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Sample records for american countries partner

  1. Latin American and Caribbean countries' baseline clinical and policy guidelines for responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E; Aviles, Raquel; Guedes, Alessandra; Riazantseva, Ekaterina; MacMillan, Harriet

    2015-07-15

    Violence against women is a global public health problem with negative effects on physical, mental, and reproductive health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) as major targets for prevention and amelioration and recently developed clinical and policy guidelines to assist healthcare providers. This project was undertaken to determine the 2013 baseline national policies and clinical guidelines on IPV and SV within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region to identify strengths and gaps requiring action. Each Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Regional Office for the Americas (PAHO/WHO) country focal point was contacted to request their current national policy and clinical guidelines (protocol) on IPV/SV. We augmented this by searching the internet and the United Nations Women website. Each country's policy and clinical guideline (where available) was reviewed and entered into a scoring matrix based on WHO Clinical and Policy Guidelines. A total score for each heading and subheading was developed by adding positive responses to identify LAC regional strengths and gaps. We obtained 15 national policies and 12 national clinical guidelines (protocols) from a total of 18 countries ("response" rate 66.7%). National policies were comprehensive in terms of physical, emotional, and sexual violence and recommended good intersectoral collaboration. The greatest gap was in the training of health-care providers. National Guidelines for women-centered care for IPV/SV survivors were strong in the vital areas of privacy, confidentiality, danger assessment, safety planning, and supportive reactions to disclosure. The largest gaps noted were again in training healthcare professionals and strengthening monitoring and evaluation of services. Baseline measurement of policy and clinical guidelines for IPV/SV in LAC PAHO/WHO member countries at the time of issuing the 2013 WHO Clinical and

  2. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  3. Partnering for Geospatial Innovations in Indian Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhon Goes in Center, . D.

    2003-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Native America. As a thirty year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. A recent relationship building endeavor that utilized a recent Executive Order to empower federal agencies to work hand in hand with tribal colleges has resulted in a formal Memorandum of Understanding with the United States Geologic Survey. This relationship has paved the way toward significant progress that is measured in the enhanced educational services and relevant research for Sinte Gleska University and the Lakota Nation. As an institution of higher learning for the region in the Great Plains, SGU's leadership is unparalleled. Sinte Gleska University proposes to share a vision of collaboration with not only sister institutions but with the greater national and global community. This vision is already in place with SGU's leadership in developing and participating in the World Indigenous Higher Education Consortium. As a recent recipient of the NASA REASoN CAN award and ongoing projects with the NSF and NOAA, SGU will exemplify the culmination of these endeavors to illustrate and promote innovative partnerships with Federal Agencies, Industry Partners, mainstream academic institutions and other tribal colleges.

  4. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  5. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  6. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy.

  7. Qualitative Systematic Review of Intimate Partner Violence among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Native Americans is high, and a full understanding of how to prevent it is unclear. Based on this qualitative systematic review of 13 research reports, a model of IPV among Native Americans was developed. IPV appears to be grounded within a history of upheaval and loss, and is entrenched and repressed within families. Victims are reluctant to seek assistance, and when they do, they often experience barriers within the service system. To prevent and resolve IPV, service providers are urged to establish trust with individuals who seek assistance and to leverage cultural strengths. They also are encouraged to adapt theoretical models to optimize care.

  8. Brief Report: The Number of Sexual Partners and Race-Related Stress in African American Adolescents--Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  9. Brief Report: The Number of Sexual Partners and Race-Related Stress in African American Adolescents--Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  10. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  11. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  13. Frequency and Types of Partner Violence among Mexican American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Ann L.; Sanderson, Maureen; Cantu, Ethel; Huerta, Debbie; Fadden, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied the prevalence of partner violence, by type, among Mexican American college women aged 18 to 35 years (N = 149; response rate = 85%). Results: Twelve percent of women who reported a dating partner in the past year were physically or sexually assaulted, 12.1% were stalked, and 9.1% scored as…

  14. Frequency and Types of Partner Violence among Mexican American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Ann L.; Sanderson, Maureen; Cantu, Ethel; Huerta, Debbie; Fadden, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied the prevalence of partner violence, by type, among Mexican American college women aged 18 to 35 years (N = 149; response rate = 85%). Results: Twelve percent of women who reported a dating partner in the past year were physically or sexually assaulted, 12.1% were stalked, and 9.1% scored as…

  15. Urban African-American men speak out on sexual partner concurrency: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael P; Senn, Theresa E; Seward, Derek X; Vanable, Peter A

    2010-02-01

    Sexual partner concurrency, which fuels the spread of HIV, has been hypothesized as a cause of higher rates of HIV among low-income, urban African-Americans. Despite this hypothesis, little is known about the phenomenology of partner concurrency. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 20 urban African-American men from a public STD clinic to elicit their ideas about partner concurrency. Five themes emerged during focus group discussions. First, there was a general consensus that it is normative to have more than one sexual partner. Second, men agreed it is acceptable for men to have concurrent partners, but disagreed about whether it is acceptable for women. Third, although men provided many reasons for concurrent partnerships, the most common reasons were that (a) multiple partners fulfill different needs, and (b) it is in a man's nature to have multiple partners. Fourth, men described some (but not all) of the negative consequences of having concurrent partners. Finally, men articulated spoken and unspoken rules that govern concurrent partnerships. These findings increase knowledge about urban, African-American men's attitudes toward concurrent partnerships, and can help to improve the efficacy of sexual risk-reduction interventions for this group of underserved men and their partners.

  16. Urban African-American Men Speak Out on Sexual Partner Concurrency

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Senn, Theresa E.; Seward, Derek X.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Sexual partner concurrency, which fuels the spread of HIV, has been hypothesized as a cause of higher rates of HIV among low-income, urban African-Americans. Despite this hypothesis, little is known about the phenomenology of partner concurrency. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 20 urban African-American men from a public STD clinic to elicit their ideas about partner concurrency. Five themes emerged during focus group discussions. First, there was a general consensus that it is normative to have more than one sexual partner. Second, men agreed it is acceptable for men to have concurrent partners, but disagreed about whether it was acceptable for women. Third, although men provided many reasons for concurrent partnerships, the most common reasons were that (a) multiple partners fulfill different needs, and (b) it is in a man’s nature to have multiple partners. Fourth, men described some (but not all) of the negative consequences of having concurrent partners. Finally, men articulated spoken and unspoken rules that govern concurrent partnerships. These findings increase knowledge about urban, African-American men’s attitudes toward concurrent partnerships, and can help to improve the efficacy of sexual risk-reduction interventions for this group of underserved men and their partners. PMID:18483847

  17. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions.

  18. Protective behaviours among young African American women with non-monogamous sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ashley C; Hilyard, Karen; Davis, Teaniese Latham; de Marrais, Kathleen; Jeffries, William L; Muilenburg, Jessica Legge

    2017-08-10

    In the USA, partner non-monogamy is reported to be more common among African American women than White women and may contribute to African American women's increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies have explicitly and comprehensively described the protective behaviours that African American women employ with non-monogamous partners to reduce their HIV risk. We conducted interviews to examine protective behaviours among 11 African American women aged 18-24 years who perceived that a partner in the preceding 12 months had another sex partner. Participants described three types of partnerships with 29 non-monogamous men; these partnerships clustered into three categories. Narrative analysis revealed an overall paucity of protective behaviours with non-monogamous partners. Protective behaviours (i.e. communication and condom use) were informed by partnership type, rather than perceptions of non-monogamy. There were few instances in which partner non-monogamy motivated women to terminate sex partnerships. Rather, these decisions were often motivated by changes in other relationship dynamics. To address HIV/STI risk related to partner non-monogamy, HIV prevention strategies for young African American women should emphasise the importance of condom use in all non-marital partnership types. Interventions where testing is available may be effective for women who frequently test for HIV/STIs but do not use condoms.

  19. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Eastern Europe. A Tempus Study. Issue 04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  20. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  1. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  2. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Eastern Europe. A Tempus Study. Issue 04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  3. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory: Country Cases from EU and ETF Partner Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Certificates, diplomas and titles are commonly known as qualifications. Their purpose is to show employers, training providers, and individuals what the person holding the qualification has learned and can do. Every country issues many different qualifications, but for the European labor market to work as intended--that is for European citizens to…

  4. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  5. Partnering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    AD-A240,6490 PARTNERING A Special Research Problem Presented to The Faculty of the School of Civil Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology by...OF GEORGIA SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING .ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30332 9 1 D 17 116 PARTNERING Approved: Faculty Adv ,’*/Da e TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF...It appears so. The results from the Oliver Lock and Dam, and the Operational Control Center indicate a successful project. The investment in the

  6. Asian American dating: important factors in partner choice.

    PubMed

    Mok, T A

    1999-05-01

    The majority of research on romantic relationships has tended to focus on marriage, with relatively less attention paid to dating. This study examined the relationship between Asian American dating, both interracial and intraracial, and a variety of factors thought to be associated with dating in this population, including acculturation, ethnic identity, attractiveness, interracial dating experience, ethnicity of friends, parental influence over dating, and density. Participants were administered measures of these variables and were asked questions regarding their likelihood of dating both Asian Americans and White Americans. An interesting pattern of results emerged when the variables were put into regression equations to predict both interracial and intraracial dating. Findings are presented and implications discussed.

  7. Condom use and concurrent partnering among heterosexually active, African American men: a qualitative report.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Henny, Kirk; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Lucy, Debbie; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-10-01

    African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexual men, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexual men in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexual men. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community.

  8. Intimate partner violence and physical health outcomes among Southeast Asian American women.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ivy K; Dinh, Khanh T; Smith, Sable A

    2015-09-08

    Although intimate partner violence is prevalent among Southeast Asian American women, little is known about the associations between the experience of intimate partner violence and negative health outcomes in this population. Resnick et al. proposed a model explaining the development of health problems following violent assault. This article assesses the applicability of Resnick et al.'s model to Southeast Asian American women who have experienced intimate partner violence by reviewing cultural, historical, and social factors in this population. Our review indicates that the applicability of Resnick et al.'s model to Southeast Asian American women is mixed, with some components of the model fitting well with this population and others requiring a more nuanced and complex perspective. Future studies should take into consideration cultural, historical, and social factors.

  9. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  10. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  11. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  12. Partnering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    to meet the de- successful despite the site challenges and sign intent, business changes during the project. (Groves was acquired by the Torno ...34 Complete the contract without need for America company during construction- litigation. Torno embraced Partnering and continued the process which was

  13. The benefits of a culturally specific intimate partner violence intervention for African American survivors.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L

    2008-08-01

    In light of evidence and theorization of culturally specific factors contributing to intimate partner violence (IPV) within African American relationships and the Eurocentric approach many mainstream agencies take to service delivery, researchers have indicated a need for culturally appropriate IPV interventions for African American survivors to adequately address the issue of IPV within this community. The purpose of the current study was to qualitatively investigate how helpful a culturally specific IPV program, which targets the African American community, has been to African American female survivors. Results suggest that this culturally specific agency is successfully meeting the needs of these survivors.

