Hamby, M.; Rusco, E.
This report was written by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office. This office oversees the nuclear waste activities for the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility for the state of Nevada. The Yomba Shoshone Reservation socio-economic profile was the basis of this paper. It describes the life and current status of the Shoshone Indians. Population, utilities, education and social services of the Shoshone are examples of the topics which are discussed. It is intended as base-line information only. It eventually summarizes and compares data from the public opinion of the Shoshone about the high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (MB)
Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard
The Wellbriety Movement in Native American communities draws on the wisdom and participation of traditional elders. Beginning with a basic community teaching called the Four Laws of Change and the Healing Forest Model, the Wellbriety Movement blends Medicine Wheel knowledge with the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous to provide culture-specific…
This digital 1:10,000,000 map (Reichenbacher et al. 1998) of coded polygons depicts the major upland biotic communities of North America using an ecological color scheme that illustrates gradients in available plant moisture, heat, and cold. Biotic communities are regional plant...
Thomas, Robert K.
Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…
The references presented in this bibliography provide an overview of recent scholarship on Asian Americans in community colleges. Included in this bibliography are educational reports, case studies, literature reviews, and analyses that reflect upon the experience of Asian Americans in community colleges. The references also address the barriers…
Integrated Education Associates, Evanston, IL.
Contents include the following articles: (1) "'Don't Mistake the Finger Pointing at the Moon for the Moon:' Zen Buddhist Saying / On Understanding Minority Group Experiences: The Asian American Example;" (2) "Schooling and Employment of Asian Americans;" (3) "The Chinese Community in San Francisco;" (4) "The Chinese in New York City;" (5)…
This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.
This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.
Although the many American Indian tribes of the United States are unique in their own customs, languages, and histories, a common thread throughout their traditions and cultural lifestyles is that they are of a culture that reveres the elder in their communities. Elders are the carriers of the culture/history; they are the storytellers, holders of…
Birdsall, William F.
This essay addresses the ambiguity and confusion arising out of two values that have been embodied in American public library ideology since at least the last quarter of the nineteenth century: concept of the public library as community institution; the public library's emphasis on service to the individual. (27 references) (EJS)
Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ryujin, Lisa; Nguyen, Tammy; Oh, Gia; Paik, Grace; Kustin, Brenda
Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocery Store based cancer education program evaluation data provided an opportunity to compare data collected under identical circumstances from members of six Asian American cultural groups. Methods A convenience sample of 1,202 Asian American women evaluated the cultural alignment of a cancer education program, completing baseline and follow-up surveys that included questions about their breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. Participants took part in a brief education program that facilitated adherence to recommended screening guidelines. Results Unique recruitment methods were needed to attract participants from each ethnic group. Impressions gained from the aggregate data revealed different insights than the disaggregate data. Statistically significant variations existed among the subgroups' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors that could contribute to health disparities among the subgroups and within the aggregate Pan Asian community. Conclusion Health promotion efforts of providers, educators, and policy makers can be enhanced if cultural differences are identified and taken into account when developing strategies to reduce health disparities and promote health equity. PMID:14697098
Zimmerman, Julie N.
The American Community Survey provides detailed demographic data on local communities and populations. While the American Community Survey provides data useful for Extension, the data are more complicated, users must understand data reliability, and many resources are designed to help the regular, not the occasional, user. The Kentucky: By The…
Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.
Motlow State Community Coll., Tullahoma, TN.
In 1996, Tennessee's Motlow State Community College (MSCC) participated in the American Association of Community Colleges' Exploring America's Communities project, which works to strengthen the instruction of American history, literature, and culture at U.S. community colleges. MSCC's goal is to introduce an understanding of cultural diversity…
Bates, Marcie Ann
Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…
Camacho, Rosie Lee
Consisting of three units, the course model aims to prepare students to address the problem of abuse and/or neglect in the Mexican American community. Unit one focuses on the two major parts of the informal helping system in the Mexican American community, the barrio and the family. Unit two concentrates on the traditional child welfare system and…
JAPANESE-AMERICANS HAVE HAD A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DIFFICULTY WITHIN CALIFORNIA. EARLY DISCRIMINATORY LEGISLATION AGAINST JAPANESE-AMERICANS HAD FORCED THEM INTO THEIR OWN COMMUNITY AND THUS HAD FORCED THEM TO RETAIN THEIR CULTURE. WORLD WAR II RELOCATION OF THE JAPANESE-AMERICANS HAD CAUSED UPHEAVAL IN FAMILY AND COMMUNITY LIVING. THESE…
Edwards, E. Daniel; And Others
A spirit of belonging is the most significant factor in Native American identity and is supported by many cultural values with relevance for community organizing. Describes a community development approach for Native Americans based on community organization, cultural enhancement, and self-determination principles within a context of alcohol and…
Phillippe, Kent A.; Boggs, George R.
Examines and discusses the utility of the classification systems proposed for community colleges from the perspective of the American Association of Community Colleges. Provides insights for understanding the differences among community colleges. Concludes size appears to be the most important factor driving proposed categorization systems. (NB)
American Indian Quarterly, 2003
In 1977 a group of urban American Indian organizations got together to protest the leveling of rental housing for urban renewal; then they learned that a community college was going up to replace that housing, right in the middle of the Indian community. Realizing the opportunities for jobs, education, and training, the community leaders decided…
Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany
Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…
Discusses the role that schools, communities, and parents can play in transmitting American Indian culture and language to Indian children, focusing on the experiences of the Hualapai Indians and Peach Springs School District in Arizona. (three references) (MDM)
Dickens, Manuel Dewayne
The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…
Belmega, Akacia T.
This paper explores the language attitudes of bilingual children and teenagers in the Ukrainian-American community in Buffalo, New York. It was hypothesized that Ukranian-American children develop an ethnic consciousness and pride in preserving the Ukranian language and culture, but at the same time, show no increase in the use of Ukrainian and…
Hooglund, Eric, Ed.
This book is the second in a series of works that seeks to examine the Arab-American experience. The original 1984 publication, "Taking Root, Bearing Fruit: The Arab-American Experience" featured surveys of 12 communities in all geographic regions of the United States. Such was the response to that report that its creators decided to continue the…
Yick, Alice G; Berthold, S Megan
Conducting culturally competent research is a challenge as the United States becomes increasingly multicultural. When conducting research on violence in Asian American communities, researchers need to consider how culture, race, and ethnicity influence definitions of concepts, and methodological issues such as research designs, sampling, developing and translating instruments, ethical issues, recruiting research participants, supervising and training interviewers, and disseminating findings. Examples from the authors' research studies on community violence in the Khmer community, domestic violence in the Chinese American community, and dating violence in Asian American groups are extrapolated to highlight various themes. A commitment to a research program that collaborates with the community under study and cultural experts is vital at every stage of the research process. PMID:16468444
Schrader, Elizabeth L.; Schrader, David C.
This paper applies concepts from intercultural communication theory, adult learning theory, and traditional Native American medicine to a specific learning experience for Native Americans. The background is an educational opportunity offered by the Indian Health Services Bureau to tribe members to become employed on their reservations as Health…
Betts, J. David
This study is about a community computing lab established by a U.S. Department of Commerce grant to bridge the Digital Divide in a rural Arizona American Indian community, a project called "Native Connection" (a pseudonym). This paper describes the process of integrating new literacies associated with a high-tech computer lab into the life of a…
Jones, Janine M.
In many African American communities, violence and poverty are often part of daily living. As a result, children are at risk for difficulties in all aspect of their lives, particularly their emotional well-being. This study explored the relationship between exposure to chronic community violence and the development of complex post-traumatic stress…
Gallo, Ralph; Davis, Ronnie
The authors conducted a formal research study to investigate the perceptions of faculty, staff, and community residents regarding town-gown relationships and the sustainability of African American communities as related to educational benefits, home ownership, employment and job training, earning potential, and graduation rates.
Hill, Norbert S., Jr.
This first of a series of essays on Indian leadership focuses on the role of American Indian leaders in community development, including their contributions of technological skills, humanism, and the energy and persistence needed to work toward a vision. Essential to rebuilding Indian communities is understanding how internalized oppression has…
American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2010
The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is the primary advocacy organization for the nation's community colleges, representing nearly 1,200 two-year, associate degree-granting institutions and more than 11 million students. Founded in 1920, AACC is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit association. AACC is governed by a 32-member board of directors,…
Future Farmers of America, Alexandria, VA.
Achievements of the Building Our American Communities Program (BOAC), initiated in 1971 to provide a vehicle for Future Farmers of America members to make direct contributions to their communities and to practice good citizenship and develop leadership skills, are summarized in this 1985 annual report. the report begins with messages from…
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…
Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird
Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses the translation of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, using a CBPR approach, with an urban Native American community. This article highlights not only how the CBPR process facilitates the successful translation of the Stanford program but also how CBPR is used within this community to build community capacity. PMID:19376928
Stephenson, Gwendolyn W.
St. Louis Community College (SLCC), in Missouri, is currently involved in various programs designed to address the issues of drop-outs, teenage pregnancy, illiteracy, crime, underemployment, and unemployment. One such program is the Emerson Electric Co. Minority Engineering Scholarships which since 1988 has provided scholarships to 80 minority…
Markus, Susan F.
This article provides an example of a culturally responsive, community-based project for addressing social determinants of health in rural American Indian (AI) communities through: 1) empowering youth and community voices to set directions for HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy prevention and education efforts; 2) using…
Oetzel, John; Wallerstein, Nina; Solimon, Audrey; Garcia, Bruce; Siemon, Mark; Adeky, Sarah; Apachito, Gracie; Caston, Elissa; Finster, Carolyn; Belone, Lorenda; Tafoya, Greg
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of community capacity for American Indian communities. The study included development and testing phases to ensure face, content, construct, and predictive validity. There were 500 participants in two southwest tribes who completed a detailed community profile, which contained 21 common items in…
Edwards, Flora Mancuso
The undergraduate curriculum must consider international and intercultural implications. The study of other cultures must be part of a liberal education, and graduates must have the skills and information to be informed citizen-workers in a world community. (MLW)
Davis, Sally M; Reid, Raymond
The purpose of this article is to explore the historical issues that affect research in American Indian communities and examine the implications of these issues as they relate to culturally sensitive, respectful, and appropriate research with this population. Methods include review and analysis of the literature and examination of our collective experience and that of our colleagues. Recommendations are given for conducting culturally sensitive, participatory research. We conclude that research efforts must build on the establishment of partnerships between investigators and American Indian communities to ensure accurate findings and analyses and to implement culturally relevant benefits. PMID:10195598
Sahota, Puneet Chawla
Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…
Higher education has an incalculable impact on society and the development of its citizens. In today's globalizing world, the responsibility of community colleges for producing high quality graduates with global competence cannot be ignored. The study reported here researches international education and provides insights of importance to community…
LaDue, Robin A.; And Others
To provide some directions for the design and implementation of innovative health programs, both on an individual and community level, this paper, using both empirical and anecdotal sources, explores some of the possible psychological mechanisms Indian people have used to endure overt and covert Federal policies and social attitudes of termination…
Auel, Lisa B.
The communities that individuals have created are endlessly diverse. They have followed ancient patterns and have experimented boldly with innovative ideas. This publication and the exhibition it complements present only a few of the many ways that individuals have found to live together. It is divided according to the specific forces behind the…
Understanding Community Development. A Guide for Native American Community Leaders and Professionals. Participant's Manual. A Training Packet Developed for and in Cooperation with Native American Tribal Leaders.
Schnabel, Rudolph K.; Parmee, Edward A.
The participant's manual for workshops to train Native American community leaders and professionals in community development skills defines community development terms, shows how to help community members solve their own problems, helps clarify the role of community leaders/professionals, gives examples of good community development/action…
Robinson, Paul; And Others
Describes locally controlled economic development strategies used by Native American and Hispanic cooperatives and organizations: Ganados del Valle, Madera Forest Products Association, Seventh Generation Fund, and Ramah Navajo Weavers Association. Discusses the issues of cultural and economic survival in isolated rural communities. (SV)
Weber, Gretchen Aggertt
This report contends that public events are effective ways for community colleges to provide a venue in which the burgeoning population of immigrant Americans may have a voice. The ten successful goals to successful public-event planning are: (1) determining goals; (2) selecting a date; (3) reserving facilities; (4) creating a student planning…
Shared cultural backgrounds and norms about how to use language can influence classroom interactions for minorities, including African Americans. Research finds serious problems when teachers' interactional styles differ from that of students' home communities. The differences can prevent full student participation and limit academic progress.…
Mack, Raymond W., Ed.
This collection of case studies on school desegregation in nine American communities (Kalamazoo, Michigan; Newark, Delaware; Riverside and Los Angeles, California; Savannah, Georgia; River City and Bayon County, Mississippi; Chicago, Illinois; and, Hempstead, New York.) summarizes and interprets the struggles to solve this domestic social problem.…
Describes how the Linda Vista branch of the San Diego Public Library (California) developed services for three Asian American constituencies--Vietnamese, Lao, and Hmong. Topics addressed include bilingual library assistants; getting to know the community; coalitions with business and religious leaders; special programming; and collection…
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of African American male students in community college and to explore their decision-making process to persist. The study sought to describe these experiences and to discover any impact these experiences might have on decisions regarding completing a degree. The research…
Taylor-Brown, Susan; And Others
Conducted a retrospective chart review utilizing Norwood's model on the families of the 83 infants whose cord blood was positive for maternal HIV antibodies or who were congenitally infected with HIV. Discusses implications for permanency planning in the context of their impact on the African-American community. (KS)
This is an analysis of entrepreneurship-education opportunities at various American community colleges, universities, and business schools. Roughly 100 institutions offer formal educational programs that focus on entrepreneurship; however, approximately 1,500 colleges offer courses in entrepreneurship and small-business management. Community…
Fujimoto, M. Jack
Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015
Community and technical colleges are known as "Democracy's colleges." They are grounded in the core American value that all people deserve the opportunity to move up in the world, regardless of where they are from, what obstacles they face and where they need to start. At a time when college education is the ticket to a middle-class…
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
The purpose of this study was to identify instructional strategies and support services of five learning community programs that focus on the retention of African American students at California Community Colleges. Empirical research indicates that colleges and universities have historically structured their curricula, student services programs,…
Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Background Numerous sets of principles have been developed to guide the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, they tend to be written in language that is most appropriate for academics and other research professionals; they may not help lay people from the community understand CBPR. Methods Many community members of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer assisting with the Educational Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (EPICS) had little understanding of CBPR. We engaged community members in developing culturally-specific principles for conducting academic-community collaborative research. Results We developed a set of CBPR principles intended to resonate with African-American community members. Conclusions Applying NBLIC-developed CBPR principles contributed to developing and implementing an intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among African Americans. PMID:26336653
McKee, Michael; Thew, Denise; Starr, Matthew; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Reid, John T.; Graybill, Patrick; Velasquez, Julia; Pearson, Thomas
Background Numerous publications demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in community health research, but few target the Deaf community. The Deaf community is understudied and underrepresented in health research despite suspected health disparities and communication barriers. Objectives The goal of this paper is to share the lessons learned from the implementation of CBPR in an understudied community of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users in the greater Rochester, New York, area. Methods We review the process of CBPR in a Deaf ASL community and identify the lessons learned. Results Key CBPR lessons include the importance of engaging and educating the community about research, ensuring that research benefits the community, using peer-based recruitment strategies, and sustaining community partnerships. These lessons informed subsequent research activities. Conclusions This report focuses on the use of CBPR principles in a Deaf ASL population; lessons learned can be applied to research with other challenging-to-reach populations. PMID:22982845
Nine, Susan L; Lakies, Charlotte L; Jarrett, Helen Kay; Davis, Barbara A
Seventy-five predominately African American volunteers were enrolled in a community-based intervention program designed to lower blood pressure and HgbA1C levels in an African American population. Program components consisted of exercise, meal planning, weekly support groups, periodic cooking schools, and service coordination. Significant decreases in initial and 1-year values were seen in both systolic blood pressure (P < .0001) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .000) and HgbA1Cs for those with initial values > 7% (P = .013). PMID:12881971
Skolarus, Lesli E.; Murphy, Jillian B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Brown, Devin L.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Greenberg, Emily; Morgenstern, Lewis B.
Background African Americans receive acute stroke treatment less often than non-Hispanic Whites. Interventions to increase stroke preparedness (recognizing stroke warning signs and calling 911) may decrease the devastating effects of stroke by allowing more patients to be candidates for acute stroke therapy. In preparation for such an intervention, we used a community-based participatory research approach to conduct a qualitative study exploring perceptions of emergency medical care and stroke among urban African American youth and adults. Methods and Results Community partners, church health teams, and church leaders identified and recruited focus group participants from 3 African American churches in Flint, Michigan. We conducted 5 youth (11-16 years) and 4 adult focus groups from November 2011 to March 2012. A content analysis approach was taken for analysis. Thirty nine youth and 38 adults participated. Women comprised 64% of youth and 90% of adult focus group participants. All participants were African American. Three themes emerged from the adult and youth data: 1) recognition that stroke is a medical emergency; 2) perceptions of difficulties within the medical system in an under resourced community and; 3) need for greater stroke education in the community. Conclusions African American adults and youth have a strong interest in stroke preparedness. Designing behavioral interventions to increase stroke preparedness should be sensitive to both individual and community factors contributing to the likelihood of seeking emergency care for stroke. PMID:23674311
Lowe, John; Riggs, Cheryl; Henson, Jim
This article traces the development of a research project with a Native American community. Four principles were used to guide the development of the “Community Partnership to Affect Cherokee Adolescent Substance Abuse” project using a community-based participatory research approach. The principles suggest that establishing trust is key when developing and conducting research with a Native American community. PMID:21563633
Lowe, John; Riggs, Cheryl; Henson, Jim
This article traces the development of a research project with a Native American community. Four principles were used to guide the development of the "Community Partnership to Affect Cherokee Adolescent Substance Abuse" project using a community-based participatory research approach. The principles suggest that establishing trust is key when developing and conducting research with a Native American community. PMID:21563633
Kreuter, Matthew W.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Brown, Melissa; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Pfeiffer, Debbie; Adams-Piphus, Brandie; Krebill, Hope; Gonzalez, Dora Alice; Campos, Daisy Morales; Kirklin, Ginny Thompson; Betsworth, Sarah; Casey, Chris; Luke, Doug
This study tested the feasibility of promoting 1-800-4-CANCER through partnerships with organizations serving African American and Hispanic communities. Small media and client reminders about HPV vaccination were made available through local agents to 28 community organizations. Organizations ordered 79,932 resources and distributed them to young women and parents of girls – African Americans in St. Louis, MO and Hispanics in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Pre-to post-intervention calls to 1-800-4-CANCER increased 38% in these communities, while declining 15% in comparison communities of Kansas City, MO and El Paso, TX (F=8.6, p=.004) and 1.4% in the U.S. as a whole. PMID:22143485
Lew, Jonathan W.; Chang, June C.; Wang, Winnie W.
This review examines the impact of Asian Pacific American (APA) students' characteristics and experiences on their academic achievement. The article begins by describing the demographics and diversity of this group, and it explores the challenges posed by APA community college students' background characteristics and influences, the model minority…
Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.
In this paper we will present a concept for mentoring built on STEM principles, and applied to the Native American community in Chinle, AZ. Effective mentoring includes being sensitive, listening to, and advising mentees based upon a 'correct' appreciation not only of their needs but also of the desires of the community they come from. Our project is an outreach effort on the part of NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta mission. Our initial program design incorporated ambitious STEM materials developed by NASA/JPL for other communities that excite and engage future generations in geoscience careers, to be re-packaged and brought to the Navajo community in Chinle. We were cognizant of the communities' emphasis on the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Recognizing that one of the most important near-term problems in Native American communities across the country is preservation of aboriginal language, a first step in our program involved defining STEM vocabulary. Community participation was required to identify existing words, write a STEM thesaurus, and also define contemporary words (what we called 'NASA words') that have no equivalent in the native tongue. This step critically involved obtaining approval of new words from tribal Elders. Finally, our objective was to put this newly defined STEM vocabulary to work, helping the kids to learn STEM curriculum in their own language. The communities' response to our approach was guarded interest, an invitation to return for further work, and finally a request that we co-sponsor a Summer Science Academy that was not focused on the subjects of space exploration originally envisioned by the project. Thus a first lesson learned was that ambitious material might not be the first step to a sustained educational program on the reservation. Understanding the end-users' environment, requirements and constraints is a major component to sustainability. After several months of
HODGE, FELICIA SCHANCHE; PASQUA, ANNA; MARQUEZ, CAROL A.; GEISHIRT-CANTRELL, BETTY
Utilizing storytelling to transmit educational messages is a traditional pedagogical method practiced by many American Indian tribes. American Indian stories are effective because they present essential ideas and values in a simple, entertaining form. Different story characters show positive and negative behaviors. The stories illustrate consequences of behaviors and invite listeners to come to their own conclusions after personal reflection. Because stories have been passed down through tribal communities for generations, listeners also have the opportunity to reconnect and identify with past tribal realities. This article reports on a research intervention that is unique in promoting health and wellness through the use of storytelling. The project utilized stories to help motivate tribal members to once more adopt healthy, traditional lifestyles and practices. The authors present and discuss the stories selected, techniques used in their telling, the preparation and setting for the storytelling, and the involvement and interaction of the group. PMID:11776018
Killawi, Amal; Heisler, Michele; Hamid, Hamada; Padela, Aasim I.
Background American Muslims are understudied in health research, and there are few studies documenting community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts among American Muslim mosque communities. Objectives We highlight lessons learned from a CBPR partnership that explored the health care beliefs, behaviors, and challenges of American Muslims. Methods We established a collaboration between the University of Michigan and four Muslim-focused community organizations in Michigan. Our collaborative team designed and implemented a two-phase study involving interviews with community stakeholders and focus groups and surveys with mosque congregants. Lessons Learned Although we were successful in meeting our research goals, maintaining community partner involvement and sustaining the project partnership proved challenging. Conclusions CBPR initiatives within mosque communities have the potential for improving community health. Our experience suggests that successful research partnerships with American Muslims will utilize social networks and cultural insiders, culturally adapt research methods, and develop a research platform within the organizational infrastructures of the American Muslim community. PMID:25981426
... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; The American Community Survey AGENCY: U.S... Community Survey Office, Washington, DC 20233, by FAX to (301) 763-8070 or via the Internet at james.b.treat... needs and expectations of the country, the Census Bureau developed the American Community Survey...
Lee, Barrett A.; Hughes, Lauren A.
Although increasing diversity at the national scale is a well-documented trend, substantial variation in patterns of ethnoracial change occurs across American communities. Our research considers one theoretically implied path: that some communities are ‘bucking the trend’, becoming more homogeneous over time. Using 1980 through 2010 decennial census data, we calculate panethnic (five-group) entropy index scores to measure the magnitude of diversity for nearly 11,000 census-defined places. Our results indicate that while certain places reach their diversity peak in 1980 or 1990, they are few in number. Moreover, they experience a variety of post-peak trajectories other than monotonic diversity decline. Decreasing diversity is concentrated in the South and West, among places with higher levels of diversity and larger proportions of Hispanic or black residents at the beginning of the study period. These places exhibit complex shifts in racial-ethnic structure, but Hispanic succession predominates. PMID:26023247
Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael
Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.
Green, Melissa A.; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G.; Robinson, William S.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Objectives Cancer Clinical Trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awareness and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Design Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCTs training-of-the trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs; a role-play describing one person's experience with CCTs; or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Results Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the Call and Response (n=22), Role-play (n=60), and Workshop (n=43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access to CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the Call and Response (p < 0.01) and Role-Play modules (p < 0.001), but not the Workshop module. Conclusion Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment. PMID:25564207
Markus, Susan F
This article provides an example of a culturally responsive, community-based project for addressing social determinants of health in rural American Indian (AI) communities through: 1) empowering youth and community voices to set directions for HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy prevention and education efforts; 2) using Photovoice to promote healthy relationships among AI youth; 3) using the socioecological model (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004; 2011) as a framework for organizing the creation and subsequent sharing of Photovoice messages from individual empowerment, to relationships, communities, institutions, and general society; and 4) framing analysis of Photovoice projects in alignment with Bell's (2010) model of storytelling for social justice that connects narrative and the arts in anti-racist teaching. A discussion on future steps and recommendations for future research is provided. PMID:22569727
Griffin, Sarah F; Wilson, Dawn K; Wilcox, Sara; Buck, Jacqueline; Ainsworth, Barbara E
The purpose of this assessment is to increase our understanding of how safety and environmental factors influence physical activity among African American residents living in a low-income, high-crime neighborhood and to get input from these residents about how to best design physical activity interventions for their neighborhood. Twenty-seven African American adult residents of a low-income, high-crime neighborhood in a suburban southeastern community participated in three focus groups. Participants were asked questions about perceptions of what would help them, their families, and their neighbors be more physically active. Two independent raters coded the responses into themes. Participants suggested three environmental approaches in an effort to increase physical activity: increasing law enforcement, community connectedness and social support, and structured programs. Findings suggest that safety issues are an important factor for residents living in disadvantaged conditions and that the residents know how they want to make their neighborhoods healthier. PMID:17728204
Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.
