. rhusiopathiae infection several months before stranding. The findings in the present study suggest that FMIA can be useful for detecting anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibodies in cetaceans, and its application to free-ranging animals is particularly interesting because of the great value of these specimens. Furthermore, the FMIA can be multiplexed to allow the determination of up to 100 analytes per sample in a single well, thereby reducing the cost, time and sample volume needed.
Weller, Michael G; Diemer, Marcus; Wersching, Carola; Niessner, Reinhard; Sochor, Heinz
Glufosinate is a widely used herbicide, which is difficult to detect by conventional analytical techniques. For many other herbicides, suitable antibodies have been raised for immunoassay development. Unfortunately, glufosinate is a very small molecule and difficult to immunize with. Thus, a derivatization-assisted immunoassay (DAIA) using the target analyte N-acetyl-glufosinate (NAG) was constructed. The activated hapten was synthesized by a new approach, using a homobifunctional cross-linker suberic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester). The preparation of a suitable conjugate, the immunization, and the characterization of polyclonal antibodies are shown. The determination of the conjugation density (hapten density) of the immunogens was performed by four different methods (high-performance liquid chromatography with a refractive index detector, total reflection X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry), which gave similar results. The limit of detection was 17 mug/L NAG in water for the direct competitive enzyme immunoassay. NAG is also a main metabolite of glufosinate in resistant transgenic plants. The antibodies might be useful for the selective detection of NAG in the presence of the parent compound glufosinate (cross-reactivity 0.13%) and other metabolites.
Rubio, C; Cubillo, M A; Hooghuis, H; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Diaz-Laviada, M; Plateau, E; Zientara, S; Crucière, C; Hamblin, C
The mortality rate in susceptible populations of horses during an epizootic of African horse sickness (AHS) may be in excess of 90%. Rapid and reliable assays are therefore essential for the confirmation of clinical diagnoses and to enable control strategies to be implemented without undue delay. One of the major objectives of a recent European Union funded project was the validation of newly developed diagnostic assays which are rapid, sensitive, highly reproducible and inexpensive, for the detection of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) antigens and antibodies. The Laboratorio de Sanidad y Produccion Animal (LSPA) in Algete, Spain was charged with the responsibility of co-ordinating and supplying samples of viruses and antisera to the participating laboratories in Spain, France and the United Kingdom. The panels comprised 76 antigen samples for assay by indirect sandwich ELISAs and 53 serum samples for antibody detection by either indirect or competitive ELISAs. Results generated by ELISA for each laboratory were analysed in LSPA in terms of their relative sensitivities and specificities. There was a good agreement between the ELISAs used for either antigen or antibody detection. The participating groups agreed that any field sample giving a doubtful result would always be retested by ELISA and an alternative assay.
Qiao, Jinjuan; Li, Yunpeng; Wei, Cuihua; Yang, Hang; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles inside S. aureus cells has enhanced the sensitivity of immunoassays based on the S. aureus nanoparticles. However, the current methods are limited to antigen detection by conjugating IgG antibodies on S. aureus nanoparticles. In this study, a simple way to conjugate antigens to the S. aureus nanobioparticles was developed by utilizing a cell wall binding domain (CBD) from a bacteriophage lysin PlyV12. Based on this novel design, simple agglutination tests of the IgG antibodies of Ebola virus (EBOV) nucleoprotein (NP) and Middle East Respiratory Virus (MERS) NP in rabbit sera were successfully developed by conjugating the S. aureus nanobioparticles with two fusion proteins EBOV NP- CBD and MERS NP-CBD, respectively. The conjugation was done easily by just mixing the fusion proteins with the S. aureus nanoparticles. The detection time was within 20 min without any special equipment or expertise. As far as we know, this is the first time to realize the detection of viral antibodies based on S. aureus nanoparticles.
Wu, Jian-xiang; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Huan; Qian, Ya-juan; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xue-ping
Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) infects maize plants and causes significant losses in corn production worldwide. In this study, purified MCMV particles were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). Four murine MAbs (4B8, 8C11, 6F4, and 9G1) against MCMV were obtained through the hybridoma technology. The triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA), and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) using the MAb 4B8 were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of MCMV in fields. MCMV could be detected in infected leaf crude extracts at dilutions of 1:327 680, 1:64 000, and 1:3 276 800 (w/v, g/ml) by TAS-ELISA, DIBA, and IC-RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and sixty-one maize field samples showing virus-like symptoms and sixty-nine symptomless maize field samples from ten different provinces of China were collected and screened for the presence of MCMV using the established serological methods. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full length CP genes and Chinese MCMV isolates formed one branch with Thailand isolates. The detection results demonstrated that MCMV is one of most prevalent viruses infecting maize in the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. PMID:23825140
Nugaeva, Natalia; Gfeller, Karin Y; Backmann, Natalia; Düggelin, Marcel; Lang, Hans Peter; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Hegner, Martin
We demonstrate a new sensitive biosensor for detection of vital fungal spores of Aspergillus niger. The biosensor is based on silicon microfabricated cantilever arrays operated in dynamic mode. The change in resonance frequency of the sensor is a function of mass binding to the cantilever surface. For specific A. niger spore immobilization on the cantilever, each cantilever was individually coated with anti-Aspergillus niger polyclonal antibodies. We demonstrate the detection of single A. niger spores and their subsequent growth on the functionalized cantilever surface by online measurements of resonance frequency shifts. The new biosensor operating in humid air allows quantitative and qualitative detection of A. niger spores as well as detection of vital, functional spores in situ within approximately 4 h. The detection limit of the sensor is 103 CFU mL-1. Mass sensitivity of the cantilever sensor is approximately 53 pg Hz-1.
Boraker, D K; Stinebring, W R; Kunkel, J R
An indirect enzyme-antibody immunosorbent assay (BrucELISA) is described for the detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in cow's milk. Three series of milk samples were obtained from an adult-vaccinated dairy herd infected with B. abortus. The BrucELISA system was used as a screening test for individual milks diluted 1:200 (BE 200 test), for undiluted bulk milks, and to determine antibody titer (BrucELISA titration assay). The BrucELISA results correlated highly with positive Brucella ring test reactions and culture positivity, eliminated false-positive Brucella ring test reactions, detected antibody in some samples which were Brucella ring test negative, and distinguished between vaccinated and infected animals. BrucELISA titration assay titers of greater than 1:800 were correlated with shedding, or were prognostic for animals which eventually became shedders. Binding of the enzyme-antibody conjugate to bovine immunoglobulin in the absence of rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin occurred with culture-positive or -negative milks showing titers of greater than 1:1,600 (the beta effect); the effect was also of predictive value in identifying eventual shedders. The BrucELISA system is a sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for screening large numbers of individual or bulk milk samples for the presence of antibody to B. abortus. PMID:6793622
Quak, J; Gerretsen, M; De Bree, R; Brakenhof, R; Van Dongen, G; Snow, G
Monoclonal antibodies (mabs) are potentially powerful tools for the detection and treatment of cancer. To date, only a limited number of mabs are available to head and neck cancer. We produced 5 different groups of mabs to head and neck cancer. These mabs were characterized for their reactivity tumour and non-tumour tissues. Furthermore, biochemical elucidation of recognized antigens was provided. In animal studies the effectiveness of mabs for diagnoses and therapy of cancer is clearly demonstrated. The first results of a clinical study for the detection of head and neck cancer with mabs are shown. Finally, the future of mabs in clinical oncology is discussed.
Li, Dan; De, Saurav; Li, Dan; Song, Su; Matta, Bharati; Barnes, Betsy J.
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors. IRF5 was first identified and characterized as a transcriptional regulator of type I interferon expression after virus infection. In addition to its critical role(s) in the regulation and development of host immunity, subsequent studies revealed important roles for IRF5 in autoimmunity, cancer, obesity, pain, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism. Based on these important disease-related findings, a large number of commercial antibodies have become available to study the expression and function of IRF5. Here we validate a number of these antibodies for the detection of IRF5 by immunoblot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry using well-established positive and negative controls. Somewhat surprising, the majority of commercial antibodies tested were unable to specifically recognize human or mouse IRF5. We present data on antibodies that do specifically recognize human or mouse IRF5 in a particular application. These findings reiterate the importance of proper controls and molecular weight standards for the analysis of protein expression. Given that dysregulated IRF5 expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including autoimmune and cancer, results indicate that caution should be used in the evaluation and interpretation of IRF5 expression analysis. PMID:27481535
Charlesworth, J A; Peake, P; Campbell, L V; Rumma, J; Pussell, B A; Howard, N; Elder, G J
Concentrations of lymphocytotoxic antibodies were measured in serum samples from 19 patients recently diagnosed as having type I diabetes and 43 healthy relatives (33 consanguineous and 10 non-consanguineous). The specificity of the reaction was tested at 15 degrees C and 37 degrees C against T lymphocytes and purified helper/inducer and cytotoxic/suppressor subsets. The concentrations of lymphocytotoxic antibodies in each of the three test groups were significantly higher than those in controls (type I patients, p less than 0.005; consanguineous relatives, p less than 0.001; and non-consanguineous relatives, p less than 0.002). The frequency of detection of the antibodies was also greater in each of the study groups (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.01, and p less than 0.05, respectively). Cytotoxicity affected both subsets at 15 degrees C but only cytotoxic/suppressor cells at 37 degrees C. The findings of lymphocytotoxic antibodies in healthy relatives of type I diabetics, irrespective of consanguinity, suggests that an environmental agent such as a virus is at least partially responsible for this lymphocytotoxic effect. Furthermore, the residual cytotoxic/suppressor cell killing at 37 degrees C could explain the defect of suppressor cells observed in these patients. PMID:3080143
Van Stappen, Thomas; Lu, Jiadi; Bloemen, Maarten; Geukens, Nick; Spasic, Dragana; Delport, Filip; Verbiest, Thierry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Gils, Ann
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a pleiotropic cytokine up-regulated in inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. The introduction of anti-TNF drugs such as infliximab has revolutionized the treatment of these diseases. Recently, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of infliximab has been introduced in clinical decision making to increase cost-efficiency. Nowadays, TDM is performed using radio-immunoassays, homogeneous mobility shift assays or ELISA. Unfortunately, these assays do not allow for in situ treatment optimization, because of the required sample transportation to centralized laboratories and the subsequent assay execution time. In this perspective, we evaluated the potential of fiber optic-surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR). To achieve this goal, a panel of 55 monoclonal anti-infliximab antibodies (MA-IFX) was developed and characterized in-house, leading to the identification of nine different clusters. Based on this high diversity, 22 antibody pairs were selected and tested for their reactivity towards IFX, using one MA-IFX as capture and one MA-IFX for detection, in a sandwich type ELISA and FO-SPR. This study showed that the reactivity towards IFX of each antibody pair in ELISA is highly similar to its reactivity on FO-SPR, indicating that antibody pairs are easily transferable between both platforms. Given the fact that FO-SPR shows the potential for miniaturization and fast assay time, it can be considered a highly promising platform for on-site infliximab monitoring.
Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Combes, Benoit; Guiot, Anne Laure; Cliquet, Florence
The effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in wildlife is usually evaluated by the detection of rabies antibodies. However, the assessment of rabies antibodies has several technical difficulties in the field, such as the collection, storage, transport and titration of blood samples, often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of collecting blood on a filter paper (FP) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titration of rabies antibodies in raccoon dogs and red foxes. The FP blood sampling method was found highly specific and repeatable in both species. Overall, results obtained with the FP sampling method were highly concordant with the conventional (venipuncture) sampling methods. Blood eluates from FP samples from foxes and raccoon dogs tested using ELISA showed concordance values of 92% and 95%, respectively, with serum samples tested using the seroneutralisation test and values of 95% and 91%, respectively, when the ELISA was used on both types of sample. The use of FP blood sampling coupled with the titration of rabies antibodies by ELISA provides a reliable alternative to conventional blood sampling and serum testing by seroneutralisation. This simple procedure is particularly attractive and cost-effective for assessing the effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in field conditions.
Gallo, Eugenio; Jarvik, Jonathan W
A novel bi-partite fluorescence platform exploits the high affinity and selectivity of antibody scaffolds to capture and activate small-molecule fluorogens. In this report, we investigated the property of multi-selectivity activation by a single antibody against diverse cyanine family fluorogens. Our fluorescence screen identified three cell-impermeant fluorogens, each with unique emission spectra (blue, green and red) and nanomolar affinities. Most importantly, as a protein fusion tag to G-protein-coupled receptors, the antibody biosensor retained full activity - displaying bright fluorogen signals with minimal background on live cells. Because fluorogen-activating antibodies interact with their target ligands via non-covalent interactions, we were able to perform advanced multi-color detection strategies on live cells, previously difficult or impossible with conventional reporters. We found that by fine-tuning the concentrations of the different color fluorogen molecules in solution, a user may interchange the fluorescence signal (onset versus offset), execute real-time signal exchange via fluorogen competition, measure multi-channel fluorescence via co-labeling, and assess real-time cell surface receptor traffic via pulse-chase experiments. Thus, here we inform of an innovative reporter technology based on tri-color signal that allows user-defined fluorescence tuning in live-cell applications. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Sally C.; Tripuraneni, Vinay; Orban, Tihamer; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Hafler, David A.; Love, J. Christopher
Cell surface determinants, cytokines and antibodies secreted by hematopoietic cells are used to classify their lineage and function. Currently available techniques are unable to elucidate multiple secreted proteins while also assigning phenotypic surface-displayed markers to the individual living cells. Here, a soft lithographic method, microengraving, was adapted for the multiplexed interrogation of populations of individual human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for secreted cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-6), antigen-specific antibodies, and lineage-specific surface-expressed markers. Application of the method to a clinical sample from a recent onset Type 1 diabetic subject with a positive titer of anti-insulin antibodies showed that ~0.58% of circulating CD19+ B cells secreted proinsulin-reactive antibodies of the IgG isotype and 2–3% of circulating cells secreted IL-6. These data demonstrate the utility of microengraving for interrogating multiple phenotypes of single human cells concurrently and for detecting rare populations of cells by their secreted products. PMID:18675591
Effective quantification and in situ identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood are still elusive because of the extreme rarity and heterogeneity of the cells. In our previous studies, we developed a novel platform that captures tumor cells at significantly improved efficiency in vitro using a unique biomimetic combination of two physiological processes: E-selectin-induced cell rolling and poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-mediated strong multivalent binding. Herein, we have engineered a novel multifunctional surface, on the basis of the biomimetic cell capture, through optimized incorporation of multiple antibodies directed to cancer cell-specific surface markers, such as epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA). The surfaces were tested using a series of tumor cells, MDA-PCa-2b, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-361, both in mixture in vitro and after being spiked into human blood. Our multifunctional surface demonstrated highly efficient capture of tumor cells in human blood, achieving up to 82% capture efficiency (∼10-fold enhancement than a surface with the antibodies alone) and up to 90% purity. Furthermore, the multipatterned antibodies allowed differential capturing of the tumor cells. These results support that our multifunctional surface has great potential as an effective platform that accommodates virtually any antibodies, which will likely lead to clinically significant, differential detection of CTCs that are rare and highly heterogeneous. PMID:24892731
Stack, Gary; Tormey, Christopher A
Failure to detect non-ABO blood group alloantibodies places patients at risk for hemolytic reactions. Suboptimal alloantibody detection could result from posttransfusion testing performed too early, too late, or not at all. Testing performed too early may precede antibody induction, while testing performed too late could miss antibodies that have evanesced. Taking these factors into account, our goal was to determine the percentage of alloantibodies detected with real-world testing practices. The alloantibody detection rate in a general hospital setting was determined based on the frequency and timing of antibody testing after red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and rates of antibody induction and evanescence. Intervals to follow up testing after RBC transfusions (n = 561 RBC units in 100 random patients) were determined retrospectively. Best-fit lines and equations for antibody induction and evanescence were computed on previously published data. Nearly half (271/561; 48.3%) of RBC infusions had either no follow-up antibody screen or testing too soon (<30 days) after transfusion to detect alloimmunization. Of the remaining RBC units, 10.3% (58/561) had follow-up testing 30 to 112 days posttransfusion, 28.7% (161/561) were followed up at more than 112 days, and 12.7% (71/561) were tested at both 30 to 112 days and more than 112 days. By inputting these timing data into best-fit line equations for antibody induction and evanescence, we calculated an alloantibody detection rate of 31.6%. Posttransfusion antibody testing was inadequately timed for optimal alloantibody detection. Real-world compatibility testing was predicted to detect less than one-third of non-ABO antibodies, thereby exposing patients to risks of mismatched transfusion. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Yamasaki, Masahiro; Ishida, Mikiko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sasaki, Noboru; Murakami, Masahiro; Kumara, Wickramasekara Rajapakshage Bandula; Tamura, Yu; Lim, Sue Yee; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi
Antibodies that recognized either Babesia gibsoni or canine red blood cell (RBC) 70-kilodalton (kDa) protein were detected in serum from acutely and chronically B. gibsoni-infected. In those sera, antibodies that reacted with recombinant B. gibsoni and canine heat shock protein 70 (rBgHsp70 and rcHsp70) were detected; therefore, B. gibsoni and canine RBC 70-kDa proteins seemed to be BgHsp70 and cHsp70, respectively. In infected dogs, the amounts of these antibodies increased after infection. Interestingly, polyclonal antibody raised against rBgHsp70 in two rabbits reacted not only with rBgHsp70 but also with rcHsp70 and native cHsp70 from canine RBCs. Because BgHsp70 showed high homology with cHsp70 (70.8%), anti-rBgHsp70 antibody might cross-react with cHsp70. Additionally, the localizations of both BgHsp70 and cHsp70 were observed by indirect fluorescence assay. As a result, cHsp70 was not found on the membrane surface of erythrocytes, suggesting that erythrocytes would not be targets of anti-cHsp70 antibody. Meanwhile, only exoerythrocytic parasites were stained by anti-rBgHsp70 antibody. This result showed that BgHsp70 would be expressed on the surface of parasites during the exoerythrocytic stage. These results indicated that BgHsp70 was a highly immunogenic protein in canine B. gibsoni infection, and that exoerythrocytic parasites might be targets of anti-BgHsp70 antibody. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils
Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were to determine: (a) the correlation between repeated BTM reactions; and (b) the association between the BTM antibody ELISA-level and the within-herd prevalence of antibody-positive cows. Eight BTM samples per herd and approximately four milk samples per lactating cow per herd were collected from each of 108 Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were then combined with the ELISA reading on the BTM test-date closest to the cow-level test-date. A mixed-effect analysis of covariance with autoregressive type 1 correlation structure was carried out using the log-transformed BTM-ELISA results as outcome. This model was used to assess the correlation between repeated tests with and without correction for within-herd antibody prevalence. The repeated BTM-recordings were highly correlated with a correlation of 0.80 between samples collected 1.5 months apart. The within-herd antibody prevalence significantly influenced this estimate (p<0.0001), which dropped to 0.60 when corrected for the within-herd antibody prevalence. Although the test-results were relatively consistent and correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the magnitude of the test-values makes it difficult to use the BTM-ELISA for surveillance of MAP infections in practice.