  14. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Pocock, Alexandra M; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    African American male adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men's experience with racial discrimination.

  15. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  16. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Duran, Bonnie M; Montgomery, Juliann M

    2004-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate) attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7%) of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native). Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9). Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7). Conclusions Native American women in our sample experienced

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Long-Term Psychosocial Functioning in a National Sample of American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Dawn M.; Kohn, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of American married or cohabiting women, this prospective study examined women who reported or denied intimate partner violence (IPV) at wave 1 and compared them on a range of psychosocial outcomes at a 5-year follow-up. This study also examined the rate of divorce or separation during the 5-year interval…

  18. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  19. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  20. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  1. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  2. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  3. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  4. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  5. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Hughes, James P.; Gonzales, Marco A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Holmes, King K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. Methods We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18–29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Results Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%– 12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%– 14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%– 3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07– 1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84– 0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23– 1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41– 2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68– 0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23– 2.09; ≥ 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12– 3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01– 1.72; ≥ 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14– 2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%– 50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. Interpretation The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education

  6. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Hughes, James P; Gonzales, Marco A; Garcia, Patricia J; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2009-02-03

    Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18-29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%-12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%-14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%-3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23-2.09; > or = 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12-3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.72; > or = 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%-50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially

  7. Older partner selection in young African-American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Leonard, Lori; Brooks, Durryle; Celentano, David; Ellen, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Young African-American (AA) men who have sex with men (YAAMSM) have experienced the greatest proportional increase in new HIV cases compared with other groups. Bridging sexual partnerships between YAAMSM and older aged cohorts with higher rates of primary HIV infection has emerged as an important independent risk factor for the development of HIV. We explored reasons young AAMSM cite for being attracted to and seeking an older partner and the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Seventeen in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted in YAAMSM residing in a midsized urban city with high HIV prevalence. Two coders independently evaluated transcribed data to identify/collapse codes that emerged. We analyzed data using categorical and contextualizing analytic methods. Two themes emerged from the text for seeking an older sexual partner: the emotional maturity the older partner represented and the ability of the older partner to expose the younger partner to more life experiences. In addition, two themes emerged around attraction: support and physical attractiveness of the older partner. Few men described seeking age-discordant relationships for the sole purpose of exchange sex. Older partners during first same-sex experience helped younger partners sort through sexual position and how to perform in relationships. These interviews suggest that YAAMSM may be seeking older partners to fulfill desires to be in a stable, emotionally mature relationship and for exposure in the larger community. Prevention strategies aimed at targeting adolescent MSM age-discordant relationships will need to address the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal stress, partner support, and infant cortisol reactivity in low-income Mexican American families.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Lin, Betty; Coburn, Shayna S; MacKinnon, David P; Gonzales, Nancy A; Crnic, Keith A

    2013-12-01

    Maternal exposure to significant prenatal stress can negatively affect infant neurobiological development and increase the risk for developmental and health disturbances. These effects may be pronounced in low SES and ethnic minority families. We explored prenatal partner support as a buffer of the impact of prenatal stress on cortisol reactivity of infants born to low-income Mexican American women. Women (N=220; age 18-42; 84% Spanish-speaking; 89% foreign born; modal family income $10,000-$15,000) reported on economic stress and satisfaction with spousal/partner support during the prenatal period (26-38 weeks gestation), and infant salivary cortisol reactivity to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks was assessed at women's homes at six weeks postpartum. Multilevel models estimated the interactive effect of prenatal stress and partner support on cortisol reactivity, controlling for covariates and potential confounds. Infants born to mothers who reported high prenatal stress and low partner support exhibited higher cortisol reactivity relative to those whose mothers reported high support or low stress. The effects did not appear to operate through birth outcomes. For low-income Mexican American women, partner support may buffer the impact of prenatal stress on infant cortisol reactivity, potentially promoting more adaptive infant health and development.

  9. Prenatal Stress, Partner Support, and Infant Cortisol Reactivity in Low-Income Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Luecken, Linda J.; Lin, Betty; Coburn, Shayna S.; MacKinnon, David P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to significant prenatal stress can negatively affect infant neurobiological development and increase the risk for developmental and health disturbances. These effects may be pronounced in low SES and ethnic minority families. We explored prenatal partner support as a buffer of the impact of prenatal stress on cortisol reactivity of infants born to low-income Mexican American women. Women (N=220; age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; 89% foreign born; modal family income $10,000–$15,000) reported on economic stress and satisfaction with spousal/partner support during the prenatal period (26–38 weeks gestation), and infant salivary cortisol reactivity to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks was assessed at women’s homes at six weeks postpartum. Multilevel models estimated the interactive effect of prenatal stress and partner support on cortisol reactivity, controlling for covariates and potential confounds. Infants born to mothers who reported high prenatal stress and low partner support exhibited higher cortisol reactivity relative to those whose mothers reported high support or low stress. The effects did not appear to operate through birth outcomes. For low-income Mexican American women, partner support may buffer the impact of prenatal stress on infant cortisol reactivity, potentially promoting more adaptive infant health and development. PMID:24090585

  10. Partner Incarceration and African-American Women's Sexual Relationships and Risk: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Caruso, Bethany; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Dauria, Emily; Clark, Claire D; Comfort, Megan L

    2015-06-01

    Racialized mass incarceration is associated with racial/ethnic disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US. The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative study was to learn about the processes through which partner incarceration affects African-American women's sexual risk. Four waves of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010-2011 with 30 women in Atlanta, Georgia (US) who had recently incarcerated partners. Approximately half the sample misused substances at baseline. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. For over half the sample (N = 19), partner incarceration resulted in destitution, and half of this group (N = 9) developed new partnerships to secure shelter or food; most misused substances. Other women (N = 9) initiated casual relationships to meet emotional or sexual needs. When considered with past research, these findings suggest that reducing incarceration rates among African-American men may reduce HIV/STIs among African-American women, particularly among substance-misusing women, as might rapidly linking women with recently incarcerated partners to housing and economic support and drug treatment.

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual Risk Behavior and Intimate Partner Violence Among African-American Adolescent Females with a Male Sex Partner Recently Released from Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Murray, Colleen C.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social networks directly and indirectly influence STI risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African-American adolescent females. Methods Sociodemographic, psychosocial and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6- and 12-months from African-American females, 15–21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment and corresponding baseline measure. Results Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6-months and 56 (9.3%) at 12-months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to: have vaginal (AOR: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43) and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: 0.58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80) and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59) or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication- and refusal-self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. Conclusions A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African-American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. PMID:22824446

  12. Sexually transmitted infections, sexual risk behavior, and intimate partner violence among African American adolescent females with a male sex partner recently released from incarceration.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-08-01

    Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of African American Women and their Partners with Perceived Concurrent Partnerships in Four Rural Counties in the Southeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Ludema, Christina; Doherty, Irene A.; White, Becky L.; Simpson, Cathy; Villar-Loubet, Olga; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; O'Daniels, Christine M.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Among African American women from four rural Southeastern counties, partner's concurrency was associated with intimate partner violence, and forced sex, but not economic benefit. Background To the individual with concurrent partners, it is thought that having concurrent partnerships confers no greater risk of acquiring HIV than having multiple consecutive partnerships. However, an individual whose partner has concurrent partnerships (partner's concurrency) is at increased risk of incident HIV infection. We sought to better understand relationships characterized by partner's concurrency among African American women. Methods A total of 1,013 African American women participated in a cross-sectional survey from four rural Southeastern counties. Results Older age at first sex was associated with lower prevalence of partner's concurrency (PR, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.57-0.87), but the participant's age was not associated with partner's concurrency. After adjusting for covariates, ever having experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) or forced sex were most strongly associated with partner's concurrency (PRs, 95% CIs: 1.61, 1.23-2.11; 1.65, 1.20-2.26, respectively). Women in mutually monogamous partnerships were the most likely to receive economic support from their partners; women whose partners had concurrent partnerships did not report more economic benefit than those whose partners were monogamous. Conclusions Associations between history of IPV and forced sex with partner's concurrency suggest that women with these experiences may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce partner's concurrency in addition to support for reducing IPV and other sexual risks. To inform these interventions, further research to understand partnerships characterized by partner's concurrency is warranted. PMID:26267876

  14. Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1998-02-01

    We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors.

  15. Injury outcomes in African American and African Caribbean women: the role of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jocelyn C; Stockman, Jamila K; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and control subjects who were never abused. African American and African Caribbean women aged 18 to 55 years were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, MD, and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history, and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than in women who were never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly 3 times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (adjusted odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 1.98-3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report ED use in the past year (P = .001). In combined-site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past-year ED use, hospitalization, and multiple injuries. Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study, partner violence was associated with past-year ED use, hospitalization, and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with an injury to ensure that the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Injury Outcomes in African American and African Caribbean Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096

  17. Interpersonal- and community-level predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration among African American men.

    PubMed

    Raiford, Jerris Laverne; Seth, Puja; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with adverse physical, psychoemotional, and sexual health, and African American women are at higher risk for experiencing IPV. Considering African American women predominantly have African American male partners, it is essential to identify factors associated with IPV perpetration among African American men. The present study examined attitudes toward IPV, ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and the interplay of these factors as predictors of IPV perpetration. A community sample of 80 single, heterosexual, African American men between 18 and 29 years completed measures assessing sociodemographics, attitudes towards IPV, perceived ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and IPV perpetration during the past 3 months. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, with age, education, and public assistance as covariates, were conducted on 65 men who reported being in a main relationship. Couple conflict resolution and exposure to neighborhood violence moderated the relation between attitudes supporting IPV and IPV perpetration. Among men who reported high ineffective couple conflict resolution and high exposure to neighborhood violence, IPV perpetration increased as attitudes supporting IPV increased. The findings indicated that interpersonal- and community-level factors interact with individual level factors to increase the risk of recent IPV perpetration among African American men. While IPV prevention should include individual-level interventions that focus on skills building, these findings also highlight the importance of couple-, community-, and structural-level interventions.

  18. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    PubMed

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration.

  19. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Intimate partner violence and alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among American Indian women in primary care.

    PubMed

    Duran, Bonnie; Oetzel, John; Parker, Tassy; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of intimate partner violence (IPV) with mental disorders was investigated among 234 American Indian/Alaska Native female primary care patients. Results indicated that unadjusted prevalence ratios for severe physical or sexual abuse (relative to no IPV) were significant for anxiety, PTSD, mood, and any mental disorder. Adjusted prevalence ratios showed severe physical or sexual IPV to be associated with any mood disorder. Patterns of IPV and mental health have implications for detection and service utilization.

  1. Chicago partners in the American dream: A local effort within the national homeownership strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, E.; Cavallo, J.; Peterson, N.; Nelson, M.