Surveys African-American-owned radio stations to determine how effective they are in addressing health issues among African Americans. Responses from more than 50 stations indicate that they serve as change agents by encouraging community partnerships and emphasizing drug awareness, nonviolent behavior, education, and other health issues. (SLD)
OBJECTIVE: Identify unique cultural needs, priorities, program delivery preferences and barriers to achieving a healthy diet and lifestyle in one Native American community. DESIGN: A novel modified nominal group technique (NGT). SETTING: Four community district’s recreation centers. PARTICIPANTS...
Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action. PMID:20978838
Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S
American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use
Hata, Nadine Ishitani, Ed.
This report describes the current status of history education and teaching at American community colleges. The report is a collection of articles by various leaders and experts in history at community colleges: (1) Introduction (N.I. Hata); (2) "Improving History Teaching and the Status of the Community College Historian" (C.A. Zappia), which…
Over multiple generations, American Indian communities have endured a succession of traumatic events that have enduring consequences for community members. This article presents a multilevel framework for exploring the impact of historically traumatic events on individuals, families, and communities. The critical connection between historically…
Lin, K M; Lau, J K; Yamamoto, J; Zheng, Y P; Kim, H S; Cho, K H; Nakasaki, G
One hundred nine Korean American community subjects were interviewed regarding their experiences with hwa-byung (HB), a Korean folk illness label commonly used by Koreans with a myriad of physiological and psychological complaints. During these interviews, standard instruments were also used to assess their depressive and somatic symptoms. The results indicated that a relatively high proportion (12%) of the subjects labeled themselves as having suffered from HB. While no apparent sociodemographic differences were found between HB and non-HB subjects, significantly more HB subjects fulfilled the diagnosis of DSM-III major depression and also had previous diagnoses of depression. The HB subjects also had significantly higher scores for the total, depressive, and somatic subscales and 16 of the 20 individual items of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. These data confirm previous observations of substantial overlap between HB and DSM-III major depression among Koreans and Korean Americans, and suggest that HB may be a culturally patterned way of expression for Koreans experiencing major depression and related conditions. The clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:1593273
Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Jackson, J Carey; McPhee, Stephen J
Census data show that the U.S. Vietnamese population now exceeds 1,250,000. Cervical cancer among Vietnamese American women has been identified as an important health disparity. Available data indicate the cervical cancer disparity may be due to low Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates rather than variations in human papillomavirus infection rates and/or types. The cervical cancer incidence rates among Vietnamese and non-Latina White women in California during 2000 to 2002 were 14.0 and 7.3 per 100,000, respectively. Only 70% of Vietnamese women who participated in the 2003 California Health Interview Survey reported a recent Pap smear compared with 84% of non-Latina White women. Higher levels of cervical cancer screening participation among Vietnamese women are strongly associated with current/previous marriage, having a usual source of care/doctor, and previous physician recommendation. Vietnamese language media campaigns and lay health worker intervention programs have been effective in increasing Pap smear use in Vietnamese American communities. Cervical cancer control programs for Vietnamese women should address knowledge deficits, enable women who are without a usual source of care to find a primary care doctor, and improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health-care providers to recommend Pap testing as well as by empowering women to ask for testing. PMID:18990732
Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St. Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale
Purpose With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. Methods In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. Results There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. Conclusions These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents. PMID:22926269
Romney, Paulette B.
High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…
Chineworth, Mary Alice, Ed.
African-Americans have been present in Catholic schools since their beginnings in the United States. The six essays in this book examine Catholic education from the perspective of the African-American Catholic. The essays underscore the continued challenge for continuing Catholic schools in the African-American community. They include: (1) an…
Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn
This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…
This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…
How can African American community college students aspiring to four-year degrees translate aspiration into attainment? This qualitative study explored experiences of 18 African American community college students who transferred to a research university and earned baccalaureate degrees. An integration of Padilla's (1999) model of minority student…
Spangler, Mary S.; Tyler, Arthur Q., Jr.
The two-year community college is a hundred-year-old phenomenon, locally funded and distinctly American, yet increasingly exportable. Serving ever more varied roles while being challenged economically, legislatively, and academically to meet progressively higher expectations in the United States, the American community college has been discovered…
AAWCJC Quarterly, 1992
The American Association of Women in Community and Junior Colleges (AAWCJC), an affiliated council of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC), produces the "Quarterly" to disseminate information pertinent to the AAWCJC membership and to provide a forum for the discussion of current issues and events. Each issue of the…
Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.
How African American owned ratio stations use their collective resources to deal with educational issues in the communities they serve was studied by examining their community service promotional activities. The type and frequency of activity at these stations during a typical year were studied through a survey of 96 African American broadcast…
This article examines sexuality, a null curriculum in Asian-American faith communities, and explores pedagogical strategies to move the sexuality discourse to the explicit curriculum. The article first describes the current discussion of sexuality in Asian-American communities, then it critically analyzes the Confucian notion of the body, which…
Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby
Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…
Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events. Additionally, the overrepresentation of Southeast Asian youth in the mental health and juvenile justice systems also necessitates a deeper understanding of the adjustment of this group of adolescents. Data from a sample of 80 Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents who were between 13 and 18 years old revealed high rates of community violence witnessing and victimization, and a moderate level of negative life events. All of these stressors were related to higher externalizing and trauma-related symptoms, but only violence victimization and negative life events were related to higher internalizing symptoms. There was an additive effect of higher bicultural orientation related to lower externalizing and traumatic-stress symptoms in the face of stress and violence exposure, but no moderation effects were found. PMID:18087036
Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655
Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.
The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…
Roberts, Erica B.; Jette, Shannon L.
Objective: Participatory research has proven an effective method for improving health equity among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) by addressing power imbalances between communities and researchers, incorporating community knowledge and theory, ensuring mutual benefit and improving community capacity and programme sustainability. However,…
This in-depth case shows how five Mexican-American community college students use their "pedagogies of survival" to build resistance and navigate through the barriers of community colleges. Pedagogies of survival emanate from social, cultural, economic, and historical struggles of the students, their families, and their communities which engender…
Assessed the service needs of HIV-affected families in an inner city African American community with a high HIV/AIDS seroprevalence. Data from focus group interviews indicated a lack of family-sensitive HIV/AIDS community services. Participants noted the problem with stigma and identified community awareness and education as critical to serving…
Spielman, Seth E.; Folch, David; Nagle, Nicholas
In 2010 the American Community Survey (ACS) replaced the long form of the United States decennial census. The ACS is now the principal source of high-resolution geographic information about the U.S. population. The margins of error on ACS census tract-level data are on average 75 percent larger than those of the corresponding 2000 long-form estimate. The practical implications of this increase is that data are sometimes so imprecise that they are difficult to use. This paper explains why the ACS tract and block group estimates have large margins of error. Statistical concepts are explained in plain English. ACS margins of error are attributed to specific methodological decisions made by the Census Bureau. These decisions are best seen as compromises that attempt to balance financial constraints against concerns about data quality, timeliness, and geographic precision. In addition, demographic and geographic patterns in ACS data quality are identified. These patterns are associated with demographic composition of census tracts. Understanding the fundamental causes of uncertainty in the survey suggests a number of geographic strategies for improving the usability and quality ACS. PMID:25404783
Price, Misty Renee
Over the last two decades, several studies have confirmed that there is a leadership crisis among the nation's community colleges. In response to this leadership crisis, the American Association of Community Colleges [AACC] commissioned the development of a leadership competency framework consisting of six leadership competency areas deemed…
American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2011
The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is the primary advocacy organization for the nation's community colleges, representing nearly 1,200 two-year, associate degree-granting institutions and more than 11 million students. Founded in 1920, AACC is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit association. AACC is governed by a 32 member board of directors,…
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. Small/Rural Community Colleges Commission.
Compiled by the Small/Rural Community Colleges Commission of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, this collection of one-page program descriptions provides information on 121 exemplary programs and/or services at small and/or rural two-year institutions nationwide. Each program description provides the following information:…
Bare, A. Y.; Grimshaw, K. L.; Rooney, J. J.; Sabater, M. G.; Fenner, D.; Carroll, B.
An investigation into the insular shelf and submerged banks surrounding Tutuila, American Samoa, was conducted using a towed camera system. Surveys confirmed the presence of zooxanthellate scleractinian coral communities at mesophotic depths (30-110 m). Quantification of video data, separated into 10-m-depth intervals, yielded a vertical, landward-to-seaward and horizontal distribution of benthic assemblages. Hard substrata composed a majority of bottom cover in shallow water, whereas unconsolidated sediments dominated the deep insular shelf and outer reef slopes. Scleractinian coral cover was highest atop mid-shelf patch reefs and on the submerged bank tops in depths of 30-50 m. Macroalgal cover was highest near shore and on reef slopes approaching the bank tops at 50-60 m. Percent cover of scleractinian coral colony morphology revealed a number of trends. Encrusting corals belonging to the genus Montipora were most abundant at shallow depths with cover gradually decreasing as depth increased. Massive corals, such as Porites spp., displayed a similar trend. Percent cover values of plate-like corals formed a normal distribution, with the highest cover observed in the 60-70 m depth range. Shallow plate-like corals belonged mostly to the genus Acropora and appeared to be significantly prevalent on the northeastern and eastern banks. Deeper plate-like corals on the reef slopes were dominated by Leptoseris, Pachyseris, or Montipora genera. Branching coral cover was high in the 80-110 m depth range. Columnar and free-living corals were also occasionally observed from 40-70 m.
Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.
"Ameryka-Echo" was one of the most popular Polish-language weeklies, published in the United States between 1889 and 1972. Its founder and owner, Antoni A. Paryski, consciously sought to transplant ideas of Polish Positivism to the Polish-American immigrant communities in the United States. Reading was a central concept of self-education, promoted…
Senegal, Pamela Gibson
This research is a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of African American male mentoring community college students. Such programs have proliferated throughout higher education, over the past 20 years, in an effort to improve the retention, performance and goal attainment of African American males. The theoretical framework shaping…
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal
The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…
Examines several longstanding, isolated biracial sociolinguistic situations in the coastal and Appalachian regions of North Carolina: a core community of African Americans and two case studies of isolated speakers. Compares diagnostic phonological and morphosyntactic variables for speakers representing different generations of African American and…
Foster, Pamela M.; And Others
Describes an Africentric model for training psychologists who deliver Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, prevention, and services within the African-American community. Principles of the NTU philosophy (a Bantu concept) and Nguzo Saba were used in training 75 African-American psychologists to deliver prevention services. (SLD)
Museus, Samuel D.; Shiroma, Kiana; Dizon, Jude Paul
Low rates of college success continue to be a persisting problem in the United States, particularly among Southeast Asian Americans and other populations of color. The purpose of the current inquiry was to understand how cultural community connections influence the success of Southeast Asian American college students. Qualitative methods were…
Bottrell, Cynthia A.; Banning, James H.; Harbour, Clifford P.; Krahnke, Keiko
This qualitative research study investigated the development of heuristic knowledge and its role in the academic and social journeys of five Vietnamese American students enrolled at a community college located in the American Midwest. The participants were interviewed in depth to understand their "lived experiences" while attending the community…
Dominguez, Cecilia Sophia
The purpose of this phenomenological investigation was to increase understanding of the career perspectives of 12 Mexican American, re-entry women who were attending a community college. The questions guiding this investigation were: (a) How do Mexican American re-entry college women describe their career decision-making experiences, (b) What do…
Jenkins, Shantelle K.
Many studies involving African American male students have focused on achievement gaps and student retention models of those attending four-year institutions. However, there are limited investigations of African American male students at the community college and very few that focus on faculty perceptions. This study employed a mixed Delphi…
Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.
In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…
Lewis, LaToya L.
The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…
Stiler, Gary; Allen, Lisa
The Carver Community Center in Evansville, Indiana, uses an academic enrichment program to support neighborhood students. The curriculum involves children in learning about African-American literary traditions and folk art. The Center's work is based on the premise that African-American children need to encounter the reality of history as in…
Smith, David J.
US community colleges play various roles in American higher education. Because of their wide-ranging diversity and open enrollment policies, they are frequently referred to as "democracy's colleges". They are vital today in assisting Americans in better understanding the global realities of a post-September 11 world. Programmatic strategies based…
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi
This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…
Although the Japanese junior college was the result of post-World War II American interventions to create a post-secondary educational system along the lines of the American community college, the institutions in the two countries have taken divergent paths. Both institutions do provide a general, postsecondary education of a shorter duration.…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…
Harrell, Alma S.
"A race that is solely dependent upon another for its economic existences sooner or later dies," this quote by Marcus Garvey highlighted the need for African American communities to think about the importance of economic development. This message was also heard by African Americans as early as the 1700s. Not only was the message about…
Moore, Dennis; Carr, Carey A; Williams, Carlton; Richlen, Windy; Huber, Mary; Wagner, Joseph
The disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on African Americans is a significant public health challenge. The complex constellation of individual, social, and environmental factors influencing transmission, require ecological solutions that recognize these multiple levels of influence and actively involve communities. This article describes the formation of a community-based coalition and highlights three initiatives it has undertaken in the areas of mobile HIV testing, HIV education, and faith-based work to improve HIV services for African Americans. PMID:20178031
This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)
Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T
There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans' perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain engagement of African Americans in genetics initiatives. As the first phase in a mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups with 21 African American community leaders in one US Midwest city. The sample consisted of executive directors of community organizations and prominent community activists. Data were analyzed thematically. Skepticism about biomedical research and lack of trust characterized discussions about biomedical research and biobanks. The Tuskegee Untreated Syphilis Study and the Henrietta Lacks case influenced their desire to protect their community from harm and exploitation. Connections between genetics and family history made genetics/genomics research personal, pitting intrusion into private affairs against solutions. Participants also expressed concerns about ethical issues involved in genomics research, calling attention to how research had previously been conducted in their community. Participants hoped personalized medicine might bring health benefits to their people and proposed African American communities have a "seat at the table." They called for basic respect, authentic collaboration, bidirectional education, transparency and prerogative, and meaningful benefits and remuneration. Key to building trust and overcoming African Americans' trepidation and resistance to participation in biobanks are early and persistent engagement with the community, partnerships with community stakeholders to map research priorities, ethical conduct of research, and
Recent studies of Asian American youth language practices have presented compelling insights about the identities and migration experiences of young people of Asian descent. This article offers a detailed examination of the relationship between language use and select issues concerning Asian American youth, including social life, schooling,…
Hagen, Janet W.; Skenandore, Alice H.; Scow, Beverly M.; Schanen, Jennifer G.; Clary, Frieda Hugo
Nationally, the United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than any other industrialized nation. Native American youth have a higher birth rate than the national rate. A full-year healthy relationship program, based on Native American teachings, traditions, and cultural norms, was delivered to all eighth-grade students at a rural tribal…
Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory
In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…
Principal Leadership, 2013
The value that Native American nations place on deliberative experiential learning and oral reflection often is opposed to traditional practices in US schools. The inherent differences between those cultural approaches to learning have contributed to the large achievement gap between Native American schools and traditional public schools. In 2006…
Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon
For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…
This article details the history of Slossfield Hospital, an African American hospital and community center founded in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1937. During its New Deal-era existence it provided African American physicians institutional support for their medical practices. Additionally, as a community center, it addressed the socioeconomics of good health. This paper uses Slossfield as a case study to explore how some African Americans included the socioeconomic in their definition of public health during the New Deal, as well as to understand how these ideas were subsumed by more mainstream ideas about public health promulgated by black and white physicians and the local and federal governments. PMID:17873453
Sangalang, Cindy C; Ngouy, Suely; Lau, Anna S
Lack of data disaggregated by ethnic group and the widespread perception of Asian Americans as "model minorities" often masks the health needs of specific groups within the Asian American population. Limited research focuses on health and psychological well-being among Cambodian American youth despite risk of negative educational and behavioral outcomes as well as high levels of trauma and psychiatric symptoms among first-generation Cambodian refugee adults. This article describes the development of a health survey with Cambodian American youth using community-based participatory research (and illustrates how youth can actively engage in research to inform change in health-related programs and policies. PMID:25423244
Lee, Mei Ching; Hinderer, Katherine A; Friedmann, Erika
Ethnic minority groups are less engaged than Caucasian American adults in advance care planning (ACP). Knowledge deficits, language, and culture are barriers to ACP. Limited research exists on ACP and advance directives in the Chinese American adult population. Using a pre-posttest, repeated measures design, the current study explored the effectiveness of a nurseled, culturally sensitive ACP seminar for Chinese American adults on (a) knowledge, completion, and discussion of advance directives; and (b) the relationship between demographic variables, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions. A convenience sample of 72 urban, community-dwelling Chinese American adults (mean age=61 years) was included. Knowledge, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions increased significantly after attending the nurse-led seminar (p<0.01). Increased age correlated with advance directive completion and ACP discussions; female gender correlated with ACP discussions. Nursing education in a community setting increased advance directive knowledge and ACP engagement in Chinese American adults. PMID:25912237
... June 8, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-14131, on page 33318, in the first column, last complete sentence in the... Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction... American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document contained one...
Quarterly progress reports present the major accomplishments and activities of four American Indian Community Library Demonstration projects funded during 1976-1977. These projects established library services in New Mexico for four previously unserved Pueblo communities: Cochiti, Santo Domingo, Sky City, and Laguna. For each quarter, an overall…
Murata, Alice K., Ed.; Salvador-Burris, Juanita, Ed.
This document comprises a collection of workshop papers addressing the issues of doing research on the complex social and human problems faced in any community from an Asian American perspective. The following topics are discussed: (1) the nature of community research; (2) the pros and cons of pure basic and applied research; (3) the nature and…
Lee, Tiffany S.
The Native American Community Academy (NACA) is demonstrating an example of Indigenous philosophies and practices in education through its holistic, student-centered approach to education. NACA was one school in a large statewide study on Indian education in New Mexico. Focus groups with students, teachers, and community members illustrate the…
This annotated bibliography identifies and describes documentary evidence of Chicago's American Indian population since the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Sources include studies and reports generated by Indian community organizations and agencies, community newsletters, newspapers, oral histories, grant applications, personal papers, and…
Billingsley, Andrew; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Examines the interaction of church, school, and family in the African-American community. Using a holistic perspective and data from an ongoing, nationwide, multiyear study of church-sponsored family-oriented community outreach programs, the results indicate that the church is a powerful ally for the Black family. (JB)
Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.
Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…
Nishimoto, James K.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra
Attempts to address the dearth of research on Asian and Pacific-Islander community college students by exploring the predictors of persistence and retention, and the course taking patterns of Asian Pacific American students enrolled in urban community colleges. This correlational study utilized data collected for the Transfer and Retention of…
Powers, Stephen; Rossman, Mark H.
Attributions for school success and failure were examined among 211 community college students (112 Native Americans and 99 Anglos) enrolled in remedial reading classes at a large, urban multi-campus community college system in the Southwest. The Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) was administered to the students in their…
The noted African American soprano Emma Azalia Hackley (1867-1922) abandoned her concert career in the early twentieth century and began travelling throughout the United States, organizing community choruses and promoting community music making. She spent the remainder of her life engaged in what she called "musical social uplift", which entailed…
Noga, Michael A.
Using meta-ethnography as a research method, this study identified, organized, and synthesized efforts to implement learning communities at the 19 American colleges and universities that prepared written reports at the conclusion of the 1996-1999 National Learning Communities Dissemination Project (FIPSE). The researcher used 10 research questions…
Marshall, Catherine A.; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Busby, Howard; Schacht, Robert; Hill, Calvin
Researchers working with the American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Arizona have found that culture is important in social research, especially with indigenous people. Community-based participatory research is one approach that has yielded outcomes valuable to researchers and community members. However, ethical concerns…
Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…
Wang, Winnie W.; Chang, June C.; Lew, Jonathan W.
This study examined how the academic aspirations of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) attending community colleges are influenced by their demographic and educational background, reasons for attending, and obstacles they expect to encounter. The sample consisted of 846 APAs out of a total student sample of 5,000 in an urban community college…
Bogart, Quentin J.
Prepared for college officials considering the development of marketing programs, this paper examines the distinctive marketing practices for four geographically separated, public community college districts: Coastline Community College (CCC), California; Metropolitan Community College District (MCCD), Missouri; Triton College (TC), Illinois; and…
Berry, David A.; Marshall, Emma Jo; Eisenberg, Diane U.
This document describes a program called Community Conversations, a joint effort between Phi Theta Kappa, the international honor society of the two-year college, and the Community College Humanities Association. The program consisted of a series of national and regional conversations among students and community members, addressing what it means…
Kelly, Patricia J.; Lesser, Janna; Cheng, An-Lin; Osóos-Sánchez, Manuel; Martinez, Elisabeth; Pineda, Daniel; Mancha, Juan
Using methods of community-based participatory research, a prospective randomized controlled trial of a violence prevention program based on Latino cultural values was implemented with elementary school children in a Mexican American community. Community members participated in intervention program selection, implementation, and data collection. High-risk students who participated in the program had greater nonviolent self-efficacy and demonstrated greater endorsement of program values than did high-risk students in the control group. This collaborative partnership was able to combine community-based participatory research with a rigorous study design and provide sustained benefit to community partners. PMID:20531101
Hood, V L; Kelly, B; Martinez, C; Shuman, S; Secker-Walker, R
The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Mohawk Community of Akwesasne led to the formation of an advisory group who's mission was to increase community awareness and strengthen the infrastructure necessary to create a community coalition to promote healthy lifestyles. The methodology used to reach these goals included: obtaining an understanding of the community's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors about diabetes, diet and exercise using semi-structured interviews and focus groups; analyzing data from a case control study of diabetes and it complications using a medical record review; exploring methods for evaluating energy expenditure in children; and identifying influential community members and organizations. In the last 50 years people had become less physically active and high fat, high caloric foods were more available. Community members were concerned about health and the well-being of their children, had knowledge about healthy lifestyles but lacked confidence and social support for bringing about desired changes. A strong association was documented between diabetes, smoking cigarettes, high blood cholesterol and vascular disease in this community. Approximately 100 persons participated, several hundred received the results in presentations to 17 community organizations, two public fora, letters to participants and articles in local newspapers. Fifty persons and 29 businesses or organizations regarded as strong advocates of healthy lifestyles were identified. From these a community coalition was formed and has initiated programs to reduce dietary fat and increase physical activity in young children. PMID:9526690
OBJECTIVE: Identify unique cultural needs, priorities, program delivery preferences and barriers to achieving a healthy diet and lifestyle in one Native American community. DESIGN: A novel modified nominal group technique (NGT) conducted in four districts and three age groups (Elders, adults and...
Nguyen, Tung T; McPhee, Stephen J; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; Luong, Thien-Nhien; Ha-Iaconis, Tuyet; Nguyen, Thoa; Wong, Ching; Lai, Ky Q; Lam, Hy
Using community-based participatory research methods, a community-research coalition in Santa Clara County, California (SCC) conducted a quasi-experimental, controlled trial to increase Pap test receipt and to build community capacity among Vietnamese-American women. From 1999 to 2004, the Coalition planned and implemented an Action Plan with six components: multimedia campaign, lay health worker outreach, Vietnamese Pap clinic with patient navigation, registry and reminder system, continuing medical education for Vietnamese physicians, and restoring a Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program site. Components were evaluated individually. Community-wide, cross-sectional telephone surveys of Vietnamese women in SCC (intervention community) and Harris County, Texas (comparison community) measured overall project impact. Receipt and currency of Pap tests increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison community. Community involvement, system changes, community and research capacity building, dissemination of results, and program sustainability were also demonstrated. Community-based participatory research is feasible and effective in Vietnamese-American communities. PMID:16809874
Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia
Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786
McCabe, Robert H., Ed.
Emphasizing the central role of community colleges in workforce development, this two-part monograph reviews the status of workforce development initiatives at the national, state, and local levels and provides descriptions of 10 exemplary programs at community colleges across North America. The first part focuses on the status of and operating…
London, Howard B.
Reasons for slipping academic standards in U.S. community colleges and a specific program combating this problem are discussed. Two reasons are offered for this slippage; the first has to do with the ambiguous state of the community college faculty. These teachers are said to have difficulty defining their roles because they feel a powerlessness…
Whitewater, Shannon; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Kahn, Carmella; Attakai, Agnes; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I
Community-based participatory research builds partnerships between communities and academic researchers to engage in research design, decision making, data collection, and dissemination of health promotion initiatives. Community-based participatory projects often have formal agreements or defined roles for community and academic partners. Our project (November 2012-November 2014) was designed to document life narratives of urban American Indian elders as a foundation for developing a resilience-based health promotion curriculum for urban American Indian adolescents aged 12 to 18. We used a flexible method for engaging community partners that honored the individual strengths of elders, encouraged them to describe how they wanted to contribute to the project, and provided multiple ways for elders to engage with university partners. We invited elders to participate in one or more of the following roles: as members of consensus panels to develop interview questions, as members of a community advisory board, or as participants in individual qualitative interviews. The flexibility of roles gave elders the opportunity to serve as advisors, co-developers, interviewees, or reviewers during 2 years of curriculum development. Engaging American Indian elders in the research process acknowledged the multiple layers of expertise they had as traditional leaders in the community while promoting trust in and ownership of the project. This flexible technique can be used by other communities that may not be comfortable with structured processes of engagement. PMID:27253635
Reinschmidt, Kerstin M.; Kahn, Carmella; Attakai, Agnes; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I.