So we developed a gold nanowire biosensor surface with electrochemical detection on which the PSA antibody is immobilized, We proved the...cancer detection through essential investigation into emerging cutting-edge technologies. In the future, the utilization of the gold nanowire ...biomarker is still PSA. The m ost optimal and cost-effective nanotechnology was to conjugate the PSA antibody onto gold nanowire encased microfluidic
Fukuma, Aiko; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Tani, Hideki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Kurosu, Takeshi; Egawa, Kazutaka; Suda, Yuto; Singh, Harpal; Nomachi, Taro; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Ando, Katsuyuki; Kida, Kouji; Kan, Miki; Kato, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kitamoto, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki
Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne infectious disease with a high case fatality rate, and is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS is endemic to China, South Korea, and Japan. The viral RNA level in sera of patients with SFTS is known to be strongly associated with outcomes. Virological SFTS diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity are required in disease endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated novel monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein and developed a sandwich antigen (Ag)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of N protein of SFTSV using MAb and polyclonal antibody as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The Ag-capture system was capable of detecting at least 350–1220 TCID50/100 μl/well from the culture supernatants of various SFTSV strains. The efficacy of the Ag-capture ELISA in SFTS diagnosis was evaluated using serum samples collected from patients suspected of having SFTS in Japan. All 24 serum samples (100%) containing high copy numbers of viral RNA (>105 copies/ml) showed a positive reaction in the Ag-capture ELISA, whereas 12 out of 15 serum samples (80%) containing low copy numbers of viral RNA (<105 copies/ml) showed a negative reaction in the Ag-capture ELISA. Among these Ag-capture ELISA-negative 12 samples, 9 (75%) were positive for IgG antibodies against SFTSV. Conclusions The newly developed Ag-capture ELISA is useful for SFTS diagnosis in acute phase patients with high levels of viremia. PMID:27045364
Schmerberg, Claire M.; Li, Lingjun
Microdialysis (MD) is a useful sampling tool for many applications due to its ability to permit sampling from an animal concurrent with normal activity. MD is of particular importance in the field of neuroscience, in which it is used to sample neurotransmitters (NTs) while the animal is behaving in order to correlate dynamic changes in NTs with behavior. One important class of signaling molecules, the neuropeptides (NPs), however, presented significant challenges when studied with MD, due to the low relative recovery (RR) of NPs by this technique. Affinity-enhanced microdialysis (AE-MD) has previously been used to improve recovery of NPs and similar molecules. For AE-MD, an affinity agent (AA), such as an antibody-coated particle or free antibody, is added to the liquid perfusing the MD probe. This AA provides an additional mass transport driving force for analyte to pass through the dialysis membrane, and thus increases the RR. In this work, a variety of AAs have been investigated for AE-MD of NPs in vitro and in vivo, including particles with C18 surface functionality and antibody-coated particles. Antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (AbMnP) provided the best RR enhancement in vitro, with statistically significant (p<0.05) enhancements for 4 out of 6 NP standards tested, and RR increases up to 41-fold. These particles were then used for in vivo MD in the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, during a feeding study, with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. 31 NPs were detected in a 30 min collection sample, compared to 17 when no AA was used. The use of AbMnP also increased the temporal resolution from 4–18 hrs in previous studies to just 30 min in this study. The levels of NPs detected were also sufficient for reliable quantitation with the MS system in use, permitting quantitative analysis of the concentration changes for 7 identified NPs on a 30 min time course during feeding. PMID:23249250
Caro-Oleas, José Luis; González-Escribano, María Francisca; González-Roncero, Francisco Manuel; Acevedo-Calado, María José; Cabello-Chaves, Virginia; Gentil-Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Núñez-Roldán, Antonio
Clinical relevance of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) detected by a single antigen Luminex virtual crossmatch in pre-transplant serum samples from patients with a negative cytotoxicity-dependent complement crossmatch is controversial. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a pre-transplant positive virtual crossmatch in the outcome of kidney transplantation. A total of 892 patients who received a graft from deceased donors after a negative cytotoxicity crossmatch were included. Presence of anti-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies was investigated using a Luminex screening assay and anti-HLA specificities were assigned performing a Luminex single antigen assay. Graft survival was significantly worse among patients with anti-HLA DSA compared to both patients with anti-HLA with no DSA (P = 0.001) and patients without HLA antibodies (P < 0.001) using a log-rank test. No graft survival differences between anti-HLA with no DSA and no HLA antibodies patient groups were observed (P = 0.595). Influence of both anti-Class I and anti-Class II DSA was detected (P < 0.0001 in both cases). When the fluorescence values were stratified in four groups, no significant differences in graft survival were observed among the groups with fluorescence levels >1500 (global P > 0.05). The presence of preformed HLA DSA in transplanted patients with a negative cytotoxicity crossmatch is associated with a lower allograft survival. The detection of anti-HLA with no DSA has no influence in the graft outcome. Finally, there were no demonstrable effects of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values >1500 on graft survival.
Chu, Xia; Xiang, Zhi-Feng; Fu, Xin; Wang, Shi-Ping; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin
A silver-enhanced colloidal gold metalloimmunoassay has been proposed for the determination of Schistosoma japonicum antibody (SjAb) in rabbit serum. The adult worm antigen of S. japonicum (SjAg) was adsorbed passively on the walls of a polystyrene microwell and then reacted with the desired SjAb. The colloidal gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody was adsorbed on the walls of the polystyrene microwells through the reaction with SjAb, followed by the silver enhancement process, dissolution of silver metal atoms in an acidic solution, and determination of dissolved silver ions by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a glassy-carbon electrode. Assay conditions were optimized, including the reaction time of SjAg with SjAb, the interaction of SjAb with the colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibody, the dilution ratio of the colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibody and the silver enhancement time. The integration of the anodic stripping peak current depended linearly on the SjAb logarithmic concentration over the range of 6.4 ng/ml to 100 microg/ml. A detection limit as low as 3.0 ng/ml SjAb was achieved, which was better than the piezoelectric body acoustic wave sensor (detection limit of 7.2 microg/ml) and the renewable amperometric immunosensor (detection limit of 0.36 microg/ml). Rabbit serum samples with various degrees of infection were analyzed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method meets the requirements of clinical analysis.
Trillet, V.; Revel, D.; Combaret, V.; Favrot, M.; Loire, R.; Tabib, A.; Pages, J.; Jacquemet, P.; Bonmartin, A.; Mornex, J. F.
The detection of bone marrow involvement might be of prognostic value and may influence therapeutic decisions in small cell lung cancer. By unilateral bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, evidence of bone marrow metastases is seen in 15-30% of patients with this disease. Since magnetic resonance imaging of the lower body and immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies have recently been shown to be very sensitive detection methods, we investigated the value of these two techniques in detecting bone marrow involvement in 35 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer. The results were compared to those obtained with conventional cytohistological analysis. In all cases when cytology and/or bone marrow biopsy were positive, monoclonal antibodies immunostaining and magnetic resonance imaging also detected malignant cells. Furthermore, evidence of bone marrow involvement was shown with magnetic resonance imaging and/or immunostaining in 10 of 26 cases (38%) where routine procedures were unable to detect malignant cells. In one of these 26 patients, magnetic resonance imaging and immunostaining provided the only evidence of metastatic disease. These data suggest that the rate of bone marrow metastases is underestimated by routine procedures. Further investigation is needed to determine whether or not these new non-invasive methods have prognostic value or affect therapeutic choices in small cell lung carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2553088
Tan, Liming; Zhang, Yuhong; Jiang, Yongqing; Li, Hua; Chen, Juanjuan; Ming, Feng; Wang, Waimei; Yu, Jianlin; Zeng, Tingting; Tian, Yongjian; Wu, Yang
The project is aimed to detect anti-mitotic spindle apparatus antibody (MSA) and anti-centromere antibody (ACA) and explore the clinical value for the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), providing clinical evidence for molecular studies of SCLC. 93 SCLC patients, 208 patients with other cancers and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. MSA antibodies were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MSA, ACA and anti nuclear antibodies (ANA) were examined by indirect immuno-fluorescence (IIF). And the results were retrospectively analyzed. ① the positivity for MSA and ACA by IIF assay was respectively 36.56% and 30.11% in SCLC group, higher than in other tumor groups (P<0.01), ② in correlative analysis, the RR (Relative Ratio) value between MSA and SCLC was as high as 12.93, 12.74, and the RR value of ACA and ANA with SCLC was respectively 4.31 and 3.48. ③ the area under ROC (Receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) of MSA detection for SCLC was 0.778, with medium diagnostic value. MSA and ACA might serve as a new marker for SCLC because of its high detection rate. These two markers may participate in the occurrence and development of SCLC, resulting from the highly strong risk. So, the study have some application value for early detection, clinical diagnosis and potential treatments of SCLC.
Tan, Liming; Zhang, Yuhong; Jiang, Yongqing; Li, Hua; Chen, Juanjuan; Ming, Feng; Wang, Waimei; Yu, Jianlin; Zeng, Tingting; Tian, Yongjian; Wu, Yang
Purpose: The project is aimed to detect anti-mitotic spindle apparatus antibody (MSA) and anti-centromere antibody (ACA) and explore the clinical value for the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), providing clinical evidence for molecular studies of SCLC. Methods: 93 SCLC patients, 208 patients with other cancers and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. MSA antibodies were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MSA, ACA and anti nuclear antibodies (ANA) were examined by indirect immuno-fluorescence (IIF). And the results were retrospectively analyzed. Results: ① the positivity for MSA and ACA by IIF assay was respectively 36.56% and 30.11% in SCLC group, higher than in other tumor groups (P<0.01), ② in correlative analysis, the RR (Relative Ratio) value between MSA and SCLC was as high as 12.93, 12.74, and the RR value of ACA and ANA with SCLC was respectively 4.31 and 3.48. ③ the area under ROC (Receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) of MSA detection for SCLC was 0.778, with medium diagnostic value. Conclusion: MSA and ACA might serve as a new marker for SCLC because of its high detection rate. These two markers may participate in the occurrence and development of SCLC, resulting from the highly strong risk. So, the study have some application value for early detection, clinical diagnosis and potential treatments of SCLC. PMID:28337388
Zhu, M C; Liu, C G; Wang, D X; Zhan, Z
We detected autoantibodies against melanocytes in serum samples obtained from 50 patients, including 4 with HBV, with vitiligo and identified the associated membrane antigens. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and anti-tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) antibody levels were analyzed. The associated antigens in normal human melanocyte were identified by immunofluorescence. Autoantibodies against melanocyte membrane and cytoplasmic proteins were detected by western blot. Membrane antigens with higher frequencies were identified by protein mass spectrometry. The HSP70 and anti-TRP-1 antibody levels (N = 70; 10 with HBV) were detected by ELISA. The specific antigens were detected in melanocyte cytoplasm and membrane (40/50; 80% incidence; western blot). The autoantibodies reacted with several membrane antigens with approximate molecular weights (Mr) of 86,000, 75,000, 60,000, 52,000, and 44,000 (strip positive rates: 36, 58, 22, 2, and 2%, respectively). Thirty percent of the patients showed the presence of cytoplasmic antigens (Mr: 110,000, 90,000, 75,000, 50,000, and 400,000; strip positive rates: 12, 4, 12, 10, and 2%, respectively). Fifteen and 5% of the healthy subjects showed positive expression of membrane and cytoplasmic antigens, respectively. Protein mass spectrometry predicted membrane proteins with Mr of 86,000 and 75,000 and 60,000 to be Lamin A /C and Vimentin X1, respective. High titers of anti-TRP-1 antibody were detected and showed positive correlation with HSP70 (r = 0. 927, P < 0. 01). This study identified a novel membrane antigen associated with vitiligo, which might assist future investigations into autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo and formation of autoantibodies. HBV infection was correlated to vitiligo.
Schur, P. H.; De Angelis, Diane; Jackson, Jean M.
A counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) technique has been developed for the rapid, simple, specific detection of nucleic acids as antigens, or for the detection of precipitating antibodies to nucleic acids or nuclear antigens. The majority of precipitins could be detected within 1 hr. As little as 0·0015 μg of antigen per ml (e.g. poly A: poly U) could be detected. Specificity of rabbit antisera to nucleic acids was demonstrated by selective reactions using a panel of polynucleotides. 1091 patient sera were examined for precipitins to DNA, single-stranded DNA, nucleoprotein and calf thymus nucleoprotein. Precipitins to DNA were found in 42% of systemic lupus erythematosus sera, 9% of rheumatoid arthritis sera and 4% of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis sera. Results with the CIEP method showed equal sensitivity as results obtained by complement fixation or binding assays, but were more sensitive than double diffusion in agar (Ouchterlony). PMID:4549570
Wu, Xue-ling; Zhang, Chun-tao; Zhu, Xiao-ke; Wang, You-chun
The serum samples and corresponding cervical swabs were collected from 50 women with genital warts from Tianjin city, China. The neutralizing antibodies against HPV-16, -18, -58, -45, -6 and -11 in serum samples were tested by using pseudovirus-based neutralization assays and HPV DNAs in cervical swabs were also tested by using a typing kit that can detect 21 types of HPV. The results revealed that 36% (18/50) of sera were positive for type-specific neutralizing antibodies with a titer range of 160-2560, of which 22%(11/50), 12%(6/50), 10%(5/50), 4%(2/50), 4%(2/50) and 2%(1/50) were against HPVs -6, -16, -18, -58, -45 and -11, respectively. Additionally, 60% (30/50) of samples were HPV DNA-positive, in which the most common types detected were HPV-68(18%), HPV-16(14%), HPV-58(12%), HPV-33(8%) and HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-18 and HPV-52 (6% each). The concordance between HPV DNA and corresponding neutralizing antibodies was 56% (28/50) with a significant difference (P<0.05). The full-length sequences of five HPV types (HPV -42, -52, -53, -58 and -68) were determined and exhibited 98%-100% identities with their reported genomes. The present data may have utility for investigating the natural history of HPV infection and promote the development of HPV vaccines.