    1997-03-01

    President Clinton and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) have set a goal of increasing homeownership in America. Currently the rate of homeownership is approximately 64 percent of the population. The goal is to raise that rate to 67.5 percent by the year 2000, a higher rate than ever recorded in U.S. history. Achieving the goal will require about 8 million families to acquire homes of their own. HUD has developed a plan for reaching the national homeownership goal. The plan is known as the National Homeownership Strategy. It was formulated with input from more than 50 public- and private-sector groups and consists of 100 objectives designed to make homeownership easier and affordable for American families. Among the objectives are expanded use of energy conservation and new construction technologies. The groups participating in the formulation of the National Homeownership Strategy formed a collaboration that was named the National Partners in Homeownership. Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a collaboration of Chicago organizations implementing the National Homeownership Strategy on a local level. It has made achieving the objectives of the Strategy the foundation for its local partnership. The Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a grassroots collaboration, combining the experience, resources, and expertise of a variety of local organizations. The fundamental goal of the Chicago Partners in the American Dream is to create 5,000 homeownership opportunities in nine to twelve focused areas within Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Communities in the Chicagoland market by the end of the year 2000.

  2. The Mediating Role of Empowerment for African American Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant societal problem associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression, which in turn can cause impairment in a variety of areas. Previous research suggests that African American women experience more frequent and severe IPV than White women, yet report fewer PTSD symptoms related to their abuse. One proposed explanation for this relationship is that African American women are more resilient due to internal coping methods such as empowerment; however, this relationship has yet to be empirically tested. The current study investigates the role of empowerment in mediating IPV-related psychological distress in a sample of African American and White battered women (N = 204). As hypothesized, personal empowerment mediated the relationships between race and PTSD and race and depression, suggesting that empowered African American women may demonstrate greater resiliency when faced with IPV. Results are discussed in terms of their implication for developing culturally-sensitive empowerment-based interventions for battered women. PMID:21331291

  3. Motivational interviewing at the intersections of depression and intimate partner violence among African American women.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally tailored, multi-faceted intervention that used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a community-based participatory research approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program.

  4. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  5. Intimate Partner Violence in American Indian and/or Alaska Native Communities: A Social Ecological Framework of Determinants and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetzel, John; Duran, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    This essay synthesizes the research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in American Indian and/or Alaska Native communities using a social ecological framework. The review of literature demonstrates that American Indian and/or Alaska Native women are at an elevated risk for IPV compared to non-American Indian women and thus this essay describes…

  6. [Migrations in Latin American countries. Characteristics of the pediatric population].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-De Kartzow, Rodrigo; Castillo-Durán, Carlos; Lera M, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon among Latin American countries (LAC) as well as others; however, scarce information is available studying its impact on paediatric groups and its association with socioeconomic variables. To study the association among socioeconomic variables and the immigration rate of paediatric population in LAC. Official rates of migration of LAC were obtained from: International Organization for Migration, Pan American Health Organization, and United Nations Development Programme. Demographic and socioeconomic information was also obtained for: gross domestic product (GDP), human development index (HDI), Gini coefficient of inequality (GC), alphabetization rate for adults (AA), net migration rate (NMR), and immigration of children<15 years (IM15). Description, linear correlations and analysis of differences between groups of countries were assessed. The NMR was positive for Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Chile and Argentina. No association among NMR and GDP, HDI, GC, AA was found. A correlation of IM15 was found with: GC (r=0.668, P=.01), with GDP (r=-0.720; P=.01), AA (r=-0.755; P=.01) and with HDI (r=-0.799; P=.01). Rate of IM15 was lower in LA countries with advanced/medium development (GDP>median) vs those with low development (Fisher, P<.0001). There is a direct inverse association between GDP per capita, HDI, AA and GC and the proportion of each country IN15. We did not observe an association between NMR and HDI, AA, and GC. The health impact of these migrations should be analysed. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence and Social Pressure among Gay Men in Six Countries.

    PubMed

    Finneran, Catherine; Chard, Anna; Sineath, Craig; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2012-08-01

    Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures - namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism - on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paper examines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil. We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Three outcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity. Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were found to significantly increase odds of reporting IPV in

  9. The contribution of male and female partners' substance use to sexual risks and STDs among African American HIV serodiscordant couples.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests that drug and alcohol use are fueling the heterosexual transmission of HIV among African Americans. This study aims to examine the relative contribution of drug and alcohol use of male and female partners to risks of heterosexual transmission of HIV among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples (N = 1,070 participants) who participated in an HIV prevention trial. Associations found between use of drugs and alcohol by one or both partners and sexual risk indicators varied by type of substance and whether male or female partner or both partners reported use. The findings suggest multiple ways in which substance use of male and female partners may be contributing to the heterosexual transmission of HIV and other STDs among African Americans and underscore the need for HIV prevention strategies to address dyadic patterns of substance use that lead to sexual risks.

  10. Multiple sclerosis in Colombia and other Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Toro, Jaime; Cárdenas, Simón; Fernando Martínez, Carlos; Urrutia, Julián; Díaz, Camilo

    2013-04-01

    The spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America is characterized by geographic and racial/genetic particularities. In this review we describe major studies of MS epidemiology, genetics, and clinical presentation in Latin America, with a focus on Colombia. We also consider the influence of national health care systems on the treatment of MS in Latin American patients. Epidemiologic studies indicate that the regional incidence of MS in Latin America is more complex than once thought, and broadly consistent with the geographical (latitudinal) distribution of MS in other parts of the world. Low prevalence of MS is considered to be <5/100.000 inhabitants and high prevalence >30/100,000. Colombia is considered a low-risk region for MS, as are other countries located near the equator, such as Panama and Ecuador. By contrast, Latin American countries located farther from the equator are medium or high-risk regions. National health care systems generally cover MS treatment, although bureaucratic problems sometimes interfere with delivery of high-cost medications and access to diagnostic tests, particularly in rural areas. The population of Colombia is racially diverse and genetically heterogeneous, making it difficult to study genetic associations within a complex disease such as MS. The clinical spectrum of MS in Latin America is similar to that of Europe or North America.

  11. Factors influencing help-seeking from informal networks among African American victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Katherine E; Luchok, Kathryn J; Richter, Donna L; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges African-American women in abusive relationships face when they consider seeking-help from their informal networks. Data are reported from interviews with 15 African-American women who were self-identified as having survived physical intimate partner violence. A 13-item, semi-structured interview guide was developed in order to elicit information from participants. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for analysis. This analysis revealed emergent themes from these interviews concerning the social factors and perceptions that influence help-seeking behavior. Participants perceived their informal networks as willing to offer instrumental support. However, informal networks were not emotionally supportive. Participants also noted that the African-American community at-large believes victims of violence to be "stupid" for remaining in violent relationships. Additional results are also discussed. Results may be used to help enhance efforts to reduce the rates of intimate partner violence among African-Americans.

  12. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Western Balkans. A Tempus Study. Issue 06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The attached descriptions of higher education systems in the Tempus partner countries provide a tool for those who are either planning or already carrying out projects within Tempus. This document forms part of a series of four publications which have been produced for each of the regions covered by Tempus. The descriptions have been drafted by…

  13. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Southern Mediterranean. A Tempus Study. Issue 07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The attached descriptions of higher education systems in the Tempus partner countries provide a tool for those who are either planning or already carrying out projects within Tempus. This document forms part of a series of four publications which have been produced for each of the regions covered by Tempus. The descriptions have been drafted by…

  14. NPHS2 Mutations: A Closer Look to Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lutaif, Anna Cristina G. B.; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa T.; Belangero, Vera M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common kidney pathologies in childhood, being characterized by proteinuria, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. In clinical practice, it is divided into two categories based on the response to steroid therapy: steroid-sensitive and steroid resistant. Inherited impairments of proteins located in the glomerular filtration barrier have been identified as important causes of nephrotic syndrome, with one of these being podocin, coded by NPHS2 gene. NPHS2 mutations are the most frequent genetic cause of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this review is to update the list of NPHS2 mutations reported between June 2013 and February 2017, with a closer look to mutations occurring in Latin American countries. PMID:28785586

  15. Drinking water standards in South American countries: convergences and divergences.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vívian Gemiliano; Heller, Léo; Bastos, Rafael Kopschitz Xavier

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we present a comparative assessment of drinking-water standards from almost all South American countries, using the USA and the Canadian standards and the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines as references. Similarities and discrepancies between standards/guidelines were identified through descriptive analyses and, in the case of chemical standards, clustering techniques. In general, one or another of the four consecutive editions of the WHO Guidelines were shown to be quite influential in setting drinking-water standards in the region, but not so much the USA and the Canadian standards. Considerable discrepancies between South American drinking-water standards were found, mainly with respect to chemical substances. Questions are raised about their scientific basis and/or the practicalities for their enforcement. In conclusion, the paper highlights that many drinking-water regulations in South America need updating, taking on the approach of health-based targets in setting these standards, as well as that of a broader risk-based preventive management in the entire supply system to assure water safety.

  16. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Piette, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines: 1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries; and 2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the United States to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of U.S.-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include: 1) deployment of community health workers (“promotoras”) for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs; 2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions; 3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery; 4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications; and 5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  17. Influences on Sexual Partnering Among African American Adolescents With Concurrent Sexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah J.; Bangi, Audrey; Sheon, Nicolas; Harper, Gary W.; Catania, Joseph A.; Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents often engage in concurrent sexual partnerships as part of a developmental process of gaining experience with sexuality. The authors qualitatively examined patterns of concurrency and variation in normative and motivational influences on this pattern of sexual partnering among African American adolescents (31 males; 20 females), ages 15 to 17 years. Using content analysis, gender and contextual differences in social norms and motivations for concurrency were explored. Findings describe the normative influences on adolescent males and females with regard to sexual concurrency and the transfer of these norms from one generation to the next. PMID:22505843

  18. A multistakeholder platform to promote health and prevent noncommunicable diseases in the region of the Americas: the Pan American Health Organization partners forum for action.

    PubMed

    Hospedales, C James; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity are the most serious health problem facing the countries of the Americas in terms of avoidable deaths as well as costs to governments, families, and business. The main causes are ageing of the population, and widespread risks such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and harmful use of alcohol, linked to major changes in the way we live and work, to public policies, cultural norms, and private sector forces. Underlying determinants are globalization, urbanization, poverty, education, gender, ethnicity, and access to health services. Yet, approximately 80% of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and 40% of cancer, are preventable through a range of cost-effective population and individual measures for those at high risk of living with NCDs. However, the multisectoral nature of NCDs requires a cross-sector response to succeed. Several governments have commenced intersectoral efforts, and civil society and private sector also have many initiatives, but the responses are fragmented and skewed. The Partners Forum is being launched by the Pan American Health Organization in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and a set of partners including member states, partners in civil society, and partners in the private sector, as a multisector platform to catalyze, recognize, and scale up collaborative action to promote health and prevent and control NCDs at regional, subregional, and country level. The principles of partnership and lessons learned from other partnership experiences are being used in its design.