Community-based participatory research builds partnerships between communities and academic researchers to engage in research design, decision making, data collection, and dissemination of health promotion initiatives. Community-based participatory projects often have formal agreements or defined roles for community and academic partners. Our project (November 2012–November 2014) was designed to document life narratives of urban American Indian elders as a foundation for developing a resilience-based health promotion curriculum for urban American Indian adolescents aged 12 to 18. We used a flexible method for engaging community partners that honored the individual strengths of elders, encouraged them to describe how they wanted to contribute to the project, and provided multiple ways for elders to engage with university partners. We invited elders to participate in one or more of the following roles: as members of consensus panels to develop interview questions, as members of a community advisory board, or as participants in individual qualitative interviews. The flexibility of roles gave elders the opportunity to serve as advisors, co-developers, interviewees, or reviewers during 2 years of curriculum development. Engaging American Indian elders in the research process acknowledged the multiple layers of expertise they had as traditional leaders in the community while promoting trust in and ownership of the project. This flexible technique can be used by other communities that may not be comfortable with structured processes of engagement. PMID:27253635
Wilkinson, Etta Lou; And Others
As part of its responsibility to advise the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights concerning civil rights problems within the State, the Minnesota Advisory Committee submitted this report of its 6-month study on urban American Indians in the Twin Cities. During its investigation, which culminated in open hearings in January 1974, the Advisory Committee…
Smith-Hefner, Nancy J.
This book describes the immigration of tens of thousands of Cambodian refugees to the United States from their war-torn country in the early 1980s, highlighting the efforts of Khmer Americans to recreate the fabric of culture and identity in the aftermath of the Khmer holocaust. Based on long-term research among Cambodians residing in metropolitan…
The surest way to preserve a traditional art form is to continue its practice. However, it is also possible for Indian and other Native American people to use modern documentation tools to safeguard the survival of their cultural traditions for the future. This book presents a selection of professional documentation techniques that are especially…
Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.
Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…
Although more than half of all college students in this country are enrolled in two-year colleges and nearly half of all college faculty members teach in these institutions, two-year colleges are rarely mentioned in American fiction. An informal survey of over 100 people who read widely turned up only four novels and two short stories in which a…
Sage, Grace Powless
Those who come from non-American Indian cultures have dominated traditional models for healing and prevention. The assumption that current training strategies, program manuals, and levels of competence with regard to cross-cultural skills and knowledge are sufficient is arguable. If training programs for mental health, physical health, and…
Ng, Franklin, Ed.; And Others
This collection of essays from the eighth national conference of the Association for Asian American Studies is organized into four sections: history and women's studies; social science; literature; and Hawaiian studies. The following papers are included: (1) "History and Women Studies" (Yung); (2) "From Old to New Plantations: Labor's Growing…
Bewick, Sharon; Stuble, Katharine L; Lessard, Jean-Phillipe; Dunn, Robert R; Adler, Frederick R; Sanders, Nathan J
Global climate change will remodel ecological communities worldwide. However, as a consequence of biotic interactions, communities may respond to climate change in idiosyncratic ways. This makes predictive models that incorporate biotic interactions necessary. We show how such models can be constructed based on empirical studies in combination with predictions or assumptions regarding the abiotic consequences of climate change. Specifically, we consider a well-studied ant community in North America. First, we use historical data to parameterize a basic model for species coexistence. Using this model, we determine the importance of various factors, including thermal niches, food discovery rates, and food removal rates, to historical species coexistence. We then extend the model to predict how the community will restructure in response to several climate-related changes, such as increased temperature, shifts in species phenology, and altered resource availability. Interestingly, our mechanistic model suggests that increased temperature and shifts in species phenology can have contrasting effects. Nevertheless, for almost all scenarios considered, we find that the most subordinate ant species suffers most as a result of climate change. More generally, our analysis shows that community composition can respond to climate warming in nonintuitive ways. For example, in the context of a community, it is not necessarily the most heat-sensitive species that are most at risk. Our results demonstrate how models that account for niche partitioning and interspecific trade-offs among species can be used to predict the likely idiosyncratic responses of local communities to climate change. PMID:24963378
Martin, Molly A.; Swider, Susan M.; Tumialán Lynas, Carmen M.; Janssen, Imke; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Powell, Lynda H.
Objectives. We assessed whether community health workers (CHWs) could improve glycemic control among Mexican Americans with diabetes. Methods. We recruited 144 Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes between January 2006 and September 2008 into the single-blinded, randomized controlled Mexican American Trial of Community Health Workers (MATCH) and followed them for 2 years. Participants were assigned to either a CHW intervention, delivering self-management training through 36 home visits over 2 years, or a bilingual control newsletter delivering the same information on the same schedule. Results. Intervention participants showed significantly lower hemoglobin A1c levels than control participants at both year 1 Δ = −0.55; P = .021) and year 2 (Δ = −0.69; P = .005). We observed no effect on blood pressure control, glucose self-monitoring, or adherence to medications or diet. Intervention participants increased physical activity from a mean of 1.63 days per week at baseline to 2.64 days per week after 2 years. Conclusions. A self-management intervention delivered by CHWs resulted in sustained improvements in glycemic control over 2 years among Mexican Americans with diabetes. MATCH adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the use of CHWs to reduce diabetes-related health disparities. PMID:23947316
Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...
Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni
The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170
Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341
Gillum, Tameka L
Relatively few studies have looked specifically at the experiences and needs of African American women who are survivors of domestic violence. This study sought to find out from African American survivors (a) what their experience was with various community entities and (b) how they feel race may have affected these experiences. Results indicate a great deal of dissatisfaction with the services received as they attempt to escape and/or stay away from their abusive partners. This dissatisfaction was in large measure due to lack of cultural competence. Implications for service and suggestions for community entities are presented. PMID:18087031
Lewis, Chance W.; Middleton, Valerie
Addresses three main themes of literature regarding African Americans in community colleges: (1) environmental factors related to student success; (2) the need for faculty diversity; and (3) race and community college administration. Concludes that to improve the experience of African Americans, more research needs to be done on the subject.…
Bunch, Tera; Stephens, Carrie; Hart, William
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influences of American agricultural education student teachers on a rural community in New South Wales, Australia. The study analyzed interviews with eleven participants of the American student teacher program in a rural New South Wales community. Results of the study were formulated by two…
Lantos, Paul M.; Permar, Sallie R.; Hoffman, Kate; Swamy, Geeta K.
Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common cause of birth defects and hearing loss in infants and opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised. Previous studies have found higher CMV seroprevalence rates among minorities and among persons with lower socioeconomic status. No studies have investigated the geographic distribution of CMV and its relationship to age, race, and poverty in the community. Methods. We identified patients from 6 North Carolina counties who were tested in the Duke University Health System for CMV immunoglobulin G. We performed spatial statistical analyses to analyze the distributions of seropositive and seronegative individuals. Results. Of 1884 subjects, 90% were either white or African American. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity was significantly more common among African Americans (73% vs 42%; odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 2.7–4.1), and this disparity persisted across the life span. We identified clusters of high and low CMV odds, both of which were largely explained by race. Clusters of high CMV odds were found in communities with high proportions of African Americans. Conclusions. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is geographically clustered, and its distribution is strongly determined by a community's racial composition. African American communities have high prevalence rates of CMV infection, and there may be a disparate burden of CMV-associated morbidity in these communities. PMID:26716106
Since 1975 the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act has enabled American Indian communities to enact self-determination through community-based schooling. In this study conducted by a Navajo researcher, the Ramah Navajo community defined self-determination and how it was operationalized within the community and school. The…
Lobo, Susan, Ed.; Peters, Kurt, Ed.
Over half of all American Indian people living in the United States now live in urban areas, but few books and little research have addressed urban Indian themes. This book compiles research, scholarly writing, poetry, prose, and artwork concerned with the Native urban experience. Of specific educational interest are chapters on the role of…
Stumpf, Arthur D.
The author observes that community college administrators perform their duties on ambiguous and uncertain intellectual and environmental landscapes, so they continually search for meaning and purpose in organizational life. This article proposes a straightforward approach to answering several questions related to the quest for meaning and purpose,…
Vernon, Irene S.; Thurman, Pamela Jumper
A quote From chief Wilma Mankiller in her "Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation" asks Natives to focus on their strengths and wisdom; for those in the health field, it motivates them to create a vision of health parity and community wellness. In following her lead the authors share general information about the health of Natives, focus on the health of…
Wismer, Jack N.
Today, global competition affects almost every business or industry, often triggering corporate restructuring, downsizing, focus on continuous quality improvement, heightened efforts to globalize companies and increase exports. To meet the competitive challenges of a global economy, community colleges can better serve business and industry by…
Friedel, Janice Nahra
This article examines national employment and program trends in the nursing profession, the nursing shortage in Iowa, and state policy and community college responses in Iowa. During the seven-year period 2001-2008, two Iowa governors convened special task forces to study the nursing shortage and to make recommendations. The policy responses dealt…
Zhang, Yi; Serra Hagedorn, Linda
In an era of increasing global competition in education related markets, many higher education institutions in the United States have come to realize the need to market better for international students. Community colleges are no exception and have become increasingly active in recruiting international students using education agents. Using…
Today's community colleges are experiencing tremendous growth at a time when higher education is experiencing little success in the fierce battle for public funding. Administrators believe that providing housing on college campuses increases enrollment and improves access, but they are having difficulty meeting students' demands for both quantity…
Erickson, William; Trerise, Sharon; VanLooy, Sara; Lee, Camille; Bruyere, Susanne
Community colleges are increasingly using the Internet for admissions and financial aid applications. The use of online processes has serious implications for students with disabilities, such as visual and learning problems, who may encounter difficulties with the Web sites if they are not designed in an accessible and usable way. A survey of…
Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.
This book provides a conceptual and practical framework for understanding lifelong education in the context of the multifaceted rural community. The goal of the discussion is to develop educational programs involving new combinations of services and new organizational arrangements so that individuals will become resourceful, autonomous, and…
Morgan, Mindy J.
This article examines competing views of representation and authorship regarding Native American communities in a variety of projects supported by the Federal Writers' Project (FWP), including the American Guide series and state-sponsored works. The author begins by briefly contextualizing the FWP's Native American projects within the shifting…
Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B
This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi. PMID:23805806
Journal of American College Health, 2005
Sixteen African American students participated in semi-structured, open-ended interviews about their experiences at small, predominantly white colleges in the Appalachian region. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: community among minorities and minority within a minority. The students described community among African Americans on campus…
Mattison, Tamara D.
African American females at the community level have low persistence rates and the literature regarding motivation and success strategies for those who persist to graduation is limited. This study was designed to identify the motivation and success strategies used by African American females to graduate from community colleges in Minnesota.…
Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie
Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene–drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic–community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898
Tiwari, T; Sharma, T; Harper, M; Zacher, T; Roan, R; George, C; Swyers, E; Toledo, N; Batliner, T; Braun, PA; Albino, J
Community based participatory research is an approach aimed to equitably involve community members, representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of the research process. Using this methodology can help integrate cultural knowledge into interventions, supporting researchers to effectively partner with communities in addressing health disparities. The Center for Native Oral Health Research (CNOHR) collaborates with two American Indian (AI) tribes to advance oral health knowledge and practice, including the conduct of randomized controlled clinical trials of culturally sensitive behavioral interventions for primary prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). This manuscript describes the development of researcher–community partnership, and the development and implementation of the two clinical trial in the community. It also gives a detailed account of the strategies developed through the community input in recruitment and retention of the study participants and finally the lessons learnt during the study implementation. PMID:26090520
Fairfax, Colita Nichols
This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted. PMID:21082471
McWaine, Wendell Lamar, II
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between registration status and the persistence, end-of-semester GPA, and course success for African American males in a suburban community college system. This study also sought to determine if there was a difference between the persistence, end-of-semester GPA, and course…
Perrakis, Athena I.
This study seeks to isolate factors associated with academic success, operationalized as grade point average (GPA) and course completion, among two male student populations within the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD): African American and white men. In order to determine the factors that are associated with academic success, two…
During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system in the…
Yancy-Tooks, Barbara J.
The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of African American women about their perceptions of factors (i.e. senior administrator selection practices, institutional practices, barriers, and coping strategies) that hinder or facilitate advancement in community college administration. The following questions…
Knuth, Carole Brown
Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)
Pena, Carlos C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the complexities of successful attainment and achievement of 10 Mexican American males in a rural Southwest community college. This study strives to offer insights concerning the questions: (a) what behavioral patterns of current family, peers, and conditions in school have influenced the educational…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Emerging literature on school-family-community partnerships suggests positive educational and social outcomes for students (Koonce & Harper, 2005; Mitchell & Bryan, 2007). This article discusses the historical and contemporary factors and barriers that affect African American students and their families as they partner with schools and…
Dumas, Nathaniel William
Using the Practice Theory Approach to Language, this dissertation examines how social actors use communicative practices within activities to constitute a communicative context that I call the American English Stuttering Speech Community (AESSC). Building on previous linguistic research on stuttering and sociological research on collectives of…
Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Maxwell, William; Hampton, Preston
Analyzed data for three cohorts of male, African-American community college students in a longitudinal design for three semesters, and used logistic regression to identify factors that best predict retention. Found that high school grades, age, number of courses, a positive view of personal skills, clear high goals, and the early identification of…
Bengston, David N.; Schermann, Michele A.; Hawj, Foung; Moua, MaiKia
A partnership with the Hmong American community produced "The Wildlife and Wilderness Exploration Show," a DVD that puts a modern twist on traditional Hmong storytelling. Key educational messages in the DVD were identified through interviews with Hmong natural resource professionals. The messages are delivered in entertaining segments in the DVD,…
Strayhorn, Terrell L.
A large majority of African American males begin their postsecondary education careers at two-year community colleges. Prior research has focused largely on Black students at four-year institutions, and even theoretical work has assumed that influences on retention are the same at two-year and four-year institutions. Drawing on Tinto's (1993)…
This paper examines two topics understudied in higher education: the within group diversity of ethnic subgroups subsumed by the label Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) and minority-serving institutions. Using structural equation modeling, this paper examines the college pathways of community college students in Hawai'i through the…
Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…
Dupris, Joseph C.
The reemergence in the 1960's of the traditional Indian philosophy of education as preparation for societal productivity coincided with a movement within Indian communities toward more active participation in and self-control of the education of their people. By recognizing the historical right of American Indians to control their own education,…
This article talks about the future of family involvement in schools in African-American communities. The future of family involvement in the schools rests with today's teachers and parents who will take what they learned from the past, establish the philosophical foundations to guide their interactions, incorporate child and family theory and…
James, Keith, Ed.
The chapters in this volume are based on papers presented at Colorado State University, in June 1997, at a conference on finding ways to integrate American Indian community goals, needs, and traditions with mainstream science and science education. The book's core message is that two extreme opinions, are present in society--that science has…
Dr. Moon Chen, Professor of the Department of Internal Medicine and Associate Director of Cancer Control at the University of California-Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, speaks about Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer as a more prevalent problem in the Asian American community.
Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.
The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…
Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…
John, Robert; Kerby, Dave S.; Hennessy, Catherine Hagan
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to suggest a new approach to identifying patterns of comorbidity and multimorbidity. Design and Methods: A random sample of 1,039 rural community-resident American Indian elders aged 60 years and older was surveyed. Comorbidity was investigated with four standard approaches, and with cluster analysis. Results:…
Summarizes a study that interviewed 14 female upper-level African American community college administrators to identify commonalities in their experience. Most participants showed early signs of leadership, had strong spiritual beliefs, were caring and self-reliant, had close relationships with their mothers, valued their aloneness and their…
Okigbo, Charles; Okigbo, Carol A.; Hall, William B., Jr.; Ziegler, Dhyana
Both African states and African American communities can benefit from a new communication framework that the United Nations Global AIDS Program and the Pennsylvania State University developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework contains five universal values recommended for AIDS intervention programs worldwide (government policies,…
Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.
Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to…
Jobe, LaWanda D.
African American women are enrolling and returning to college in large numbers across many community college campuses, especially those women who would be characterized as nontraditional students. This qualitative study examined and analyzed the experiences, stresses, and coping mechanisms of first generation, nontraditional, single parent,…
... estimates. On March 6, 2009, the Census Bureau published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 9785) that... releases American Community Survey (ACS) data products in the form of 1-year estimates and 3-year estimates. Most recently, the 2008 ACS 1-year estimates were released in September 2009, and the 2006-2008 ACS...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Energy Production, Inc., Best Energy Services, Inc., Community Central Bank Corporation, Explortex Energy, Inc., HemoBioTech, Inc., Larrea Biosciences Corporation, MBI Financial, Inc., and Million Dollar Saloon, Inc.; Order...
The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…
Chao, Sheau-yueh J.
Describes the history and development of the Queens Borough (New York) Public Library's New Americans Program that was designed to meet the needs of a culturally and linguistically diverse community. Highlights include outreach services, language classes, collection building, and examples of specific programs for Hispanic, Chinese, and Korean…
McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…
Siebens, Julie; Ryan, Camille L.
This report provides information on fields of bachelor's degrees in the United States using data from the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS). It includes estimates of fields of bachelor's degree by demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, nativity, and educational attainment. This report also looks at geographic and…
Seider, Scott C.; Gillmor, Susan C.; Rabinowicz, Samantha A.
This study considered the impact of the SERVE Program upon participating college students' belief in the American Dream. The SERVE Program is a community service learning program sponsored by the philosophy and theology departments at Ignatius University. Using a mixed methods approach, the authors found that participating students demonstrated…
Mishel, Merle H.; Alexander, G. Rumay; Jenerette, Coretta; Blyler, Diane; Baker, Carol; Vines, Anissa I.; Green, Melissa; Long, Debra G.
Introduction Younger breast cancer survivors often lead extremely busy lives with multiple demands and responsibilities, making them difficult to recruit into clinical trials. African American women are even more difficult to recruit because of additional historical and cultural barriers. In a randomized clinical trial of an intervention, we successfully used culturally informed, population-specific recruitment and retention strategies to engage younger African-American breast cancer survivors. Methods Caucasian and African American breast cancer survivors were recruited from multiple communities and sites. A variety of planned recruitment and retention strategies addressed cultural and population-specific barriers and were guided by three key principals: increasing familiarity with the study in the communities of interest; increasing the availability and accessibility of study information and study participation; and using cultural brokers. Results Accrual of younger African-American breast cancer survivors increased by 373% in 11 months. The steepest rise in the numbers of African-American women recruited came when all strategies were in place and operating simultaneously. Retention rates were 87% for both Caucasian and African American women. Discusssion/Conclusions To successfully recruit busy, younger African American cancer survivors, it is important to use a multifaceted approach, addressing cultural and racial/ethnic barriers to research participation; bridging gaps across cultures and communities; including the role of faith and beliefs in considering research participation; recognizing the demands of different life stages and economic situations and the place of research in the larger picture of peoples’ lives. Designs for recruitment and retention need to be broadly conceptualized and specifically applied. Implications for Cancer Survivors For busy cancer survivors, willingness to participate in and complete research participation is enhanced by
Norton, I M; Manson, S M
The National Institutes of Health's guidelines for recruiting ethnic minorities and women into clinical research have raised numerous questions among investigators. Highlighted in this article are a number of important issues for those researchers seeking to include American Indians and Alaska Natives in their studies; that is, defining the population of American Indians and Alaska Natives for inclusion in a study, participation of the tribes in research and approval by the Institutional Review Board, issues of confidentiality and anonymity of individuals and tribes, identifying potential benefits to American Indian and Alaska Native communities, and the importance of evaluating the scientific merit of a proposed study. Awareness and a commitment to ongoing education regarding these issues will enhance the quality and benefits of research among American Indian and Alaska Native people. PMID:8916611
Gilder, David A; Luna, Juan A; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W; Moore, Roland S; Ehlers, Cindy L
This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results could be used by clinic staff to screen for underage drinking and associated problems in youth served by the clinic, and the process of organizing, evaluating, and implementing the survey results accomplished several important goals of community-based participatory research. PMID:23824640
Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.
This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8–20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results could be used by clinic staff to screen for underage drinking and associated problems in youth served by the clinic, and the process of organizing, evaluating, and implementing the survey results accomplished several important goals of community-based participatory research. PMID:23824640
This guide was developed as part of a project to encourage more, and more accurate, teaching about Latin America in U.S. community colleges. The specific purpose of the guide is to survey the range of 20th century Latin American literature in order to suggest various ways in which works from Latin American countries may be integrated into any…
McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie
Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019
McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie
Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019
Jenkins, Dorothy I.; Jenkins, Quentin A. L.
Rural community development is undergoing changing visions, activities, and methodologies. Factors impacting this change include decentralization, budget reduction in the public sector, and globalization and downsizing in the private sector. Community "building" (community-generated change and emphasis on capacities rather than deficiencies) must…
Cwik, Mary; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T
American Indian adolescents are at disproportionate risk for suicide, and community-based studies of this population, which allow a deeper understanding of risks and resilience to inform interventions, are rare. This is a cross-sectional study of N = 71 Apache adolescents. Strengths include the role of the community and American Indian paraprofessionals in the design, implementation, and interpretation of findings. Participants were M = 16.0 years old, 65% female, and 69% multiple attempters. Risks included suicidal behavior among peers and family (68%), caregivers with substance problems (62%), and participant substance use history, namely alcohol (91%) and marijuana (88%). Areas of resiliency included lower depression scores (M = 23.1) and cultural activity participation. A multi-tiered intervention at individual, family, and community levels is needed. PMID:25909321
Smalls, Brittany L.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Bonilha, Heather S.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published community interventions to evaluate different components of community interventions and their ability to positively impact glycemic control in African Americans with T2DM. Methods: Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL were searched for potentially eligible studies published from January 2000 through January 2012. The following inclusion criteria were established for publications: (1) describe a community intervention, not prevention; (2) specifically indicate, in data analysis and results, the impact of the community intervention on African American adults, 18 years and older; (3) measure glycemic control (HbA1C) as an outcome measure; and (4) involve patients in a community setting, which excludes hospitals and hospital clinics. Results: Thirteen studies out of 9,233 articles identified in the search met the predetermined inclusion criteria. There were 5 randomized control trials and 3 reported improved glycemic control in the intervention group compared to the control group at the completion of the study. Of the 8 studies that were not randomized control trials, 6 showed a statistically significant change in HbA1C. Conclusion: In general, the community interventions assessed led to significant reductions in HbA1C in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Community health workers did not have a greater impact on glycemic control in this sample. The findings of this study provides insight for designing community-based interventions in the future, such as including use of multiple delivery methods, consideration of mobile device software, nutritionist educator, and curriculum-based approaches. PMID:26156923
Evans, Bronwynne C.; Coon, David W.; Belyea, Michael J.
This mixed methods, multi-site, National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)-funded, interdisciplinary, descriptive study aimed to identify expressions of worry in qualitative data obtained from caregiving Mexican American (MA) families assisting older adults. The purpose of this portion of the inquiry was to determine how worry is expressed, what happens to caregivers when they worry, and what adaptive strategies they used. We examined semi-structured interviews completed during six in-home visits with 116 caregivers. We identified 366 worry quotations from 639 primary documents in ATLAS.ti, entered them into matrices, and organized findings under thematic statements. Caregivers expressed cultural and contextual worries, worried about transitions and turning points in care, and identified adaptive strategies. Despite these strategies, worry persisted. Constant worry may be an allied, important aspect of caregiver burden. We need additional longitudinal research to better understand the experience of MA caregivers for older adults and to provide empirically supported interventions, programs, and services that reduce worry. PMID:27228120
Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott
Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167
Blue Bird Jernigan, Valarie; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Styne, Dennis M.; Winkleby, Marilyn
The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers’ market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709
Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn
The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709
Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C
This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620
Farmer, Thomas W.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Thompson, Jana; Irvin, Matthew J.; Zhang, Lei
This study examined community adults' conceptions of successful early adult outcomes for rural African American adolescents from 2 low-resource communities in the Deep South. Focus groups were conducted with parents, teachers, and community leaders. Parents also completed semistructured phone interviews. The focus groups identified 2 general types…
Doyle, William R.; Gorbunov, Alexander V.
Background/Context: The establishment of community colleges in the American states stands as one of the most unique features of our system of postsecondary education. Four possible explanations have been suggested for the growth of community colleges. An economic perspective argues that the development of community colleges came about as a result…
Luskin, Bernard J., Ed.