Bhatnagar, Deepika; Kaur, Inderpreet; Kumar, Ashok
An ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I antibody conjugated with graphene quantum dots (GQD) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) nanohybrid modified gold electrode based sensor was developed for the rapid detection of heart attack (myocardial infarction) in human. Screen printed gold (Au) electrode was decorated with 4-aminothiophenol for amine functionalization of the Au surface. These amino groups were further coupled with carboxyl functionalities of GQD with EDC-NHS reaction. In order to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor, PAMAM dendrimer was successively embedded on GQD through carbodiimide coupling to provide ultra-high surface area for antibody immobilization. The activated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) monoclonal antibody was immobilized on PAMAM to form nanoprobe for sensing specific heart attack marker cTnI. Various concentrations of cardiac marker, cTnI were electrochemically measured using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in human blood serum. The modifications on sensor surface were characterized by FTIR and AFM techniques. The sensor is highly specific to cTnI and showed negligible response to non-specific antigens. The sensitivity of the sensor was 109.23μAcm(-2)μg(-1) and lower limit of detection of cTnI was found 20fgmL(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Domm, William; Brewer, Matthew; Baker, Steven F; Feng, Changyong; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Treanor, John; Dewhurst, Stephen
Bacteriophage lambda capsids provide a flexible molecular scaffold that can be engineered to display a wide range of exogenous proteins, including full-length viral glycoproteins produced in eukaryotic cells. One application for such particles lies in the detection of virus-specific antibodies, since they may obviate the need to work with infectious stocks of highly pathogenic or emerging viruses that can pose significant biosafety and biocontainment challenges. Bacteriophage lambda capsids were produced that displayed an insect-cell derived, recombinant H5 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) on their surface. The particles agglutinated red blood cells efficiently, in a manner that could be blocked using H5 HA-specific monoclonal antibodies. The particles were then used to develop a modified hemagglutinination-inhibition (HAI) assay, which successfully identified human sera with H5 HA-specific HAI activity. These results demonstrate the utility of HA-displaying bacteriophage capsids for the detection of influenza virus-specific HAI antibodies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a form of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated a type of sodium channel activator toxin called ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus through the food chain. CFP affects more than 50000 people each year. The extremely low level of CTXs in tainted fish has hampered the development of antibodies for the detection of these toxins. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against major congeners of CTX3C, 51-hydroxyCTX3C, CTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B were prepared by immunization of mice with protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxins. We found that haptenic groups possessing a surface area larger than 400 angstroms2 were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTXs. Direct sandwich ELISA utilizing two different monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to one of the two wings of a CTX were established to detect CTXs. No cross-reactivity was observed against the other marine toxins tested, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, and maitotoxin.
Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhao, Jinan; Hu, Shoubin; Zhao, Feifei; Chen, Fuyong; Clavijo, Alfonso; Zhou, En-Min; Xiao, Yihong
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) that could detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) was developed. This assay employs a truncated C-terminal 268-amino acid recombinant ORF2 protein from an avian HEV genotype 3 strain isolated in China (CaHEV) as the coating antigen. The antigen concentration and serum dilution were optimized using a checkerboard titration. A cut-off value of 0.368 at OD(450nm) was determined by testing 120 positive and 200 negative chicken sera for avian HEV antibodies using the two-graph receiver operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis. This iELISA has a sensitivity of 96.1% and a specificity of 95.8%. The overall agreement between the iELISA and a corresponding Western blot was 97%. The iELISA was used to evaluate the seroprevalence of avian HEV in poultry farms in the Shandong province. The avian HEV seropositive rate of 35.9% was determined by testing 1871 serum samples that were collected from 10 chicken flocks ranged from 10 to 60 weeks of age. The iELISA that was developed in this study can be used for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies against avian HEV.
Caruso, Paola; Gorris, María Teresa; Cambra, Mariano; Palomo, José Luis; Collar, Jesús; López, María M.
Sensitive and specific routine detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in symptomless potato tubers was achieved by efficient enrichment followed by a reliable double-antibody sandwich indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the specific monoclonal antibody 8B-IVIA. This monoclonal antibody reacted with 168 typical R. solanacearum strains and did not recognize 174 other pathogenic or unidentified bacteria isolated from potato. The optimized protocol included an initial enrichment step consisting of shaking the samples in modified Wilbrink broth for 72 h at 29°C. This step enabled specific detection by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of 1 to 10 CFU of R. solanacearum per ml of initial potato extract. Analysis of 233 commercial potato lots by this method provided results that coincided with the results of conventional methods. PMID:12089053
Chen, Yiyang; Zhao, Qin; Liu, Baoyuan; Wang, Lizhen; Sun, Yani; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects both humans and animals, with an overall human mortality rate generally less than 1%, but as high as 20% among pregnant women. HEV strains fall into 4 major genotypes. Zoonotic genotypes 3 and 4 associate with sporadic human and animal HEV cases in many industrialized countries. To date, collective evidence implicates pigs as the main HEV reservoir, justifying the importance of monitoring HEV infection rates in pig herds to prevent human illness. Due to the lack of a robust in vitro cell culture system for viral propagation, no "gold standard" assay has yet been developed to detect HEV infection in domestic pigs. 1E4, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the C-terminal 268 amino acids of HEV genotype 4 ORF2 capsid protein (sORF2-C), was generated and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for use in a blocking ELISA (bELISA). Optimal sORF2-C coating antigen concentration (8 μg/ml), HRP-1E4 dilution (1:1000), and test pig serum dilution (1:20) were determined using a checkerboard titration test. A cut-off value of 16.9% was chosen to differentiate between positive vs. negative sera after mean percent inhibition (PI) testing of 230 negative pig sera. Compared with the indirect ELISA (iELISA), western blot, and a commercial ELISA kit for detecting anti-HEV antibodies in human sera, the bELISA showed no statistical differences and statistically high coincidence of 93.23%, 92%, and 95% with the other tests, respectively. A blocking ELISA (bELISA) for detecting anti-HEV antibodies in pig serum samples was developed with high sensitivity and high specificity comparable to that of the indirect ELISA. The bELISA results exhibited high agreement with iELISA, western blot, and a commercial ELISA kit designed to detect human anti-HEV antibodies. Therefore, bELISA should serve as an ideal method for large-scale serological investigation of anti-HEV antibodies in domestic pigs.
Caballero, E; Drobnic, M; Perez, M; Manresa, J; Ferrer, A; Orriols, R
BACKGROUND—Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent cause of infection in patients with bronchiectasis. Differentiation between non-infected patients and those with different degrees of P aeruginosa infection could influence the management and prognosis of these patients. The diagnostic usefulness of serum IgG antibodies against P aeruginosa outer membrane proteins was determined in patients with bronchiectasis without cystic fibrosis. METHODS—Fifty six patients were classified according to sputum culture into three groups: group A (n=18) with no P aeruginosa in any sample; group B (n=18) with P aeruginosa alternating with other microorganisms; and group C (n=20) with P aeruginosa in all sputum samples. Each patient had at least three sputum cultures in the 6 months prior to serum collection. Detection of antibodies was performed by Western blot and their presence against 20 protein bands (10-121 kd) was assessed. RESULTS—Antibodies to more than four bands in total or to five individual bands (36, 26, 22, 20 or 18 kd) differentiated group B from group A, while antibodies to a total of more than eight bands or to 10 individual bands (104, 69, 63, 56, 50, 44, 30, 25, 22,13 kd) differentiated group C from group B. When discordant results between the total number of bands and the frequency of P aeruginosa isolation were obtained, the follow up of patients suggested that the former, in most cases, predicted chronic P aeruginosa colonisation. CONCLUSION—In patients with bronchiectasis the degree of P aeruginosa infection can be determined by the number and type of outer membrane protein bands indicating which serum antibodies are present. PMID:11514685
Mattera, Lucia; Bhuckory, Shashi; Wegner, K David; Qiu, Xue; Agnese, Fabio; Lincheneau, Christophe; Senden, Tim; Djurado, David; Charbonnière, Loïc J; Hildebrandt, Niko; Reiss, Peter
A novel two-step approach for quantum dot (QD) functionalization and bioconjugation is presented, which yields ultra-compact, stable, and highly luminescent antibody-QD conjugates suitable for use in FRET immunoassays. Hydrophobic InPZnS/ZnSe/ZnS (emission wavelength: 530 nm), CdSe/ZnS (605 nm), and CdSeTe/ZnS (705 nm) QDs were surface functionalized with zwitterionic penicillamine, enabling aqueous phase transfer under conservation of the photoluminescence properties. Post-functionalization with a heterobifunctional crosslinker, containing a lipoic acid group and a maleimide function, enabled the subsequent coupling to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. This was demonstrated by QD conjugation with fragmented antibodies (F(ab)). The obtained F(ab)-QD conjugates range among the smallest antibody-functionalized nanoprobes ever reported, with a hydrodynamic diameter <13 nm, PL quantum yield up to 66% at 705 nm, and colloidal stability of several months in various buffers. They were applied as FRET acceptors in homogeneous, time-gated immunoassays using Tb-antibodies as FRET donors, both coupled by an immunological sandwich complex between the two antibodies and a PSA (prostate specific antigen) biomarker. The advantages of the compact surface coating for FRET could be demonstrated by an 6.2 and 2.5 fold improvement of the limit of detection (LOD) for PSA compared to commercially available hydrophilic QDs emitting at 605 and 705 nm, respectively. While the commercial QDs contain identical inorganic cores responsible for their fluorescence, they are coated with a comparably thick amphiphilic polymer layer leading to much larger hydrodynamic diameters (>26 nm without biomolecules). The LODs of 0.8 and 3.7 ng mL(-1) obtained in 50 μL serum samples are below the clinical cut-off level of PSA (4 ng mL(-1)) and demonstrate their direct applicability in clinical diagnostics.
Haab, Brian B; Dunham, Maitreya J; Brown, Patrick O
Background: We have developed and tested a method for printing protein microarrays and using these microarrays in a comparative fluorescence assay to measure the abundance of many specific proteins in complex solutions. A robotic device was used to print hundreds of specific antibody or antigen solutions in an array on the surface of derivatized microscope slides. Two complex protein samples, one serving as a standard for comparative quantitation, the other representing an experimental sample in which the protein quantities were to be measured, were labeled by covalent attachment of spectrally resolvable fluorescent dyes. Results: Specific antibody-antigen interactions localized specific components of the complex mixtures to defined cognate spots in the array, where the relative intensity of the fluorescent signal representing the experimental sample and the reference standard provided a measure of each protein's abundance in the experimental sample. To test the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of this assay, we analyzed the performance of 115 antibody/antigen pairs. 50% of the arrayed antigens and 20% of the arrayed antibodies provided specific and accurate measurements of their cognate ligands at or below concentrations of 0.34 μg/ml and 1.6 μg/ml, respectively. Some of the antibody/antigen pairs allowed detection of the cognate ligands at absolute concentrations below 1 ng/ml, and partial concentrations of 1 part in 106, sensitivities sufficient for measurement of many clinically important proteins in patient blood samples. Conclusions: These results suggest that protein microarrays can provide a practical means to characterize patterns of variation in hundreds of thousands of different proteins in clinical or research applications. PMID:11182887
Gong, Haibiao; Holcomb, Ilona; Ooi, Aik; Wang, Xiaohui; Majonis, Daniel; Unger, Marc A; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh
The diversity of nucleic acid sequences enables genomics studies in a highly multiplexed format. Since multiplex protein detection is still a challenge, it would be useful to use genomics tools for this purpose. This can be accomplished by conjugating specific oligonucleotides to antibodies. Upon binding of the oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies to their targets, the protein levels can be converted to oligonucleotide levels. In this report we describe a simple method for preparing oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies and discuss this method's application in oligonucleotide extension reaction (OER) for multiplex protein detection. Conjugation is based on strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (the Cu-free click reaction), in which the antibody is activated with a dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) moiety and subsequently linked covalently with an azide-modified oligonucleotide. In the functional test, the reaction conditions and purification processes were optimized to achieve maximum yield and best performance. The OER assay employs a pair of antibody binders (two antibodies, each conjugated with its own oligonucleotide) developed for each protein target. The two oligonucleotides contain unique six-base complementary regions at their 3' prime ends to allow annealing and extension by DNA synthesis enzymes to form a DNA template. Following preamplification, the DNA template is detected by qPCR. Distinct oligonucleotide sequences are assigned to different antibody binders to enable multiplex protein detection. When tested using recombinant proteins, some antibody binders, such as those specific to CSTB, MET, EpCAM, and CASP3, had dynamic ranges of 5-6 logs. The antibody binders were also used in a multiplexed format in OER assays, and the binders successfully detected their protein targets in cell lysates, and in single cells in combination with the C1 system. This click reaction-based antibody conjugation procedure is cost-effective, needs minimal hands-on time, and
Malheiro, Jorge; Tafulo, Sandra; Dias, Leonídio; Martins, La Salete; Fonseca, Isabel; Beirão, Idalina; Castro-Henriques, António; Cabrita, António
The detrimental impact of preformed anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSA) is well defined, contrarily to non-donor-specific antibodies (NDSA). We sought to evaluate their clinical impact in a cohort of 724 kidney graft recipients in whom anti-HLA antibodies were thoroughly screened and identified in pre-transplant sera by solid-phase assays. NDSA or DSA were detected in 100 (13.8%) and 47 (6.5%) recipients respectively, while 577 (79.7%) were non-allosensitized (NaS). Incidence of antibody-mediated rejection at 1-year was 0.7%, 4.0% and 25.5% in NaS, NDSA and DSA patients, respectively (NaS vs. NDSA P=0.004; NaS vs. DSA P<0.001; NDSA vs. DSA P<0.001). Graft survival was lowest in DSA (78.7%), followed by NDSA (88.0%) and NaS (93.8%) recipients (NaS vs. NDSA P=0.015; NaS vs. DSA P<0.001; NDSA vs. DSA P=0.378). Multivariable competing risk analysis confirmed both NDSA (sHR=2.19; P=0.025) and DSA (sHR=2.87; P=0.012) as significant predictors of graft failure. The negative effect of NDSA and DSA on graft survival was significant in patients receiving no induction (P=0.019) or an anti-IL-2 receptor antibody (P<0.001), but not in those receiving anti-thymocyte globulin (P=0.852). The recognition of the immunological risk associated with preformed DSA but also NDSA have important implications in patients' risk stratification, and may impact clinical decisions at transplant. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA), direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome. PMID:21569615
Analysis of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and antibody detected with various kinds of tests in Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level and to gain insights toward better antibody testing.
Matsumoto, Chieko; Sagara, Yasuko; Sobata, Rieko; Inoue, Yukiko; Morita, Maiko; Uchida, Shigeharu; Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki; Satake, Masahiro; Tadokoro, Kenji
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) occurs in approximately 5% of individuals infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). A high proviral load (PVL; more than four copies per 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or 1.6 copies per 100 blood leukocytes) and being male are risk factors for ATL development. Whether anti-HTLV-1 antibody level is related to such risk is unknown. Here, PVL and antibody levels were examined using real-time PCR and other tests in 600 HTLV-1 positive screened Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level in asymptomatic carriers and to gain insights toward better antibody testing for HTLV-1 infection. The 430 donors in whom proviral DNA was detected were considered as true positives for HTLV-1 infection. Among donors aged 40 years or older, more males than females had a PVL corresponding to more than 1.6% infected leukocytes, and an antibody titer below the median (P = 0.0018). In antibody tests using an HTLV-1 positive cell line or Env antigens there was a large discrepancy in antibody titer among 13 provirus-positive samples, probably suggesting that antibody-based screening tests should incorporate multiple HTLV-1 antigens, such as Gag and Env antigens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomason, Berenice M.; Dodd, David J.