  19. Drug-Induced Anaphylaxis in Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Jares, Edgardo José; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Ensina, Luis Felipe C; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos; Monsell, Silvana; Schuhl, Juan; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the clinical features and management of drug-induced anaphylaxis (DIA) in Latin America is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess implicated medications, demographics, and treatments received for DIA in Latin American patients referred to national specialty centers for evaluation. A database previously used to compile information on drug-induced allergic reactions in 11 Latin American countries was used to identify and characterize patients presenting specifically with a clinical diagnosis of DIA. Information regarding clinical presentation, causative agent(s), diagnostic studies performed, treatment, and contributing factors associated with increased reaction severity was analyzed. There were 1005 patients evaluated for possible drug hypersensitivity reactions during the study interval, and 264 (26.3%) met criteria for DIA. DIA was more frequent in adults and in elderly females (N = 129 [76.6%] and N = 30 [75%], respectively) compared with children and/or adolescents (N = 21 [42.9%], P < .01). Severe DIA was less frequent with underlying asthma (N = 22 vs 35 [38.6% vs 61.4%], P < .05) or atopy (N = 62 vs 71 [43% vs 59% ], P < .01). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (N = 178 [57.8%]), beta-lactam antibiotics (N = 44 [14.3%]), and other antibiotics (N = 16 [5.2%]) were the most frequently implicated drug classes. Anaphylaxis was rated as severe in N = 133 (50.4%) and anaphylactic shock (AS) was present in N = 90 (34.1%). Epinephrine was only used in N = 73 (27.6%) overall, but in N = 70 (77.8%) of patients with AS. In Latin American patients referred for evaluation of DIA, NSAIDs and antibiotics were implicated in approximately 80% of cases. Most of these reactions were treated in the emergency department. Epinephrine was administered in only 27.6% of all cases, although more frequently for anaphylactic shock. Dissemination of anaphylaxis guidelines among emergency department physicians should be encouraged to improve

  20. Ethnicity and Risk for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Following Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence and Predictors in European American and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…

  1. Ethnicity and Risk for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Following Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence and Predictors in European American and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…

  2. Long-term abatement potential and current policy trajectories in Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; McFarland, James; Octaviano, Claudia; van Ruijven, Bas; Beach, Robert; Daenzer, Kathryn; Herreras Martínez, Sara; Lucena, André F. P.; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Loboguerrero Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Mundra, Anupriya; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides perspectives on the role of Latin American and Latin American countries in meeting global abatement goals, based on the scenarios developed through the CLIMACAP-LAMP modeling study.

  3. Do support groups members disclose less to their partners? The dynamics of HIV disclosure in four African countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent efforts to curtail the HIV epidemic in Africa have emphasised preventing sexual transmission to partners through antiretroviral therapy. A component of current strategies is disclosure to partners, thus understanding its motivations will help maximise results. This study examines the rates, dynamics and consequences of partner disclosure in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, with special attention to the role of support groups and stigma in disclosure. Methods The study employs mixed methods, including a cross-sectional client survey of counselling and testing services, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with HIV-positive individuals in stable partnerships in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, recruited at healthcare facilities offering HIV testing. Results Rates of disclosure to partners varied between countries (32.7% – 92.7%). The lowest rate was reported in Malawi. Reasons for disclosure included preventing the transmission of HIV, the need for care, and upholding the integrity of the relationship. Fear of stigma was an important reason for non-disclosure. Women reported experiencing more negative reactions when disclosing to partners. Disclosure was positively associated with living in urban areas, higher education levels, and being male, while being negatively associated with membership to support groups. Conclusions Understanding of reasons for disclosure and recognition of the role of support groups in the process can help improve current prevention efforts, that increasingly focus on treatment as prevention as a way to halt new infections. Support groups can help spread secondary prevention messages, by explaining to their members that antiretroviral treatment has benefits for HIV positive individuals and their partners. Home-based testing can further facilitate partner disclosure, as couples can test together and be counselled jointly. PMID:23773542

  4. Are immigrants more likely than native-born Americans to perpetrate intimate partner violence?

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Cooper-Sadlo, Shannon; Maynard, Brandy R; Larson, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Despite an emerging body of research indicating that immigrants are less likely than native-born Americans to engage in crime and antisocial behavior, less attention has focused specifically on intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant populations. We address this gap by using data from Wave II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans with respect to multiple forms of IPV. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that in the aggregate, immigrants are significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV. However, examination of major world regions indicates these results are driven by Latin American immigrants. Immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Europe report a lower prevalence of IPV perpetration than native-born Americans. This study extends prior research on the immigrant paradox and suggests that future studies take into account regional heterogeneity when examining IPV and other forms of violence in immigrant populations.

  5. Characterizing the burden of premature ejaculation from a patient and partner perspective: a multi-country qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Revicki, Dennis; Howard, Kellee; Hanlon, Jennifer; Mannix, Sally; Greene, Alison; Rothman, Margaret

    2008-05-12

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with PE and the female partners of men with PE on their sexual experience, distress and relationships. Qualitative data were collected through 14 focus groups in the US and through one-on-one interviews in the US, UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Poland. Study participants included heterosexual men with PE and female partners of males with PE. All participants were asked about how PE affects their daily life, including emotional impacts. One-on-one interviews also included obtaining feedback on the male and female versions of 4-single item measures of PE focusing on ejaculatory control, satisfaction with intercourse, interpersonal distress, and relationship difficulty. Participants included 172 males with PE and 67 female partners of men with PE. Lack of control over ejaculation and dissatisfaction with intercourse emerged as central themes of PE. Lack of ejaculatory control resulted in greater dissatisfaction and greater emotional distress, including feelings of inadequacy, disappointment, and anxiety. Continued PE ultimately leads to greater problems with partners and often disrupts partner relationships. Participants indicated that PE was keeping them from attaining complete intimacy in their relationships even when their partners were generally satisfied with sexual intercourse. Impacts of PE on sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and partner relationships were consistent across countries. Feedback on the single-item PE measures confirmed relevance of the item content and further confirmed major themes identified from the qualitative data. This qualitative study provides valuable insights

  6. [Scientific production in clinical medicine and international collaboration networks in South American countries].

    PubMed

    Huamaní, Charles; González A, Gregorio; Curioso, Walter H; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2012-04-01

    International collaboration is increasingly used in biomedical research. To describe the characteristics of scientific production in Latin America and the main international collaboration networks for the period 2000 to 2009. Search for papers generated in Latin American countries in the Clinical Medicine database of ISI Web of Knowledge v.4.10 - Current Contents Connect. The country of origin of the corresponding author was considered the producing country of the paper. International collaboration was analyzed calculating the number of countries that contributed to the generation of a particular paper. Collaboration networks were graphed to determine the centrality of each network. Twelve Latin American countries participated in the production of 253,362 papers. The corresponding author was South American in 79% of these papers. Sixteen percent of papers were on clinical medicine and 36% of these were carried out in collaboration. Brazil had the highest production (22,442 papers) and the lower percentage of international collaboration (31%). North America accounts for 63% of collaborating countries. Only 8% of collaboration is between South American countries. Brazil has the highest tendency to collaborate with other South American countries. Brazil is the South American country with the highest scientific production and indicators of centrality in South America. The most common collaboration networks are with North American countries.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population.

  8. A History of Childhood Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Native American Adults.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jooyoung; Roh, Soonhee; Easton, Scott D; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J

    2016-02-24

    This study examined the association between childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among Native American adults. Based on Riggs's theoretical model of the long-term effects of childhood abuse, we also examined the mediating roles of insecure attachment patterns and depressive symptoms. The current study was a secondary data analysis using the 2013 General Well-Being Among Native Americans dataset (N = 479). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized relationships among key constructs. Consistent with existing literature of revictimization, our findings showed that the experience of childhood maltreatment was positively associated with IPV victimization. Mediation analyses indicated that depression was a significant mediator in the association between childhood maltreatment and IPV victimization. In addition, all the paths linking childhood maltreatment, fearful attachment, depressive symptoms, and IPV victimization were statistically significant, although the overall mediation effect was not significant. The results of this study suggest that Riggs's model can serve as a useful theoretical framework for understanding the long-term effects of childhood maltreatment among Native American adults. Practitioners in the area of IPV should include maltreatment history and current attachment patterns in client assessments, which could help address conflict and violence within intimate relationships.

  9. Family and partner interpersonal violence among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Katherine J; Jubinski, Sarah M; Tanaka, Mina F; Gershon, Robyn Rm

    2014-12-01

    Family and partner interpersonal violence are common among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. AI/AN women have the second highest prevalence of violence against women among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, and child abuse prevalence rates in AI/AN populations are among the highest. Elder abuse in AI/AN is also an important concern, although data on this are sparse. This review describes the epidemiology of child abuse, violence against women, and elder abuse among AI/AN, including prevalence and associated risk factors. The authors discuss potential reasons for the high burden of interpersonal violence among AI/AN, including common risk factors. Important limitations in existing literature are also highlighted, along with recommendations for future research on this topic.

  10. Protective factors against suicide attempt risk among African American women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Lindi A; Kaslow, Nadine J; Thompson, Martie P; Jurkovic, Gregory J

    2005-09-01

    Protective factors (hope, spirituality, self-efficacy, coping, social support-family, social support-friends, and effectiveness of obtaining resources) against suicide attempts were examined in economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged African American women (100 suicide attempters, 100 nonattempters) who had experienced recent intimate partner violence. Significant positive associations were found between all possible pairs of protective factors. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher scores on each of the seven protective factors predicted nonattempter status; multivariate logistic regressions indicated that higher scores on measures of hope or social support-family showed unique predictive value for nonattempter status. Further, the multivariate model accurately predicted suicide attempt status 69.5% of the time. Partial support was found for a cumulative protective model hypothesizing a linear relationship between the number of protective factors endorsed and decreased risk for suicide attempts. Implications of these findings for community-based preventive intervention efforts and future research are discussed.

  11. What predicts sex partners' age differences among African American youth? A longitudinal study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C

    2010-07-01

    Partner age is associated with youth's sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, it is not known whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, this study first describes the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, whether this model varied systematically by sex, mother's education, and high school dropout was tested. Third, whether age differences were associated with youth's self-acceptance, alcohol use, and employment trajectories over these two developmental periods was assessed. Finally, whether these associations had non-proportional effects over both periods was tested. This study modeled sex partners' age differences nonlinearly, with females being more likely to date older partners at baseline and over time. High school dropouts also reported older partners at baseline. Self-acceptance and the number of hours worked were associated with sex partners' age differences over time, with the effect decreasing over young adulthood years. Alcohol use frequency was also associated with having older partners over time. This study discusses the findings from a health perspective on youth's sexual development.

  12. It is complicated: sexual partner characteristic profiles and sexually transmitted infection rates within a predominantly African American population in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jalen; Rose, Jennifer; Dierker, Lisa; Chan, Philip A; MacCarthy, Sarah; Simmons, Dantrell; Mena, Leandro; Nunn, Amy

    2015-05-01

    Mississippi has among the highest prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States. Understanding sexual networks can provide insight into risk factors for transmission and guide prevention interventions. Participants included 1437 primarily African American (95%) adults presenting for care at an STI clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Latent class analysis identified underlying population subgroups with unique patterns of response on a comprehensive set of 14 sexual partner variables, such as living with or having a child with a partner, partner dependence and trust, 1-time sexual encounters, multiple main partners, substance use, sexual concurrency, and incarceration. Classes were compared on participant age, sex, sexual orientation, public assistance, lifetime partners, relationship status, and self-reported past-year STI. Three classes emerged. Class 1 (n = 746) participants were less dependent on partners and less likely to live with or have a child with a partner. Class 2 participants (n = 427) endorsed multiple STI risk factors, including partner incarceration, 6 or more lifetime partners, sexual concurrency, 1-time sexual encounters, and substance use at last sex. Class 3 participants (n = 226) were more likely to be in dependent, committed relationships with children. Class 2 had a higher proportion of self-report past-year STIs (36.7%) compared with classes 1 (26.6%) and 3 (26.1%). Certain partner factors such as incarceration, substance use, and concurrency may contribute to increased STI risk. Partner factors may be useful proxies for STI risks and could be useful questions to include in screening questionnaires in clinical settings.