More than 50 years ago, two men on a train made a stop at W.K. Kellogg Foundation, to share their vision for community colleges. Thus began a partnership that has advanced the community college mission by supporting the visionary leaders at the helm of American Association of Community Colleges from 1958 to 2010. In April 2011, W.K. Kellogg and…
Stanfield, John H. II
Investigated the social origins of black physicians from poor, rural, southern communities, examining contextual factors that helped explain their great academic and professional success as young adults. Argues that it was the community that identified and nurtured these gifted children, thus making it possible for them to attend college and…
Del Toro, Israel
Studies of species diversity patterns across regional environmental gradients seldom consider the impact of habitat type on within-site (alpha) and between-site (beta) diversity. This study is designed to identify the influence of habitat type across geographic and environmental space, on local patterns of species richness and regional turnover patterns of ant diversity in the northeastern United States. Specifically, I aim to 1) compare local species richness in paired open and forested transects and identify the environmental variables that best correlate with richness; and 2) document patterns of beta diversity throughout the region in both open and forested habitat. I systematically sampled ants at 67 sites from May to August 2010, spanning 10 degrees of latitude, and 1000 meters of elevation. Patterns of alpha and beta diversity across the region and along environmental gradients differed between forested and open habitats. Local species richness was higher in the low elevation and warmest sites and was always higher in open habitat than in forest habitat transects. Richness decreased as temperature decreased or elevation increased. Forested transects show strong patterns of decreasing dissimilarity in species composition between sites along the temperature gradient but open habitat transects did not. Maximum temperature of the warmest month better predicted species richness than either latitude or elevation. I find that using environmental variables as key predictors of richness yields more biologically relevant results, and produces simpler macroecological models than commonly used models which use only latitude and elevation as predictors of richness and diversity patterns. This study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms that structure the communities of important terrestrial arthropods which are likely to be influenced by climatic change. PMID:23874479
Kraft, J M; Beeker, C; Stokes, J P; Peterson, J L
Data from 76 qualitative interviews with 18- to 29-year-old African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chicago and Atlanta were examined to identify perceptions of "community" and components of a community-level HIV/AIDS intervention. Many men reported feeling marginal to African American and gay White communities because of perceived homophobia and racism. Those who reported feeling part of gay African American communities characterized communities in terms of settings, social structures, and functions, including social support, socialization, and mobility. Despite these positive functions, divisions among groups of MSM, lack of settings for nonsexual interaction with other MSM, lack of leadership, and negative attitudes toward homosexuality may make it difficult for men to participate in activities to alter community contexts that influence behavior. Rather, changing norms, increasing social support, and community building should be part of initial community-level interventions. Community building might identify leaders, create new settings, and create opportunities for dialogue between MSM and African American community groups to address negative perceptions of homosexuality. PMID:10929751
Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan
The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society. PMID:23156925
Irvine, Jd; Holve, S; Krol, D; Schroth, R
The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and the United States (American Indian and Alaska Native) is a major child health issue. This is exemplified by the high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) with resulting adverse health effects, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. The present statement includes recommendations for oral health preventive and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial. PMID:22654547
Hartmann, William E; Wendt, Dennis C; Saftner, Melissa A; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L
The US has witnessed significant growth among urban American Indian (AI) populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations. PMID:24659391
McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:26550005
Chung, Bowen; Meldrum, Marcia; Jones, Felica; Brown, Anthony; Daaood, Rasudaan; Jones, Loretta
Background Little is known about the perceived causes of stress and what strategies African-American men use to promote resiliency. Participatory research approaches are recommended as an approach to engage minority communities. A key goal of participatory research is to shift the locus of control to community partners. Objective To understand perceived sources of stress and tools used to promote resiliency in African American men in South Los Angeles. Methods Our study utilized a community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) approach to collect and analyze open-ended responses from 295 African American men recruited at a local, cultural festival in Los Angeles using thematic analysis and the Levels of Racism framework. Results Almost all (93.2%) men reported stress. Of those reporting stress, 60.8% reported finances and money and 43.2% reported racism as a specific cause. Over 60% (63.4%) reported that they perceived available sources of help to deal with stress. Of those noting a specific source of help for stress (n=76), 42.1% identified religious faith. Almost all of the participants (92.1%) mentioned specific sources of resiliency such as religion and family. Conclusions Stress due to psycho-social factors such as finances and racism are common in African American men. But at the same time, most men found support for resiliency to ameliorate stress in religion and family. Future work to engage African-American men around alleviating stress and supporting resiliency should both take into account the perceived causes of stress and incorporate culturally appropriate sources of resiliency support. PMID:25727976
Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young
The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886
Harmon, Brook E; Chock, Marci; Brantley, Elizabeth; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R
Using the right messaging strategies, churches can help promote behavior change. Frequencies of disease-specific messages in 21 African-American churches were compared to overall and cancer-specific mortality and morbidity rates as well as church-level variables. Disease messages were found in 1025 of 2166 items. Frequently referenced topics included cancer (n = 316), mental health conditions (n = 253), heart disease (n = 246), and infectious diseases (n = 220). Messages for lung and colorectal cancers appeared at low frequency despite high mortality rates in African-American communities. Season, church size, and denomination showed significant associations with health messages. Next steps include testing messaging strategies aimed at improving the health of churchgoing communities. PMID:26296703
Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy
We present baseline data and describe the utility of a community engaged, culturally relevant approach to recruiting African American youth and families for phase I of The AAKOMA Project. The AAKOMA Project is a two phase treatment development study to improve mental health service use among depressed African American youth. We completed capacity building activities using a community engaged framework and Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methods. Replicating the (Alvarez et al. in West J Nurs Res 28:541–560, 2006) model of systematic community out-reach enhanced our ability to effectively recruit partners and evaluate outreach efforts as demonstrated by our Recruitment Success Factor (RSF—i.e. ‘an adjusted ratio of eligible participant yield to contacts made’). Using the chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic; we compared the RSFs of the various modes of participant study entry to determine which was most effective. Our target enrollment was 56 persons. We recruited 130 and enrolled 57. Our baseline data is drawn from a gender balanced and socioeconomically diverse sample who participated in youth focus groups and individual interviews and adult focus groups. We identified 3 study participant referral modes (self-referral, provider referral and participant-to-participant referral) with multiple sources per mode and an overall RSF of 0.41. Study findings support the effectiveness of assiduous and systematic community interaction, reflective review of recruitment efforts and the importance of disseminating information on strategic recruitment processes for engaging diverse populations in clinical research. PMID:22984337
Engelgau, M. M.; Narayan, K. M.; Geiss, L. S.; Thompson, T. J.; Beckles, G. L.; Lopez, L.; Hartwell, T.; Visscher, W.; Liburd, L.
Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together) is the first comprehensive community diabetes demonstration project in the United States in an African-American community. This article describes its intervention components and evaluation design. The development and implementation of Project DIRECT has included the community since the project's beginning. Interventions are targeted in three areas: health promotion (improving diet and physical activity levels), outreach (improving diabetes awareness, detection of undiagnosed diabetes, and ensuring that persons with diabetes who are not receiving continuing diabetes care are integrated into the health-care system), and diabetes care (improving self-care, increasing access, and improving the quality of diabetes preventive care received within the health-care system). Evaluation will be internal (conducted by Project DIRECT staff to assess process outcomes in persons directly exposed to each specific intervention) and external (review of outcomes to assess the impact of the multi-intervention program at the level of the entire community). Because diabetes exacts a disproportionate toll among African Americans, the findings from this project should aid in developing strategies to lessen the burden of this disorder, particularly among minority populations. PMID:9803725
Linden, Hannah M.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Hart, Alton; Harrington, Margaret A.; Nakano, Connie; Jackson, J. Carey; Elmore, Joann G.
Participation of African Americans in research trials is low. Understanding the perspectives of African American patients toward participation in clinical trials is essential to understanding the disparities in participation rates compared with whites. A qualitative study was conducted to discover attitudes of the African American community regarding willingness to participate in breast cancer screening and randomized clinical trials. Six focus groups consisting of 8 to 11 African American women (N = 58), aged 30 to 65, were recruited from local churches. Focus group sessions involved a 2-hour audiotaped discussion facilitated by 2 moderators. A breast cancer randomized clinical trial involving an experimental breast cancer treatment was discussed to identify the issues related to willingness to participate in such research studies. Six themes surrounding willingness to participate in randomized clinical trials were identified: (1) Significance of the research topic to the individual and/or community; (2) level of trust in the system; (3) understanding of the elements of the trial; (4) preference for “natural treatments” or “religious intervention” over medical care; (5) cost-benefit analysis of incentives and barriers; and (6) openness to risk versus a preference for proven treatments. The majority (80%) expressed willingness or open-mindedness to the idea of participating in the hypothetical trial. Lessons learned from this study support the selection of a culturally diverse research staff and can guide the development of research protocols, recruitment efforts, and clinical procedures that are culturally sensitive and relevant. PMID:17666974
Background Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Methods Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Results Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. Conclusions In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087
Marche, Jordan Dale, II
American astronomy education was transformed by the introduction of a remarkable teaching tool---the projection planetarium. Conceived at the Carl Zeiss firm of Jena, Germany, the first prototype was exhibited at the Deutsches Museum, Munich, in 1923. Between 1930 and 1970, more than 700 planetaria were completed or remained under construction in the Unite States, Canada, and Mexico. Members of the American planetarium community united to form the first continent-wide professional association and to launch its quarterly journal, signifying that disciplinary maturity had been achieved. Social developments in the American planetarium community are examined in light of three principal issues (along with the role of gender): patronage, professionalization, and popularization. The analytical narrative is supplemented by quantitative analysis of North American planetaria and their personnel. Utilizing methods employed in collective biography, the Appendix contains further assessments derived from five professional traits of the community's 919 known planetarium directors. On the basis of technological developments and the changing nature of patronage, three distinct periods of historical development are recognized. In the formative stage (1930--1946), the community was dominated by Zeiss-equipped facilities installed at five metropolitan cities. During the second period (1947--1957), inexpensive pinhole-style projectors, marketed by Philadelphia entrepreneur Armand N. Spitz, revolutionized the availability of 'artificial skies'. In response to the "crisis of confidence" triggered by Sputnik's launch, a third developmental period (1958--1970) ensued. The necessity of offering a space science education to rapidly growing numbers of young people justified the construction of hundreds of new planetaria through the 1960s. Originally created for teaching the confirmation of scientific theories, planetaria became important tools for researching other biological and educational
Ellish, Nancy J.; Scott, Deborah; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Higginbotham, Eve J.
Purpose To describe community-based strategies that were effective in recruiting older, African-Americans into a behavioral intervention study designed to increase eye examination behavior. Methods Sites were identified that targeted older African-Americans, including senior centers, senior housing, and church groups. We conducted presentations at these sites, networked with community organizations, placed ads on the radio and in newspapers, and attended health fairs. Potential participants also called us in response to flyers and through word of mouth. Results We conducted 147 activities at 118 sites. A total of 688 potential participants were screened, with 330 (48%) enrolling, 33% ineligible, and 19% not interested. Highest enrollment rates were for word of mouth (69%), flyers (67%), and senior centers (66%). Barriers to participation included hesitancy of seniors to leave their apartments to attend presentations and competing health issues taking precedence over eye concerns. Conclusions A multi-faceted recruitment approach, incorporating both direct and indirect activities at a variety of sites, should be used to recruit older African Americans into a behavioral intervention study. Establishing relationships in the community, both prior to initiating recruitment activities and as an ongoing process, was important to the study’s success. PMID:19998638
Lavizzo-Mourey, R.; Cox, C.; Strumpf, N.; Edwards, W. F.; Lavizzo-Mourey, R.; Stinemon, M.; Grisso, J. A.
Older African Americans are less likely to exercise compared with their white counterparts. Few studies have examined the facilitating factors and barriers to exercise among older African Americans living in urban communities. This study represented the first phase of a program to develop an exercise intervention in an urban community. Qualitative research was conducted to identify culturally determined attitudes that could be useful in designing an effective exercise program. Five focus groups involving 38 persons from a variety of settings were facilitated by trained professionals. Transcripts were analyzed to identify themes and contrasts among group participants. Contrary to the expectations of the investigative team, focus-group participants: (1) uniformly preferred group exercises compared with exercising at home, (2) rejected walking as a feasible option because of safety concerns, and (3) expressed limited interest in using weights or Eastern exercises such as Tai Chi. Concepts and goals of exercise differed according to the physical capabilities of the participants. The analysis of these focus-group discussions provided valuable insights with regard to the development of our community-based exercise-intervention protocol. These findings may be important in designing effective exercise programs for older African Americans in urban settings. PMID:11800276
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Briggs, Vanessa; Bowman, Marjorie; Bryant, Brenda; Bryant, Debbie Chatman; Delmoor, Ernestine; Ferguson, Monica; Ford, Marvella E; Johnson, Jerry C; Purnell, Joseph; Rogers, Rodney; Weathers, Benita
Patient navigation is now a standard component of cancer care in many oncology facilities, but a fundamental question for navigator programs, especially in medically underserved populations, is whether or not individuals will use this service. In this study, we evaluated acceptance of a community-based navigator program for cancer control and identified factors having significant independent associations with navigation acceptance in an urban sample of African Americans. Participants were African American men and women ages 50-75 who were residents in an urban metropolitan city who were referred for navigation. Of 240 participants, 76% completed navigation. Age and perceived risk of developing cancer had a significant independent association with navigation acceptance. Participants who believed that they were at high risk for developing cancer had a lower likelihood of completing navigation compared with those who believed that they had a low risk for developing this disease. The likelihood of completing navigation increased with increases in age. None of the socioeconomic factors or health care variables had a significant association with navigation acceptance. There are few barriers to using community-based navigation for cancer control among urban African Americans. Continued efforts are needed to develop and implement community-based programs for cancer control that are easy to use and address the needs of medically underserved populations. PMID:24173501
Beals, Janette; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annjeanette; Garroutte, Eva M.; Croy, Calvin; Jervis, Lori L.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Manson, Spero M.
Purpose To determine conditional risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities. Method Data from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project, a cross-sectional population-based survey completed between 1997 and 2000. This study focused on 1,967 participants meeting the DSM-IV criteria for trauma exposure. Traumas were grouped into interpersonal, non-interpersonal, witnessed, and “trauma to close others” categories. Analyses examined distribution of worst traumas, conditional rates of PTSD following exposure, and distributions of PTSD cases deriving from these events. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions estimated associations of lifetime PTSD with trauma type. Results Overall, 15.9% of those exposed to DSM-IV trauma qualified for lifetime PTSD, a rate comparable to similar U.S. studies. Women were more likely to develop PTSD than were men. The majority (60%) of cases of PTSD among women derived from interpersonal trauma exposure (in particular, sexual and physical abuse); among men, cases were more evenly distributed across trauma categories. Conclusions Previous research has demonstrated higher rates of both trauma exposure and PTSD in American Indian samples compared to other Americans. This study shows that conditional rates of PTSD are similar to those reported elsewhere, suggesting that the elevated prevalence of this disorder in American Indian populations is largely due to higher rates of trauma exposure. PMID:23135256
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C
Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50-75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57% of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95% CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient-provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J.; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C.
Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50–75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57 % of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95 % CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient– provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107
Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...
Austin, Sandra A; Claiborne, Nancy
Community-based participatory action research was utilized to form a collaboration that developed a Health Ministry program in four Northeastern urban Black Churches, in which they designed and implemented a culturally competent Type II Diabetes self management education program. Minister sponsorship and a program coordinator synchronized the four Health Ministries' development and diabetes program planning. A case study design, and participant observations and a focus group methodology were used to explore the faith-based community residents' collaboration development, and design and implementation of the health promotion program. The implementation process can be described as occurring in four essential elements: (1) the development of the health ministry in each of the four churches; (2) the process in which the four ministries coordinated their activities to create the diabetes education program; (3) the process of delivering the diabetes education program; and (4) the challenges in promoting the diabetes education program across the community. Practice implications, as well as cultural competency issues related to social work practice with faith-based organizations and African-American communities, are also presented. PMID:21614729
Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.
This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…
Discusses how during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a social ethos evolved among African American women that led to internal child welfare reform in legally segregated African American communities. Uses as an example the Virginia Industrial School for Colored Girls, founded in 1915, to describe these child welfare developments. (TM)
Littleton, Robert A.
Describes the experiences of 16 African American students who attended four small, predominantly White colleges in the Southern Appalachian region of the United States. The African American community at these small colleges can sometimes be an unforeseen cultural experience especially for Black male and female nonathletes. Qualitative methodology…
West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole
Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…
This paper is a preliminary report on a study that explored the ways in which African American male adolescents cope with the interpersonal assaultive violence that takes place in their urban communities. Participants were 27 African American male adolescents, aged 13-19, who live in and/or spend the majority of their non-school hours interacting…
Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.
African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…
Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.
Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…
Bertaux, Nancy; Washington, Michael
The relationship between the nineteenth century Colored Public Schools of Cincinnati and the overall African American community in the nineteenth-century "borderland" city of Cincinnati is examined. It is concluded that the employment of African American teachers, while a positive development in itself, apparently failed to lead to significant…
Alcantara, Carmela; Gone, Joseph P.
The alarming prevalence of suicidal behaviors in Native American communities remains a major concern in the 21st-century United States. Recent reviews have demonstrated that prevention programs and intervention efforts using transactional-ecological models have effectively reduced suicidal behaviors in the American Indian and Alaska Native…
Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer
African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25076647
Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica
Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population. PMID:27075420
Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee
Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797
Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee
Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797
Alexander, Claudia J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N. A.
In this talk we will present a concept for building on Native American languages and incorporating STEM concepts. Recently, a student from the Navajo Dine community took it upon himself to define 28 "NASA" terms in the Navajo language. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. We hope to add to this word list with geology and astronomy (comet-related) terms, just as we will in Rosetta public engagement for English-speakers. The U.S. Rosetta project will host these words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map will allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. The initiative will be expanded into other Native communities such as Hawaiian with the objective of drawing Native American students to the marvelous images, and other data, returned from NASA space missions. Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. One of the most important near-term problems is the preservation of Native American language. In some communities, small numbers of native speakers remain. The retention of language, and need to make it relevant to the technological age, represents a large and urgent challenge. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. STEM language elements in Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe can be found at the U.S. Rosetta website: http://rosetta.jpl.nasa.gov. Work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, was supported by NASA. The Rosetta mission is a cooperative project of NASA and the European Space Agency.
American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.
The collective bargaining agreement between Cuyahoga Community College District and the Cuyahoga Community College chapter (310 members) of the American Association of University Professors covering the period September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition, membership obligations, dues…
Caballero, Benjamin; Himes, John H; Lohman, Timothy; Davis, Sally M; Stevens, June; Evans, Marguerite; Going, Scott
Background Nationwide data on obesity prevalence in American Indian communities are limited. Objective We describe the body composition and anthropometric characteristics of schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities enrolled in the Pathways study, a randomized field trial evaluating a program for the primary prevention of obesity. Design A total of 1704 children in 41 schools were enrolled in the study. Basic anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Percentage body fat was estimated from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric variables with the use of an equation developed and validated for this population. Results The children's mean (± SD) age was 7.6 ± 0.6 y, and their mean weight and height were 32.1 ± 8.9 kg and 129.8 ± 6.3 cm, respectively. Mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) was 18.8 ± 3.9, and mean percentage body fat was 32.6 ± 6.8%. With the use of current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference values, 30.5% of girls and 26.8% of boys were above the 95th percentiles for BMI-for-age, and 21% of girls and 19.6% of boys were between the 85th and 95th percentiles. Although there was a wide range in BMI across study sites and for both sexes, the percentage of children with a BMI above the 95th percentile was consistently higher than the national averages in all communities studied and in both girls and boys. Conclusions Overweight can be documented in a substantial number of American Indian children by the time they reach elementary school. Despite differences in the prevalence of overweight observed among communities, rates are uniformly high relative to national all-race averages. PMID:12885714
Taylor, Victoria M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Sos, Channdara; Do, H. Hoai; Liu, Qi; Yasui, Yutaka
Background Cambodian Americans have high rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer. There is very limited information about the utility of community health worker (CHW) approaches to cancer education for Asian American men. We have previously reported our positive findings from a trial of CHW education about HBV for Cambodian Americans who had never been tested for HBV. This report describes similarities and differences between the outcomes of our CHW HBV educational intervention among Cambodian American men and women. Methods The study group for this analysis included 87 individuals (39 men and 48 women) who were randomized to the experimental (HBV education) arm of our trial, participated in the CHW educational intervention, and provided follow-up data six months post-intervention. We examined HBV testing rates at follow-up, changes in HBV-related knowledge between baseline and follow-up, and barriers to HBV testing (that were reported to CHWs) by gender. Results At follow-up, 15% of men and 31% of women reported they had received a HBV test (p=0.09). HBV-related knowledge levels increased significantly among both men and women. With respect to HBV testing barriers, women were more likely than men to cite knowledge deficits, and men were more likely than women to cite logistic issues. Discussion Our study findings indicate that CHW interventions can positively impact knowledge among Cambodian American men, as well as women. They also suggest CHW interventions may be less effective in promoting the use of preventive procedures by Cambodian American men than women. Future CHW research initiatives should consider contextual factors that may differ by gender and, therefore, potentially influence the relative effectiveness of CHW interventions for men versus women. PMID:24083730
Manson, Spero M.; Bair, Byron; Dailey, Nancy; Shore, Jay H.
Abstract Objective: Mental health issues are a serious concern for many American Indian Veterans, especially for post-traumatic stress disorder and related psychiatric conditions. Yet, acquiring mental health treatment can be a challenge in Native communities where specialized services are largely unavailable. Consequently, telehealth is increasingly being suggested as a way to expand healthcare access on or near reservation lands. In this study, we wanted to understand the factors affecting the diffusion of telehealth clinics that provided mental health care to rural, American Indian Veterans. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 39 key personnel and stakeholders who were involved in the decision-making process, technological infrastructure, and implementation of three clinics. Using Roger Everett's Diffusion Theory as a framework, we gathered information about specific tasks, factors hindering progress, and personal reactions to telehealth both before and after implementation. Results: Many participants expressed initial concerns about using telehealth; however, most became positive over time. Factors that influenced participants' viewpoint largely included patient and staff feedback and witnessing the fulfillment of a community health need. The use of outside information to support the implementation of the clinics and personal champions also showed considerable influence in the clinics' success. Conclusion: The findings presented here address critical gaps in our understanding of telehealth diffusion and inform research strategies regarding the cultural issues and outcomes related to telemental health services. Information contained in this report serves as a long overdue guide for developing telemental health programs and policies among American Indians, specifically, and rural populations in general. PMID:22082106
Sallis, James F.