No advantage was shown in preenriching raw meat samples for detecting salmonellae by fluorescent antibodies or culture. Trypticase soy-tryptose (Edwards and Ewing, 1972) was equal to or better than selenite-cystine as a postenrichment broth. PMID:776088
Deo, Sudha S; Shetty, Rashmi R; Mistry, Kejal J; Chogle, Arun R
Aim: Study was undertaken to analyze the frequency of anti-viral citrullinated peptide (anti-VCP) antibodies in sera from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). Materials and Methods: Viral citrullinated peptide (VCP) and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) peptide were commercially prepared and antibodies to these were determined in 25 patients of ERA, 40 disease control patients constituting 25 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 7 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 2 scleroderma, 1 spondyloarthritis (SpA), 1 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), 1 osteoarthritis (OA), 1 psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 1 undifferentiated arthritis (UA), and 1 gout and 25 healthy controls (HCs) were taken for comparison. In-house ELISA was established for both the antibodies while cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody was detected by commercial ELISA kit. Results: Significant increase in VCP antibody by ERA and disease controls than healthy normal was observed. VCP IgM antibody was significantly increased in RA patients than HC. The presence of VCP antibody signifies a good marker for ERA. We observed significant difference in the VCP IgG and IgM antibody when compared to EBNA-1. In-house ELISA established for EBNA-1 and VCP antibodies showed low sensitivity but 96% specificity. Conclusions: We observed that sera from early RA patients reacted to the deiminated protein encoded by Epstain Barr Virus (EBV). Thus a possible role of virus in inducing an anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) response reveals viral etiology in this disease. PMID:21346905
Vásquez, Gersson; Rey, Alba; Rivera, Camilo; Iregui, Carlos; Orozco, Jahir
Pathogenic bacteria are responsible for several diseases in humans and in a variety of hosts. Detection of pathogenic bacteria is imperative to avoid and/or fight their potential harmful effects. This work reports on the first amperometric biosensor for the rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae). The biosensor relies on a single biotinylated antibody that immobilizes the bacteria on a screen-printed carbon electrode while is further linked to a streptavidin-conjugated HRP reporter. The biotinylated antibody provides selectivity to the biosensor whereas serves as an anchoring point to the reporter for further amplification of the electrochemical signal. The resultant immunosensor is simple, responds rapidly, and allows for the selective and highly sensitive quantification of S. agalactiae cells in a concentration range of 10(1)-10(7)CFUml(-1), with a detection limit of 10CFUml(-1). The approach not only enables a rapid detection and quantification of S. agalactiae in environmental samples but also opens up new opportunities for the simple fabrication of electrochemical immunosensors for different target pathogens.
Michels, David A; Tu, Andrea W; McElroy, Will; Voehringer, David; Salas-Solano, Oscar
Characterization of charge heterogeneity of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) requires high throughput analytical methods to support clone selection and formulation screens. We applied the NanoPro technology to rapidly measure relative charge distribution of mAbs in early stage process development. The NanoPro is a multiplexed capillary-based isoelectric immunoassay with whole-column imaging detection. This assay offers specificity, speed and sensitivity advantages over conventional capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) platforms. After CIEF, charge variants are photochemically immobilized to the wall of a short coated capillary. Once immobilized, mAbs are probed using a secondary anti-IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. After flushing away excess reagents, secondary antibodies bound to their targets are then detected by chemiluminescence upon incubation with peroxidase reactive substrates. Charge heterogeneity as determined by chemiluminescence was similar to that measured by conventional CIEF technology with absorbance detection for purified mAbs and contaminated mAbs derived directly from host cellular extract. Upon method optimization, the automated CIEF immunoassay was applied to several mAbs of varying isoelectric points, demonstrating the suitability of NanoPro as a rugged high-throughput product characterization tool. Furthermore, qualification of detection sensitivity, precision, and dynamic range are reported with discussion of its advantages as an alternative approach to rapidly characterize charge variants during process development of mAbs.
Hamblin, C.; Anderson, E. C.; Mellor, P. S.; Graham, S. D.; Mertens, P. P.; Burroughs, J. N.
Four ponies were each inoculated with a different serotype of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) which had been passaged through cell culture in order to achieve attenuation. Three of the ponies died suddenly after showing mild clinical signs, the fourth pony remained clinically normal and was killed at day 38. Infectious AHSV was isolated from blood samples collected at intervals from all four ponies. Positive antigen ELISA reactions were only observed with blood samples from two of the ponies on the two days preceding death. Specific AHSV antibodies were detected by ELISA in serum samples from the other two ponies although one eventually died. African horse sickness viral antigens were detected by ELISA in post-mortem tissue samples collected from all four ponies. No infectious virus could be detected in tissue samples taken post-mortem from the pony which survived African horse sickness (AHS) infection. In the event of a suspected outbreak of AHS it is recommended that sera and heparinized blood should be tested for specific antibodies and AHSV antigen respectively. When available, post-mortem tissues, including spleen, heart, lung and liver, should also be tested for AHSV antigen. Although the ELISA used for the detection of AHSV antigen is highly sensitive and specific, negative ELISA results should be confirmed by virus isolation attempts. PMID:1547837
Frampton, John P.; White, Joshua B.; Simon, Arlyne B.; Tsuei, Michael; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi
Accurate disease diagnosis, patient stratification and biomarker validation require the analysis of multiple biomarkers. This paper describes cross-reactivity-free multiplexing of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to confine detection antibodies at specific locations in fully aqueous environments. Antibody cross-reactions are eliminated because the detection antibody solutions are co-localized only to corresponding surface-immobilized capture antibody spots. This multiplexing technique is validated using plasma samples from allogeneic bone marrow recipients. Patients with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), a common and serious condition associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, display higher mean concentrations for four multiplexed biomarkers (HGF, elafin, ST2 and TNFR1) relative to healthy donors and transplant patients without GVHD. The antibody co-localization capability of this technology is particularly useful when using inherently cross-reactive reagents such as polyclonal antibodies, although monoclonal antibody cross-reactivity can also be reduced. Because ATPS-ELISA adapts readily available antibody reagents, plate materials and detection instruments, it should be easily transferable into other research and clinical settings.
Dawson, G J; Lesniewski, R R; Stewart, J L; Boardway, K M; Gutierrez, R A; Pendy, L; Johnson, R G; Alcalde, X; Rote, K V; Devare, S G
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which utilizes a solid phase coated with a recombinant antigen (c100-3) derived from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was evaluated for efficacy in the detection of antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). The sensitivity of the antibody test was demonstrated by the detection of anti-HCV in a well-characterized panel of human specimens known to contain the infectious agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis. The specificity of the anti-HCV test was evaluated by testing 6,118 serum specimens from volunteer blood donors considered to be at low risk for exposure to HCV. The specificity of the anti-HCV EIA was demonstrated to be 99.56%, since 6,069 of 6,096 specimens from this low-risk group were nonreactive. A total of 49 (0.80%) of the 6,118 specimens were repeatedly reactive in the test, and 22 (46.81%) of the 47 specimens available for additional testing were confirmed as positive for antibodies to HCV c100-3. Among commercial plasma donors, 390 (10.49%) of 3,718 specimens were repeatedly reactive in the EIA. A total of 375 (97.40%) of the 385 specimens available for further testing were confirmed as positive. These limited data indicate that the prevalence of antibodies to HCV is 0.36% (22 confirmed positives among 6,118 specimens) among volunteer blood donors and 10.08% (375 confirmed positives among 3,718 specimens) among commercial plasma donors. The importance of confirmatory testing is discussed. PMID:1709949
Weare, J A; Robertson, E F; Madsen, G; Hu, R; Decker, R H
Reducing agents dramatically alter the specificity of competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). A specificity improvement was demonstrated with a new assay which utilizes microparticle membrane capture and chemiluminescence detection as well as a current radioimmunoassay procedure (Corab: Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). The effect was most noticeable with elevated negative and weakly reactive samples. In both systems, reductants increased separation of a negative population (n = 160) from assay cutoffs. With a selected population (n = 307), inclusion of reductant eliminated apparent anti-HBc activity in 54 of 81 samples in the 30 to 70% inhibition range. Reductant-stable anti-HBc samples were strongly associated with the presence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (21 of 27). The association persisted below the detection limits of current assays to 0.3 to 0.4 Paul Ehrlich Institute units per ml. Only 1 of 54 reduction-sensitive borderline samples was confirmed to be positive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. The modified procedures had unchanged or slightly improved sensitivity for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-associated anti-HBc activity. Although IgM anti-HBc detection was reduced from four- to eightfold in the presence of reductants, sensitivities remained at least twofold greater than tha of an enzyme immunoassay (Corzyme M; Abbott) designed to detect acute-phase levels of IgM anti-HBc. The use of reducing agents should significantly improve the reliability of anti-HBc testing, especially near assay cutoffs. PMID:2037678
Liu, Yuanjian; Zhang, Linqun; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhenxian; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin
Early and accurate diagnosis is considered the key issue to prevent the further spread of viruses and facilitate influenza therapy. Herein, we report a colorimetric immunosensor for influenza A virus (IAV) based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin antibody (mAb). The immunosensor allows for a fast, simple, and selective detection of IAV. In this assay, influenza-specific antibodies are conjugated to AuNPs to create mAb-AuNP probes. Since IAV has multiple recognition sites for probes on the surface, the mAb-AuNP probes can be specifically arranged on the virus surface due to their very specific antigen recognition. In this case, this aggregation of the mAb-AuNP probes produces a red shift in the absorption spectrum due to plasmon coupling between adjacent AuNPs, and it can be detected with the naked eye as a color change from red to purple and quantified with the absorption spectral measurements. The aggregate formation is also confirmed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Under the optimal conditions, the present immunoassay can sensitively measure H3N2 IAV (A/Brisbane/10/2007) with a detection limit of 7.8 hemagglutination units (HAU). This proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity, accuracy, and good stability. Notably, it is a single-step detection using AuNP probes and UV-vis spectrophotometer for readout, and no additional amplification, e.g., enzymatic, is needed to read the result. This assay depends on an ordered AuNP structure covering the virus surface and can be applied to any virus pathogen by incorporating the appropriate pathogen-specific antibody.
Liu, Pan; Souma, Tomokazu; Wei, Andrew Zu-Sern; Xie, Xueying; Luo, Xunrong; Jin, Jing
Background HLA mismatches are the primary cause of alloantibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in organ transplantation. To delineate antigenic and immunogenic potentials among individual HLA mismatches, information regarding antibody specificity at the epitope level, instead of the allelic level, is needed. Methods This study explores a direct screening method for HLA linear epitopes in kidney transplant patients. We custom synthesized a large panel of 15-residue HLA peptides in an array format and measured alloantibody reactivity to these peptides from the sera of post and/or pretransplant patients. Two design concepts for the arrays were followed: a standard array of a fixed panel of peptides or personalized arrays. The standard array contains 420 peptides derived from a predetermined set of HLA-DQ allelic antigens based on templates also used in the single-antigen beads assay. Results The array detected distinct antiserum patterns among transplant subjects and revealed epitope levels of specificity largely in accordance with the single-antigen results. Two personalized arrays that each included donor-derived peptides of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQ, and -DR sequences were separately designed for 2 transplant subjects. The personalized arrays detected de novo antibodies following transplantation. The new method also showed superior sensitivity to a single-antigen assay in one of the cases whose pathological diagnosis of AMR occurred before single-antigen assay could detect antibodies. Conclusions This pilot study proved the feasibility of using personalized peptide arrays to achieve detection of alloantibodies for linear HLA epitopes associated with distinct donor-recipient mismatches. Single or multiple reactive epitopes may occur on an individual HLA molecule, and donor-specific HLA-DQ-reactivity among 5 kidney transplant subjects revealed patterns of shared epitopes. PMID:27826602
Skinner, Craig; Patfield, Stephanie; Hernlem, Bradley J.; He, Xiaohua
Background Stx2e is a primary virulence factor in STEC strains that cause edema disease in neonatal piglets. Though Stx2a and Stx2e are similar, many antibody-based Stx detection kits are designed to detect Stx2a and do not recognize the Stx2e subtype. Methods and Findings Four monoclonal antibodies against Stx2e were developed and characterized. Two of these mAbs recognize the B subunit of Stx2e, Stx2f, and to a lesser extent, Stx2b, Stx2c, and Stx2d. The other two mAbs recognize the A subunit of Stx2e, and cross-react with all Stx2 subtypes except Stx2f. The most sensitive sandwich ELISA using these mAbs has a limit of detection for Stx2e of 11.8 pg/mL. The ability of the neutralizing antibody Stx2e-2 to block Stx2e-receptor binding in Vero cells was visualized using immunofluorescence. Combinations of these and previously developed mAbs permit ELISA-based differentiation between closely related Stx2a, Stx2c, and Stx2d (using mAbs Stx2-5/2-1, Stx2-5/2e-2, and Stx2e-3/2e-2, respectively). Conclusions The sensitive immunoassays developed in this study should augment our capacity to detect Stx2e in porcine environments and biological samples. Moreover, immunoassays that can distinguish between the closely related Stx2a, Stx2c, and Stx2d subtypes can be useful in quickly analyzing Stx subtypes in samples containing more than one strain of STEC. PMID:26192407
Mason, D Y; Cordell, J; Brown, M; Pallesen, G; Ralfkiaer, E; Rothbard, J; Crumpton, M; Gatter, K C
Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against a proline rich, peptide sequence, comprising 13 amino acids, in the cytoplasmic domain of the CD3 epsilon chain. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that this antibody preparation recognised the CD3 antigen on human T lymphoblasts. The antibody stained normal T cells strongly in tissue sections which had been fixed in formalin or Bouin's solution and embedded in paraffin wax. Its reactivity with T cell lymphoma, when evaluated on a series of 96 previously phenotyped cases, closely agreed with the results obtained on cryostat sections. These results indicate that the specific detection of T cells in routinely processed tissue biopsy specimens is now technically feasible on a wide scale in diagnostic laboratories using CD3 peptide antibodies, and they also suggest that in future the use of anti-peptide antibodies may detect other lineage specific antigenic markers in paraffin wax sections. Images PMID:2531171
Louie, Brian; Wong, Ernest; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Liska, Sally; Hecht, Frederick; Dowling, Terri; Obeso, Martha; Phillips, Susan S.; Pandori, Mark W.
We have evaluated four current Food and Drug Administration-cleared rapid tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibodies with a panel of specimens from recently infected individuals. Recent infection was detected by RNA-based screening coupled with enzyme immunoassay-based testing. We found that the sensitivities of the various rapid tests vary greatly with regard to their ability to detect HIV-specific antibodies in recently infected individuals. PMID:18234875
Krizkova-Kudlikova, Iva; Hubert, Jan
Two polyclonal antibodies (Pab) were developed for the detection of Tribolium castaneum, which is a stored product pest of medical and economical importance. Selected Pab anti- T. castaneumK51 showed low cross-reactivity to other stored product arthropods but revealed high reactivity to T. destructor, T. confusum, and partly to Tenebrio molitor. PTA-ELISA was used to detect adults, larva, and feces of T. castaneum in artificially contaminated grain samples. Calibration methods were applied to determine detection limits for each type of contaminants. Anti- T.castaneumK51 enabled detection of T. castaneum in grain samples; detection limits reached 60 and 640 individuals/kg of grain for larvae and adults, respectively, and 4 mg of feces/kg of grain. After recalculation, the detection limit for feces enables detection of 30 larvae after 5 days of feeding in optimal conditions. The main advantage of the developed assay is traceability of T. castaneum contamination, especially when the adults and larvae are removed from contaminated material, based on the detection of feces that persist in the grain.