  13. Attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women among Women and Men in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Hau; Fisher, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner (IPV) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). The aim was to describe the attitudes of women and men towards perpetration of physical violence to women by an intimate partner, in a large group of low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We used data from Round Four of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Attitudes towards IPV against women were assessed by a study-specific scale asking if ‘wife beating’ is justified in any of five circumstances. Overall, data from 39 countries (all had data from women and 13 countries also had data from men) were included in the analyses. The proportions of women who held attitudes that ‘wife-beating’ was justified in any of the five circumstances varied widely among countries from 2.0% (95% CI 1.7;2.3) in Argentina to 90.2% (95% CI 88.9;91.5) in Afghanistan. Similarly, among men it varied from 5.0% (95% CI 4.0;6.0) in Belarus to 74.5% (95% CI 72.5;76.4) in the Central African Republic. The belief that ‘wife-beating’ is acceptable was most common in Africa and South Asia, and least common in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. In general this belief was more common among people in disadvantaged circumstances, including being a member of a family in the lowest household wealth quintile, living in a rural area and having limited formal education. Young adults were more likely to accept physical abuse by a man of his intimate partner than those who were older, but people who had never partnered were less likely to have these attitudes. Conclusions Violence against women is an international priority and requires a multicomponent response. These data provide evidence that strategies should include major public education programs to change attitudes about the acceptability of IPV against women, and that these should be addressed to women and girls as well as to boys and men. PMID:27893861

  14. Attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women among Women and Men in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Hau; Fisher, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner (IPV) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). The aim was to describe the attitudes of women and men towards perpetration of physical violence to women by an intimate partner, in a large group of low- and middle-income countries. We used data from Round Four of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Attitudes towards IPV against women were assessed by a study-specific scale asking if 'wife beating' is justified in any of five circumstances. Overall, data from 39 countries (all had data from women and 13 countries also had data from men) were included in the analyses. The proportions of women who held attitudes that 'wife-beating' was justified in any of the five circumstances varied widely among countries from 2.0% (95% CI 1.7;2.3) in Argentina to 90.2% (95% CI 88.9;91.5) in Afghanistan. Similarly, among men it varied from 5.0% (95% CI 4.0;6.0) in Belarus to 74.5% (95% CI 72.5;76.4) in the Central African Republic. The belief that 'wife-beating' is acceptable was most common in Africa and South Asia, and least common in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. In general this belief was more common among people in disadvantaged circumstances, including being a member of a family in the lowest household wealth quintile, living in a rural area and having limited formal education. Young adults were more likely to accept physical abuse by a man of his intimate partner than those who were older, but people who had never partnered were less likely to have these attitudes. Violence against women is an international priority and requires a multicomponent response. These data provide evidence that strategies should include major public education programs to change attitudes about the acceptability of IPV against women, and that these should be addressed to women and girls as well as to boys and men.

  15. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    PubMed Central

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  16. An exploratory investigation of adolescent intimate partner violence among African American youth: a gendered analysis.

    PubMed

    Love, Sharon RedHawk; Richards, Tara N

    2013-11-01

    Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed.

  17. Strategies for Expanding the Geosciences Workforce: Recruiting, Mentoring, and Partnering with American Indian Students and Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, R.

    2003-12-01

    Tribal Colleges and Universities are a primary resource for reservation-based American Indian communities to create economic development opportunities, build a trained workforce, and promote and preserve traditional culture. They are also the higher education gateway for most American Indian students living on reservations. All Tribal Colleges and Universities offer environmental sciences programs and many provide training in GIS, with environmental science applications. Universities and research centers interested in bringing more diversity into their geosciences programs, and ultimately into the field, should work with Tribal Colleges to expand current environmental science programs and develop a research focus relevant to tribal communities. Partnering faculty and researchers could offer advanced geosciences courses online, support students interested in field research by addressing local water, soil, and climate questions, mentor Tribal College faculty, and collaborate on research projects. During this presentation, we will provide examples of successful and innovative collaborations and discuss strategies for encouraging AGU members to investigate TCU programs and find faculty with whom to collaborate.

  18. Strategies for Coping With Individual PTSD Symptoms: Experiences of African American Victims of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Price, Carolina; Pugh, Nicole; Hansen, Nathan B

    2017-05-08

    Understanding how populations at particular risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its deleterious outcomes cope with individual PTSD symptoms is critical to developing interventions that promote resilience, support recovery, and ultimately empower traumatized populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify specific strategies women use to cope with individual PTSD symptoms among a population at particular risk for experiencing trauma and its negative sequelae-African American victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who use substances. This 30-day study included 107 African American women who reported experiencing current IPV and using a substance. During their follow-up interviews, women participated in a structured interview to retrospectively report on the strategies they typically used to cope with various PTSD symptoms during the 30-day period. Results of content analysis revealed that women used 19 different strategies to cope with symptoms (e.g., social support, substance use, electronic media, religious or spiritual coping), which varied as a function of the PTSD symptom experienced. Aggregating symptoms to the cluster level obscured the variability in strategies used to cope with individual symptoms. Findings are discussed in the context of the larger literature on coping and PTSD, specifically regarding (a) coping strategies that may be adaptive or maladaptive and (b) directions for future research that attend to experiences of individual PTSD symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine. PMID:14620706

  20. Sustainable transfer of biotechnology to developing countries: fighting poverty by bringing scientific tools to developing-country partners.

    PubMed

    Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Poverty and social inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious and other diseases but also the course of disease in those affected. The lack of proper diagnosis and access to adequate health services only compounds the problem. In low-resource settings, the burden of disease can be reduced if the basic human and material resources exist to support the use of low-cost interventions by appropriately trained personnel. For 20 years, the Sustainable Sciences Institute has built scientific capacity in developing countries to recognize, prevent, and respond to the threats posed by disease.

  1. Factors associated with attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women: a comparative analysis of 17 sub-Saharan countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive and mental health consequences. Even though most societies proscribe violence against women, the reality is that violations against women's rights are often sanctioned under the garb of cultural practices and norms, or through misinterpretation of religious tenets. Methods We utilised data from 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2003 and 2007 in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the net effects of socio-demographic factors on men's and women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using multiple logistic regression models estimated by likelihood ratio test. Results IPVAW was widely accepted under certain circumstances by men and women in all the countries studied. Women were more likely to justify IPVAW than men. "Neglecting the children" was the most common reason agreed to by both women and men for justifying IPVAW followed by "going out without informing husband" and "arguing back with the husband". Increasing wealth status, education attainment, urbanization, access to media, and joint decision making were associated with decreased odds of justifying IPVAW in most countries. Conclusion In most Sub-Saharan African countries studied where IPVAW is widely accepted as a response to women's transgressing gender norms, men find less justification for the practice than do women. The present study suggests that proactive efforts are needed to change these norms, such as promotion of higher education and socio-demographic development. The magnitude and direction of factors associated with attitudes towards IPVAW varies widely across the countries, thus suggesting the significance of capitalizing on need-adapted interventions tailored to fit conditions in each country. PMID:19619299

  2. The Status of Girls' Education in Education for All Fast Track Initiative Partner Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Prema

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint examines girls' performance in primary education in the countries that joined the Education for All Fast Track Initiative between 2002 and 2008. At the time they joined the initiative, a first group of countries (high performers) had already achieved high and equal enrollment of girls and boys. Significant progress is evident in a…

  3. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Disorders among American Indian Women from Southwest Tribes in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Bonnie; Oetzel, John; Parker, Tassy; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of intimate partner violence (IPV) with mental disorders was investigated among 234 American Indian/Alaska Native female primary care patients. Results indicated that unadjusted prevalence ratios for severe physical or sexual abuse (relative to no IPV) were significant for anxiety, PTSD, mood, and any mental disorder. Adjusted…

  5. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  6. A Study Focusing on American Expatriates' Learning in Host Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, In-Sun; Paprock, Kenneth C.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 70 U.S. expatriate workers found that most learned the culture of their host country through reflective learning. Factors helping their adjustment included previous cross-cultural experience, language competence, long-term relationship with hosts, and information about the host country from both home and host sources. (Contains 29…

  7. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health.

  8. Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Factors influencing resource use by African American and African Caribbean women disclosing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Lucea, Marguerite B; Stockman, Jamila K; Mana-Ay, Margarita; Bertrand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B; Coverston, Catherine R; Campbell, Doris W; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-05-01

    Many victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) do not access services. Education and severity of physical violence have previously been shown to predict resource utilization, but whether these hold true specifically among women of African descent is unknown. This article furthers our understanding of the relationship between IPV and resource use, considering sociodemographics and aspects of IPV by presenting results from a study conducted with African American and African Caribbean women in Baltimore, Maryland, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Of the 545 women included in this analysis, 95 (18%) reported emotional abuse only, 274 (50%) reported experiencing physical abuse only, and 176 (32%) had experienced both physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner. Resource utilization was relatively low among these women, with only 57% seeking any help. Among those who did, 13% sought medical, 18% DV, 37% community, and 41% criminal justice resources. Generalized linear model results indicated that older age and severe risk for lethality from IPV and PTSD were predictive of certain types of resource use, while education, insurance status, and depression had no influence. Perceived availability of police and shelter resources varied by site. Results suggest that systems that facilitate resource redress for all abused women are essential, particularly attending to younger clients who are less likely to seek help, while building awareness that women accessing resources may be at severe risk for lethality from the violence and may also be experiencing mental health complications. In addition, greater efforts should be made on the community level to raise awareness among women of available resources.

  10. Partner violence victimization and unintended pregnancy in Latina and Asian American women: Analysis using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W; Heh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly one in every three women over their lifetimes. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy, mediated by condom use and perceived spousal/partner support among Latina and Asian women. Data came from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The analysis was restricted to married or cohabiting female respondents aged 18+ years (n = 1,595). Dependent variables included unintended pregnancy, condom use, and perceived partner support. Independent variables included physical abuse or threats by current partner and primary decision-maker. Weighted least squares was used to fit path models to data comprising dichotomous and ordinal variables. More than 13% of women reported IPV during their relationship with their partner/spouse. Abused women were twice as likely as non-abused women to have had an unintended pregnancy. This association was partially mediated by perceived partner support. Condom use had a positive, but non-significant association with unintended pregnancy, and IPV had a negative, but non-significant association with condom use. Results highlight the importance of IPV screening for minority women. Efforts to combine family planning and violence prevention services may help reduce unintended pregnancy.