Promoting physical activity is a high priority in the United States, especially for Native American populations, due to very high rates of inactivity-related chronic diseases. High quality physical activity measures can contribute to achieving health goals. Measuring a sample of the population can identify high risk subgroups and geographic locations that can be targeted for interventions. Outcomes of physical activity interventions should be evaluated because this is the only way to determine whether they are effective. Three types of measures are practical for use in non-research settings, though they still present challenges. First, self-reports are commonly used; they are low-cost, but the least accurate. Second, objective monitors such as pedometers, accelerometers, and heart rate monitors can provide accurate information, but resources and expertise are needed to collect and manage the data. Third, direct observation can be used to evaluate school physical education programs and assess how people are using parks and other physical activity facilities. Studies of Native American populations have used a variety of measures. Good evaluations can lead to program improvements, documenting positive results can attract funding to continue and expand programs, and communicating results can persuade other communities to adopt effective approaches. Program evaluations using quality physical activity measures can contribute to achieving the goal of improved health in Native American communities. PMID:20689389
Sallis, James F
Promoting physical activity is a high priority in the United States, especially for Native American populations, due to very high rates of inactivity-related chronic diseases. High-quality physical activity measures can contribute to achieving health goals. Measuring a sample of the population can identify high-risk subgroups and geographic locations that can be targeted for interventions. Outcomes of physical activity interventions should be evaluated because this is the only way to determine whether they are effective. Three types of measures are practical for use in nonresearch settings, although they still present challenges. First, self-reports are commonly used; they are low-cost but the least accurate. Second, objective monitors such as pedometers, accelerometers, and heart rate monitors can provide accurate information, but resources and expertise are needed to collect and manage data. Third, direct observation can be used to evaluate school physical education programs and assess how people are using parks and other physical activity facilities. Studies of Native American populations have used a variety of measures. Good evaluations can lead to program improvements, documenting positive results can attract funding to continue and expand programs, and communicating results can persuade other communities to adopt effective approaches. Program evaluations using quality physical activity measures can contribute to achieving the goal of improved health in Native American communities. PMID:20689389
Dressler, W W
It has been suggested that racism may account in part for health inequalities between African Americans and other ethnic groups in the United States. While there is a strong plausibility to this suggestion, specifying the causal pathways through which enduring patterns of prejudice and discrimination affect pathophysiologic processes has proven difficult. The aim of this paper is to suggest just such a specification of this effect, building on prior work locating this process in social interaction. It is argued that, in mundane social interaction, African-American ethnicity as a status attribute overrides the other social attributes through which individuals structure the social identities that mediate mundane social interaction. Three specific variables that influence social identity are examined: lifestyle incongruity, stressful life events, and identity accumulation. Using data collected in an African-American community in the rural South, it was found that these three variables are related to blood pressure in interaction with socioeconomic status. Additionally, each of the three variables is related to individuals' perceptions of racism in mundane interactions. This pattern of results suggests that the attribution of lower social status to African-American ethnicity within the color-conscious society of the U.S., and the subsequent effect of this attribution on social interaction, in part account for observed health inequalities. PMID:8882846
Dillinger, T L; Jett, S C; Macri, M J; Grivetti, L E
This article examines the use of supplemental food programs by two Native American populations and assesses some of the health and cultural impacts of these programs. A cross-sectional survey of 80 American Indian families, 40 families residing on the Round Valley Indian Reservation and 40 in Sacramento, California was conducted to determine access, use and appropriateness of supplemental feeding programs. Respondents at both the rural and urban geographic location showed considerable familiarity with available supplemental feeding programs. USDA Food Commodities were utilized most at Round Valley, raising the concern that provided staples which were highly processed and contained significant amounts of sodium, sucrose, and fat, could contribute to the problems of obesity and diabetes. Native Americans in Sacramento used food banks and food closets as their primary source of supplemental foods, and some expressed concern that the foods provided were highly sweetened and high in fat. While some nutrition advising was available at both geographical localities, access was inadequate. The study found that the foods provided by the supplemental food programs varied considerably in their nutritional quality and healthier foods such as fresh fruits, vegetables, and meats were either completely lacking or in short supply. In addition, culturally sensitive nutritional counseling and the development of education modules to instruct program recipients in the preparation of healthy meals and how to manage obesity and diabetes were needed and requested within the California Native American communities surveyed. PMID:10627833
Fang, Ted; Zola, Janet; Dariotis, Wei Ming
Compared to any other racial/ethnic group, Asian Americans represent a population disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a leading cause of liver cancer. Since 2007, the San Francisco Hep B Free (SFHBF) Campaign has been actively creating awareness and education on the importance of screening, testing, and vaccination of HBV among Asian Americans. In order to understand what messages resonated with Asian Americans in San Francisco, key informant interviews with 23 (n=23) individuals involved in community outreach were conducted. A key finding was the ability of the SFHBF campaign to utilize unique health communication strategies to break the silence and normalize discussions of HBV. In addition, the campaign’s approach to using public disclosures and motivating action by emphasizing solutions towards ending HBV proved to resonate with Asian Americans. The findings and lessons learned have implications for not only HBV but other stigmatized health issues in the Asian American community. PMID:21748476
Yoo, Grace J; Fang, Ted; Zola, Janet; Dariotis, Wei Ming
Compared to any other racial/ethnic group, Asian Americans represent a population disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a leading cause of liver cancer. Since 2007, the San Francisco Hep B Free (SFHBF) Campaign has been actively creating awareness and education on the importance of screening, testing, and vaccination of HBV among Asian Americans. In order to understand what messages resonated with Asian Americans in San Francisco, key informant interviews with 23 (n = 23) individuals involved in community outreach were conducted. A key finding was the ability of the SFHBF campaign to utilize unique health communication strategies to break the silence and normalize discussions of HBV. In addition, the campaign's approach to using public disclosures and motivating action by emphasizing solutions towards ending HBV proved to resonate with Asian Americans. The findings and lessons learned have implications for not only HBV but other stigmatized health issues in the Asian American community. PMID:21748476
Bryant, Keneshia; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Willis, Nathaniel; Hartwig, Mary
Mental health disparities exist for rural African-Americans regarding the early detection of depression and its effective treatment. Disparities that are evident in rural communities include limited mental health resources and the stigma of depression. The faith community has a long-standing history of being the initial source of help to those who experience depression. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how rural African-American faith communities view the barriers to diagnosis and treatment of depression. A convenience sample of 24 persons (N = 24) participated in focus groups and interviews. Four internal barriers were identified: personal business, “mind-set,” “denial,” and “put on a front.” Additionally, four external barriers were identified: “spiritual beliefs,” “lack of medical resources,” “lack of education about depression,” and “stigma.” The identified barriers supported the results from previous studies, but they also highlighted other less acknowledged barriers. In conclusion, interventions are needed to overcome these barriers in order to eliminate the depression disparities experienced by this population. PMID:24218871
Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula
In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455
Youmans, Selena; Lloyd, Stacy W.; Coker-Appiah, Dionne S.; Banks, Bahby; Blumenthal, Connie; Albritton, Tashuna; Ellison, Arlinda; Smith, Giselle Corbie; Adimora, Adaora A.
Background We explored rural African American youths' perceptions about the role of community social institutions in addressing HIV. Methods We conducted four focus groups with African Americans aged 16 to 24 years in two rural counties in North Carolina. Groups were stratified by gender and risk status. We used a grounded theory approach to content analysis. Results Participants identified four social institutions as primary providers of HIV-related health promotion efforts: faith organizations, schools, politicians, and health agencies. They reported perceiving a lack of involvement in HIV prevention by faith-based organizations, constraints of abstinence-based sex education policies, politicians' lack of interest in addressing broader HIV determinants, and inadequacies in health agency services, and viewed all of these as being counter-productive to HIV prevention efforts. Conclusions youth have important insights about local social institutions that should be considered when designing HIV prevention interventions that partner with local organizations. PMID:20453373
Vogel, Octavia; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca; Eschiti, Valerie; Samos, Markos; Wiener, Diane; Ohlander, Kerstin; Royals, Deborah
The Circle Of Life (COL) was first developed in 1991 as a breast health program through a partnership between the American Cancer Society and a committee of lay and professional volunteers in Oklahoma, with representation from Oklahoma American Indian tribal communities. In 2008, The Society was awarded funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to expand and enhance COL. Since then, The Society has engaged a variety of tribal health and education leaders and Society staff to comprise a COL advisory workgroup. The workgroup's mission was to make recommendations and provide guidance in the revision of COL. Four cultural values emerged from the engagement of the workgroup: (1) the value of visual communication, (2) the value of interconnected generations, (3) the value of storytelling, and (4) the value of experiential learning. These four concepts greatly shaped the revision of the COL educational tools and resources. PMID:23842983
Cox, Diana Hester, Ed.; And Others
The annual Journal of the American Association of Women in Community and Junior Colleges (AAWCJC) publishes articles on research, model programs, and teaching/learning strategies of interest to women students and staff at community, junior, and technical colleges. It provides a forum for the discussion of issues related to women in higher…
Kisker, Carrie B.
This speech, given at the 2014 Council for the Study of Community Colleges annual Awards Luncheon, describes three of the major changes in the sixth edition of "The American Community College". The speech also describes what those changes can tell us about the directions in which our colleges are moving and the ways in which community…
Van Noy, Michelle
Relationships between community colleges and the public workforce system might have an important role in promoting students' success in the labor market and in college. In particular, the co-location of American Job Centers (AJC) on community college campuses is a particularly strong form of relationship that might benefit students. Yet little is…
Ouimette, Larry William
This case study examined the extent to which a voluntary public-school 4-year-old kindergarten program in a Native American Community integrates the cultural context of the community, influences student social and academic growth, and prepares students for kindergarten. This qualitative study interviewed 4-year-old kindergarten teachers,…
Topper, Amelia M.; Powers, Jeanne M.
In this manuscript, the guest editors of the EPAA Special Issue on "Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century": a) introduce the background, history, and context of community colleges in the larger higher education landscape; b) summarize the three research papers and two video commentaries that were…
Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin
Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett
The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…
Martinez, Melissa Ann
Utilizing the notion of community cultural wealth, this study focuses on the various forms of capital that Mexican American students from the South Texas Border draw upon within their community to navigate the college choice process. Findings indicate that neighbors, church members, and in one case, a physician, served as sources of social…
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore faculty perceptions about effective leadership skills, knowledge, and qualities as identified by female community college academic senators and to examine the relationship of those perceptions to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) leadership competencies. Examining the…
A major challenge for the increasing multicultural and multilingual community college student population has been the difficulty in accessing the register features which define academic writing. In this study, an analysis of clause structures using writing samples collected from 45 community-college students, 15 from African-American, Haitian and…
Connelly, John; Barnhardt, Ray
As one of the final papers of the National Study of American Indian Education, this report is a description of the Makah Indian community and school at Neah Bay, Washington. Included in the community description are current population factors, historical background, and economic factors. The educational portion of the document gives historical…
US Department of Commerce, 2008
This handbook was developed for high school teachers looking for new sources of timely information and ways to make courses more engaging and relevant to students. The American Community Survey (ACS) provides a wide online array of social, economic, and demographic information about the nation, states, and local communities. These data can be…
Perkins, Larry M.
A third paper of the first series (Community Backgrounds of Education in the Communities Which Have been Studied) contributes to the final report of a National Study of American Indian Education and relates to Pawnee (Pawnee County), Oklahoma. Economic, social, and demographic data are presented for Indian, Negro, and "White" subgroups of the…
American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2012
In the summer of 2011, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched a new 21st-Century Initiative. The overall goal of the initiative is to educate an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. Grounded in the enduring commitment of community colleges to improving the lives of students…
African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment, and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Shelton Dunston, Brenda; Green, Derek
African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is 5 times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended that (a) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders, (b) local HIV-prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission, (c) resources should be distributed to the most heavily affected neighborhoods of Philadelphia, and (d) faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment, and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This community-based participatory research case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446
Johnson, D.A.; Joosten, Y.A.; Wilkins, C.H.; Shibao, C
This brief report examines how the use of community engagement principles and approaches enhanced clinical trial recruitment and retention. The Community Engaged Research Core (CERC), a CTSA-supported resource designed to facilitate community involvement in clinical and translational research, was consulted to provide assistance with the implementation of the clinical trial, and specifically to enhance participation of the target population- African American women. CERC's key recommendations included 1) convene a Community Engagement Studio (CES), 2) redesign the recruitment advertisement, 3) simplify the language used to explain the scope of the study, and 4) provide transportation for participants. As a result of these interventions, a comprehensive strategy to recruit, enroll, and retain participants was formulated. After implementation of the plan by the study team, enrollment increased 78% and recruitment goals were met 16 months ahead of schedule. Participant retention and study drug adherence was 100%. We conclude that community engagement is essential to the development of an effective multi-faceted plan to improve recruitment of underrepresented groups in clinical trials. PMID:25752995
Johnson, Davalynn A; Joosten, Yvonne A; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Shibao, Cyndya A
This brief report examines how the use of community engagement principles and approaches enhanced clinical trial recruitment and retention. The Community-Engaged Research Core (CERC), a CTSA-supported resource designed to facilitate community involvement in clinical and translational research, was consulted to provide assistance with the implementation of the clinical trial, and specifically to enhance participation of the target population-African American women. CERC's key recommendations included: (1) convene a Community Engagement Studio, (2) redesign the recruitment advertisement, (3) simplify the language used to explain the scope of the study, and (4) provide transportation for participants. As a result of these interventions, a comprehensive strategy to recruit, enroll, and retain participants was formulated. After implementation of the plan by the study team, enrollment increased 78% and recruitment goals were met 16 months ahead of schedule. Participant retention and study drug adherence was 100%. We conclude that community engagement is essential to the development of an effective multifaceted plan to improve recruitment of underrepresented groups in clinical trials. PMID:25752995
Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G
Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations. PMID:21994016
Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail
This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs. PMID:27272330
Telfer, Richard J., Ed.
The theme of the 1998 conference of the American Reading Forum was "Literacy Conversations: Family, School, and Community." Many papers in this proceedings address this theme directly, emphasizing different types of literacy conversation. Responses to the theme are diverse, encompassing the use of personal histories, therapeutic conversations,…
Hoffhines, Heather; Whaley, Kelleigh Dean; Blackett, Piers R; Palumbo, Karen; Campbell-Sternloff, Dana; Glore, Stephen; Lee, Elisa T
Prevailing infant and toddler feeding practices in an American Indian community were assessed to explore the feasibility of improvement by implementation of a maternal education program. A survey of prevailing nutritional practice was the basis for design of an instruction program on infant nutrition for mothers during pregnancy. Follow-up assessments provided information on feasibility, and requirements for an effective program. Failure to sustain breast-feeding, low fruit and vegetable intake, low fiber intake, consumption of sweetened beverages, low milk consumption and low vitamin D intake were identified as persisting problems. We conclude that infant and toddler feeding practices are comparable to national trends, but suboptimal and conducive to promoting early obesity and diabetes in a susceptible community. A successful education-based intervention strategy beginning in pregnancy appears feasible if psychosocial, environmental, and economic barriers can be addressed. PMID:24761552
African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA
Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek
African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446
Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Fort, Jane G.; Ahmed, Nasar U.; Semenya, Kofi A.; Schreiber, George B.; Perry, Shelley; Guillory, Joyce
We report the first multisite, multicomponent community intervention trial to focus on cancer prevention in African Americans. The project explored the potential of historically black medical schools to deliver health information to their local communities and used a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention consisted of culturally sensitive messages at appropriate educational levels delivered over an 18-month period and tested in predominantly black census tracts in Nashville, TN and Atlanta, GA. Chattanooga, TN and Decatur, GA served as comparison cities. Results were evaluated by pre- and postintervention random-digit dial telephone surveys. The intervention cities showed an increase in reported contact with or knowledge of the project. There was little or no effect on knowledge or attitudes in the intervention cities. Compared to Chattanooga, Nashville showed an increase in percentage of women receiving Pap smears. Compared to Decatur, Atlanta showed an increase in percentage of age-appropriate populations receiving digital rectal exams, colorectal cancer screenings and mammograms. The results of this community intervention trial demonstrated modest success and are encouraging for future efforts of longer duration. PMID:16334495
Ellis, G A; Reed, D F; Scheider, H
A statewide tobacco control campaign in California has been highly successful in reducing public exposure to the health hazards of secondhand smoke. Over 250 cities and counties in California have enacted local ordinances to regulate smoking in public places and workplaces. Although low-income people of color are disproportionately affected by the use of tobacco, the issue of regulating secondhand smoke tends to be a lower priority in communities that are confronted by other, more immediately pressing social justice issues, such as high rates of violence and lack of economic opportunity. This article describes the process undertaken by a county health department to mobilize a low-income African American community in a San Francisco Bay Area city to support a local ordinance mandating 100% smoke-free workplaces and restaurants. These efforts are more likely to succeed if health advocates (1) reframe issues in a context that acknowledges the political, economic, and social justice realities and strengths of the community; (2) organize within existing local networks and foster the integration of tobacco issues into the group's existing work; and (3) can defer their own agendas during times of community grieving and healing. PMID:8550369
Noon, B.R.; Dawson, D.K.; Kelly, J.P.
To search for the existence of stability gradients in North American breeding land bird communities we operationally defined stability (after Jarvinen 1979) as year-to-year persistence in species composition and distribution of species abundances. From the census data for 174 study plots we derived nine indices that estimate the annual variability of species composition, the species abundance distribution, diversity, and breeding density. The resulting matrix of study plot by stability indices was used to estimate the correlation structure of the stability indices. The correlation matrix was, in turn, subjected to a principal components analysis to derive synthetic gradients of variation. We then searched for patterns of variation in these stability gradients associated with either geographic location or habitat type. Three independent principal component axes reproduced most of the variation in the initial data and were interpreted as gradients of variation in species turnover, diversity, and breeding abundance. Thus, the annual stability of community structure apparently responds independently to species and abundance variation. Despite the clarity of the derived gradients, few patterns emerged when the plots were ordinated by either habitat or geographic location. In general, grasslands showed greater annual variation in diversity than forested habitats, and, for some habitats, northern communities were less stable than more southern communities. However, few of these patterns were very strong, and we interpret them cautiously.
Carey, Devin C.; Richards, Maryse H.
Objective Because of the evidence that children living in inner city communities are chronically exposed to violence, the goal of the present study was to longitudinally explore the reciprocal and perpetuating relationship between exposure to violence and child social maladjustment. Method Participants were 268 African American students (M age = 11.65 years, 40% males and 60% females) from six inner city Chicago public schools in high crime neighborhoods. Data was collected longitudinally over three years on measures of demographic information, exposure to community violence, and social adjustment. It was hypothesized that high levels of exposure to community violence, would be related to higher reports of social maladjustment (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally) and these variables would interact transactionally, leading to a greater risk of exposure to violence. Results These hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and results revealed that exposure to community violence was not consistently linked to social maladjustment. Transactional results revealed that there are certain periods in development in which being more socially maladjusted may put a youth in risk for more exposure to violence. Conclusions Results of the present study have important implications for interventions for inner-city youth exposed to violence. PMID:25171169
Havranek, Edward P.; Price, David W.; Hanratty, Rebecca; Fairclough, Diane L.; Farley, Tillman; Hirsh, Holen K.; Steiner, John F.
Objectives. We assessed implicit and explicit bias against both Latinos and African Americans among experienced primary care providers (PCPs) and community members (CMs) in the same geographic area. Methods. Two hundred ten PCPs and 190 CMs from 3 health care organizations in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area completed Implicit Association Tests and self-report measures of implicit and explicit bias, respectively. Results. With a 60% participation rate, the PCPs demonstrated substantial implicit bias against both Latinos and African Americans, but this was no different from CMs. Explicit bias was largely absent in both groups. Adjustment for background characteristics showed the PCPs had slightly weaker ethnic/racial bias than CMs. Conclusions. This research provided the first evidence of implicit bias against Latinos in health care, as well as confirming previous findings of implicit bias against African Americans. Lack of substantive differences in bias between the experienced PCPs and CMs suggested a wider societal problem. At the same time, the wide range of implicit bias suggested that bias in health care is neither uniform nor inevitable, and important lessons might be learned from providers who do not exhibit bias. PMID:23153155
O'Connell, Meghan; Buchwald, Dedra S; Duncan, Glen E
Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit market basket, to describe the food environment of American Indians. Stores were identified by telephone survey of tribal headquarters, a commercial database, and on-site visitation. Foods were assessed using a standardized instrument containing 68 items in seven major food groups during April and May 2009. Store type and availability and cost of foods were recorded on a checklist. Fifty stores were identified on 22 American Indian reservations, including 25 convenience, 16 grocery, and 9 supermarkets. Across all stores, about 38% of checklist items were available, with supermarkets having the most and convenience stores the fewest. Foods from the dairy and sugars/sweets groups were the most prevalent, while fresh fruits/vegetables were the least. Cost of the most commonly available items was lowest in supermarkets. Seventeen reservations did not have a supermarket on their reservation, and the nearest off-reservation supermarket was about 10 miles from the tribe's headquarters, which was used as the standard for distance calculations. These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost. PMID:21872701
Gaviria, M; Stern, G; Schensul, S L
The complex relationship between sociocultural variables, such as ethnicity, language, and working status, and the utilization of facilities for perinatal health care were explored in a predominantly Mexican American community in Chicago. The project, which was initiated in 1977, was designed to provide objective data on utilization patterns of perinatal health facilities and to assess the importance of the migratory experience on the utilization of perinatal services among Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans living in the community. Patterns of utilization of perinatal health facilities by pregnant women, preference for the ethnicity, language, and sex of the health care provider, and different patterns that influence the months of prenatal care were examined in the context of the migration factor. An interview instrument was developed to include both quantitative and qualitative data. Ages among the sample of women ranged from 16-41. 60 women were immigrants born in Mexico and 29 women were Mexican Americans born in the US. Women in the sample were using 2 major health care "tracks" for their perinatal care: public facilities for prenatal care, delivery, and pediatric care for the infant; and private physicians for prenatal care, pediatric care, and delivery in the small, Catholic hospitals where the physicians tended to have admitting privileges. 34 women were attending private facilities, and 55 women were using public facilties. 27 women (30.3%) cited economic considerations as the reason for choosing a physician or facility. Other reasons included personal referral or recommendation (27%), previously used (16.9%), and geographic proximity (6.7%). The use of public prenatal clinics correlated significantly with the citing of economic considerations as the basis for choosing this type of care. 32 women (36%) were working during their pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between choosing a private physician for prenatal care and being employed
Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.
Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Li, Zhonghe
This cross-sectional, retrospective study used epidemiological and anthropological methods toward two aims: 1) to examine associations between partner violence and major depression in a community probability sample of women and 2) to provide new data on partner violence in Chinese Americans. In this study, 181 Chinese American women were interviewed, with 178 completing structured sections on CIDI 2.1 major depression and on partner violence history. Results indicate that a history of partner violence is associated with significantly higher rates of lifetime, 12-month, and current major depression in this community population. This effect is specific and independent of other factors. Partner violence also has a dose-response relationship with the severity of major depression episodes, increasing risk for severe and moderate episodes. The strength and specificity of this association, its dose-response effect, and its commonality across different populations suggest a possible causal role for partner violence needing further investigation in research on major depression in women. PMID:14614339
Lawton, Deborah M.; Gasquoine, Philip G.; Weimer, Amy A.
Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics. PMID:25598395
Novins, Douglas K.; Moore, Laurie A.; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E.
Background Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. Objectives and Methods We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n = 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Results Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. Conclusion and Scientific Significance This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies. PMID:22931088
Introduction Fish advisories are issued in an effort to protect human health from exposure to contaminants, but Native American communities may suffer unintended health, social, and cultural consequences as a result of warnings against eating local fish. This paper focuses on the Mohawk community of Akwesasne, which lies downstream from a Superfund site, and explores how fish advisories have impacted fish consumption and health. Methods 65 Akwesasne community members were interviewed between March 2008 and April 2009. Interviews were semi-structured, lasted from 30–90 minutes and consisted of open-ended questions about the impacts of environmental contamination on the community. Detailed field notes were also maintained during extensive visits between 2007–2011. Interviews were transcribed, and these transcripts as well as the field notes were analyzed in NVivo 8.0. This research received approval from the Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment Research Advisory Committee, as well as the Brown University Institutional Review Board. Results Three-quarters of the 50 Akwesasne Mohawks interviewed have ceased or significantly curtailed their local fish consumption due to the issuance of fish advisories or witnessing or hearing about deformities on fish. Many of these respondents have turned to outside sources of fish, from other communities or from grocery stores. This change in fish consumption concerns many residents because cultural and social connections developed around fishing are being lost and because fish has been replaced with high-fat high-carb processed foods, which has led to other health complications. One-quarter of the 50 interviewees still eat local fish, but these are generally middle-aged or older residents; fish consumption no longer occurs in the multi-generational social context it once did. Conclusions Human health in Native American communities such as Akwesasne is intimately tied to the health of the environment. Fish advisories should not
Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi
This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management. PMID:25942506
Kruse, Clemens Scott; Bouffard, Shelby; Dougherty, Michael; Parro, Jenna Stewart
Native American communities face serious health disparities and, living in rural areas, often lack regular access to healthcare services as compared to other Americans. Since the early 1970's, telecommunication technology has been explored as a means to address the cost and quality of, as well as access to, healthcare on rural reservations. This systematic review seeks to explore the use of telemedicine in rural Native American communities using the framework of cost, quality, and access as promulgated by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and urge additional legislation to increase its use in this vulnerable population. As a systematic literature review, this study analyzes 15 peer-reviewed articles from four databases using the themes of cost, quality, and access. The theme of access was referenced most frequently in the reviewed literature, indicating that access to healthcare may be the biggest obstacle facing widespread adoption of telemedicine programs on rural Native American reservations. The use of telemedicine mitigates the costs of healthcare, which impede access to high-quality care delivery and, in some cases, deters prospective patients from accessing healthcare at all. Telemedicine offers rural Native American communities a means of accessing healthcare without incurring high costs. With attention to reimbursement policies, educational services, technological infrastructure, and culturally competent care, telemedicine has the potential to decrease costs, increase quality, and increase access to healthcare for rural Native American patients. While challenges facing the implementation of telemedicine programs exist, there is great potential for it to improve healthcare delivery in rural Native American communities. Public policy that increases funding for programs that help to expand access to healthcare for Native Americans will improve outcomes because of the increase in access. PMID:27118011
Fialkowski, Marie K.; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Boushey, Carol J.
The rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in Native Americans and Alaska Natives far exceed that of the general US population. There are many postulating reasons for these excessive rates including the transition from a traditional to a contemporary diet. Although information on the dietary intakes of Native American and Alaska Native communities are limited, there seems to be a consensus that the Native American and Alaska Native diet is high in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Further information on the diet needs to be attained so that dietary interventions can effectively be implemented in these communities. An approach that is community based is proposed as the best solution to understanding the Native diet and developing culturally tailored interventions to sustainably improve diet. PMID:22686210
Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Hansen, Andrew R
Given the pivotal role of African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural areas, the inclusion of caregiver's perceptions could potentially reduce childhood obesity rates. The objective of the current study was to explore childhood obesity perceptions among African Americans in a rural Georgia community. This concurrent mixed methods study utilized two theoretical frameworks: Social Cognitive Theory and Social Ecological Model. Using a convenience sample, caregivers ages 22-65 years completed a paper-based survey (n = 135) and a face-to-face interview (n = 12) to explore perceptions of obesity risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment features, and obesity prevention approaches. Descriptive statistics were generated and a six-step process was used for qualitative analysis. Participants commonly cited behavioral risk factors; yet, social aspects and appearance of the community were not considered contributing factors. Chronic diseases were reported as obesity health complications. Caregivers had a distorted view of their child's weight status. In addition, analysis revealed that caregivers assessed child's weight and height measurements by the child's appearance or a recent doctor visit. Environmental barriers reported by caregivers included safety concerns and insufficient physical activity venues and programs. Also, caregivers conveyed parents are an imperative component of preventing obesity. Although this study found caregivers were aware of obesity risk factors, health complications, built environment features, and prevention approaches their obesity perceptions were not incorporated into school or community prevention efforts. Findings suggest that children residing in rural areas are in need of tailored efforts that address caregiver perceptions of obesity. PMID:25218019
Kennedy, Bernice Roberts
Social inequalities in the United States resulted in negative health outcomes for the African Americans. Their stressful living conditions of poverty, discrimination, racism, abuse and rejection from American society contribute to their negative health outcomes. The lifestyles of African Americans have been influenced by poverty and prior injustices, which have molded their worldview of health and illness. Dr. Martin Luther King, national civil rights leader, brought about social change with much prayer; however, he went a step further with collective gatherings to include the power of non-violence massive public demonstrations. This paper is an analytical review of the literature addressing social inequalities impacting on health inequalities of African Americans resulting in health disparities. Policy changes are propose by implementing transformation development and community empowerment models as frameworks for community/public health nurses in guiding African American communities with addressing health disparities. These models empower members of the community to participate in a collaborative effort in making political and social changes to improve their overall health outcomes. PMID:24575590
Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yifu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10–22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths’ exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults’ romantic relationships. PMID:23494451
Hispanic-Americans and Business in the United States: Linking Up for a Stronger Future. Report of the Aspen Institute Conference "Hispanic-Americans and the Business Community" (Santa Barbara, CA, August 7-10, 1985).