Nybo, Mads; Macaubas, Claudia; Lønstrup, Lars; Balboni, Imelda M.; Mellins, Elizabeth D.; Astakhova, Kira
Reliable measurement of clinically relevant autoimmune antibodies toward phospholipid-protein conjugates is highly desirable in research and clinical assays. To date, the development in this field has been limited to the use of natural heterogeneous antigens. However, this approach does not take structural features of biologically active antigens into account and leads to low reliability and poor scientific test value. Here we describe novel phospholipid-protein conjugates for specific detection of human autoimmune antibodies. Our synthetic approach includes mild oxidation of synthetic phospholipid cardiolipin, and as the last step, coupling of the product with azide-containing linker and copper-catalyzed click chemistry with β2-glycoprotein I and prothrombin. To prove utility of the product antigens, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and three cohorts of samples obtained from patients in Denmark (n = 34) and the USA (n = 27 and n = 14). Afterwards we analyzed correlation of the obtained autoantibody titers with clinical parameters for each patient. Our results prove that using novel antigens clinically relevant autoantibodies can be detected with high repeatability, sensitivity and specificity. Unlike previously used antigens the obtained autoantibody titers strongly correlate with high disease activity and in particular, with arthritis, renal involvement, anti-Smith antibodies and high lymphocyte count. Importantly, chemical composition of antigens has a strong influence on the correlation of detected autoantibodies with disease activity and manifestations. This confirms the crucial importance of antigens’ composition on research and diagnostic assays, and opens up exciting perspectives for synthetic antigens in future studies of autoimmunity. PMID:27257889
Kenett, D; Katchalski-Katzir, E; Fleminger, G
Seven murine anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which recognize distinct epitopes of the native enzyme, were used as macromolecular probes to detect structural or conformational alterations occurring in HEL on heating at 95 degrees C, pH 5. As the interactions of the heat-treated HEL with its corresponding MAbs were carried out at room temperature, only irreversible structural and/or conformational alterations could be detected. The transformation of the native enzyme into its denatured form was followed electrophoretically and chromatographically. The denatured enzyme was more negatively charged at pH 8.4 and exhibited a longer retention time on reverse-phase HPLC than native HEL. Its specific catalytic activity was considerably lower than that of the native enzyme. Of the seven MAbs tested in competitive ELISA assays with native and heat-treated HEL only one, MAb D74.3, failed to recognize the heat-treated enzyme. This antibody, which is directed toward the active site region of the enzyme, was ineffective in inhibiting the catalytic activity of the heat-treated HEL using M. lysodeikticus as substrate. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody D1.3, which recognizes an epitope remote from the active site of HEL, inhibited the catalytic activity of the native as well as the heat-treated enzyme. The results indicate that the active site of HEL undergoes an irreversible structural alteration on heating for 2 hr at 95 degrees C, pH 5. No irreversible structural changes could be detected in the other regions of HEL recognized by the corresponding MAbs.
Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi
There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. PMID:25803295
Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi
There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.
Pan, Jishen; Awoyemi, Bisola; Xuan, Zhuoli; Vohra, Priya; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Dyba, Marcin; Greenspan, Emily; Fu, Ying; Creswell, Karen; Zhang, Lihua; Berry, Deborah; Tang, Moon-Shong; Chung, Fung-Lung
Acrolein (Acr) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. It can also be produced endogenously by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Acr-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine (Acr-dG) adducts in DNA are mutagenic lesions that are potentially involved in human cancers. In this study, monoclonal antibodies were raised against Acr-dG adducts and characterized using ELISA. They showed strong reactivity and specificity toward Acr-dG, weaker reactivity toward crotonaldehyde- and trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosines, and weak or no reactivity toward 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Using these antibodies, we developed assays to detect Acr-dG in vivo: first, a simple and quick FACS-based assay for detecting these adducts directly in cells; second, a highly sensitive direct ELISA assay for measuring Acr-dG in cells and tissues using only 1 μg of DNA without DNA digestion and sample enrichment; and third, a competitive ELISA for better quantitative measurement of Acr-dG levels in DNA samples. The assays were validated using Acr-treated HT29 cell DNA samples or calf thymus DNA, and the results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS-MRM. An immunohistochemical assay was also developed to detect and visualize Acr-dG in HT29 cells as well as in human oral cells. These antibody-based methods provide useful tools for the studies of Acr-dG as a cancer biomarker and of the molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to Acr-dG as a ubiquitous DNA lesion.
Erhard, M H; Kühlmann, R; Szinicz, L; Lösch, U
The development of a specific and sensitive immunologic ELISA detection system for methylphosphonoflouridic acid. 1,2,2-trimethylpropylester (soman) by the use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is described. The monoclonal antibodies F71D7, F71H10, F71B12 and F71H9 originally produced against the soman derivative methyl phosphonic acid, p-aminophenyl 1,2,2-trimethylpropyldiester (MATP) also reacted with soman in a previously developed, direct competitive ELISA. After optimizing the ELISA system by varying the reaction mixture and the solvents for the organophosphate, 5.0 x 10(-7) mol/l soman (80% purity), e.g. 2.5 ng or 2 ng pure soman per 25 microliters test buffer, could be detected after a total test duration of 40 min. A shortening of the incubation time to 10 min resulted in a drop of sensitivity to 1.8 x 10(-6) mol/l soman. Various alcohols which may be used as extraction media for soman from various materials (isopropanol, ethanol and methanol) were shown to inhibit peroxidase activity and thereby reduce the sensitivity of the test. However, the influence of alcohols decreased with the shortening of incubation time. All monoclonal antibodies showed little cross reactivity to sarin and no cross reactivity to tabun and VX. Judging on the reactivity of the MAbs with MATP and soman oxidazed by 1,2-dihydrobenzol, some reactivity with some other (non-toxic) soman analogues containing the same pinacolyl group can be expected. There was no evidence for stereoselectivity of the MAbs tested. Finally, soman could be detected in different biological samples like human serum, goat serum, rabbit serum, chicken serum, milk, and tap water in concentrations between 1.3 x 10(-6) and 2.0 x 10(-6) mol/l.
Gómez, B L; Figueroa, J I; Hamilton, A J; Ortiz, B; Robledo, M A; Hay, R J; Restrepo, A
The precise diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis, in most cases, is established by direct methods and indirect immunological tests. The latter method is reliant on the identification of the host's humoral responses, which are usually impaired or absent in patients with severe juvenile forms of the disease and in immunocompromised patients. Determining disease activity or assessing treatment responses by measuring antibody levels is difficult, since antibody titer may remain elevated or persist at stationary levels, even in the presence of clinical improvement. Consequently, there is a need for alternative tests aimed at the identification of circulating antigens. A modification of the standard hybridoma production method was used to raise a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Of these, MAb PIB, directed against an 87-kDa determinant, was used to develop an inhibition ELISA (inh-ELISA) capable of detecting as little as 5.8 ng of circulating antigen per ml of serum. Sera from 46 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis or other mycoses and sera from healthy individuals were evaluated by the inh-ELISA; overall sensitivity was 80.4% (37 of 46 paracoccidioidomycosis patients tested positive), and specificity compared with that of normal controls from areas of endemicity was 81.4%. The inh-ELISA detected circulating antigen in 100% of patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis and in 83.3 and 60% of patients with the chronic multifocal and unifocal forms of paracoccidioidomycosis according to the patients' clinical presentation. These results indicate that the inh-ELISA with MAb PIB is effective in the detection of circulating antigen and that this test may be useful for monitoring responses to treatment and establishing disease prognoses. PMID:9399534
Liu, Qingwei; Ku, Zhiqiang; Cai, Yicun; Sun, Bing; Leng, Qibin; Huang, Zhong
Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), together with enterovirus type 71 (EV71), is responsible for most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Recent findings suggest that the recombination between CVA16 and EV71, and co-circulation of these two viruses may have contributed to the increase of HFMD cases in China over the past few years. Thus, for CVA16, further understanding of its virology, epidemiology and development of diagnostic tests and vaccines are of importance. The present study aimed to develop reagents and protocols for the detection, characterization and quantitation of CVA16. Recombinant CVA16 capsid subunit proteins VP0, VP3 and truncated VP1, were produced in Escherichia coli and used to immunize guinea pigs to generate polyclonal antibodies. The resultant three antisera detected specifically CVA16 propagated in Vero cells by immunostaining, ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera was used to show that CVA16 capsids were composed of correctly processed VP0, VP1 and VP3 subunits, and were present in the form of efficiently assembled particles. A method for the quantitation of the yield of CVA16 in Vero cells was established based on a Western blotting protocol using the recombinant VP0 as a reference standard and anti-VP0 as the detection antibody. This study shows the development and validation of reagents and methods, for qualitative and quantitative determination of CVA16, which are essential for the development of vaccines.
Randis, Tara M.; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Aguilar, Jorge L.; Ratner, Adam J.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection worldwide and is associated with significant adverse sequelae. We have recently characterized vaginolysin (VLY), the human-specific cytotoxin produced by Gardnerella vaginalis and believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of BV and its associated morbidities. We hypothesize that novel antibody-based strategies may be useful for detection of VLY and for inhibition of its toxic effects on human cells. Using purified toxin as an immunogen, we generated polyclonal rabbit immune serum (IS) against VLY. A western blot of G. vaginalis lysate was probed with IS and a single band (57 kD) identified. Immunofluorescence techniques using IS detected VLY production by G. vaginalis. In addition, we have developed a sandwich ELISA assay capable of VLY quantification at ng/ml concentrations in the supernatant of growing G. vaginalis. To investigate the potential inhibitory role of IS on VLY-mediated cell lysis, we exposed human erythrocytes to VLY or VLY pretreated with IS and determined the percent hemolysis. Pretreatment with IS resulted in a significant reduction in VLY-mediated lysis. Similarly, both human cervical carcinoma cells and vaginal epithelial cells exhibited reduced cytolysis following exposure to VLY with IS compared to VLY alone. These results confirm that antibody-based techniques are an effective means of VLY detection. Furthermore, VLY antiserum functions as an inhibitor of VLY–CD59 interaction, mitigating cell lysis. These strategies may have a potential role in the diagnosis and treatment of BV. PMID:19370149
Navrátil, Václav; Schimer, Jiří; Tykvart, Jan; Knedlík, Tomáš; Vik, Viktor; Majer, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan; Šácha, Pavel
Human diseases are often diagnosed by determining levels of relevant enzymes and treated by enzyme inhibitors. We describe an assay suitable for both ultrasensitive enzyme quantification and quantitative inhibitor screening with unpurified enzymes. In the DNA-linked Inhibitor ANtibody Assay (DIANA), the target enzyme is captured by an immobilized antibody, probed with a small-molecule inhibitor attached to a reporter DNA and detected by quantitative PCR. We validate the approach using the putative cancer markers prostate-specific membrane antigen and carbonic anhydrase IX. We show that DIANA has a linear range of up to six logs and it selectively detects zeptomoles of targets in complex biological samples. DIANA's wide dynamic range permits determination of target enzyme inhibition constants using a single inhibitor concentration. DIANA also enables quantitative screening of small-molecule enzyme inhibitors using microliters of human blood serum containing picograms of target enzyme. DIANA's performance characteristics make it a superior tool for disease detection and drug discovery. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.
The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to LPS (800 to 6,400) were found in the CSF of these patients, these antibodies were not detected in CSF samples from two patients who had systemic brucellosis without neurological involvement. The latter, however, had serum IgG and IgM to both LPS and CP. No reactivity to these antigens was found in CSF samples from 14 and 20 patients suffering from nonbrucellar meningitis and noninfectious diseases, respectively. These findings suggest that, in addition to its usefulness in the serological diagnosis of human systemic brucellosis, the ELISA with CP antigen can be used for the specific diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis. PMID:10473531
Kim, Eun-Ju; Cheong, Kwang-Myun; Joung, Ha-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung
Infection of cattle with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been observed and reported worldwide, including in Korea. The onsite identification of infected cattle would help decreasing and eradicating BLV infections on farms. Here, we present a new immunochromatographic assay that employs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of antibodies against BLV in the field. BLV envelope glycoprotein (gp)51 was expressed in E. coli, and MAbs against recombinant BLV gp51 were generated for the development of an immunochromatographic assay to detect BLV antibodies in cattle. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined by comparing these results with those obtained from a standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 160 bovine sera were used to evaluate the new immunochromatographic assay. Using ELISA as a reference standard, the relative specificity and sensitivity of this assay were determined to be 94.7% and 98%, respectively. Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, this BLV antibody detection assay would be suitable for the onsite identification of BLV infection in the field.
Kim, Eun-Ju; Cheong, Kwang-Myun; Joung, Ha-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki
Infection of cattle with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been observed and reported worldwide, including in Korea. The onsite identification of infected cattle would help decreasing and eradicating BLV infections on farms. Here, we present a new immunochromatographic assay that employs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of antibodies against BLV in the field. BLV envelope glycoprotein (gp)51 was expressed in E. coli, and MAbs against recombinant BLV gp51 were generated for the development of an immunochromatographic assay to detect BLV antibodies in cattle. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined by comparing these results with those obtained from a standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 160 bovine sera were used to evaluate the new immunochromatographic assay. Using ELISA as a reference standard, the relative specificity and sensitivity of this assay were determined to be 94.7% and 98%, respectively. Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, this BLV antibody detection assay would be suitable for the onsite identification of BLV infection in the field. PMID:27030192
Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J
Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne infection and the immune response to tick bite, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibody to a recombinant form of calreticulin protein found in the salivary glands of Ixodes scapularis, a member of a complex of Ixodes ticks that serve as the vectors for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Using this assay, we tested sera obtained from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice before and after experimental deer tick infestation. These mice developed antibody to Ixodes calreticulin antigen after infestation. We then used the same assay to test sera obtained from people before and after they experienced deer tick bite(s). People experiencing deer tick bite(s) developed Ixodes calreticulin-specific antibody responses that persisted for up to 17 months. This Ixodes recombinant calreticulin ELISA provides objective evidence of deer tick exposure in people.
Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M.; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R.; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J.
Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne infection and the immune response to tick bite, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibody to a recombinant form of calreticulin protein found in the salivary glands of Ixodes scapularis, a member of a complex of Ixodes ticks that serve as the vectors for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Using this assay, we tested sera obtained from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice before and after experimental deer tick infestation. These mice developed antibody to Ixodes calreticulin antigen after infestation. We then used the same assay to test sera obtained from people before and after they experienced deer tick bite(s). People experiencing deer tick bite(s) developed Ixodes calreticulin-specific antibody responses that persisted for up to 17 months. This Ixodes recombinant calreticulin ELISA provides objective evidence of deer tick exposure in people. PMID:16928887
The performance of ELISA to detect IgG and IgM antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus has been evaluated in strongly precipitin-positive, weakly precipitin-positive and precipitin-negative patient sera, with immunoblot analysis as the confirmatory test. All strongly precipitin-positive sera contained increased IgG titers and showed clearly positive immunoblot patterns. Most of the weakly precipitin-positive sera contained ELISA titers within the normal range established with sera of healthy blood donors and showed normal immunoblot patterns. Increased titers of IgG and/or IgM were measured in one-sixth of the precipitin-negative patient sera. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of antibodies to A. fumigatus in 55% of the precipitin-negative sera with increased antibody titers. ELISAs for A. fumigatus-specific IgG and IgM are sensitive tests for screening of patient sera. However, positive results with ELISA should be confirmed by means of immunoblot analysis.
Žigon, Polona; Čučnik, Saša; Ambrožič, Aleš; Kveder, Tanja; Šemrl, Snežna Sodin; Rozman, Blaž; Božič, Borut
Antiprothrombin antibodies, measured with phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) ELISA, have been reported to be associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). They are currently being evaluated as a potential classification criterion for this autoimmune disease, characterized by thromboses and obstetric complications. Given the present lack of clinically useful tests for the accurate diagnosis of APS, we aimed to evaluate in-house and commercial assays for determination of aPS/PT as a potential serological marker for APS. We screened 156 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases for antibodies against PS/PT, β 2-glycoprotein I, cardiolipin and for lupus anticoagulant activity. We demonstrated a high degree of concordance between the concentrations of aPS/PT measured with the in-house and commercial assays. Both assays performed comparably relating to the clinical manifestations of APS, such as arterial and venous thromboses and obstetric complications. IgG aPS/PT represented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications, among all tested aPL. Both IgG and IgM aPS/PT were associated with venous thrombosis, but not with arterial thrombosis. Most importantly, the association between the presence of IgG/IgM aPS/PT and lupus anticoagulant activity was highly significant. Taken together, aPS/PT antibodies detected with the in-house or commercial ELISA represent a promising serological marker for APS and its subsets. PMID:24187565
Soler, Maria; Estevez, M.-Carmen; Alvarez, Mar; Otte, Marinus A.; Sepulveda, Borja; Lechuga, Laura M.