  11. Leaving the Parental Home: Patterns in Six Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vos, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Used mid-1970s World Fertility Survey cross-sectional data to analyze sociodemographic determinants of home-leaving by young Latin American adults (N=68,534). Found marriage as major reason for home-leaving and sex, urban/rural residence, education, and work as other important determinants. Noted international differences. (Author/CM))

  12. Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country's major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba's School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it.

  13. Native American Techniques of Survival in the Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, John A.

    1978-01-01

    Presenting a review of basic information, this article presents the following: (1) building a shelter, (2) making a fire, (3) finding and keeping food, (4) safety and medicine, (5) orientation to directions, and (6) aids in traveling in the country. (RTS)

  14. Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it. PMID:21547054

  15. The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the consequences of having a physically abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of young African-American women. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 165 sexually active African-American women aged 18 through 29 in San Francisco, Calif. RESULTS: Women in abusive relationships were less likely than others to use condoms and were more likely to experience verbal abuse, emotional abuse, or threats of physical abuse when they discussed condoms. They were more fearful of asking their partners to use condoms, worried more about acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and felt more isolated than did women not in abusive relationships. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevention programs for women should address domestic violence prevention strategies. PMID:9224187

  16. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    PubMed

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle.

  17. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  18. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  19. Scale-Up and Case-Finding Effectiveness of an HIV Partner Services Program in Cameroon: An Innovative HIV Prevention Intervention for Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Catherine; Forgwei, Gideon; Welty, Thomas; Golden, Matthew; Adimora, Adaora; Shields, Raymond; Muffih, Pius Tih

    2015-01-01

    Background Partner services (PSs) are a long-standing component of HIV control programs in the United States and some parts of Europe. Small randomized trials suggest that HIV PS can be effective in identifying persons with undiagnosed HIV infection. However, the scalability and effectiveness of HIV PS in low-income countries are unknown. Methods We used data collected from 2009 to 2010 through a large HIV PS program in Cameroon to evaluate HIV PS in a developing country. HIV-positive index cases diagnosed in antenatal care, voluntary counseling and testing, and inpatient facilities were interviewed to collect information on their sexual partners. Partners were contacted via telephone or home visit to notify, test, and enroll those found to be HIV positive in medical care. Results Health advisors interviewed 1462 persons with HIV infection during the evaluation period; these persons provided information about 1607 sexual partners. Health advisors notified 1347 (83.8%) of these partners, of whom 900 (66.8%) were HIV tested. Of partners tested, 451 (50.1%) were HIV positive, of whom 386 (85.6%) enrolled into HIV medical care. An average 3.2 index cases needed to be interviewed to identify 1 HIV case. Conclusions HIV PS can be successfully implemented in a developing country and is highly effective in identifying persons with HIV infection and linking them to care. PMID:24220349

  20. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  1. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  2. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S

    2010-06-19

    Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH). Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital) among young women (ages 20-29) was examined. In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  3. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  4. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  5. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infection Related Stigma and Shame Among African American Male Youth: Implications for Testing Practices, Partner Notification, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Philip, Susan; Bernstein, Kyle; Neilands, Torsten B.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A self-administered, street intercept survey was conducted in order to examine the relation of stigma and shame associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) to STI testing practices, partner notification, and partner-delivered treatment among young African American men (n=108) in a low-income, urban community in San Francisco with high STI burden. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing STI-related stigma was significantly associated with a decreased odds of STI testing, such that every standard deviation increase in stigma score was associated with 0.62 decreased odds of having been tested (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.38–1.00), controlling for age. STI stigma was also significantly associated with a decreased willingness to notify non-main partners of an STI (aOR: 0.64 95% CI: 0.41–0.99). Participants with higher levels of stigma and shame were also significantly less likely to be willing to deliver STI medication to a partner (stigma aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37–0.88; shame aOR 0.53 95% CI: 0.34–0.83). Findings suggest that STI-related stigma and shame, common in this population, could undermine STI testing, treatment, and partner notification programs. The medical establishment, one of the institutional factors to have reinforced this culture of stigma, must aid efforts to reduce its effects through providing integrated services, reframing sexual health in campaigns, educating clients, and providing wider options to aid disclosure and partner notification practices. PMID:25133501

  7. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  8. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Vang, Zoua M; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000-2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998-2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37-41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain.

  9. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  10. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2015-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development.

  11. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2014-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development. PMID:25983344

  12. What challenges does mental and neurological health research face in Latin American countries?

    PubMed

    Fiestas, Fabián; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Bustamante, Inés; Alarcón, Renato D; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Razzouk, Denise; Mazzotti, Guido

    2008-12-01

    The World Health Organization Atlas Project identified important deficiencies in world mental and neurological health resources. These deficiencies, especially evident in low and middle-income countries, can be overcome by improving research capacity. The objective of this study is to assess the status of mental and neurological research in Latin American countries and identify the main difficulties encountered in conducting research, publishing results, and shaping health policies, interventions, and programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 key informants from 13 Latin American countries. Participants reported that production of mental and neurological research in Latin American countries is low. Lack of financial and human resources, including lack of support from government agencies, were identified as the main factors contributing to the dearth of local research. The few research projects that do take place in Latin American countries are often funded at researchers' personal expense. Few policies, interventions, or programs are generated from research results. To address these deficiencies, participants called for training in research methodology, mechanisms for identifying funding opportunities, and greater recognition of their research products. Researchers and stakeholders recognize the need to mobilize local and international efforts aimed at strengthening research capacity and results implementation. This will lead to an overall optimization of mental and neurological research in the region.

  13. Country of birth and prevalence of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Tseng, M; Millikan, R; Maurer, K R; Khare, M; Everhart, J E; Sandler, R S

    2000-01-01

    This research sought to describe the association between country of birth and gallbladder disease (GBD) in Mexican Americans, identify subgroups at especially high risk, and identify risk factors that may mediate a birthplace-GBD association. Cross-sectional. Our study population included 4157 Mexican Americans aged 20-74 who participated in the 1988-94 third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. GBD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Information on country of birth, education, income, and selected GBD risk factors was obtained from interviews. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) for GBD in Mexico- vs. US-born Mexican Americans were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). To evaluate the extent to which GBD risk factors mediated the birthplace-GBD association, PORs for country of birth were compared in models with and without additional covariates. Age-adjusted GBD prevalence was lower in Mexico- than in US-born Mexican-American women (POR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50, 0.98) and men (POR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40, 0.97). The difference was especially pronounced among subjects of lower socioeconomic status. Despite substantial differences in GBD risk factor distributions by birthplace, none could completely explain the prevalence difference. The observation that GBD prevalence is higher among US-born Mexican Americans is consistent with research showing poorer health in this group. Further research is needed to identify strategies for reducing morbidity from GBD in Mexican Americans.

  14. The role of partners' educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15-34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25-34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  15. Qualification Challenges in the Partner Countries and Member States. Proceedings of the Workshop on Curriculum Innovation (1st, Turin, Italy, September 26-27, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    These proceedings present 10 presentations and 3 working group reports from a workshop on the challenges of the new learning culture and their consequences for the partner countries of the European Union (EU). "Introduction and Summary of the Workshop" (Bernhard Buck) begins with a brief overview of distinctions between the vocational…

  16. Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in the Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Institutional Arrangements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The role of social partner organizations in vocational education and training (VET) has been compared for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. In these countries, a system of industrial relations comparable to those existing in western Europe is emerging gradually.…

  17. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Severe Physical Intimate Partner Violence Among U.S. Black Women: A Comparison of African American and Caribbean Blacks.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Krim K; West, Carolyn M; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2016-05-01

    This study explored prevalence rates and factors associated with lifetime severe physical intimate partner violence among U.S. Black women. Data from the National Survey of American Life were examined. Rates of severe physical intimate partner violence were higher among African American women compared with U.S. Caribbean Black women. Risk factors associated with reported abuse were similar to those found in earlier studies but differed by ethnic backgrounds. Demographic, resource, and situational factors were associated with severe physical intimate partner violence among U.S. Black women in general but made unique contributions by ethnic group. Implications and suggestions for future studies were discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. African American adolescents meeting sex partners online: closing the digital research divide in STI/HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Valois, Robert F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]. A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.5, 5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention.

  19. Clinical and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia in Ibero-American countries.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raul D; Bourbon, Mafalda; Alonso, Rodrigo; Cuevas, Ada; Vasques-Cardenas, Norma Alexandra; Pereira, Alexandre C; Merchan, Alonso; Alves, Ana Catarina; Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Jannes, Cinthia E; Krieger, Jose E; Schreier, Laura; Perez de Isla, Leopoldo; Magaña-Torres, Maria Teresa; Stoll, Mario; Mata, Nelva; Dell Oca, Nicolas; Corral, Pablo; Asenjo, Sylvia; Bañares, Virginia G; Reyes, Ximena; Mata, Pedro

    There is little information about familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) epidemiology and care in Ibero-American countries. The Ibero-American FH network aims at reducing the gap on diagnosis and treatment of this disease in the region. To describe clinical, molecular, and organizational characteristics of FH diagnosis in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Portugal, Spain, and Uruguay. Descriptive analysis of country data related to FH cascade screening, molecular diagnosis, clinical practice guidelines, and patient organization presence in Ibero-America. From a conservative estimation of an FH prevalence of 1 of 500 individuals, there should be 1.2 million heterozygous FH individuals in Ibero-America and roughly 27,400 were diagnosed so far. Only Spain, Brazil, Portugal, and Uruguay have active cascade screening programs. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease ranged from 10% to 42% in member countries, and the highest molecular identification rates are seen in Spain, 8.3%, followed by Portugal, 3.8%, and Uruguay with 2.5%. In the 3 countries with more FH patients identified (Spain, Portugal, and Brazil) between 10 and 15 mutations are responsible for 30% to 47% of all FH cases. Spain and Portugal share 5 of the 10 most common mutations (4 in low density lipoprotein receptor [LDLR] and the APOB3527). Spain and Spanish-speaking Latin American countries share 6 of the most common LDLR mutations and the APOB3527. LDL apheresis is available only in Spain and Portugal and not all countries have specific FH diagnostic and treatment guidelines as well as patient organizations. Ibero-American countries share similar mutations and gaps in FH care. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-40 - Peppers from certain Central American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from certain Central American countries. 319... accordance with the procedures described in § 319.56-5 of this subpart. (2) A pre-harvest inspection of the..., and tomato yellow mosaic virus, and if these pests are found to be generally infesting the...

  2. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  3. [Social perceptions on genomics in four Latin American countries. Ethical-legal implications].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo; Valdebenito Herrera, Carolina; Misseroni, Adelio; Fernández Milla, Lautaro; Outomuro, Delia; Schiattino Lemus, Irene; Lolas Stepke, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze under an ethical and legal perspective the consequences and anxieties generated by the human genome project in the population of four Latin American countries: Argentine, Chile, México and Perú, through bibliographical analysis and interviews done to biomedical researches, lawyers and legislators, students and lay civilians.

  4. Engaging Secondary School and University Teachers in Modelling: Some Experiences in South American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Luaces, Victor E.