Aspen Inst. for Humanistic Studies, New York, NY.
In this report from the final session of a conference on Hispanic Americans and the business community, some general conclusions are presented. Participants, it is said, believed that the advancement of Hispanic-Americans in business depends on growing ties of mutual benefit between Hispanics and the general community. Despite the great attention…
Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T
The public's causal attributions of schizophrenia have far-reaching effects on the community and affected individuals. This study investigated causal beliefs within a community of predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban, African Americans in the southeastern United States. Two hundred eighty-two patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market participated in a self-administered survey assessing causal beliefs through a 30-item survey and self-reported causal opinions. Associations were assessed between causal attributions of schizophrenia and sociodemographic characteristics and exposure/familiarity variables. Certain sociodemographic variables, as well as key exposure/familiarity variables, predicted the nature of one's causal beliefs. The most common causal opinions reported included substance abuse, negative life events, and "mental illness." Findings from a subsample administered an exploratory multiple-choice question investigating understanding of causation revealed that the public may not fully understand the nature of causation. Although this study suggests potential determinants of causal beliefs held by community members, further research examining the public's conception of causation would enhance interpretation of studies on such beliefs. PMID:20623254
This preliminary bibliography of Mexican American literary criticism includes approximately 500 items, most published between 1960 and 1980. The bibliography includes background materials, novels, short stories, poetry, drama, and anthologies. The introductory material cites 13 bibliographies, most available in the Benson Latin American Collection…
Champagne, Duane, Ed.; Stauss, Jay, Ed.
This book compiles stories about the formation of American Indian/Native American studies in 12 mainstream university settings. Common elements of these successful programs include a highly committed core of Indian and non-Indian faculty and students who believe in the intellectual and nation-building agenda of Indian/Native studies; a strong…
American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.
The collective bargaining agreement between Cuyahoga Community College District and the college's chapter of the American Association of University Professors covering the period September 1, 1985-September 1, 1989 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition, membership obligations, dues checkoff, board of trustees'…
Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T
Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities
Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K
The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472
Jobe, Jared B; Adams, Alexandra K; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Karanja, Njeri; Lee, Elisa T; Walters, Karina L
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations bear a heavy burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and they have the highest rates of risk factors for CVD, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes, of any U.S. population group. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have been launched to test potential preventive interventions in Indian Country. Five randomized controlled trials were initiated recently in AI/AN communities to test the effectiveness of interventions targeting adults and/or children to promote healthy behaviors that are known to impact biological CVD risk factors. This article provides a context for and an overview of these five trials. The high burden of CVD among AI/AN populations will worsen unless behaviors and lifestyles affecting CVD risk can be modified. These five trials, if successful, represent a starting point in addressing these significant health disparities. PMID:22983753
This article is a case study of problems that emerged during the planning of an anti-poverty program in a community in the rural American South in the early 1990s. Issues of racism, sexism, and classism in the planning process are discussed as they are informed by the national welfare reform rhetoric of the time, a local context of historical and current White racism, and the historical and current identity positions of the local Black planners. The author argues that understanding local history is a vital component in planning and implementing social programs. The article offers an analysis of the deployment of power in the planning of social change projects that can be used to develop inclusive planning processes that are responsive to the needs of economically and socially oppressed populations. PMID:16786413
Yancey, A K; Walden, L
Recent studies have attributed underutilization of early cancer detection programs among the disadvantaged to knowledge deficits and myths, lack of belief in cancer susceptibility (denial), and such attitudinal barriers as fear and embarrassment. Video modalities have been demonstrated to be effective in increasing knowledge and promoting health-protective behavior in low-income people of color. Waiting rooms of public health clinic facilities in large urban areas provide a captive audience of predominantly African Americans and Latinos with a preference for obtaining health information from audiovisual media. The development of a culturally sensitive, cost-effective documentary format is described. An experience of rapid acceleration in demand for Pap smears in an underserved Latino community of East Los Angeles following the showing of one of these videos is chronicled as a spontaneous and informal evaluation of this approach to health education/promotion video production. PMID:8204458
Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert
Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels. PMID:16418902
Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Murakami, Elaine
Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.
Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook
Korean Americans tend to have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all US population. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. However, there is little known about their cancer information seeking behaviors and needs. The purpose of the study was to understand cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from MissyUSA, which is one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 393 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed; 120 were deleted because the messages were not related to cancer health information. A total of 273 posted free-texts were analyzed for this study, using an open source text-mining software program called AntConc 3.2.4. The extracted terms were categorized based on coding systems, after linguistic variations were handled. Terms such as "surgery," "breast cancer," "examination," "cancer" (unspecified), "Korea," and "pain" were most frequently identified. Medical topics accounted for 71.4 % of the main topics of the postings. Treatment was the most frequently discussed in the medical topics while in the non-medical category, the most frequently discussed topic was recommendations for hospitals or doctors. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern, followed by cervical and liver cancer. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their cancer information seeking trends and information needs. PMID:24198135
Pizzi, Laura T.; Jutkowitz, Eric; Frick, Kevin D.; Suh, Dong-Churl; Prioli, Katherine M.; Gitlin, Laura N.
Objectives To test the cost-effectiveness of a home-based depression program, Beat the Blues (BTB). Design We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis as part of a previously reported randomized controlled trial that tested BTB versus a wait-list control group. Setting Community-dwelling older African American adults. Participants African Americans who were ≥55 years of age, English speaking, cognitively intact (MMSE ≥24), and had depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) (N=129). Intervention Participants randomly assigned to BTB received up to 10 home visits over a period of 4 months by licensed social workers who provided care management, referral/linkage, stress reduction, depression education, and behavioral activation to help participants achieve self-identified goals. Measurements Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of BTB versus wait-list controls during the 4-month study period. The primary ICER was defined as cost/quality-adjusted life year using the EQ-5D and secondarily using the HUI-3. Additional ICERs were calculated using clinical measures (cost per depression improvement, cost per depression remission). Costs included BTB intervention, depression-related healthcare visits and medications, caregiver time, and social services. Results BTB cost per participant per month was $146. Base case ICERs were $64,896 per QALY (EQ-5D) and $36,875 per QALY (HUI-3). Incremental cost per depression improvement was $2,906 and per remission was $3,507. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses yielded cost/QALY range of $20,500-$76,500. Conclusion Based on the range of cost effectiveness values resulting from this study, BTB is a cost-effective treatment for managing depressive symptoms in older African Americans that compares favorably with the cost effectiveness of previously tested approaches. PMID:25516025
Gone, Joseph P
Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain, leading to adult dysfunction, including substance abuse. Second, counselors believed that such pain must be confessed in order to purge its deleterious influence. Third, the cathartic expression of such pain was said by counselors to inaugurate lifelong habits of introspection and self-improvement. Finally, this healing journey entailed a reclamation of indigenous heritage, identity, and spirituality that program staff thought would neutralize the pathogenic effects of colonization. Consideration of this healing discourse suggests that one important way for psychologists to bridge evidence-based and culturally sensitive treatment paradigms is to partner with indigenous programs in the exploration of locally determined therapeutic outcomes for existing culturally sensitive interventions that are maximally responsive to community needs and interests. PMID:19634967
Mosack, Katie E; Stevens, Patricia E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R
A key source of resiliency within HIV-affected African American communities is informal social support. Data from dyadic conversations and focus groups were used to address the following research question: What are HIV-positive African Americans' social support experiences within their informal social networks in response to HIV-related problems? Circumstances that exacerbated HIV-related problems included others' fear of contagion, reticence to be involved, judgment and rejection, and disregard for privacy Support from HIV-negative others buffered the impact of problems when others communicate interest, take the initiative to help, or make a long-term investment in their success. Support from other HIV-positive persons was helpful given the shared connection because of HIV, the opportunity to commiserate about what is mutually understood, and the fight for mutual survival Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for future research and social network interventions aimed at bolstering connections between HIV-positive peers, reducing stigma, and improving family support. PMID:26515921
Hamilton, Lynnae A.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Lyons, Paul D.; May, Roberta; Swanson, Charlie L.; Savage, Robert; Go, Rodney C. P.
INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate representation of all demographic groups in medical research is necessary in order to ensure that the benefits associated with participation are equitably shared. Mental health research is unique in that the stigma associated with mental illness, such as schizophrenia, further hinders participation. Using focus groups, we set out to explore the attitudes and views of African Americans with regard to schizophrenia and medical research. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted, with 23 participants divided into two groups of working and retired adults, and two groups of full- and part-time students selected from inner-city residents of Birmingham, AL, and surrounding counties. Data obtained were analyzed using the content analysis method. RESULTS: Diverse views were expressed about the cause of mental illness, and much of this was influenced by cultural beliefs. There was considerable misunderstanding of schizophrenia, and the majority of participants described the disease in terms of positive symptoms only. Whereas for older participants the Tuskegee syphilis study experience was an important factor in their reluctance to participate in medical research, younger participants expressed no knowledge of the study. Among younger participants an assumed level of social distrust was evident, with prominent fear of participating in research that employs physically intrusive methods. CONCLUSION: The provision of accurate information through trusted community sources and open dialogue will help to dispel myths, correct faulty assumptions and increase African-American participation in schizophrenia research. PMID:16532974
Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann
Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight. PMID:19285205
Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Volk, Thomas J
Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut blight until 1987. In the West Salem stand, chestnuts are the dominant species of a mixed forest community, reminiscent of the chestnut-oak ecosystems of pre-1900 Appalachia. To identify putative mycorrhizal associates of chestnut in this unique forest, our approach was twofold: (1) an extensive fruiting body survey was conducted for four seasons that yielded approximately 100 putative mycorrhizal species and (2) a belowground molecular approach was used to generate DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region from ectomycorrhizae. Unexpectedly, chestnut did not appear to be the dominant underground ectomycorrhizal-forming plant species. This study highlights the need to identify the plant host species when conducting belowground molecular-based surveys and provides preliminary identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with a disjunct stand of American chestnut. PMID:18807258
Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M.; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G.; Huang, Haixiao; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette
OBJECTIVE The landmark Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that lifestyle intervention can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes for those at risk. We evaluated a translational implementation of this intervention in a diverse set of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented the DPP lifestyle intervention among 36 health care programs serving 80 tribes. A total of 2,553 participants with prediabetes were recruited and started intervention by 31 July 2008. They were offered the 16-session Lifestyle Balance Curriculum and underwent a thorough clinical assessment for evaluation of their diabetes status and risk at baseline, soon after completing the curriculum (postcurriculum), and annually for up to 3 years. Diabetes incidence was estimated. Weight loss, changes in blood pressure and lipid levels, and lifestyle changes after intervention were also evaluated. RESULTS The completion rates of SDPI-DP were 74, 59, 42, and 33% for the postcurriculum and year 1, 2, and 3 assessments, respectively. The crude incidence of diabetes among SDPI-DP participants was 4.0% per year. Significant improvements in weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels were observed immediately after the intervention and annually thereafter for 3 years. Class attendance strongly correlated with diabetes incidence rate, weight loss, and change in systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential of translating the lifestyle intervention in diverse AI/AN communities. They have important implications for future dissemination and institutionalization of the intervention throughout the Native American health system. PMID:23275375
Zhang, Pao San Lucy; Sim, Shao-Chee; Pong, Perry; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Li, Shijian; Tsang, Thomas; Rey, Mariano
Background: Because health disparities among Asian Americans are understudied, a partnership program between the Charles B. Wang Community Health Center and the Center for the Study of Asian American Health was created to increase awareness and interest in Asian American research. Purpose: To evaluate the process, outcome, and impact of a health…
Laukaitis, John J.
This work examines the under-studied urban dimension of the American Indian self-determination in education by showing how American Indians in Chicago established, developed, influenced, and utilized programs to meet the particular objectives and needs of their local community. By showing how American Indians worked outside of and within systems,…
Simmons, Robert W., III
African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…
Sheehan, Angela; Walrath-Greene, Christine; Fisher, Sylvia; Crossbear, Shannon; Walker, Joseph
Data from the Evidence-based Treatment Survey were used to compare providers serving families in American Indian and Alaska Native communities to their counterparts in non-American Indian/Alaska Native communities on provider characteristics and factors that influence their decision to use evidence-based practices (N = 467). The findings suggest…
Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.
African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894
Kendall, Jeff; Kendall, Colleen; Catts, Zohra Ali-Khan; Radford, Cristi; Dasch, Kimberly
Utilization of cancer genetic risk assessment can be profoundly influenced by an individuals' knowledge of risk assessment, attitudes regarding illness and healthcare, and affective reactions derived from social norms. Race and ethnicity play a powerful role in the development of an individual's attitudes and should be considered when attempting to understand a person's openness to cancer genetic risk assessment (Lannin et al., 1998). Until recently, however, cancer screening and prevention programs have been primarily based on data from studies conducted with the Caucasian population, yielding data that are not fully applicable to the African American community. In the last several years, research findings regarding African American's knowledge, attitudes, and feelings about genetic counseling and testing have grown (Matthews et al., 2000; Singer et al., 2004; Thompson et al., 2003). However, to the authors' knowledge, these data have yet to be presented in a manner that both summarizes the barriers that African Americans have reported regarding cancer genetic risk assessment, while at the same time suggesting methods individual genetic counselors can utilize during community presentations to help address these barriers. This article will first summarize previous empirical findings regarding African Americans' knowledge, attitudes, and feelings about cancer genetic risk assessment. The article will then apply adult learning theory to those findings to provide genetic counselors with practical, theory based techniques to apply toward community based educational programs with African American groups. PMID:17473964
Ford, Marvella E; Siminoff, Laura A; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; Diaz, Vanessa A; Soderstrom, Lea H; Jefferson, Melanie S; Tilley, Barbara C
African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894
Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.
Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…
Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.
In this study, 69 Mexican American elementary school girls in Grades 3 through 6 (age 8-13 years) from an agricultural community were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the frequency of communication with their mothers about education and their interaction with their teachers. The authors examined how these variables were associated with…
Mackett, Robert; Chilcott, John H.
Number 17 in Series I of the final report of the National Study of American Indian Education describes the small community of Sells, Arizona, in terms of (1) location and climate, (2) sociocultural background, (3) transportation problems, (4) housing problems, (5) governmental influence, (6) recreation, (7) educational opportunities, and (8)…
Weinman, Janice J.
The possible causes underlying the differential response to local control over education in the American Indian Ccommunities of San Juan and Santa Clara, both of the Tewa branch of the Pueblo Tribe, are reported in this paper. Results are described for the 10-week study (summer 1969) that consisted of observations of community reactions to…
Lopez-Trevino, Maria Elena
Interviews with 60 Mexican-American female farmworkers in the Coachella Valley (California) identified their major problems, needs, and suggestions of topics to be presented in a community-based educational radio program. Two major problems identified by these women were low wages and occupational exposure to pesticides. Contrary to cultural…
Reamer, Andrew D.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is a Census Bureau program that provides annually updated information on demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics of U.S. households at every level of geography, from the nation to the neighborhood. ACS data are used by public and business decision-makers to more clearly identify issues and…
Vickery, Amanda E.
This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…
Espino, Michelle M.
This article focuses on the extent to which devalued forms of capital along with limited access to valued cultural capital facilitated the access and persistence of 33 Mexican American PhDs who earned their doctorates in a variety of disciplines at 15 universities across the United States. Using the framework of community cultural wealth, this…
Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven
This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…
The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of ...
Gambino, Christine; Gryn, Thomas
This brief will discuss patterns of science and engineering educational attainment within the foreign-born population living in the United States, using data from the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS). The analysis is restricted to the population aged 25 and older, and the results are presented on science and engineering degree attainment by…
O'Meara, Daniel J.
This study is an ethnographic inquiry into the beliefs and perceptions of first-generation/low-income Mexican American students in a rural community college located near the U.S.-Mexico border. It explored their experiences as TRiO Student Support Services participants. TRiO Student Support Services plays an increasingly vital role helping…
This brief provides information about the field or major of bachelor's degrees, earnings, and selected employment characteristics for the population aged 25 and over with a bachelor's degree or higher. Data on field of bachelor's degree was first collected in the American Community Survey (ACS) in 2009. Respondents who reported that their highest…
Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina
The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…
Shriver, Thomas E.; Webb, Gary R.
We use in-depth interviews, participant observation, and document analysis to examine perceptions of environmental health and justice among Native Americans in a rural Oklahoma community. Residents live near the Continental Carbon Company, which manufactures a rubber compound know as "carbon black." Ponca tribal members believe their respiratory…
Coats, Linda T.; Xu, Jianzhong
This qualitative study examines the perspectives of eight exemplary African-American science teachers toward No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and their outreach to families and communities in the context of the USA. Data revealed that whereas these exemplary teachers applauded the general intent of NCLB, they were concerned with its overemphasis on…
Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette
The Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6; Kessler et al., 2002) has been used widely as a screener for mental health problems and as a measure of severity of impact of mental health problems. However, the applicability and utility of this measure for assessments within American Indian communities has not been explored. Data were…
As a part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this paper is a report on the community of Cut Bank, Montana. Data were collected in the fall of 1968, when a 4-member team from the University of Colorado made a 6-week study at the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. General factors studied were location, physical…
Carlson, Stephan; Hardman, Alisha M.; Marczak, Mary S.
This second article in "JAIE'"s new "Reports from the Field" section1 explores a culturally based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program at a northern Minnesota Bureau of Indian Education high school. Engaging American Indian youth from disenfranchised communities in STEM programs has been challenging. Using culturally…
Dwyer, Kathy; Fowler, LaDonna; Seekins, Tom; Locust, Carol; Clay, Julie
The Tribal Disability Actualization Process used culturally appropriate deliberation processes and particpatory action research in considering policies for American Indians with disabilities. Talking circles on five reservations were used to achieve consensus on the needs of people with disabilities and derive community-driven solutions that are…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Minority Business Development Agency 15 CFR Part 1400 Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services AGENCY: Minority Business Development Agency,...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Minority Business Development Agency 15 CFR Part 1400 Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services AGENCY: Minority Business Development Agency,...
The major conclusion of a conference on Hispanic-Americans and education was that partnerships among businesses, school, and the Hispanic community can make a big difference in improving the educational preparation of young Hispanics for success in a fast-changing economy. It was also recognized that the future for Hispanics in the United States…
Weinman, Janice Jennie
Underlying present Governmental and private objectives to institute local control over the schools on Indian reservations is the hope that such a policy will improve American Indians' sense of relevance of their own behavior to the outcome of their destiny. Although the connection between community control and sense of personal efficacy has never…
Smith, Angie J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…
Fleshman, Paula Jenniver
As mathematics identity affects students' learning and doing of mathematics, it is critical to understand the mathematics identities of African American and Hispanic students as the mathematical performance and pursuits of far too many continue to lag behind. Further, as community schools have been shown to positively impact students in urban…
Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.
This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…
Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Eaton, Linda H.; Haozous, Emily; Towle, Cara; Revels, Laura; Buchwald, Dedra
A descriptive study was conducted to determine the information needs of American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) cancer survivors and assess satisfaction with and acceptability of telehealth support group services for cancer survivors in AI and AN rural communities. AI and AN cancer survivors were asked to complete the Telehealth Satisfaction Survey and two open-ended questions, one regarding information needs and one seeking comments and suggestions about cancer support group meetings. Thirty-two surveys were returned. Information about nutrition during treatment and treatment-related side effects were the most sought after topics. Participants valued the opportunity to interact with other AI and AN cancer survivors who also lived in remote locations and the usefulness of the information presented. The link with geographically distant survivors was valuable to participants as they felt they were no longer alone in their cancer experiences. Determining survivors’ information needs provides meaningful topics for future support group education. Telehealth is a viable way to facilitate cancer support groups to AI and AN cancer survivors in rural communities. PMID:21112853
Macfarlan, Shane J; Lyle, Henry F
Reputations are a ubiquitous feature of human social life, and a large literature has been dedicated to explaining the relationship between prosocial reputations and cooperation in social dilemmas. However, humans form reputations in domains other than prosociality, such as economic competency that could affect cooperation. To date, no research has evaluated the relative effects of multiple reputation domains on cooperation. To bridge this gap, we analyse how prosocial and competency reputations affect cooperation in two Latin American communities (Bwa Mawego, Dominica, and Pucucanchita, Peru) across a number of social contexts (Dominica: labour contracting, labour exchange and conjugal partnership formation; Peru: agricultural and health advice network size). First, we examine the behavioural correlates of prosocial and competency reputations. Following, we analyse whether prosocial, competency, or both reputation domains explain the flow of cooperative benefits within the two communities. Our analyses suggest that (i) although some behaviours affect both reputation domains simultaneously, each reputation domain has a unique behavioural signature; and (ii) competency reputations affect cooperation across a greater number of social contexts compared to prosocial reputations. Results are contextualized with reference to the social markets in which behaviour is embedded and a call for greater theory development is stressed. PMID:26503682
Riggs, Eric M.
The purpose of this study is to propose a framework drawing on theoretical and empirical science education research that explains the common prominent field-based components of the handful of persistent and successful Earth science education programs designed for indigenous communities in North America. These programs are primarily designed for adult learners, either in a postsecondary or in a technical education setting and all include active collaboration between local indigenous communities and geoscientists from nearby universities. Successful Earth science curricula for indigenous learners share in common an explicit emphasis on outdoor education, a place and problem-based structure, and the explicit inclusion of traditional indigenous knowledge in the instruction. Programs sharing this basic design have proven successful and popular for a wide range of indigenous cultures across North America. We present an analysis of common field-based elements to yield insight into indigenous Earth science education. We provide an explanation for the success of this design based in research on field-based learning, Native American learning styles research, and theoretical and empirical research into the nature and structure of indigenous knowledge. We also provide future research directions that can test and further refine our understanding of best practices in indigenous Earth science education.
Bridging the Higher Education Divide: Strengthening Community Colleges and Restoring the American Dream. The Report of The Century Foundation Task Force on Preventing Community Colleges from Becoming Separate and Unequal
Century Foundation, 2013
American community colleges stand at the confluence of four mighty rivers that are profoundly influencing all of American life. At a time of growing economic globalization, community colleges are a critical element in the strategy to address the skills and education gap to meet the emerging needs of industries in the new knowledge economy. In…
Yuan, Nicole P.; Eaves, Emery R.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Bletzer, Keith; Goldman, David
This study examined tribal members’ perspectives on alcohol, risk factors, consequences, and community responses. Focus groups were conducted with five American Indian tribes between 1997 and 2001. Participants were knowledgeable of the cultural lives of their reservation communities. Although there was agreement regarding the pervasiveness of heavy drinking, participants reported different opinions about the meaning of alcohol and appropriate intervention strategies. Three dilemmas were identified, suggesting that community ambivalence may serve as a barrier to reducing problem drinking. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. The study was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. PMID:20380555
Gray, Norma; Oré de Boehm, Christina; Farnsworth, Angela; Wolf, Denise
Involvement in creative expression has the potential of engaging individuals in personal and community level change through reflection, empowerment, and the facilitation of connectedness. It is a process that can be a powerful component of community based participatory research as it can facilitate and support the principles of co-learning, egalitarian relationships, and respect for non-academic knowledge. It is also a valuable means of appreciating culture and strengthening identity, which enhances health. This article reviews and discusses methods and benefits of incorporating creative expression into health promotion programs and community based participatory research with Native Americans. PMID:20531099
Gray, Norma; Oré de Boehm, Christina; Farnsworth, Angela; Wolf, Denise
Involvement in creative expression has the potential of engaging individuals in personal- and community-level change through reflection, empowerment, and the facilitation of connectedness. It is a process that can be a powerful component of community-based participatory research, as it can facilitate and support the principles of co-learning, egalitarian relationships, and respect for nonacademic knowledge. It is also a valuable means of appreciating culture and strengthening identity, which enhances health. This article reviews and discusses methods and benefits of incorporating creative expression into health promotion programs and community-based participatory research with Native Americans. PMID:20531099
Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.