Design of an optimal surface biofunctionalization still remains an important challenge for the application of biosensors in clinical practice and therapeutic follow-up. Optical biosensors offer real-time monitoring and highly sensitive label-free analysis, along with great potential to be transferred to portable devices. When applied in direct immunoassays, their analytical features depend strongly on the antibody immobilization strategy. A strategy for correct immobilization of antibodies based on the use of ProLinker™ has been evaluated and optimized in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility. Special effort has been focused on avoiding antibody manipulation, preventing nonspecific adsorption and obtaining a robust biosurface with regeneration capabilities. ProLinker™-based approach has demonstrated to fulfill those crucial requirements and, in combination with PEG-derivative compounds, has shown encouraging results for direct detection in biological fluids, such as pure urine or diluted serum. Furthermore, we have implemented the ProLinker™ strategy to a novel nanoplasmonic-based biosensor resulting in promising advantages for its application in clinical and biomedical diagnosis. PMID:24481229
Hospach, Ingeborg; Joseph, Yvonne; Mai, Michaela Kathrin; Krasteva, Nadejda; Nelles, Gabriele
Cytokine proteins are known as biomarker molecules, characteristic of a disease or specific body condition. Monitoring of the cytokine pattern in body fluids can contribute to the diagnosis of diseases. Here we report on the development of an array comprised of different anti-cytokine antibodies on an activated solid support coupled with a fluorescence readout mechanism. Optimization of the array preparation was done in regard of spot homogeneity and spot size. The proinflammatory cytokines Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) were chosen as the first targets of interest. First, the solid support for covalent antibody immobilization and an adequate fluorescent label were selected. Three differently functionalized glass substrates for spotting were compared: amine and epoxy, both having a two-dimensional structure, and the NHS functionalized hydrogel (NHS-3D). The NHS-hydrogel functionalization of the substrate was best suited to antibody immobilization. Then, the optimization of plotting parameters and geometry as well as buffer media were investigated, considering the ambient analyte theory of Roger Ekins. As a first step towards real sample studies, a proof of principle of cytokine detection has been established. PMID:27600349
Christensen, N D; Kreider, J W; Shah, K V; Rando, R F
A selection of human sera were tested for the presence of antibodies that neutralized infectious human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by prevention of HPV-11-induced condylomatous transformation of human foreskin chips transplanted subrenally into athymic mice. Test sera were obtained from 21 female patients with genital condylomas and eight patients with laryngeal papillomas. Control patients consisted of 57 adult random blood donors and five asymptomatic children. ELISAs demonstrated that all sera from patients with genital papillomas were strongly reactive to disrupted papillomavirus (PV) antigens of HPV-11, bovine PV type 1 and cottontail rabbit PV, but only two were weakly reactive to intact HPV-11. None of the eight sera from the laryngeal papilloma bearers reacted significantly to disrupted PV antigens, but four of the eight showed strong specific responses to intact HPV-11 only. The majority of the sera that were reactive to intact HPV-11 by ELISA neutralized HPV-11 infectivity in the athymic mouse xenograft system. The data indicated that ELISA reactivity to intact HPV-11 virions was a good predictor for the presence of HPV-11 neutralizing antibodies.
Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Furman, Keiko Endo; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Finger, Mariane Angélica; Busch, Ana Paula Brenner; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Deconto, Ivan; Dornbusch, Peterson Triches; Biondo, Alexander Welker
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4%) were positive: 2/29 (6.9%) were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2%) between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4%) older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%). Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas.
Ismail, Adel A A
The clinical laboratory may perform additional test or tests to ascertain the integrity of immunoassay analyses when the results are in doubt. Doubling serial dilutions is one of these confirmatory tests. Doubling dilutions is a useful and informative test for detecting inaccuracy and potential interference from endogenous antibodies in immunoassays. Despite its technical simplicity, the science underpinning this test is highly complex. Appreciating such complexities could help in understanding the various outcomes of such tests from misleadingly inaccurate but virtually linear/parallel results, despite the presence of interfering antibodies in some immunoassays, to an array of non-linearity/non-parallelism synonymous with interference in others. A lack of parallelism/linearity could identify some 60% of samples with inaccurate and potentially misleading results caused by endogenous interfering antibodies. Assessing real-time binding kinetics using techniques such as non-linear regression analysis or linearised transformations such as the Scatchard plot could help in identifying more samples in which the doubling dilutions test remains linear and parallel.
Connolly, Lisa; Fodey, Terence L; Crooks, Steven R H; Elliott, Christopher T
The production of an antibody to detect toltrazuril or its metabolite ponazuril is complicated due to structural constraints of conjugating these coccidiostats to a carrier protein. Therefore a search was carried out for a compound that shared a common substructure to use as an antigen mimic. The chosen compound, trifluoraminoether, was conjugated to two carrier proteins (HSA and BTG) and used in the immunisation of six rabbits. Two immunogen doses (1 mg and 0.1 mg) were also used. All six rabbits produced an immunological response to the hapten regardless of the carrier protein or immunogen dose used. The most sensitive polyclonal antibody produced, designated R609, was subsequently characterised. This antiserum exhibited an IC50 of 18 ng ml(-1) using a competitive ELISA format. Cross reactivity studies show that this serum is specific for toltrazuril and its metabolites (toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone) but does not cross-react with other coccidiostats such as halofuginone, nitroimidazoles or nicarbazin. This is the first reported production of an antibody capable of specifically binding toltrazuril and ponazuril.
Nakayama, T; Ogasawara, K; Ikeda, H; Kunikane, H; Kasahara, M; Ishikawa, N; Fukasawa, Y; Hawkin, S; Kojima, H; Wakisaka, A
A monoclonal antibody, HU-39, was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a cultured human B lymphoblastoid cell line, Shi-C3 (HLA-A24, A31, B51, Bw52, DR2, DRw12, DQw1, DQw3). Utilizing the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test, HU-39 was found to detect a polymorphic determinant common to HLA-DRw8 and HLA-DRw12, a split antigen of HLA-DR5. Although HU-39 reacted with the cells from all of nine DRw12 positive individuals, the cells from only 18 out of 21 DRw8 positive individuals reacted with HU-39 and the remaining three were negative for HU-39. The cytotoxicity of the antibody was reduced after the surface HLA-DR molecules of two cell lines, GI and EBV-Sh, typed as DRw8 and DRw12, respectively, were masked with F(ab')2, of anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody. The results of the sequential coprecipitation test and the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis by using EBV-Sh also indicated that HU-39 preferentially recognizes an epitope borne on the DR molecules, but not on the DQ molecules. Thus, HU-39 appeared to be of great value as a tissue typing reagent to define DRw8 and DRw12, the latter of which had been difficult to assign because of the lack of monospecific alloantisera.
Kee, Jung-Min; Oslund, Rob C; Perlman, David H; Muir, Tom W
Despite its importance in central metabolism and bacterial cell signaling, protein histidine phosphorylation has remained elusive with respect to its extent and functional roles in biological systems because of the lack of adequate research tools. We report the development of the first pan-phosphohistidine (pHis) antibody using a stable pHis mimetic as the hapten. This antibody was successfully used in ELISA, western blotting, dot blot assays and immunoprecipitation and in detection and identification of histidine-phosphorylated proteins from native cell lysates when coupled with MS analysis. We also observed that the amount of protein pHis in Escherichia coli lysates depends on carbon source and nitrogen availability in the growth medium. In particular, we found that the amount of pHis on phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA) is sensitive to nitrogen availability in vivo and that α-ketoglutarate inhibits phosphotransfer from phosphorylated PpsA to pyruvate. We expect this antibody to open opportunities for investigating other pHis proteins and their functions.
Nandakumar, K S; Palanivel, V; Muthukkaruppan, V
Porins are highly immunogenic outer membrane proteins of Salmonella. Sera from typhoid patients contained a high level of IgG antibodies directed to porins of Salm. typhi. Since porins are highly conserved proteins, anti-porins antibodies both from typhoid patients and healthy normals reacted with porins from several Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, in order to improve the specificity of detecting Salm. typhi porins-specific antibodies, an inhibition ELISA was developed using enzyme-conjugated MoAbs (MP1 and MPN4) specific to Salm. typhi porins. Sera from typhoid patients with positive haemoculture (16 out of 17) inhibited the binding of MP1 to porins, thus showing a positive test for typhoid, whereas sera from patients with other Gram-negative bacterial infections (n = 7) and from healthy volunteers (66 out of 67) were found to be negative. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this assay were 94.1, 98.7, 97.8, 94.1 and 98.7% respectively. The validity of our inhibition ELISA for typhoid was higher than that of the Widal test. The diagnosis of typhoid fever as early as 3 days after the onset of fever, using a single specimen is possible. PMID:8222322
Kanaya, Noriko; Okuda, Masaru; Toyama, Naomi; Oikawa, Tatsuo; Inokuma, Hisashi; Morimoto, Masahiro; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Une, Satoshi; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Taura, Yasuho; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Onishi, Takafumi
To detect the anti-P53 antibodies of dogs with tumors, a GST-recombinant canine (rc) P53 fusion protein was expressed and purified. Immunoblot analysis was performed using this GST-rcP53 fusion protein as an antigen and serum samples from dogs suffering from tumors as primary antibodies. Out of 16 serum samples obtained from various tumor cases, four samples showed reaction with GST-rcP53. In contrast, serum from other 12 dogs with tumors, four dogs with non-neoplastic diseases and two control healthy dogs (as controls) did not show any reaction with GST-rcP53 in immunoblotting. The p53 gene mutation and the P53 protein expression were examined, using the tumor tissues to explore the relationship between the existence of the GST-rcP53 bands, gene mutations of p53 and the accumulation of P53 protein. One case, which showed a clear GST-rcP53 band, had a point mutation of the p53 cDNA and showed nuclear accumulation of P53 protein. These results suggest that the anti-P53 antibodies are also produced in tumor dogs with p53 gene mutations.
Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Dündar, Devrim; Uzuner, Hüseyin; Baydemir, Canan
Echinococcosis in humans is a disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis). Serological tests are valuable, especially in the clarification of unexplained clinical findings and imaging methods. For this reason, indirect hemagglutination (IHA), latex agglutination, immunoelectrophoresis, immunoblotting, immuno-enzymatic tests, indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of an immunochromatographic test (ICT) specific for E. granulosus antibodies in the diagnosis of echinococcosis. ICT evaluated 102 cases of cystic echinococcosis, 38 cases of other parasitic diseases, and 50 healthy individuals. ELISA (DRG, Germany) that detects IgG antibodies specific for E. granulosus was used as the reference method. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ICT were 96.8%, 87.5%, 98.9%, and 70%, respectively. Diagnostic value was 96.1%. No significant differences and high degrees of agreement were found between ELISA and immunochromatographic test for cystic echinococcosis. Serum samples included 4 taeniasis, 2 leishmaniasis, and 2 healthy individuals were diagnosed to be positive with immunochromatographic test. The ability of test to give fast results without need for equipment, devices, and specific storage conditions is an advantage. This test may be used due to its advantages in endemic regions for screening and diagnostic purposes.
Sehr, Peter; Müller, Martin; Höpfl, Reinhard; Widschwendter, Andreas; Pawlita, Michael
An alternative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was developed to analyze antibodies to human papillomavirus capsid antigens. The assay uses glutathione crosslinked to casein to capture the major capsid protein L1 from human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6b, 16 and 18 fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) as antigen. The method allows efficient one-step purification of L1 fusion protein from crude bacterial lysates on ELISA plates coated with glutathione casein. The GST-L1 capture ELISA detected HPV 16 antibodies with high type specificity. Comparison with the current "gold-standard" for L1-serology that uses virus-like particles (VLP) as antigen demonstrated similar assay sensitivity. Pairwise comparison of the absorbance values of 105 human sera obtained in the two ELISA formats for HPV 16 showed a R(2) value of linear regression of 0.68. Conformity of the two ELISAs in classification of sera as HPV 16 L1 antibody-positive or -negative was verified with Cohen's kappa test, yielding a value of 0.62. These data indicate that the GST-L1 capture ELISA is similar in performance to the VLP ELISA. The ease of antigen production and purification in the GST-based ELISA will be advantageous to screen large sample numbers in vaccine trials or epidemiological studies examining immune responses to many HPV types in parallel.
Kee, Jung-Min; Oslund, Rob C.; Perlman, David H.; Muir, Tom W.
Despite its importance in central metabolism and bacterial cell signaling, protein histidine phosphorylation has remained elusive with respect to its extent and functional roles in biological systems due to the lack of adequate research tools. We report the development of the first pan-pHis antibody using a stable phosphohistidine (pHis) mimetic as the hapten. This antibody was successfully used in ELISA, Western blot, dot blot, immunoprecipitation, and in detection and identification of histidine-phosphorylated proteins from native cell lysates when coupled with mass spectrometric analysis. We also observed that protein pHis levels in E. coli lysates depend on carbon source and nitrogen availability in the growth media. In particular, we found that pHis levels on PpsA are sensitive to nitrogen availability in vivo and that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) inhibits phosphotransfer from phosphorylated phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA) to pyruvate. We expect this antibody to open opportunities for investigating other pHis-proteins and their functions. PMID:23708076
Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT). Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area. PMID:20925923
Bedekovic, Tomislav; Mihaljevic, Zeljko; Jungic, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Lojkic, Ivana; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko
To eliminate cytotoxic effects of colostrum on cells, a modified virus neutralization test (VNT) for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in colostrum was developed. The new test was compared to the World Organization for Animal Health-recommended VNT and the results evaluated. The agreement of the new test compared to the standard VNT was determined to be 98%, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the modified VNT compared to the standard VNT were 100%. Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antibodies were detected in 42 sera samples and 38 colostrum samples. The antibody titers in serum and colostrum showed a high correlation (n = 56, r = 0.9719, P < 0.001). The modified virus neutralization technique described herein succeeds in eliminating cytotoxic effects and can be readily applied for the detection of specific antibodies against other infectious agents in colostrum.
Yang, Mei-Chun; Fang, Jim-Min; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Wang, Da-Ming; Huang, Yi-Lin; Liu, Liang-Yirn; Chen, Pen-Heng; Chang, Tong-Hsuan
This study provides a practical method for production of the antibodies against malachite green (MG) and its primary metabolite leucomalachite green (LMG). Two ELISA kits are constructed with the MG and LMG antibodies for detection of the residual MG and LMG in fish muscle and fishpond water. The detection limit is established at the level of 0.05 microg/L for both MG and LMG. Our ELISA kits show the advantages of good specificity, high sensitivity, and convenience in rapid screening of MG and LMG residues. The sample of fishpond water, without extraction or prior preparation, is directly assayed by the ELISA kit. More then 80 fish samples can be simultaneously tested in a kit. The toxic crystal violet and its metabolite leucocrystal violet of illegal use in aquaculture are detected by our prepared MG and LMG antibodies, whereas the antibodies do not cross-react with common antibiotics, sulfonamides, and benzene derivatives.
Staroverov, Sergey A; Volkov, Alexei A; Fomin, Alexander S; Laskavuy, Vladislav N; Mezhennyy, Pavel V; Kozlov, Sergey V; Larionov, Sergey V; Fedorov, Michael V; Dykman, Lev A; Guliy, Olga I
Mini-antibodies that have specific ferritin response have been produced for the first time using sheep's phage libraries (Griffin.1, Medical Research Council, Cambridge, UK). Produced phage antibodies were used for the first time for the development of diagnostic test kits for ferritin detection in the blood of cattle. The immunodot assay with secondary biospecific labeling is suggested as means of ferritin detection in cow blood serum (antiferritin phage antibodies and rabbit antiphage antibodies conjugated with different labels). Сolloidal gold, gold nanoshells, and horse reddish peroxidase used as labels have shown a similar response while detecting concentration of ferritin (0.2 mg/mL). It is shown that the method of solid-phase immunoassay with a visual view of the results allows determination of the minimum concentration of ferritin in the blood of cows at 0.225 g/mL.