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses mathematical modelling from several different perspectives and contrasts modelling with problem solving. Then it describes the ways in which modelling, applications, and problem solving are approached in several Latin American countries. It further describes workshops for secondary schools and for university teachers in which…

  5. Understanding Perceived Benefit of Early Cancer Detection: Community-Partnered Research with African American Women in South Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Jones, Loretta; Vargas, Roberto; Vadgama, Jaydutt V; Evers-Manly, Shirley; Maxwell, Annette E

    2015-09-01

    African American women have lower 5-year cancer survival rates than non-Latino White women. Differences in perceived benefits of early cancer detection among racial/ethnic groups may affect cancer-screening behaviors. This study assessed correlates of perceived benefits of early breast, cervical and colorectal cancer detection among 513 African American women. Using a community-partnered participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge and attitudes among African American parishioners at 11 churches in South Los Angeles, a neighborhood that experiences one of the highest cancer mortality rates in California. African American women who participated in this study were more likely to believe that chances for survival are very good or good after early detection of breast cancer (74%) than after early detection of colorectal (51%) and cervical cancer (52%). Multivariate analyses show that perceived benefit of early cancer detection is associated with higher cancer knowledge and having discussed one's cancer risk with a doctor. Given that 5-year survival rates for early stage breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer range from 84% to 93%, our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African American women in South Los Angeles are not aware of the benefits of early detection, particularly of colorectal and cervical cancers. Programs that increase cancer knowledge and encourage a discussion of individual's cancer risk with a doctor may be able to increase perceived benefit of early detection, a construct that has been shown to be associated with cancer screening in some studies.

  6. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence in Mexican-American Women with Disabilities: A Secondary Data Analysis of Cross-Language Research

    PubMed Central

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L.; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovosky’s Salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55–75, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: Abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; “Violencia tan cruel”: Threatened sense of coherence; “Salutogenic” choices within the context of IPV; A quest for peace; and Strength amidst struggle. PMID:23907305

  8. Partnering with a Higher Power: Academic Engagement, Religiosity, and Spirituality of African American Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…

  9. Partnering with a Higher Power: Academic Engagement, Religiosity, and Spirituality of African American Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…

  10. Lessons Learned: Effective Strategies for Partnering with Rural African-American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Shelia Y.; Reyes-Blanes, Maria E.

    A study explored rural African American parents' perceptions of their own and teachers' levels of communication and involvement during the prereferral phase of the special education process. Nine African American parents from rural Mississippi, whose children received special education services, completed questionnaires and participated in a group…

  11. The Healthy African American Families (HAAF) Project: From Community-Based Participatory Research To Community-Partnered Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Cynthia D.; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith C.; Rowley, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been an increased use of community-based participatory research in public health activities, especially as part of efforts to understand health disparities affecting communities of color. This article describes the history and lessons learned of a long-standing community participatory project, Healthy African American Families (HAAF), in Los Angeles, California. HAAF evolved from a partnership formed by a community advisory board, university, and federal health agency to an independent, incorporated community organization that facilitates and brokers research and health promotion activities within its community. HAAF created mechanisms for community education and networks of community relationships and reciprocity through which mutual support, research, and interventions are integrated. These sustained, institutionalized relationships unite resources and both community and scientific expertise in a community-partnered participatory research model to address multiple health problems in the community, including preterm birth, HIV, asthma, depression, and diabetes. The HAAF participatory process builds on existing community resiliency and resources and on centuries of self-help, problem-solving, cooperative action, and community activism within the African American community. HAAF demonstrates how community-partnered participatory research can be a mechanism for directing power, collective action, system change, and social justice in the process of addressing health disparities at the community level. PMID:20629240

  12. Family PArtners in Lifestyle Support (PALS): Family-Based Weight Loss for African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; Holder-Cooper, Judith C.; Gizlice, Ziya; Davis, Gwendolyn; Steele, Sonia P.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Brantley, Phillip J.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a family-centered behavioral weight loss intervention for African American adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this randomized trial, dyads consisting of African American adult with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes (index participant) paired with a family partner with overweight or obesity, but not diagnosed with diabetes, were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a 20-week special intervention (SI) or delayed intervention (DI) control group. The primary outcome was weight loss among index participants at 20 weeks follow-up. Results One hundred-eight participants (54 dyads – 36 (SI) and 18 (DI) dyads) were enrolled: 81% females; mean age, 51 years; mean weight,103 kg; and mean BMI, 37 kg/m2. At post-intervention, 96 participants (89%) returned for follow-up measures. Among index participants, mean difference in weight loss between groups was −5.0 kg, p<.0001 (−3.6 kg loss among SI; 1.4 kg gain in DI). SI index participants showed significantly greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c, depressive symptoms, family interactions, and dietary, physical activity, and diabetes self-care behaviors. SI family partners also had significant weight loss (−3.9 kg (SI) vs. −1.0 kg (DI) p=0.02). Conclusions A family-centered, behavioral weight loss intervention led to clinically significant short-term weight loss among family dyads. PMID:27911049

  13. Systematic review of structural interventions for intimate partner violence in low- and middle-income countries: organizing evidence for prevention.

    PubMed

    Bourey, Christine; Williams, Whitney; Bernstein, Erin Elizabeth; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-11-23

    Despite growing attention to intimate partner violence (IPV) globally, systematic evaluation of evidence for IPV prevention remains limited. This particularly is true in relation to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where researchers often organize evidence by current interventions strategies rather than comprehensive models of IPV. Applying the concept of structural interventions to IPV, we systematically reviewed the quantitative impact of such interventions for prevention of male-to-female IPV in LMIC in order to (a) highlight current opportunities for IPV research and programming and (b) demonstrate how structural interventions may provide an organizing framework through which to build an evidence base for IPV prevention. We identified articles by systematically searching PubMed and Web of Science, reviewing references of selected studies, and contacting 23 experts. Inclusion criteria included original research, written in English, published between January 2000 and May 2015 in the peer-reviewed literature. Studies evaluated the quantitative impact of structural interventions for the prevention of male-to-female IPV in LMIC through (a) IPV incidence or prevalence or (b) secondary outcomes theoretically linked to IPV by study authors. After initial screening, we evaluated full text articles for inclusion and extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes, and risk of bias, using forms developed for the review. Twenty articles (16 studies) from nine countries met inclusion criteria, representing 13 randomized control trials and seven additional studies, all of which reported results from economic, social, or combined economic and social interventions. Standardized at p < 0.05 or 95 % confidence intervals not including unity, 13 studies demonstrated statistically significant effects for at least one primary or secondary outcome, including decreased IPV and controlling behaviors; improved economic wellbeing; enhanced relationship quality, empowerment

  14. Epidemiology of alcohol consumption and related problems in Latin American countries: Contributions of psychology.

    PubMed

    Cremonte, Mariana; Biscarra, Maria Ayelén; Conde, Karina; Cherpitel, Cheryl J

    2016-09-05

    Alcohol consumption is the leading risk factor for morbi-mortality in many Latin American Countries. However, epidemiologic studies are relatively scarce. Among factors such as limited research capacity, disciplinary traditions and an emphasis on psychopathology within the field of psychology, have been postulated to account for this. The aim of this article is to review epidemiologic research on alcohol in Spanish Speaking Latin American Countries, and to measure the contribution of psychology to the field. A systematic search was performed in English and Spanish using regional and international data bases. We identified 269 articles. Most focused on consumption patterns in youth, with samples from a single school and using a variety of measures. With the exception of multinational efforts like Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project or those supported by World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization, studies reviewed reflected little cross country collaboration. Mexico accounted for most of the productivity, while many countries had very few or no articles. Most research was performed by health science researchers with a small contribution from psychology, but which increased significantly over time. The results of this review provide a broad identification of patterns regarding epidemiologic research on alcohol, and demonstrate the need for national scientific policies to promote research on public health topics. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Trends and heterogeneity of cardiovascular disease and risk factors across Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Andrade, Alvaro; Luna, Max A

    2014-01-01

    Aging, globalization and urbanization in Latina America and the Caribbean (LAC) have made cardiovascular disease (CVD) the number one cause of death and disability, while communicable diseases have decreased. This epidemiological transition has been more heterogeneous than in other areas of the world. While countries like Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Colombia have seen a significant decrease in CVD mortality, the rest of the countries have seen an increase, particularly Central American and Caribbean countries. These latter countries have now coexisting high prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases, threatening the socioeconomic development. Recent multinational cross sectional studies have provided a better perspective of the prevalence and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the region. While there has been a decrease in prevalence of smoking in the region, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity continue to increase the CVD disease burden in LAC.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a cervical cancer vaccine in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Colantonio, Lisandro; Gómez, Jorge A; Demarteau, Nadia; Standaert, Baudouin; Pichón-Rivière, Andrés; Augustovski, Federico

    2009-09-04

    Implementation of cervical cancer (CC) vaccination in Latin America is expected to reduce the high CC burden in those countries. But the efficiency of such vaccination programs in the region still remains unknown. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of introducing vaccination into the current CC disease management of five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru). The modelling results indicate that universal mass vaccination is cost-effective in the current health care setting of each country (<3x gross domestic product per capita, per country) with a substantial number of CC cases and deaths avoided in addition to an increase of quality-adjusted life years. This study will help guide the design of future clinical programmes and health-related policies. It will assist early and effective decision-making processes related to vaccine implementation in Latin America.

  17. The threshold hypothesis: evidence from less developed Latin American countries, 1950 to 1980.

    PubMed

    Cutright, P; Hargens, L

    1984-11-01

    Historical research among European countries finds large differences in the level of social, economic or demographic development among countries, or regions within countries at the time marital fertility rates began their decline from traditional high levels. This research tests a threshold hypothesis which holds that fertility will decline from traditional high levels if threshold levels of life expectancy and literacy are surpassed. Using a pooled regression analysis of 1950, 1960, 1970 and 1980 crude births rates (CBRs) in 20 less developed Latin American countries, in conjunction with 10-year lagged measures of social, economic and family planning program development, analyses reveal statistically significant effects of passing Beaver's (1975) threshold levels of 1950 literacy, or 1950 life expectancy, that are independent of levels of lagged literacy (or lagged life expectancy), economic and family planning program development, as well as measures that control period effects.

  18. [Inequities in health among Latin American and Caribbean countries (2005-2010)].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Doris; Acosta, Laura Débora; Bertone, Carola Leticia

    2013-01-01

    To identify health inequalities among Latin American and Caribbean countries in recent years (2005-2010), based on the view that measurement of inequalities is the first step in identifying health inequities. We performed an ecological study, whose units of analysis were 20 Latin American and Caribbean countries. These units were used to build the Inequalities in Health Index. This index summarizes, in a value ranging from 0 to 1, a set of socio-economic and health indicators, developed by international organizations. These indicators are considered as proximal and contextual determinants of health. According to the index calculated, the five countries with the worst health status were Haiti, Guatemala, Bolivia, Venezuela and Honduras. In contrast, the five countries with the most favorable health status were Cuba, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Mexico. Even today, there are wide health inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean. The country with the most favorable health indicators was Cuba and that with the least favorable was Haiti. We recommend systematic evaluation of health inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Inequalities in Health Index and other indices, in order to analyze actions, policies and programs to reduce inequities in this region. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries.