Aim Based on a priori hypotheses, we developed predictions about how avian communities might differ at the edges vs. interiors of ecoregions. Specifically, we predicted lower species richness and greater local turnover and extinction probabilities for regional edges. We tested these predictions using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data across nine ecoregions over a 20-year time period. Location Data from 2238 BBS routes within nine ecoregions of the United States were used. Methods The estimation methods used accounted for species detection probabilities < 1. Parameter estimates for species richness, local turnover and extinction probabilities were obtained using the program COMDYN. We examined the difference in community-level parameters estimated from within exterior edges (the habitat interface between ecoregions), interior edges (the habitat interface between two bird conservation regions within the same ecoregion) and interior (habitat excluding interfaces). General linear models were constructed to examine sources of variation in community parameters for five ecoregions (containing all three habitat types) and all nine ecoregions (containing two habitat types). Results Analyses provided evidence that interior habitats and interior edges had on average higher bird species richness than exterior edges, providing some evidence of reduced species richness near habitat edges. Lower average extinction probabilities and turnover rates in interior habitats (five-region analysis) provided some support for our predictions about these quantities. However, analyses directed at all three response variables, i.e. species richness, local turnover, and local extinction probability, provided evidence of an interaction between habitat and region, indicating that the relationships did not hold in all regions. Main conclusions The overall predictions of lower species richness, higher local turnover and extinction probabilities in regional edge habitats, as opposed to
Hammond, Lorie A.
Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer
Patrick, Lorelei E; Stevens, Richard D
Numerous processes influence community structure. The relative importance of these processes is thought to vary with spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales: density-dependent interactions are thought to be most important at small scales; at intermediate scales, environmental conditions may be the most influential factor; and biogeographic processes are thought to be of greater importance at larger scales. Additionally, the stress-dominance hypothesis suggests that communities experiencing harsher environmental conditions will be predominantly structured by habitat filtering, whereas communities experiencing more favourable conditions will be structured predominantly by density-dependent interactions such as competition. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of environmental factors on phylogenetic community structure (PCS) of North American desert bats at multiple spatial and taxonomic scales. We also examined whether the stress-dominance hypothesis is upheld in desert bats across an environmental gradient. Phylogenetic community structure metrics were calculated using species pools that differed in spatial (from all deserts to individual deserts) and taxonomic (all bat taxa, a single family and a single genus) scales. We calculated mean temperature, precipitation and seasonality for each site to determine whether environmental gradients were related to degree of community structure. At the largest spatial and taxonomic scales, communities were significantly phylogenetically clustered while degree of clustering decreased at the smallest spatial and taxonomic scales. Climatic data, particularly mean temperature and temperature seasonality, were important predictors of PCS at larger scales and under harsher conditions, but at smaller scales and in less stressful conditions there was a weaker relationship between PCS and climate. This suggests that North American deserts, while harsh, are not uniform in the challenges they present to the faunas
Community organizations, especially those aiming at social change, play a significant role in establishing societal health and contributing to adult learning in daily communities. Their existence secures marginalized groups' involvement in society and enhances community development by building community leadership with multiple stakeholders…
Goodkind, Jessica R.; Ross-Toledo, Kimberly; John, Susie; Lee Hall, Janie; Ross, Lucille; Freeland, Lance; Colleta, Ernest; Becenti-Fundark, Twila
American Indian/Alaska Native youth represent the strength and survival of many Nations and Tribes. However, the aftermath of colonialism has resulted in numerous health disparities and challenges for Native youth, including the highest rate of suicide in the United States. With the aims of elucidating the causes of behavioral health disparities, eliminating them, and improving behavioral health care for Native youth, a partnership of providers, community members, and university faculty and staff completed a comprehensive literature review; conducted advisory meetings with 71 American Indian youth, parents, and elders; surveyed 25 service providers; and engaged in ongoing consultation with traditional practitioners. Results from the multiple sources were synthesized and are reported with 20 policy, provider, and research recommendations that recognize the importance of moving beyond exclusive reliance on western models of care and that seek to foster transformation of individuals, families, communities, behavioral health service systems of care, and social structures. PMID:25076801
Becker, D M; Tuggle, M B; Prentice, M F
African American communities traditionally mistrust academic research. This forms a significant barrier to understanding cardiovascular risk factors in this population, which bears an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A clergy/academic partnership was established to build a gateway for salient research and for improving resources for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in the community. From this partnership emanated the African American Family Heart Study. People with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) have an increased risk for the disease--as high as 12 times that of the general population, if among siblings. Considerably less is known about the actual remediable risk factors in African American families with premature CHD. We initiated the Family Heart Study with a full characterization of 161 apparently healthy, unaffected 30- to 59-year-old African Americans whose siblings were 85 African American index cases with documented premature CHD prior to 60 years of age. We compared their risk factor values to population reference norms obtained in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for cigarette smoking. Only 13% of African American male siblings and 14% of female siblings from these families were without any major remediable risk factors. The fact that so many siblings were at extremely high risk calls into question the current applications by provider systems of national guidelines in high-risk African American families. This is an easily identifiable population that would be likely to benefit greatly from targeted screening and culturally sensitive and appropriate treatment. PMID:11721804
Becker, D M; Tuggle, M B; Prentice, M F
African American communities traditionally mistrust academic research. This forms a significant barrier to understanding cardiovascular risk factors in this population, which bears an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A clergy/academic partnership was established to build a gateway for salient research and for improving resources for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in the community. From this partnership emanated the African American Family Heart Study. People with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) have an increased risk for the disease--as high as 12 times that of the general population, if among siblings. Considerably less is known about the actual remediable risk factors in African American families with premature CHD. We initiated the Family Heart Study with a full characterization of 161 apparently healthy, unaffected 30- to 59-year-old African Americans whose siblings were 85 African American index cases with documented premature CHD prior to 60 years of age. We compared their risk factor values to population reference norms obtained in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for cigarette smoking. Only 13% of African American male siblings and 14% of female siblings from these families were without any major remediable risk factors. The fact that so many siblings were at extremely high risk calls into question the current applications by provider systems of national guidelines in high-risk African American families. This is an easily identifiable population that would be likely to benefit greatly from targeted screening and culturally sensitive and appropriate treatment. PMID:11876188
Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary. PMID:25642783
Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda
I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.
Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig
Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950
Horn, Kimberly; McCracken, Lyn; Dino, Geri; Brayboy, Missy
Community-based participatory research provides communities and researchers with opportunities to develop interventions that are effective as well as acceptable and culturally competent. The present project responds to the voices of the North Carolina American Indian (AI) community and the desire for their youth to recognize tobacco addiction and…
Kogan, Steven M; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H; Futris, Ted G; Sperr, Megan; Anderson, Tracy
Efforts to disseminate evidence-based prevention programs are hampered by a lack of real-world effectiveness trials undertaken with community providers. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program is an empirically validated intervention designed to prevent problem behavior among rural African American youth. To evaluate the effectiveness of SAAF and its implementation protocols when delivered by a community provider, we conducted a randomized, wait-list-controlled trial with outcome measurements assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 months after baseline. A total of 465 African American youth and their parents were recruited randomly from public school lists of fifth- and sixth-grade students in eight rural counties in south Georgia. Youth and parents assessed targeted outcomes in their homes. The main outcome, problem behavior vulnerability, was operationalized as a latent construct comprising three indicators: tolerance for deviance, intentions to engage in risky behavior, and affiliations with risk-taking peers. SAAF was implemented with uniformly high levels of adherence (85.5%; SD = 10.8) and attendance (M = 4.1, SD = 2.9, range = 0-7). Intent-to-treat and complier average causal effect analyses revealed significant program effects on intervention-targeted parenting practices, youth self-regulatory processes, and problem behavior vulnerability. SAAF influenced problem behavior vulnerability indirectly via effects on targeted parenting and youth processes. This study supported the effectiveness of SAAF in a community setting when a systematic implementation model supports participant engagement and intervention adherence. PMID:26459373
Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin
American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based survey was conducted on the Hopi reservation in 2012 (n = 252 women). Frequency of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings, participation in HCSS programs and barriers to screening were evaluated. Unconditional multiple logistic regression estimated the independent effect of the HCSS program on CRC screening. Approximately 88 % of Hopi women 40+ reported ever having had a mammogram; 71 % did so within the past 2 years. Approximately 66 % of women 50+ were ever screened for colorectal cancer (FOBT and/or colonoscopy). Women who had their last mammogram through HCSS were 2.81 (95 % CI 1.12, 7.07) times more likely to have been screened for CRC. Breast and cervical cancer screening continues at a high rate among Hopi women and is substantially greater than that reported prior to the inception of HCSS. Furthermore, participation in programs offered by HCSS is strongly associated with increased colorectal cancer screening. This tribal health program (HCSS) has strongly influenced cancer screening among Hopi women and is a model of a tribally run cancer prevention program. PMID:26091896
Spielman, Seth E.; Folch, David C.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is the largest survey of US households and is the principal source for neighborhood scale information about the US population and economy. The ACS is used to allocate billions in federal spending and is a critical input to social scientific research in the US. However, estimates from the ACS can be highly unreliable. For example, in over 72% of census tracts, the estimated number of children under 5 in poverty has a margin of error greater than the estimate. Uncertainty of this magnitude complicates the use of social data in policy making, research, and governance. This article presents a heuristic spatial optimization algorithm that is capable of reducing the margins of error in survey data via the creation of new composite geographies, a process called regionalization. Regionalization is a complex combinatorial problem. Here rather than focusing on the technical aspects of regionalization we demonstrate how to use a purpose built open source regionalization algorithm to process survey data in order to reduce the margins of error to a user-specified threshold. PMID:25723176
Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Head, Rachel; Rikard, R. V.; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa
As universities become more involved in real-world problems that affect racial and ethnic communities, university members are identifying strategies to effectively work with culturally diverse community partners. The Communities and Health Disparities Project described in this article is an example of collaborative scholarship that engages the…
Subrahmanian, Krishnan; Petereit, Daniel; Kanekar, Shalini; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Esmond, Sarah; Miner, Raylene; Spotted-Tail, Caroline; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh
Objectives The study describes the creation and implementation of a culturally appropriate cancer education intervention, and assesses its efficacy among Native Americans in a community with documented cancer-related disparities. Methods Education workshops were developed and conducted on three reservations in Western South Dakota and Rapid City by trained community representatives. Over four-hundred individuals participated in the two-hour workshops. Participants answered demographic questions, questions about previous cancer screening (to establish baseline screening rates), and completed a pre and post workshop quiz to assess learning. Results Participants demonstrated significant increases in cancer screening-related knowledge levels. Surveys reveal that participants found the information of high quality, great value and would recommend the program to friends. Pre-workshop data reveals cancer screening rates well below the national average. Conclusions Workshop participants increased their knowledge about cancer etiology and screening. This intervention may represent an effective tool for increasing cancer screening utilization among Native Americans. PMID:21431984
Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J
Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154
Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G
The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals. PMID:26880785
Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.
There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824
Martin, Molly A.; Catrambone, Catherine D.; Kee, Romina A.; Evans, Arthur T.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Lyttle, Christopher; Rucker-Whitaker, Cheryl; Weiss, Kevin B.; Shannon, John Jay
Background Low-income African American adults in Chicago have disproportionately high asthma morbidity and mortality rates. Interventions that improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors may ultimately improve asthma control in this population. Objective To pilot test an intervention to improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors. Methods Participants for this trial were recruited through two primary care clinics located in the largest African American community in Chicago. Participants were then randomized into two groups. The control group received mailed asthma education. The intervention group was offered 4 group sessions lead by a community social worker and 6 home visits by community health workers. Telephone interviews were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), 3 months (post-intervention), and 6 months (maintenance). Results The 42 participants were predominantly African American, low income, and had poorly controlled persistent asthma. The intervention group had significantly higher asthma self-efficacy at 3 months (p<0.001) after the completion of the intervention. Asthma action plans were more common in the intervention group at 3 months (p=0.06). At 6 months, the intervention group had improved asthma quality of life (p=0.002), and improved coping (p=0.01) compared to controls. Trends in behavioral and clinical outcomes favored the intervention group but were not statistically significant. Conclusions This community-based asthma intervention improved asthma self-efficacy, self-perceived coping skills, and asthma quality of life for low income African American adults. Larger trials are needed to test the efficacy of this intervention to reduce asthma morbidity in similar high-risk populations. PMID:19130936
Vargo, G.J.; Sherwood, G.L.
The Armenia Nuclear Power Station is located at Metsamor, approximately 30 km NW of the capital, Yerevan. The station, a two-unit, first-generation Soviet-designed VVER-440/270 pressurized water reactor plant was closed following the 1988 earthquake near Spitak. Because of a severe energy shortage the Government of Armenia has undertaken a program to recommission Unit 2. The plant design and circumstances surrounding its closure caused members of the U.S. Embassy staff and the American community in Armenia to express concerns for their safety in the event of a radiological emergency. In response, two representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy`s International Nuclear Safety Program traveled to Armenia to review the Status of radiological emergency preparedness, meet with the American community, and make protective action recommendations. In this presentation we examine the major issues associated with recommissioning of Armenia-2, the challenges involved with developing a radiological emergency preparedness program for the American community, and our recommendations for protective actions in the absence of a strong communications and radiological monitoring infrastructure.
Barnidge, E K; Baker, E A; Schootman, M; Motton, F; Sawicki, M; Rose, F
African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional surveys evaluated the intervention effect on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and perceived fruit and vegetable consumption in this quasi-experimental study with a comparison group. Hypertension (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.38-0.71) and BMI (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.52-1.02) were lower in the intervention county at mid-intervention. Participation in nutrition education (OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.63-4.40) and access to fruits and vegetables from a community garden (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.20-3.15) were independently associated with perceived fruit and vegetable consumption. The strongest effect on perceived fruit and vegetable consumption occurred with high participation in nutrition education and access to community gardens (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.24-3.81). Those with access but without education had a reduced likelihood of consuming recommended servings of fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95). Education plus access interventions may be best at increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in a rural African American population. PMID:26338985
Rikard, R V; Thompson, Maxine S; Head, Rachel; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa
The rate of HIV infection among African Americans is disproportionately higher than for other racial groups in the United States. Previous research suggests that low level of health literacy (HL) is an underlying factor to explain racial disparities in the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. The present research describes a community and university project to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit in the African American community. Paulo Freire's pedagogical philosophy and problem-posing methodology served as the guiding framework throughout the development process. Developing the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit occurred in a two-stage process. In Stage 1, a nonprofit organization and research team established a collaborative partnership to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In Stage 2, African American community members participated in focus groups conducted as Freirian cultural circles to further refine the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In both stages, problem posing engaged participants' knowledge, experiences, and concerns to evaluate a working draft toolkit. The discussion and implications highlight how Freire's pedagogical philosophy and methodology enhances the development of culturally tailored health information. PMID:22102601
Fujimoto, Wilfred Y
The rising tide of diabetes in Asia has been preceded by high prevalence rates of diabetes among migrant Asian populations in the USA and elsewhere. A 1963 report from Hawaii showed that diabetes was much more prevalent in Japanese Americans than in Caucasians. The Japanese American Community Diabetes Study was begun in Seattle, Washington, to examine why this was the case, and explore the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes among Japanese Americans who were Nisei (second generation) and Sansei (third generation) descendants of the original immigrants to the USA from Japan. This research was planned to be a metabolically-based longitudinal epidemiological study that assessed lifestyle factors, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and adiposity, including measurements of body fat distribution by anthropometry and computed tomography (CT). An important conclusion from this research was that visceral adiposity was a powerful risk factor for metabolic disease. Our observations suggested that among susceptible Japanese Americans lifestyle led to weight gain, especially in visceral fat depots, that in turn led to decreased insulin sensitivity that unmasked a reduced β-cell reserve, resulting in hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. This process can be prevented by dietary and exercise intervention. Thus, the Japanese American population has served as an early warning system for type 2 diabetes in Asians, just as caged canaries were used by coal miners as an early warning system for harmful gases in coal mines. PMID:27169694
Escoffery, Cam; Wilkerson, Corinthia; Bell, Rashida; Flowers, Lisa
Background From 1999 through 2009, African American women in the United States had the second highest incidence rates of cervical cancer and were more likely to die from cervical cancer than women of other races. Con Amor Aprendemos (CAA) is an intervention created to educate the Latino community to reduce their risk for cervical cancer and diseases related to human papilloma virus (HPV). CAA was adapted to With Love We Learn (WLWL) to prevent cervical cancer and HPV in African American communities. Community Context Health ministries of 2 churches in the Atlanta area partnered with the Spirit Foundation Inc to adapt CAA to WLWL by tailoring the curriculum to the African American faith-based community. Methods The National Cancer Institute’s Research to Reality (R2R) mentorship program pair collaborated with program staff on an adaptation summary form, a tool to document and assist with adapting the program curriculum with fidelity. Trainers, faith leaders, and participants adapted the program in 4 phases: 1) review of the CAA curriculum, 2) a focus group discussion to determine changes for the WLWL curriculum, 3) train-the-trainer sessions on program delivery, and 4) a pilot intervention and follow-up focus group to evaluate the new curriculum. Outcomes The CAA/WLWL curriculum was adapted and piloted in a faith-based setting. Adaptations to the CAA program included pictures, games, statistics on cervical cancer, dialogues, and delivery of curriculum. Interpretation Community engagement in the adaptation of WLWL through various methods was critical to tailoring an evidence-based program to a new population and setting. PMID:24762531
Langdon, Sarah E; Golden, Shannon L; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Maynor, Rhonda F; Bryant, Alfred; Freeman, V Kay; Bell, Ronny A
Background American Indian (AI) youth have the highest rates of suicide among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. Community-based strategies are essential to address this issue, and community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage AI communities in mental health promotion programming. Objectives This article describes successes and challenges of a CBPR, mixed-method project, The Lumbee Rite of Passage (LROP), an academic-community partnership to develop and implement a suicide prevention program for Lumbee AI youth in North Carolina. Method LROP was conducted in two phases to (1) understand knowledge and perceptions of existing mental health resources and (2) develop, implement, and evaluate a cultural enrichment program as a means of suicide prevention. Discussion/Results LROP implemented an effective community-academic partnership by (1) identifying and understanding community contexts, (2) maintaining equitable partnerships, and (3) implementing a culturally tailored research design targeting multilevel changes to support mental health. Strategies formed from the partnership alleviated challenges in each of these key CBPR concept areas. Conclusions LROP highlights how a CBPR approach contributes to positive outcomes and identifies opportunities for future collaboration in a tribal community. Using culturally appropriate CBPR strategies is critical to achieving sustainable, effective programs to improve mental health of AI youth. PMID:27009131
Around Him, Deana M.
Background The objective of the research was to review reporting of ethical concerns and community involvement in peer-reviewed systematic reviews or meta-analyses concerning American Indian, Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian (AI/AN/NH) health. Methods Text words and indexed vocabulary terms were used to query PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the Native Health Database for systematic reviews or meta-analyses concerning AI/AN/NH health published in peer-reviewed journals, followed by a search through reference lists. Each article was abstracted by two independent reviewers; results were discussed until consensus was reached. Results We identified 107 papers published from 1986–2012 that were primarily about AI/AN/NH health or presented findings separately for AI/AN/NH communities. Two reported seeking indigenous reviewer feedback; none reported seeking input from tribes and communities. Approximately 7% reported on institutional review board (IRB) approval of included studies, 5% reported on tribal approval, and 4% referenced the sovereignty of AI/AN tribes. Approximately 63% used evidence from more than one AI/AN/NH population study, and 28% discussed potential benefits to communities from the synthesis research. Conclusions Reporting of ethics and community involvement are not prominent. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses making community-level inferences may pose risks to communities. Future systematic reviews and meta-analyses should consider ethical and participatory dimensions of research. PMID:25089283
Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan
Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. Results: The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively. PMID:26114142
Alonso, Alvaro; Yu, Bing; Qureshi, Waqas T.; Grams, Morgan E.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Loehr, Laura R.; Chen, Lin Y.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Alexander, Danny; Boerwinkle, Eric
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Application of metabolomic approaches, which may identify novel pathways and biomarkers of disease risk, to a longitudinal epidemiologic study of AF has been limited. Methods We determined the prospective association of 118 serum metabolites identified through untargeted metabolomics profiling with the incidence of newly-diagnosed AF in 1919 African-American men and women from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study without AF at baseline (1987–1989). Incident AF cases through 2011 were ascertained from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge codes, and death certificates. Results During a median follow-up of 22 years, we identified 183 incident AF cases. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, diabetes, prevalent heart failure, prevalent coronary heart disease, and kidney function, two conjugated bile acids (glycolithocholate sulfate and glycocholenate sulfate) were significantly associated with AF risk after correcting for multiple comparisons (p<0.0004). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of AF were 1.22 (1.12–1.32) for glycolithocholate sulfate and 1.22 (1.10–1.35) for glycocholenate sulfate per 1-standard deviation higher levels. Associations were not appreciably different after additional adjustment for alcohol consumption or concentrations of circulating albumin and liver enzymes. Conclusion We found an association of higher levels of two bile acids with an increased risk of AF, pointing to a potential novel pathway in AF pathogenesis. Replication of results in independent studies is warranted. PMID:26544570
Peck, John Gregory
As part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this paper explores and compares the background of the rural Lumbee Indian with the urban Lumbee living in Pembroke, North Carolina. An interpretation for defining the American Indian in the tri-ethnic community is included, as well as a discussion of the economics of…
Moore, Mignon R.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
This study used data from a random sample of African American families living in poor urban communities to examine: how well socialization, supervision, and marital transition hypotheses explained the relationship between family structure and the probability of sexual debut and pregnancy for African American adolescents in disadvantaged…
Valentine, Charles A.
This study deals with selected ethnographic and other methods used in research on Afro-American communities in the United States. After a review of the conclusions of psychologists on Afro-American culture, it is contended that the best method of enquiry is that of ethnography, and that, even though the ethnographic method has been hitherto used,…
Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Miller, Jon F.
This study examined the production of African-American English (AAE) forms produced by 69 school-aged African-American children from middle socio-economic status (SES) communities to determine if age would influence: (a) the number of different types of AAE tokens and (b) the rate of dialect. Descriptive data revealed that there were more than 20…
Selected documents representing major stages and issues in the development of the American community college are presented in this compilation in a largely chronological format. First, an introductory essay traces the development of the American two-year college, looking at the social forces which led to the establishment of the first junior…
Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana
This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…
Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming. PMID:27091605
Altpeter, Mary; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Shopler, Janice H.
Social ecological theory, social-work community organization models, and health-promotion models are brought together to address ways to generate change at the individual and policy levels, and to provide guidance for community health-promotion programs. An eight-year cancer-prevention project is presented as a case study. (EMK)
Gone, Joseph P
In the context of increasing attention to disparities in health status between U.S. ethnoracial groups, this article examines the dilemma of divergent cultural practices for redressing disparities in mental health status in American Indian communities. Drawing upon an ethnographic interview with a tribal elder from a northern Plains Indian reservation, a prototypical discourse of distress is presented and analyzed as one exemplar of the divergence between the culture of the clinic and the culture of the community. Situated in the context of continuing power asymmetries between tribal nations and the U.S. federal government, the implications of this cultural divergence for the efforts of mental health professionals, practitioners, and policymakers are identified as a predicament that only the conventions and commitments of a robust community psychology have the potential to resolve. PMID:17906926
Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris
Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE integrated Intervention Mapping (IM) methodology with community based participatory research (CBPR) principles to develop a multi-level, multi-generational HIV prevention intervention. IM was carried out in a series of steps from review of relevant data through producing program components. Through the IM process, all collaborators agreed that we needed a family-based intervention involving youth and their caregivers. We found that the structured approach of IM can be adapted to incorporate the principles of CBPR. PMID:20528128
Holmstrom, Eric C
Care for African-American patients and families at the end of life presents a unique challenge to healthcare providers. Providers need to be culturally and historically competent to effectively serve persons with a long history of distrust of the white-dominated healthcare system. Effective means of addressing outreach, access, and service issues for this community need to be twofold. They must focus on those who deliver the care and those who receive it. This twofold focus inspired the education and community outreach that were key elements in this ACE Project. The resources of the Duke Institute on Care at the End of Life (ICEOL), particularly their APPEAL curriculum, was key to strengthening end-of-life care in the internal culture of Abington Memorial Hospital and the community they serve. PMID:23977786
Augustine, David J; Baker, Bruce W
Colonial burrowing herbivores can modify vegetation structure, create belowground refugia, and generate landscape heterogeneity, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of associated species. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are such a species, and they may strongly affect the abundance and composition of grassland bird communities. We examined how prairie dog colonies in the North American Great Plains affect bird species and community composition. Areas occupied by prairie dogs, characterized by low percent cover of grass, high percent cover of bare soil, and low vegetation height and density, supported a breeding bird community that differed substantially from surrounding areas that lacked prairie dogs. Bird communities on colony sites had significantly greater densities of large-bodied carnivores (Burrowing Owls [Athene cunicularia], Mountain Plovers, [Charadrius montanus], and Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus]) and omnivores consisting of Horned Larks (Eremophila alpestris) and McCown's Longspurs (Rhynchophanes mccownii) than bird communities off colony sites. Bird communities off colony sites were dominated by small-bodied insectivorous sparrows (Ammodramus spp.) and omnivorous Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), and Lark Sparrows (Chondestes grammacus). Densities of 3 species of conservation concern and 1 game species were significantly higher on colony sites than off colony sites, and the strength of prairie dog effects was consistent across the northern Great Plains. Vegetation modification by prairie dogs sustains a diverse suite of bird species in these grasslands. Collectively, our findings and those from previous studies show that areas in the North American Great Plains with prairie dog colonies support higher densities of at least 9 vertebrate species than sites without colonies. Prairie dogs affect habitat for these species through multiple pathways, including creation of belowground
Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle
African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this…
Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…
Laukaitis, John J.