Shulman, S.; Hekman, Annemarie
An agglutination procedure, especially useful for guinea-pig sperm, has been developed. The preferred conditions are as follows: epididymal spermatozoa, in an immotile condition, unwashed or diluted and centrifuged once, at a concentration of 10×106 per ml diluted in phosphate-buffered saline, are incubated with antiserum samples in capillary tubes at 4°C for 1 or 2 hr of observation. This procedure has readily allowed us to detect the presence of antibodies against epididymal spermatozoa. The test has given results that are quite parallel to those obtained by the conventional Kibrick method. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5570676
Pan, I C; Huang, T S; Hess, W R
An indirect immunoperoxidase plaque-staining method was developed for detecting antibody to African swine fever virus infection. In both sensitivity and specificity, the test was comparable to indirect immunofluorescence. Because it has all of the desirable features of the indirect immunofluorescence test and may also be readily used for testing large numbers of sera, the indirect immunoperoxidase plaque-staining method can be used as a single and final serodiagnostic test in a large-scale survey of African swine fever. The indirect immunoperoxidase plaque-staining method should be applicable to other viruses that can be adapted to and grown in cell cultures. Images PMID:6185528
Zhu, Mei-Cai; Ma, Hong-Yu; Zhan, Zhi; Liu, Cheng-Gang; Luo, Wei; Zhao, Guang
The aim of the present study was to establish an immunofluorescence method of antibody detection to identify melanocytes in the serum of vitiligo patients. Furthermore, we aimed to establish a method for the culture and proliferation of autologous pure melanocytes and to observe the effect of their transplantation for the treatment of vitiligo. Suspension of epidermal cells with melanocytes was performed using trypsin digestion of normal epiderm from eyelid operation and melanocytes were selectively cultured and proliferated in serum-free M2 medium. FITC-labeled rabbit anti-human antibody was used to detect the relative fluorescence intensity of the melanocytes. After identification with immunological and biological examinations, the melanocytes were transplanted to depigmented areas of vitiligo. Repigmentation was observed continuously. The results indicated that melanocytes could be selectively proliferated in the medium. Subsequently, pure melanocytes without contamination of fibroblast and keratinocyte were harvested. A total of 34 patients suffering vitiligo for between 3 months and 20 years with depigmented area (between 4 cm2 and 70% of body surface) were divided into 19 cases of developing stage and 15 cases of stable stage, according to the change of depigmentation. A total of 15 developing cases were positive for the antibody against melanocytes, with the positive rate of 79%. The titers of serum was >1:50 in 10 patients at the developing stage, and 5 developing patients were 1:10. Among the 15 stable cases, four were positive, with a positive rate of 27%. Fluorescence of antibody was localized in the cytoplasm of the melanocytes. Autologous melanocytes of vitiligo patients could be selectively proliferated in the medium. Next, pure melanocytes without contamination with fibroblasts and keratinocytes were harvested. A total of 16 vitiligo patients with 28 depigmented areas (2–200 cm2) were treated with transplantation of melanocytes. Repigmentation of
Weis, Sonia; Rettinger, Anna; Bergmann, Michele; Llewellyn, Julia R; Pantchev, Nikola; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin
Objectives Clinical manifestation of infection with Leptospira species in cats is rare. Nevertheless, cats can develop specific antibodies against the spirochetes after infection. In Canada, Taiwan and the USA it was recently demonstrated that naturally infected cats can also shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine, but the zoonotic potential of infected cats is still unclear. The objective of this study was to demonstrate if outdoor cats in Germany shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine. As a second aim, antibody prevalence was determined. Methods Two hundred and fifteen outdoor cats were prospectively recruited. Urine samples were tested by real-time PCR targeting the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira species. Antibody titres against eight serovars (Australis, Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Saxkoebing) belonging to seven serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Sejroe) were determined by microscopic agglutination test. Results Urine samples from 7/215 cats (3.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-5.7) were PCR-positive. Specific antibodies were detected in 35/195 cats (17.9%; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3) with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Australis, Bratislava and Grippotyphosa were the most common serovars. Conclusions and relevance Outdoor cats in Germany can shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species. Therefore, outdoor cats should be considered as a possible source of infection for dogs or humans. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Leptospira species as a cause of disease in cats.
Golubović, S J; Bojić-Trbojević, Z T
Polyclonal rabbit anti-bovine submaxillary mucin antibodies, anti-BSM IgG, were analyzed by autoradiography and densitometry (after SDS electrophoresis and blotting), ELISA, and IRMA assays for reactivity against native antigen BSM, deglycosylated and desialylated BSM, and human salivary and carcinoma-associated mucins. Known human tumor marker CA19-9 antigen reacted with rabbit anti-BSM IgG under different conditions, either soluble or immobilized. As soluble antigen, in IRMA it reacted with anti-BSM antibodies used both as a catcher and a tracer, as well as in combination with monoclonal anti-CA19-9 antibodies as a catcher. MUC1 mucin is a carrier of this carbohydrate antigen, CA19-9, or sialyl-Lewis(a), as well as of CA15-3 antigen, a known breast tumor marker. Autoradiography and densitometry demonstrated binding of anti-BSM IgG to intact MUC1 in a sample of commercial standard preparation of CA19-9 antigen. The same method and analysis demonstrated binding of anti-BSM IgG to MUC1 and to smaller antigens of 85-120 kD in samples containing CA15-3 antigen: commercial standard preparation, human breast tissue, and human milk. In a sample of whole human saliva, reactions of both isoforms of MUC7 were detected by autoradiography, as bands of 85 and 115 kD, and densitogram analysis also demonstrated reaction with MUC5B. Chemical modifications performed as periodate oxidation and desialylation of the BSM demonstrated carbohydrate (i.e., sialic acid) epitope sensitivity for anti-BSM IgG. The results presented in this work indicate that polyclonal anti-BSM antibodies are specific for sialylated carbohydrate structure on mucins and could serve as a tool for investigation of human carcinoma-associated and salivary mucins.
Knappik, A; Plückthun, A
The commercially available monoclonal antibodies M1 and M2 were raised against and bind the FLAG sequence DYKDDDDK with high specificity. Using the calcium-dependent M1 antibody and the FLAG tag attached to the N terminus of various fragments of the antibody McPC603 expressed in Escherichia coli, we found that the M1 antibody binds with almost the same affinity to a much shorter version of this sequence (DYKD). Since most antibody light chains start with an aspartate, the addition of only three additional amino acids to the N terminus is sufficient to detect and quantify the expressed antibody fragments using standard immunological methods. Similarly, the heavy chain can be detected specifically with the sequence DYKD, which requires four additional amino acids since most heavy chains do not start with Asp. The signal sequence of both chains that is necessary for the transport of the chains to the periplasm of E. coli is processed correctly. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of the amino acid at the fifth position of the FLAG sequence on the binding affinity of the M1 antibody and found that a glutamate at this position increased the sensitivity in Western blots sixfold over the original long FLAG sequence containing an aspartate residue at this position. Together, the improved FLAG is a versatile tool for both sensitive detection and one-step purification of recombinant proteins.
Wen, Junlin; Chen, Junhua; Zhuang, Li; Zhou, Shungui
An ultrasensitive and high-throughput nucleic acid detection system, termed as strand displacement reaction-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (SDR-ELISA), has been developed on the basis of antibody-like DNA nanostructures. Three digoxigenin or biotin modified hairpin probes are utilized to construct antibody-like DNA nanostructures that feature affinity toward streptavidin and anti-digoxigenin antibody via isothermal target-triggered SDR amplification. These antibody-like nanostructures have been employed to conjugate horseradish-peroxidase-labeled anti-digoxigenin antibody with streptavidin that is immobilized on microliter plate wells for enzyme-linked colorimetric assay. The resulting SDR-ELISA system is ultrasensitive for target DNA with a low detection limit of 5 fM. Moreover, the SDR-ELISA system is capable of discriminating DNA sequences with single base mutations, and do so in a high-throughput manner by detection and quantification of up to 96 or 384 DNA samples in a single shot. This detection system is further applied to detect other DNA targets such as Shewanella oneidensis specific DNA sequence, which indicates the generality of proposed SDR-ELISA system. The integration of SDR amplification and convenient ELISA technique advances an intelligent strategy for ultrasensitive and high-throughput nucleic acid detection, which may be amenable for direct visual detection and quantification using an accompanying quantitative color chart.
Soelberg, Scott D.; Stevens, Richard C.; Limaye, Ajit P.; Furlong, Clement E.
Rapid, sensitive and accurate detection of analytes present in low concentrations in complex matrices is a critical challenge. One issue that affects many biosensor protocols is the number and nature of the interferents present in complex matrices such as plasma, urine, stool and environmental samples, resulting in loss of sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a method for rapid purification, concentration and detection of target analytes from complex matrices using antibody-coated superparamagnetic nanobeads (immunomagnetic beads, or IMBs). The SPR detection signal from Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was dramatically increased when the IMBs were used as detection amplifiers. When SEB detection included a 10-fold concentration/purification IMB protocol, a substantial increase in detection sensitivity was observed. This procedure was used to successfully purify and concentrate SEB from serum and stool samples, then amplify the SPR detection signal. SEB at a concentration of 100 picograms/mL was easily detected in both buffer and stool samples using this procedure. The IMB protocol also served to verify the analyte detection by using two different anti-SEB antibodies, mouse monoclonal antibodies attached to the magnetic nanobeads and rabbit polyclonal antibodies on the SPR sensor surface. Multiple detections of SEB in stool were performed using the same sensor surface by regenerating the sensor surfaces with a pH 2.2 buffer wash. PMID:19215065
Soelberg, Scott D; Stevens, Richard C; Limaye, Ajit P; Furlong, Clement E
Rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection of analytes present in low concentrations in complex matrixes is a critical challenge. One issue that affects many biosensor protocols is the number and nature of the interferences present in complex matrixes such as plasma, urine, stool, and environmental samples, resulting in loss of sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a method for rapid purification, concentration, and detection of target analytes from complex matrixes using antibody-coated superparamagnetic nanobeads (immunomagnetic beads, or IMBs). The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection signal from staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was dramatically increased when the IMBs were used as detection amplifiers. When SEB detection included a 10-fold concentration/purification IMB protocol, a substantial increase in detection sensitivity was observed. This procedure was used to successfully purify and concentrate SEB from serum and stool samples, then amplify the SPR detection signal. SEB at a concentration of 100 pg/mL was easily detected in both buffer and stool samples using this procedure. The IMB protocol also served to verify the analyte detection by using two different anti-SEB antibodies, mouse monoclonal antibodies attached to the magnetic nanobeads and rabbit polyclonal antibodies on the SPR sensor surface. Multiple detections of SEB in stool were performed using the same sensor surface by regenerating the sensor surfaces with a pH 2.2 buffer wash.
Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Wu, Ping; Li, Ya-Bo; Zhou, Zhu-Qing; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Liu, Jin-Long; Liao, Yu-Cai
Fumonisin B analogs, particularly FB1, FB2, and FB3, are major mycotoxins found in cereals. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies represent a promising alternative immunoassay system. A phage-displayed antibody library derived from four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated against FB1 was used to screen high binding affinity scFv antibodies; the best candidate was designated H2. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the H2 scFv displayed a 82-fold higher binding affinity than its parent mAb. Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the H2 antibody could competitively bind to free FB1, FB2, and FB3, with an IC50 of 0.11, 0.04, and 0.10 μM, respectively; it had no cross-reactivity to deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and aflatoxin. Validation assays with naturally contaminated samples revealed a linear relationship between the H2 antibody-based assay results and chemical analysis results, that could be expressed as y=1.7072x+5.5606 (R(2)=0.8883). Homology modeling of H2 revealed a favorable binding structure highly complementary to the three fumonisins. Molecular docking analyses suggested that the preferential binding of the H2 scFv to FB2 was due to the presence of a hydrogen radical in its R1 position, leading to a proper electrostatic matching and hydrophobic interaction. The H2 scFv antibody can be used for the rapid, accurate, and specific detection of fumonisin contamination in agricultural samples.
Liu, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Changyong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most economically important citrus viruses and harms the citrus industry worldwide. To develop reliable and effective serological detection assays of CTV, the major capsid protein (CP) gene of CTV was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the expression vector pET-28a and purified through Ni+-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice. Four hybridoma cell lines (14B10, 14H11, 20D5, and 20G12) secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CTV were obtained through conventional hybridoma technology. The titers of MAb-containing ascitic fluids secreted by the four hybridoma lines ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-7) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots showed that all four MAbs could specifically react with CTV CP. Using the prepared MAbs, dot-ELISA, Tissue print-ELISA, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA were developed to detect CTV in tree nurseries and epidemiological studies. The developed dot-ELISA and TAS-ELISA methods could detect CTV in crude extracts of infected citrus leaves with dilutions of 1:2560 and 1:10, 240 (w/v, g/mL), respectively. Tissue print-ELISA was particularly useful for large-scale field sample detection, mainly owing to its simplicity and lack of sample preparation requirements. The field survey revealed that CTV is prevalent on citrus trees in the Chongqing Municipality, Jiangxi Province, and Zhejiang Province of China. The coincidence rate of serological and RT-PCR test results reached more than 99.5%. The prepared MAbs against CTV and established sensitive and specific serological assays have a significant role in the detection and prevention and control of CTV in our country.
Stieber, Bettina; Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Ehricht, Ralf
Background S. aureus is a pathogen in humans and animals that harbors a wide variety of virulence factors and resistance genes. This bacterium can cause a wide range of mild to life-threatening diseases. In the latter case, fast diagnostic procedures are important. In routine diagnostic laboratories, several genotypic and phenotypic methods are available to identify S. aureus strains and determine their resistances. However, there is a demand for multiplex routine diagnostic tests to directly detect staphylococcal toxins and proteins. Methods In this study, an antibody microarray based assay was established and validated for the rapid detection of staphylococcal markers and exotoxins. The following targets were included: staphylococcal protein A, penicillin binding protein 2a, alpha- and beta-hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, enterotoxins A and B as well as staphylokinase. All were detected simultaneously within a single experiment, starting from a clonal culture on standard media. The detection of bound proteins was performed using a new fluorescence reading device for microarrays. Results 110 reference strains and clinical isolates were analyzed using this assay, with a DNA microarray for genotypic characterization performed in parallel. The results showed a general high concordance of genotypic and phenotypic data. However, genotypic analysis found the hla gene present in all S. aureus isolates but its expression under given conditions depended on the clonal complex affiliation of the actual isolate. Conclusions The multiplex antibody assay described herein allowed a rapid and reliable detection of clinically relevant staphylococcal toxins as well as resistance- and species-specific markers. PMID:26624622
Fisher, Dennis G.; Hess, Kristen L.; Erlyana, Erlyana; Reynolds, Grace L.; Cummins, Catherine A.; Alonzo, Todd A.
Background. Hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent blood-borne diseases in the United States. Despite the benefits of early screening, among 3.2 million Americans who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 50%–70% are unaware of their infection status. Methods. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, from 1048 clients who were in the following groups: (1) injection drug users, (2) women at sexual risk, (3) gay and bisexual men, and (4) transgender individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care tests included (1) the MedMira rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV antibody test, (2) MedMira hepatitis B (HBV)/HIV/HCV antibody test, (3) Chembio HCV Screen Assay used with both whole blood and (4) oral specimens, (5) Chembio HIV-HCV Assay also used with both whole blood and (6) oral specimens, (7) Chembio HIV-HCV-Syphilis Assay, and (8) OraSure HCV Rapid Antibody Test used with whole blood. The gold standard for the HCV tests were HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 2.0. Results. OraSure had the highest sensitivity at 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 88.8%–96.5%) followed closely by Chembio's 3 blood tests at 92.1% (95% CI = 87.7%–96.4%), 91.5% (95% CI = 87.2%–95.7%), and 92.3% (95% CI = 88.4%–96.2%). The sensitivities of MedMira HIV/HCV and MedMira HIV/HCV/HBV tests were the lowest, at 79.1% (95% CI = 72.6%–85.5%), and 81.5% (95% CI = 75.2%–87.8%), respectively. Specificity for the OraSure was 99.8% (95% CI = 99.4%–100%); specificity for the Chembio blood tests was 99.2% (95% CI = 98.6%–99.9%), 99.4% (95% CI = 98.8%–99.9%), and 99.3% (95% CI = 98.8%–99.9%); and specificity for the MedMira was100% and 100%. False-negative results were associated with HIV and hepatitis B core antibody serostatus. Conclusions. The OraSure and Chembio blood tests (including those multiplexed with HIV and syphilis) appear to good performance characteristics. This study has identified potential limitations of rapid testing in those
Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei
An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV.
Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E
Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.
Blanco, Yolanda; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Parro, Victor
Global warming and eutrophication make some aquatic ecosystems behave as true bioreactors that trigger rapid and massive cyanobacterial growth; this has relevant health and economic consequences. Many cyanobacterial strains are toxin producers, and only a few cells are necessary to induce irreparable damage to the environment. Therefore, water-body authorities and administrations require rapid and efficient early-warning systems providing reliable data to support their preventive or curative decisions. This manuscript reports an experimental protocol for the in-field detection of toxin-producing cyanobacterial strains by using an antibody microarray chip with 17 antibodies (Abs) with taxonomic resolution (CYANOCHIP). Here, a multiplex fluorescent sandwich microarray immunoassay (FSMI) for the simultaneous monitoring of 17 cyanobacterial strains frequently found blooming in freshwater ecosystems, some of them toxin producers, is described. A microarray with multiple identical replicates (up to 24) of the CYANOCHIP was printed onto a single microscope slide to simultaneously test a similar number of samples. Liquid samples can be tested either by direct incubation with the antibodies (Abs) or after cell concentration by filtration through a 1- to 3-μm filter. Solid samples, such as sediments and ground rocks, are first homogenized and dispersed by a hand-held ultrasonicator in an incubation buffer. They are then filtered (5 - 20 μm) to remove the coarse material, and the filtrate is incubated with Abs. Immunoreactions are revealed by a final incubation with a mixture of the 17 fluorescence-labeled Abs and are read by a portable fluorescence detector. The whole process takes around 3 h, most of it corresponding to two 1-h periods of incubation. The output is an image, where bright spots correspond to the positive detection of cyanobacterial markers.
Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M
African swine fever (ASF) is a viral, highly lethal haemorrhagic disease of swine with no available vaccine or effective treatment. Introduction of ASF into a country triggers immediate restriction measures that cause significant economic losses and threatens spread to neighbouring countries. Wild boar populations have been recently assigned an essential role in the spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) to European countries. Therefore, effective surveillance and monitoring of wild boar populations is required, but sampling wild boar is logistically challenging and expensive. This study assessed the feasibility of detecting antibodies against ASFV in faeces for later implementation in surveillance and control programmes. Two groups of pigs were experimentally infected with an attenuated ASFV isolate Ken05, and blood, oral fluid and faecal samples were tested for the presence of viral DNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to monitor infection progress. Faecal samples were analysed using two indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on semipurified viral protein (vp) 72 or purified recombinant vp30 expressed in mammalian cells. Faecal samples from 9 of 10 pigs with non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea tested positive for antibodies against ASFV using the two ELISA tests that showed a positive correlation. The serum sample results from the two indirect ELISAs were compared against results from the reference ELISA technique and the immunoperoxidase test. Our findings indicate the feasibility of faecal sampling for detecting anti-ASFV antibodies, which may provide a practical non-invasive alternative for sampling wild boar populations. In conclusion, the application of these ELISA tests to faecal field samples could be particularly useful to screen for the presence of ASF in field conditions.
Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Mudanyali, Onur; Seo, Sungkyu; Silangcruz, Jaime; Macal, Monica; Ramanculov, Erlan; Dandekar, Satya; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan; Revzin, Alexander
Characterization of leukocytes is an integral part of blood analysis and blood-based diagnostics. In the present paper, we combine lensless holographic imaging with antibody microarrays for rapid and multiparametric analysis of leukocytes from human blood. Monoclonal antibodies (Abs) specific for leukocyte surface antigens (CD4 and CD8) and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2) were printed in an array so as to juxtapose cell capture and cytokine detection antibody (Ab) spots. Integration of Ab microarrays into a microfluidic flow chamber (4 muL volume) followed by incubation with human blood resulted in capture of CD4 and CD8 T-cells on specific Ab spots. On-chip mitogenic activation of these cells induced release of cytokine molecules that were subsequently captured on neighboring anticytokine Ab spots. The binding of IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma molecules on their respective Ab spots was detected using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anticytokine Abs and a visible color reagent. Lensfree holographic imaging was then used to rapidly ( approximately 4 s) enumerate CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes captured on Ab spots and to quantify the cytokine signal emanating from IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma spots on the same chip. To demonstrate the utility of our approach for infectious disease monitoring, blood samples of healthy volunteers and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were analyzed to determine the CD4/CD8 ratio, an important HIV/AIDS diagnostic marker. The ratio obtained by lensfree on-chip imaging of CD4 and CD8 T-cells captured on Ab spots was in close agreement with conventional microscopy-based cell counting. The present paper, describing tandem use of Ab microarrays and lensfree holographic imaging, paves the way for future development of miniature cytometry devices for multiparametric blood analysis at the point of care or in a resource-limited setting.
Mire-Sluis, Anthony R; Barrett, Yu Chen; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Koren, Eugene; Liu, Hank; Maia, Mauricio; Parish, Thomas; Scott, George; Shankar, Gopi; Shores, Elizabeth; Swanson, Steven J; Taniguchi, Gary; Wierda, Daniel; Zuckerman, Linda A
Most biopharmaceutical therapeutics elicit some level of antibody response against the product. This antibody response can, in some cases, lead to potentially serious side effects and/or loss of efficacy. Therefore, the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins is a concern for clinicians, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In order to assess immunogenicity of these molecules, appropriate detection, quantitation and characterization of antibody responses are necessary. Inadequately designed antibody assays have led to the hampering of product development or, during licensure, post-marketing commitments. This document provides scientific recommendations based on the experience of the authors for the development of anti-product antibody immunoassays intended for preclinical or clinical studies. While the main focus of this document is assay design considerations, we provide scientific focus and background to the various assay performance parameters necessary for developing a valid assay. Sections on assay performance parameters, including those that appear in regulatory guidances, are contained in this manuscript.
Kobayashi, Sohei; Hoshino, Tyuji; Hiwasa, Takaki; Satoh, Mamoru; Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Tsuchida, Sachio; Komukai, Yuji; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Shimada, Hideaki; Nomura, Fumio; Matsushita, Kazuyuki
Anti-PUF60, poly(U)-binding-splicing factor, autoantibodies are reported to be detected in the sera of dermatomyositis and Sjogren's syndrome that occasionally associated with malignancies. PUF60 is identical with far-upstream element-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) that is a transcriptional repressor of c-myc gene. In colorectal cancers, a splicing variant of FIR that lacks exon2 (FIRΔexon2) is overexpressed as a dominant negative form of FIR. In this study, to reveal the presence and the significance of anti-FIRs (FIR/FIRΔexon2) antibodies in cancers were explored in the sera of colorectal and other cancer patients. Anti-FIRs antibodies were surely detected in the preoperative sera of 28 colorectal cancer patients (32.2% of positive rates), and the detection rate was significantly higher than that in healthy control sera (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.01). The level of anti-FIRs antibodies significantly decreased after the operation (p < 0.01). Anti-FIRs antibodies were detected in the sera of early-stage and/or recurrent colon cancer patients in which anti-p53 antibodies, CEA, and CA19-9 were not detected as well as in the sera of other cancer patients. Furthermore, the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic for anti-FIRs antibodies was significantly larger (0.85) than that for anti-p53 antibodies or CA19-9. In conclusions, the combination of anti-FIRs antibodies with other clinically available tumor markers further improved the specificity and accuracy of cancer diagnosis. PMID:27756887
Horenstein, A L; Feinstein, R E
Solid-phase radioimmunoassays (SPRIA) are described for the detection of equine infectious anemia (EIA) viral antigen and antibodies. Protein-antigen P29 currently used in the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was used as antigen in the SPRIA. Rabbit sera selected from positive AGID test data were used to standardize the method. Briefly, wells of flexible microtitre plates coated with antigen were incubated with antiserum followed by a secondary labelled antibody. The radioactivity remaining in the wells after washing provided a measure of the amount of specific antibodies in the serum. When testing a group of rabbit sera, negative for EIA virus antibodies by the AGID test, in the SPRIA a range of positive reactivities was noted. The specificity of the reaction was assessed by inhibition with the antigen. The reaction of immune serum against EIA-virus antigen adsorbed to the wells, was completely inhibited by the antigen in solution. This property was applied in an indirect competitive SPRIA for the detection of viral protein P29. The detection threshold of the SPRIA for EIA virus protein was about 5 ng and about 1 ng of antibody can be detected. The assay is rapid, specific and sensitive and allows the testing of multiple serum samples with the advantage of employing a single secondary labelled antibody.
Senthilkumaran, Chandrika; Yang, Ming; Bittner, Hilary; Ambagala, Aruna; Lung, Oliver; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G.; Nfon, Charles
Virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (OFs). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome in swine OFs has previously been demonstrated. Virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing FMDV, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine OF. The objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of FMDV in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and FMDV isolation from swine OFs, and develop an assay for isotypic anti-FMDV antibody detection in OFs. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) from FMDV was detected in OFs from experimentally infected pigs by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (dpi) to 21 dpi. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was isolated from OFs at 1 to 5 dpi. Additionally, FMDV antigens were detected in OFs from 1 to 6 dpi using a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (LFIST), which is a rapid pen-side test, and from 2 to 3 dpi using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA). Furthermore, FMDV-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) was detected in OFs using an isotype-specific indirect ELISA starting at dpi 14. These results further demonstrated the potential use of oral fluids for detecting FMDV genome, live virus, and viral antigens, as well as for quantifying mucosal IgA antibody response. PMID:28408775
Kapoor, Reetika; Mandal, Bikash; Paul, Prabir Kumar; Chigurupati, Phaneendra; Jain, Rakesh Kumar
Cocktail of polyclonal antibodies (PAb) were produced that will help in multiple virus detection and overcome the limitation of individual virus purification, protein expression and purification as well as immunization in multiple rabbits. A dual fusion construct was developed using conserved coat protein (CP) sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in an expression vector, pET-28a(+). The fusion protein (∼40kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Likewise, a triple fusion construct was developed by fusing conserved CP sequences of CMV and PRSV with conserved nucleocapsid protein (N) sequence of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) and expressed as a fusion protein (∼50kDa) in pET-28a(+). PAb made separately to each of these three viruses recognized the double and triple fusion proteins in Western blot indicating retention of desired epitopes for binding with target antibodies. The fusion proteins (∼40kDa and ∼50kDa) were used to produce cocktail of PAb by immunizing rabbits, which simultaneously detected natural infection of CMV and PRSV or CMV, PRSV and GBNV in Cucurbitaceous, Solanaceous and other hosts in DAC-ELISA. This is the first report on production of a cocktail of PAb to recombinant fusion protein of two or three distinct viruses.
Sas, Miriam A; Mertens, Marc; Isselmou, Ekaterina; Reimer, Nicole; El Mamy, Bezeid O; Doumbia, Baba; Groschup, Martin H
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in Mauritania in 1983 and several CCHFV outbreaks were reported in the following years. The last human case was diagnosed in 2015. However, no recent data exist about the prevalence of CCHFV in animals, although it is already described that prevalence studies in animals serve as good risk indicators. CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate in humans. Therefore, a precise risk assessment on the basis of updated data is very important. This article gives an overview about the current CCHFV prevalence in cattle in Mauritania. A seroprevalence study was carried out using 495 cattle sera from Mauritania, which were collected in the year 2013. The sera were analyzed by an inhouse CCHFV-IgG-ELISA. As second screening test, an adapted commercial CCHFV-IgG-ELISA was performed. Inconclusive sera were additionally tested by a modified commercial CCHFV-IgG-IFA. All assays showed high diagnostic sensitivity (>95%) and specificity (>98%). The overall prevalence of CCHFV-specific antibodies found in Mauritanian cattle was 67%, ranging from 56% to 90% in different provinces. This study shows a very high CCHFV-specific antibody prevalence in cattle in Mauritania. It is the highest seroprevalence detected in Mauritania so far. This strengthens the hypothesis that CCHFV is a serious and ongoing threat for public health in Mauritania.
Kuang, Hua; Wang, Wenbing; Xu, Liguang; Ma, Wei; Liu, Liqiang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai
A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established and validated for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). After routine fusion and selection, 10 monoclonal antibodies showed high affinity for SEA. An optimal pair for sandwich ELISA was selected by pairwise interaction analysis. After optimization, the limit of detection (LOD) and linear dynamic range of the method were established, and were found to be 0.0282 ng/mL and 0.06-2 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery in pure milk ranged from 82.67% to 111.95% and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 3.16% to 6.05% and from 5.16% to 10.79%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC), staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED), and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE) in this method were insignificant. These results indicate that the sandwich ELISA method developed in our study is effective for routine identification of SEA in food samples.
Gupta, Garima; Sharma, P K; Sikarwar, B; Merwyn, S; Kaushik, S; Boopathi, M; Agarwal, G S; Singh, Beer
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) modified gold SPR chip was developed first time for the detection of flagellin specific antibodies of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). Flagellin protein of S. typhi was prepared by recombinant DNA technology. The modification of gold chip with 4-MBA was in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. By using kinetic evaluation software, K(D) and B(max) values were calculated and found to be 26.3 fM and 62.04 m°, respectively, for the immobilized monoclonal antibody (Moab) of recombinant flagellin (r-fla) protein of S. typhi (r-fla S. typhi). In addition, thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were determined first time for r-fla S. typhi and Moab of r-fla S. typhi interactions and the values revealed the interaction between r-fla S. typhi and Moab of r-fla S. typhi as spontaneous, endothermic and entropy driven one. Moreover, healthy human serum samples and patient sera (Widal positive and Widal negative) were subjected to SPR analysis. The present SPR based approach provides an alternative way for S. typhi detection in less than 10 min.
Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Glennon, Erin; Ching, Wei-Mei
Currently, the accepted method for Q fever serodiagnosis is indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) using the whole cell antigen. In this study, we prepared the recombinant antigen of the 27-kDa outer membrane protein (Com1) which has been shown to be recognized by Q fever patient sera. The performance of recombinant Com1 was evaluated in ELISA by IFA confirmed serum samples. Due to the low titers of IgG and IgM in Q fever patients, the standard ELISA signals were further amplified by using biotinylated anti-human IgG or IgM plus streptavidin-HRP polymer. The modified ELISA can detect 88% (29 out of 33) of Q fever patient sera collected from Marines deployed to Iraq. Less than 5% (5 out of 156) of the sera from patients with other febrile diseases reacted with the Com1. These results suggest that the modified ELISA using Com1 may have the potential to improve the detection of Q fever specific antibodies. PMID:26904739
Kösters, K; Riffelmann, M; Dohrn, B; von König, C H
Measuring antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens is mostly done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We compared the performance of five commercially available ELISA kits with the help of 65 serum specimens which were repetitively tested for evaluation of the kits. The specimens contained 20 paired serum samples from patients with clinical pertussis, 15 samples were from children vaccinated with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, seven specimens were taken from an interlaboratory comparison of ELISAs, and there were three reference preparations from the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Laboratory of Pertussis and from our laboratory. Reference values were obtained from the FDA or from results obtained with an in-house ELISA. Commercial ELISAs were compared with respect to their reproducibility and variability, their ability to detect significant titer rises in paired serum samples, their ability to detect an immune response after vaccination, and the comparability of semiquantitative and quantitative results. Reproducibility was generally good (>89%), intra-assay variation ranged from 2.4 to 28.7%, and indeterminate results were recorded in up to 18.5% of all specimens. Most kits correctly identified the antibody response to an acellular pertussis vaccine. None of the commercial kits identified all cases of pertussis correctly, and the sensitivity ranged between 60 and 95%. All five commercial ELISAs showed great discrepancies when comparing semiquantitative results and contained obviously different antigen preparations. Our data suggest that the five commercial ELISAs tested here need further improvement and standardization.
Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro
Ciguatoxins are the major causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning. Limited availability of ciguatoxins has hampered the development of a reliable and specific immunoassay for detecting these toxins in contaminated fish. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against both ends of Pacific ciguatoxins CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were prepared by i