American Indian organizations in Chicago grew both in size and number during the 1970s. The lasting impact of War on Poverty programs and the passing of the Indian Education Act of 1972 and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 served as significant factors for the development of these organizations. Alternative American Indian…
Mitchell, Felicia M.
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…
National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education, 2010
The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE), consisting of a national commission, research advisory group, and research team at New York University, aims to engage realistic and actionable discussions about the mobility and educational opportunities for Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)…
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Gone, Joseph P.
Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain,…
Jacobs, Don Trent
Historical trauma may be a significant cause of the well-documented disparities between the health of American Indians and the general population. The inability to resolve past injustices against American Indians may continue to have health consequences as long as this history continues to repeat itself. Schools can play a role in healing American…
Baxter, Paula Jean
This qualitative study attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to…
What was unique about the Mexican American experience in Fort Collins (Colorado) was the extent to which the Great Western Sugar Company colonized Mexican workers. They lived in Mexican colonies, separate neighborhoods, or remote locations on sugar beet farms. In public schools, Mexican Americans were perceived as intellectually inferior and were…
Le, Yen; Holmes, Nancy C.
We present an exploratory study of the recreational behaviors, preferences, and opinions of African Americans in the Columbia, South Carolina area and identify potential barriers to visiting Congaree National Park. Focus groups with African American residents of the Columbia South Carolina area revealed that inadequate information, detachment from…
How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…
Abraham, Sameer Y., Ed.; Abraham, Nabeel, Ed.
This book is a collection of articles and research materials on Arab-Americans. Part one of the book provides an historical overview of Arab-Americans, their reasons for emigration from Greater Syria, and profiles of the two major religious groups, Muslims and Christians, in the United States Arab population. Authors of this section include Alixa…
Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.
Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available for urban AI communities do not exist in the literature, this community-based project convened 4 focus groups consisting of 26 members of a midwestern urban AI community to better understand traditional healing practices of interest and how they might be integrated into the mental health and substance abuse treatment services in an Urban Indian Health Organization (UIHO). Qualitative content analysis of focus group transcripts revealed that ceremonial participation, traditional education, culture keepers, and community cohesion were thought to be key components of a successful traditional healing program. Potential incorporation of these components into an urban environment, however, yielded 4 marked tensions: traditional healing protocols versus the realities of impoverished urban living, multitribal representation in traditional healing services versus relational consistency with the culture keepers who would provide them, enthusiasm for traditional healing versus uncertainty about who is trustworthy, and the integrity of traditional healing versus the appeal of alternative medicine. Although these tensions would likely arise in most urban AI clinical contexts, the way in which each is resolved will likely depend on tailored community needs, conditions, and mental health objectives. PMID:22731113
Dickerson, Daniel L; Johnson, Carrie L
American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) urban youths experience significant mental health and substance use problems. However, culturally relevant treatment approaches that incorporate community perspectives within the urban setting are limited. This study analyzes community perspectives from AI/AN parents, AI/AN youths, and services providers within Los Angeles County. Information gathered was utilized to develop a needs assessment for AI/AN youths with mental health and substance use problems and to design a community-informed treatment approach. Nine focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted. The Los Angeles County community strongly expressed the need for providing urban AI/AN youths with traditional healing services and cultural activities within their treatment program. However, various barriers to accessing mental health and substance abuse treatment services were identified. An integrated treatment approach was subsequently designed as a result of input derived from community perspectives. The community believed that providing urban AI/AN youths with an integrated treatment approach has the potential to decrease the risk of mental health and substance abuse problems in addition to enhancing their cultural identity and self esteem. PMID:22400466
Ngui, Emmanuel M.; Warner, Teddy D.; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Background As genetic research gains more prominence in society, ethical concerns and the need for safeguards in the participation of children and pregnant women have increased. This study examined the perspectives of African-American health professional and community members on genetic research involving children and pregnant women. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to collect and analyze survey data and qualitative data from focus groups of community members and structured interviews of health professionals. Results We found that community members had significantly more favorable attitudes toward participation of children and pregnant women in genetic research than health professionals. Health professionals did not differ significantly from community members in their perceived understanding of genetic research. Emergent themes included limited knowledge of genetic research and distinction of biomedical research and clinical care, ethical concerns about confidentiality, and potential harm and the need to protect children and pregnant women. Participants expressed high interest and favorable attitude towards genetic research, despite limited genetic knowledge and concerns of potential harm to children and pregnant women. Some participants felt that genetic research findings could help dispel stigma and reduce discrimination, especially in mental illness. Conclusion Findings suggest that the recruitment of participants into genetic research should directly address privacy and benefit concerns, and limited knowledge of physical and mental illness genetic research. There is a critical need to invest and engage racial/ethnic communities early, provide education on genetics, mental illness, and translate and share research findings with these communities. PMID:24216722
Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E
Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055
Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Zheng, Yue; Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Foster, Caroline B
Clinical trial (CT) participation is low among African Americans (AAs). To better communicate with AAs about the importance of CTs, the purpose of this study was to explore the communication sources and perceived effective communication channels and strategies through which the general public, AAs, and White individuals receive CT information. A quantitative telephone survey was conducted with AAs and Whites in one Southern state (N = 511). The measures assessed CT sources of information, perceived effectiveness of communication channels and strategies, CT understanding, and CT participation. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to compare responses overall and by race. AAs reported being exposed to more CT information than Whites. AAs received CT information most often through television, social media, and doctors compared to Whites. Perceived effectiveness of communication strategies and channels varied by race. AAs preferred simple and easy-to-understand CT information distributed through faith-based organizations. Whites preferred to receive CT information through a trustworthy source (e.g., doctor). There were no significant differences between AAs and Whites in their perceived effectiveness of media sources (e.g., Internet). Recommendations are provided to help health promotion practitioners and CT recruiters tailor information and communicate it effectively to potential AA and White CT participants. PMID:26715695
DePue, Judith D.; Dunsiger, Shira; Elsayed, Mohammad; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; McGarvey, Stephen T.
Introduction Diabetes Care in American Samoa (DCAS) was a randomized controlled trial of a 12-month intervention facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) that demonstrated improved HbA1c levels compared with usual care at trial completion. We sought to evaluate the long-term impact of this intervention on diabetes control. Methods We retrospectively collected HbA1c measurements from medical records of DCAS participants (n = 268). The study group received the intervention during the trial, and the control group received the intervention after the trial. We used mixed-effects longitudinal regression models to assess change in HbA1c within each trial arm during 3 time periods: DCAS (12 months of the study group’s intervention), the first year after DCAS (control group’s intervention), and the second year after DCAS. Models were adjusted for baseline characteristics that differed significantly for participants with a low number of HbA1c measurements from those with a high number of HbA1c measurements. Results After adjustment for confounders, the experiment group experienced a decrease in HbA1c of 0.28 units per year (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.64 to 0.07) during DCAS (intervention). HbA1c decreased by 0.88 units per year (95% CI, −1.31 to −0.45) during the year after the intervention. No significant change was observed the following year. HbA1c of the control group did not significantly change during DCAS (usual care) but decreased by 1.31 units per year (95% CI, −1.72 to −0.91) during its intervention. During the year after the control group’s intervention, HbA1c increased by 1.18 units per year (95% CI, 0.42 to 1.93). Conclusion Both groups had initial improvements in glycemic control, but HbA1c later plateaued or increased. These results suggest that time-limited CHW programs improve diabetes control in the short term, but ongoing programs are needed for sustained impact. PMID:26491815
Fothergill, Kate E; Doherty, Elaine E; Robertson, Judith A; Ensminger, Margaret E
Much is known about contemporaneous correlates of homelessness from studies of homeless individuals. However, few studies have prospectively examined early antecedents and prevalence of homelessness in community populations. We use data from a 35-year study of a community population of African Americans to examine relationships between homelessness and prior structural, family, school, and behavioral influences. Nearly 22% of males and 16% of females reported homelessness between ages 15 and 42, providing a rare estimate within an African American urban community population. In bivariate analyses, lower school bonds, depressed mood, violent behavior, and running away in adolescence are predictive for both males and females. Teen parenting and angry mood are unique influences for females, while for males, poor first grade classroom conduct and adolescent substance use are unique risks. In multivariate analyses, poor classroom conduct and weaker school bonds predict homelessness among males, while teen parenting does so for females. Running away before age 15 is strongly predictive of later homelessness for both males and females. These results reveal the relative influence of multiple, interrelated early risks on homelessness and confirm our hypothesis that factors linked to other poor outcomes also relate to homelessness, underscoring another benefit to early prevention efforts. PMID:22234393
Williams, Margaret Marie
This qualitative study examines the leadership experiences of 10 African American educational administrators and managers who are serving at or have served at one of four Northern California public community colleges that are located in rural communities and/or have minimal administrative cultural and racial diversity. Rural-serving community…
Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.
We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…
Mellow, Gail O.; Heelan, Cynthia
Community college leaders need honest information about what's working in the community college and need to be challenged about the things that are not. State Legislatures and Congress need updated facts to assist them in making wise funding decisions. Community college advocates need updated information to assist them in their advocacy work, and…
Schools in Arthurdale (West Virginia), a New Deal resettlement community for displaced coal miners, made landmark efforts to bring Deweyan ideals of progressive education to bear on community life. The article examines Arthurdale's pedagogy and history in order to illuminate ambiguities of educators' efforts to promote community, emphasizing…
Chung, Grace Y.; Brown, Gina; Gibson, Desmond
Melanoma incidence is increasing among Hispanics/Latinos in California. This community-based project reached out to a rural Hispanic/Latino community in North San Diego County to provide melanoma prevention and screening education. At a local community health fair, bilingual volunteer lay health workers led 10- to 15-minute-long information…
Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya
Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244
Granillo, Brenda; Renger, Ralph; Wakelee, Jessica; Burgess, Jefferey L
The public health workforce is diverse and encompasses a wide range of professions. For tribal communities, the Community Health Representative (CHR) is a public health paraprofessional whose role as a community health educator and health advocate has expanded to become an integral part of the health delivery system of most tribes. CHRs possess a unique set of skills and cultural awareness that make them an essential first responder on tribal land. As a result of their distinctive qualities they have the capability of effectively mobilizing communities during times of crisis and can have a significant impact on the communities' response to a local incident. Although public health emergency preparedness training is a priority of federal, state, local and tribal public health agencies, much of the training currently available is not tailored to meet the unique traits of CHRs. Much of the emergency preparedness training is standardized, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Training Programs, and does not take into account the inherent cultural traditions of some of the intended target audience. This paper reports on the use of the Native American Talking Circle format as a culturally appropriate method to teach the Incident Command System (ICS). The results of the evaluation suggest the talking format circle is well received and can significantly improve the understanding of ICS roles. The limitations of the assessment instrument and the cultural adaptations at producing changes in the understanding of ICS history and concepts are discussed. Possible solutions to these limitations are provided. PMID:20300808
Wong, Candice; Mouanoutoua, Vangleng; Chen, Meng-Jinn
This paper describes the collaborative endeavors between researchers and the Hmong community to develop and test a quality of hypertension care survey instrument. In-depth interviews with community leaders and hypertensive patients enhanced the understanding of quality of care from Hmong socio-cultural perspectives. Knowledge gained from the Hmong community was integrated into the research process. The collaborative process led to generating a culturally sensitive survey instrument, overcoming cultural barriers for recruitment of survey participants, and facilitating community involvement in all aspects of research implementation. Applying community-sensitive research methods ensured the success of the project. PMID:19172977
Sanicki, Anne; Mannell, Jenevieve
The number of African-American women infected with HIV in Washington, D.C. is growing at an alarming rate. However, the perspectives of these women on engaging communities in the response to HIV/AIDS have been lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, in-depth interviews with 18 HIV-positive African-American women living in D.C. were conducted and analyzed using thematic network analysis. Three key themes emerged from these interviews: (1) the importance of the church in building HIV/AIDS community competence; (2) women's interest in HIV/AIDS advocacy; and (3) the negative effects of stigma and limited social bonds on community engagement. We conclude by suggesting that more research is needed on the role of African-American women in community capacity building, as well as greater involvement of churches in HIV/AIDS responses. PMID:26208602
Henry Ford Community Coll., Dearborn, MI.
This agreement between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers, Local 1650 covers the period of 1973-1975. Contents of the agreement cover recognition, board of trustee rights, union-board relations, conditions of employment, seniority, the…
Reininger, Belinda M.; Barroso, Cristina S.; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Cantu, Ethel; Fernandez, Maria E.; Gonzalez, Dora Alicia; Chavez, Marge; Freeberg, Diamantina; McAlister, Alfred
Background and Methods To address obesity and related morbidities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were employed to design / evaluate a Spanish language media campaign promoting physical activity and healthful food choices among Mexican Americans. Qualitative evaluation strategies including content analyses on types and focus of media messages were conducted. Focus groups assessed appeal and trustworthiness of messages. Results All media campaign products feature role models and experts. Campaign messages primarily (98%) appear in TV morning show segments. Newsletters present individual and family role model stories. Majority of newsletters (68%) are distributed through churches and “promotora” outreach efforts. Conclusions CBPR lends itself to the selection and tailoring of evidence-based media campaigns. Moreover, CBPR guidance resulted in media messages that are credible and appealing to audience. Process evaluation strategies that gather information from the community provide solid evidence for how to modify the campaign to best meet audience expectations. PMID:19131541
Santos, Sherie Lou Z.; Tagai, Erin K.; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L.
We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions. PMID:25320894
Kim, Hee Jun; Park, EunMi; Storr, Carla L.; Tran, Katherine; Juon, Hee-Soon
Objectives In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors. Methods Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics. Results A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults). Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%–43.7%) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%–51.3%). Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003). Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%); however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino). Conclusion There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care
Langwell, Kathryn; Keene, Catherine; Zullo, Matthew; Ogu, Linda Chioma
The chronic care model (CCM) has been initiated most frequently in clinical settings with outreach to the community to obtain involvement and guidance. Implementation of the CCM by communities that reach out to clinicians and develop linkages and coordination to improve care for community members with chronic conditions is less frequently observed. This commentary describes the implementation of the CCM by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Indian Reservation. The design emphasized community-based leadership, with the Tribe having the primary role in developing and implementing culturally tailored community self-management supports, improving linkages with Indian Health Service (IHS) clinicians and cultural knowledge of providers, and developing a coalition of organizations with additional resources to create a more comprehensive system of diabetes care for Tribal members with diabetes. Results indicate that community-initiated implementation of the CCM can be an effective strategy for creating a comprehensive community-clinical system of care for community members with diabetes. Overall, by the fourth implementation year, approximately 25% of Tribal members with diabetes had participated in the program and 28% of people on the Diabetes Registry had HbA1c levels above 9.0 compared to 32% before the Wind River ARDD program. The success of the Wind River program suggests that community-driven approaches are a valuable strategy in our nation's efforts to eliminate health disparities and ensure equal and fair access to quality health care for all citizens. PMID:25359246
Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Vernon, Irene S; Plested, Barbara
Although HIV/AIDS prevention has presented challenges over the past 25 years, prevention does work! To be most effective, however, prevention must be specific to the culture and the nature of the community. Building the capacity of a community for prevention efforts is not an easy process. If capacity is to be sustained, it must be practical and utilize the resources that already exist in the community. Attitudes vary across communities; resources vary, political climates are constantly varied and changing. Communities are fluid-always changing, adapting, growing. They are "ready" for different things at different times. Readiness is a key issue! This article presents a model that has experienced a high level of success in building community capacity for effective prevention/intervention for HIV/AIDS and offers case studies for review. The Community Readiness Model provides both quantitative and qualitative information in a user-friendly structure that guides a community through the process of understanding the importance of the measure of readiness. The model identifies readiness- appropriate strategies, provides readiness scores for evaluation, and most important, involves community stakeholders in the process. The article will demonstrate the importance of developing strategies consistent with readiness levels for more cost-effective and successful prevention efforts. PMID:17159467
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Dickson, Daniel; Pierre, Cynthia
The current study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure and their associations to desensitization outcomes in 241 African American early adolescents (M age = 12.86, SD = 1.28) in the sixth through eighth grade from under-resourced urban communities. Participants self-reported on their exposure to community violence, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms. The LCA revealed three distinct classes: a class exposed to low levels of violence (low exposure class), a class exposed to moderately high levels of victimization (victimization class), and a class exposed to high levels of all types of violence (high exposure class). Consistent with predictions, the high exposure class showed the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a desensitization outcome. Gender and age were also examined in relation to the classes, and age was significantly associated with an increased risk of being a member of the high exposure class relative to the low exposure class. Using person-based analyses to examine desensitization outcomes provides useful information for prevention and intervention efforts, as it helps to identify a specific subgroup of youth that may be more likely to show desensitization outcomes in the context of community violence. PMID:25716195
During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention. PMID:25761748
Alder, Stephen C; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin
Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and one with protestant clergy serving African American congregations) were conducted with eleven participants, lasting approximately two hours each. Each focus group was audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Analysis of the data was conducted using a modified grounded theory approach. Results There were remarkable similarities in the attitudes and beliefs among all clergy participating in this study regarding HIV/AIDS and church-based prevention programs. All groups expressed concern about the diseases as a global epidemic and reported that the disease is highly preventable. Also, participants indicated a sense of responsibility to address the issues surrounding HIV/AIDS-related prevention, testing and care within their theological framework. Conclusion HIV/AIDS prevention and care for the infected are seen as falling within the scope of religious organizations. Openness to expanding efforts in this regard was shared by clergy participating in this study. Approaching religious leaders with tailored approaches that respect the values and practices of their particular religions will be more effective than attempting to impose approaches that do not achieve this standard. PMID:18923690
Parker, Veronica G.; Coles, Charlton; Logan, Barbara N.; Davis, Leroy
Obesity continues to be a significant health problem for African American women. While a number of obesity interventions target urban African American women, few target rural ones. The LIFE Project is a 10-week intervention designed to reduce obesity in this rural population. Two different interventions (spiritually-based and nonspiritually-based) were pilot tested, each utilizing a pretest, posttest design. Results demonstrated that both interventions led to significant reductions in weight, but the spiritually-based intervention led to additional improvements. The LIFE project also demonstrated that churches are appropriate settings to deliver health interventions to these women. PMID:20216356
Lyman, Stanford M.
This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…
Gaston, John C.
Blacks have spent much time and energy "filling other people's pockets" (as Margaret Walker has said) but have not addressed the needs of their own community. Black communities are in a state of deterioration for which the treatment must be self-help. In this paper the example of an unhealthy organism is used as a metaphor for prescribing a cure…
Wood, Jonathan Luke
Many scholars have noted the dismal persistence rates of Black male students in community colleges, as well as their poor academic success outcomes. This study sought to further the literature on academic success by exploring student perspectives in one southwestern community college. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of…
Cohen, Arthur M.; Brawer, Florence B.
This monograph provides a comprehensive overview of community college education in the United States, emphasizing trends affecting two-year colleges within the past decade. Chapter 1 identifies the social forces that contributed to the development and expansion of community colleges and the continuing changes in institutional purposes. Chapter 2…
Morton, Keith; Saltmarsh, John
Chronicles the emergence of community service in the United States, beginning with the turn-of-the-century collision of capitalism and democracy which generated a crisis of community and profound rethinking of the meaning and practice of charity. Three service "paths" are identified: nonprofit human services organizations; active citizenship…
Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia
Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…
Deegan, William L.; And Others
A framework for examining the future development of the community college and specific policy and program proposals is provided by the 13 essays in this collection. Part one, "The Community College in Perspective," includes "The Evolution of Two-Year Colleges Through Four Generations," by Dale Tillery and William L. Deegan; and "Determining…
... Indian communities in such areas as sexually transmitted disease control and cancer prevention. They also... Urban Indian Communities Division of Epidemiology and Disease Prevention; Epidemiology Program for... managed by the IHS Division of Epidemiology and Disease Prevention (DEDP). This program is...
Wertz, John; Isaacs-Cosgrove, Natasha; Holzman, Claudia; Marsh, Terence L.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been described as an increase in the number of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria relative to lactobacilli in the vaginal tract. Several undesirable consequences of this community shift can include irritation, white discharge, an elevated pH, and increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections. While the etiology of the condition remains ill defined, BV has been associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. In order to describe the structure of vaginal communities over time we determined the phylogenetic composition of vaginal communities from seven women sampled at multiple points using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that women with no evidence of BV had communities dominated by lactobacilli that appeared stable over our sampling periods while those with BV had greater diversity and decreased stability overtime. In addition, only Lactobacillus iners was found in BV positive communities. PMID:19277101
Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen
The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602
Ness, Jean Kelly Echternacht
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and identify societal, institutional, organizational, family, and individual factors associated with American Indian students' completion and noncompletion rates in a tribal college in northern Minnesota. Data collection included a series of in-depth interviews and two focus groups with seven…
Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…
Vernon, Irene S.; Jumper-Thurman, Pamela
OBJECTIVE: This article presents the latest data on trends in AIDS prevalence among Native American men and women and discusses problems of classification, data collection, factors that contribute to high risk, and factors that affect prevention and intervention. It presents a model for building effective prevention and intervention strategies. OBSERVATIONS: The number of people in the United States diagnosed with AIDS has risen by less than 5% per year since 1992, and the slowdown is estimated to continue in coming years. Among Native Americans, however, the number of people diagnosed with AIDS rose 8% in 1997, and nonwhites accounted for more than one-half of all reported AIDS cases through December 2000. For Native Americans, the rate of growth in AIDS prevalence has been steadily increasing since the early 1980s, and AIDS is now the ninth leading killer of Native Americans between the ages of 15 and 44. Factors that contribute to high risk include poverty, homophobia, denial, and mistrust. CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies must include efforts to reduce the risk factors for AIDS. Future research should honor and celebrate diversity among people as an empowering force that facilitates collaboration and shared learning with tribes. PMID:12435833
Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ellis, Andrea M.; Washburn, Earlene
This study used descriptive statistics, rating and ranking procedures, and factor analysis to describe the predictions of 447 educators and members of the general public about 13 concepts that would influence the future of American public education. The 13 items formed four broad factors that were predicted to influence the future of education in…
Tyler, Diane O.
This study assessed actual and perceived health status of overweight Mexican American clients at a central Texas school-based health center in a predominately Hispanic school district. It also explored the participants' interest in making lifestyle changes to promote a healthy weight. A medical records review indicated that of the Hispanic…
Nelson, Karma; Simonsen, Linda; Swanson, Elisabeth
Low student achievement for Montana's Native American students has been a recognized fact since the beginning of the reservation period. The current push for mathematics and science education reform, coupled with federal and state accountability mandates, enhances opportunities for learning but also challenges Native students' culture and…
Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret
The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…
More than one-half of all college students in the United States and nearly half of all college faculty attend or work at two-year colleges, yet references to them in American fiction are few and far between and usually derogatory. Examples used in an earlier paper on this topic are Bobbie Ann Mason's "Shiloh," Susan Fromberg Schaeffer's "Falling,"…
Henchy, Geri; Cheung, Marisa; Weill, Jim
WIC, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is a federal program operated through state and local agencies. American Indian tribal organizations administer WIC programs on tribal lands. There are currently 32 tribal WIC programs. Tribes often contribute significant resources of their own in the form of office…
In the summer of 2005, I interviewed Gerald Eagle Bear about his work to promote civic and cultural engagement among Native American youth. Eagle Bear is program manager of the Oyate Networking Project, an affiliate of Christian Children's Fund, in Mission, South Dakota. The organization focuses on early childhood education, youth violence…
Lee, Erika C.
Throughout history, parents have sought to find the ideal school environment for their children in various educational settings, including public school alternatives. African-American parents in particular have been utilizing private school options for more than 150 years, having been denied the right to a free, equal, public education. School…
Calhoun, Thomas; And Others
Examined 585 African Americans' attitudes toward drug use in Atlanta (GA) and Washington (DC). Findings reveal that marital status, age, home ownership status, and education accounted for differences in attitudes toward drug use among Atlanta residents; while family income and marital status differences in drug use were found among residents of…
Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan
Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…
Attitudes toward alcohol abuse are changing in Indian country. A number of separate but complementary attitudes are creating a circle of support in the fight against alcohol abuse. These new attitudes hold that: (1) Native Americans are not condemned by their race to a destiny of alcohol-related problems, but, rather, have a choice; (2) abstinence…
Thompson, Nicole L.; Hare, Dwight; Sempier, Tracie T.; Grace, Cathy
This article explains the creation of the "Growing and Learning with Young Native Children" curriculum toolkit. The curriculum toolkit was designed to give American Indian and Alaska Native early childhood educators who work in a variety of settings the framework for developing a research-based, developmentally appropriate, tribally specific…
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…