  20. Differences on Primary Care Labor Perceptions in Medical Students from 11 Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R.; Abudinén A., Gabriel; Azucas-Peralta, Rita; Barrezueta-Fernandez, Jorge; Cerna-Urrutia, Luis; DaSilva-DeAbreu, Adrián; Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Moya, Geovanna; Valverde-Solano, Christian D.; Theodorus-Villar, Rhanniel; Vizárraga-León, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Background The shortage in Latin-American Primary Care (PC) workforce may be due to negative perceptions about it. These perceptions might be probably influenced by particular features of health systems and academic environments, thus varying between countries. Methods Observational, analytic and cross-sectional multicountry study that evaluated 9,561 first and fifth-year medical students from 63 medical schools of 11 Latin American countries through a survey. Perceptions on PC work was evaluated through a previously validated scale. Tertiles of the scores were created in order to compare the different countries. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using simple and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance. Results Approximately 53% of subjects were female; mean age was 20.4±2.9 years; 35.5% were fifth-year students. Statistically significant differences were found between the study subjects’ country, using Peru as reference. Students from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Paraguay perceived PC work more positively, while those from Ecuador showed a less favorable position. No differences were found among perceptions of Bolivian, Salvadoran, Honduran and Venezuelan students when compared to their Peruvian peers. Conclusions Perceptions of PC among medical students from Latin America vary according to country. Considering such differences can be of major importance for potential local specific interventions. PMID:27414643

  1. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian.

  2. Individual and Partner-Level Factors Associated with Condom Non-Use Among African American STI Clinic Attendees in the Deep South: An Event-Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Barnett, Nancy; Parker, Sharon; Barnes, Arti; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer S; Nunn, Amy S

    2016-06-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated in the Deep South, yet factors contributing to HIV transmission are not fully understood. We examined relationships between substance use, sexual partnership characteristics, and condom non-use in an African American sample of STI clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi. We assessed condom non-use at last intercourse with up to three recent sexual partners reported by participants between January and June 2011. Participant- and partner-level correlates of condom non-use were examined using generalized estimating equations. The 1295 participants reported 2880 intercourse events, of which 1490 (51.7 %) involved condom non-use. Older age, lower educational attainment, reporting financial or material dependence on a sex partner, sex with a primary partner, and higher frequency of sex were associated with increased odds of condomless sex. HIV prevention efforts in the South should address underlying socioeconomic disparities and structural determinants that result in partner dependency and sexual risk behavior.

  3. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Latin American and Caribbean countries

    PubMed Central

    RAZZOUK, DENISE; GREGÓRIO, GUILHERME; ANTUNES, RENATO; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the Latin American and Caribbean countries of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. It presents an overview of the provision of mental health services in the region; describes key experiences in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Jamaica and Mexico; and discusses the lessons learned in developing community mental health care. PMID:23024680

  4. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064).

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches.

  5. Do health partnerships with organisations in lower income countries benefit the UK partner? A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health partnerships between institutions in the UK and Low or Lower- middle Income Countries are an increasingly important model of development, yet analysis of partnerships has focused on benefits and costs to the Low and Lower- Middle Income partner. We reviewed the evidence on benefits and costs of health partnerships to UK individuals, institutions & the NHS and sought to understand how volunteering within partnerships might impact on workforce development and service delivery. Methods A systematic review of both published literature and grey literature was conducted. Content relating to costs or benefits to the UK at an individual, institutional or system level was extracted and analysed by thematic synthesis. The benefits of volunteering described were mapped to the key outcome indicators for five different UK professional development structures. A framework was developed to demonstrate the link between volunteer experience within partnerships and improved UK service delivery outcomes. Results The literature review (including citation mapping) returned 9 published papers and 32 pieces of grey literature that met all inclusion criteria. 95% of sources cited benefits and 32% cited costs. Most literature does not meet high standards of formal academic rigor. Forty initial individual benefits codes were elicited. These were then grouped into 7 key domains: clinical skills; management skills; communication & teamwork; patient experience & dignity; policy; academic skills; and personal satisfaction & interest. A high degree of concordance was shown between professional benefits cited and professional development indicators within UK work force development frameworks. A theoretical trajectory from volunteer experience to UK service delivery outcomes was demonstrated in most areas, but not all. 32% of sources cited costs, yielding 15 initial codes which were grouped into 5 domains: financial; reputational; health & security; loss of staff; and opportunity

  6. Strengthening American Indian nurse scientist training through tradition: partnering with elders.

    PubMed

    Moss, Margaret; Tibbetts, Lorayne; Henly, Susan J; Dahlen, Barbara J; Patchell, Beverly; Struthers, Roxanne

    2005-01-01

    American Indian elders have long been the grandparents to not only their own relatives but also other 'grandchildren' in their tribes, clans and extended families. This worldview demands an elder-youth connection and has been integral to the success of the "American Indian MS to PhD Nursing Science Bridge" at the University of Minnesota, School of Nursing. Elders support the program mission to increase the number (from 12) of doctorally prepared Native nurses. They have been participants in formal and informal programming, special advising, and presence from reservations and in urban Minneapolis. Program feedback reveals cultural value in the elders' presence.

  7. Toward relationship-directed parenting: an example of North American born second-generation Korean-American mothers and their partners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lana; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Tuttle, Amy

    2014-03-01

    Historically, parenting has been constructed hierarchically; however, contemporary parenting models frequently emphasize parenting as relationship (Siegel & Hartzell [2004] Parenting from the inside out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive; Tuttle, Knudson-Martin, & Kim [2012] Family Process, 51, 73-89). Drawing on interviews with 20 North American born second-generation Korean-American mothers and their partners, and sensitized by TP-CRO, a social constructionist framework for conceptualizing parent-child relational orientations, this grounded theory analysis identified three main processes that facilitate relational connection as a parenting orientation rather than the rule-directed approach historically associated with first-generation immigrant Asian families. These include: (a) emphasizing dominant culture values; (b) inviting open communication; and (c) promoting mutuality. Results also show how parents integrate collectivist cultural values of their first generation immigrant parents' traditional culture into North American parenting ideals with which they primarily identify. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the TP-CRO for understanding parent-child relationships within multicultural parenting contexts and offers suggestions for working with second-generation Korean families.

  8. Vascular Dysfunction in Mother and Offspring During Preeclampsia: Contributions from Latin-American Countries.

    PubMed

    Giachini, Fernanda Regina; Galaviz-Hernandez, Carlos; Damiano, Alicia E; Viana, Marta; Cadavid, Angela; Asturizaga, Patricia; Teran, Enrique; Clapes, Sonia; Alcala, Martin; Bueno, Julio; Calderón-Domínguez, María; Ramos, María P; Lima, Victor Vitorino; Sosa-Macias, Martha; Martinez, Nora; Roberts, James M; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-10-06

    Pregnancy is a physiologically stressful condition that generates a series of functional adaptations by the cardiovascular system. The impact of pregnancy on this system persists from conception beyond birth. Recent evidence suggests that vascular changes associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, affect the function of the maternal and offspring vascular systems, after delivery and into adult life. Since the vascular system contributes to systemic homeostasis, defective development or function of blood vessels predisposes both mother and infant to future risk for chronic disease. These alterations in later life range from fertility problems to alterations in the central nervous system or immune system, among others. It is important to note that rates of morbi-mortality due to pregnancy complications including preeclampsia, as well as cardiovascular diseases, have a higher incidence in Latin-American countries than in more developed countries. Nonetheless, there is a lack both in the amount and impact of research conducted in Latin America. An impact, although smaller, can be seen when research in vascular disorders related to problems during pregnancy is analyzed. Therefore, in this review, information about preeclampsia and endothelial dysfunction generated from research groups based in Latin-American countries will be highlighted. We relate the need, as present in many other countries in the world, for increased effective regional and international collaboration to generate new data specific to our region on this topic.

  9. Power law for the duration of recession and prosperity in Latin American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    Ormerod and Mounfield [P. Ormerod, C. Mounfield, Power law distribution of duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: Breakdown of scaling, Physica A 293 (2001) 573] and Ausloos et al. [M. Ausloos, J. Mikiewicz, M. Sanglier, The durations of recession and prosperity: Does their distribution follow a power or an exponential law? Physica A 339 (2004) 548] have independently analyzed the duration of recessions for developed countries through the evolution of the GDP in different time windows. It was found that there is a power law governing the duration distribution. We have analyzed data collected from 19 Latin American countries in order to observe whether such results are valid or not for developing countries. The case of prosperity years is also discussed. We observe that the power law of recession time intervals, see Ref. [1], is valid for Latin American countries as well. Thus an interesting point is discovered: the same scaling time is found in the case of recessions for the three data sets (ca. 1 year), and this could represent a universal feature. Other time scale parameters differ significantly from each other.

  10. Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bolyard, Richelle; Bertand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA) among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) influences abuse. Design Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to promote healthy

  11. [Towards the elimination of the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Honduras and Central American countries].

    PubMed

    Ponce, C

    1999-01-01

    Central America is composed of seven countries: Belice, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. Chagas disease exists in all seven countries, but with major prevalence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The main species of triatomine vectors are: Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata y Rhodnius pallescens. In 1997 the Central American countries launched an Initiative for the Vectorial and Transfusion Transmission Control of Chagas disease. The objectives of the Initiative are: 1. elimination of Rhodnius prolixus, 2. control of Triatoma dimidiata and 3. serological screening for Trypanosoma cruzi of 100% of the blood donors. This Initiative is supported by the Resolution for "The Elimination of Transmission of Chagas Disease", of the World Health Assembly in 1998.

  12. Household catastrophic health expenditures: a comparative analysis of twelve Latin American and Caribbean Countries.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Wong, Rebeca; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Compare patterns of catastrophic health expenditures in 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Prevalence of catastrophic expenses was estimated uniformly at the household level using household surveys. Two types of prevalence indicators were used based on out-of-pocket health expense: a) relative to an international poverty line, and b) relative to the household's ability to pay net of their food basket. Ratios of catastrophic expenditures were estimated across subgroups defined by economic and social variables. The percent of households with catastrophic health expenditures ranged from 1 to 25% in the twelve countries. In general, rural residence, lowest quintile of income, presence of older adults, and lack of health insurance in the household are associated with higher propensity of catastrophic health expenditures. However, there is vast heterogeneity by country. Cross national studies may serve to examine how health systems contribute to the social protection of Latin American households.

  13. Political advocacy by the American Society for Cell Biology and its partners

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    I trace how the American Society for Cell Biology became a strong political advocate for the scientific community. I celebrate how good leadership and an effective staff enabled its energetic volunteer organization to have an impact, but I also ask how the effort can be made more successful. PMID:23112231

  14. The Story of the American Democracy Project: Working with Partners to Increase Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehaffy, George L.

    2005-01-01

    This article details the conception and development of the American Democracy Project, a project conceived by a group of chief academic officers in order to address the rising level of bitter partisanship in national politics, the growing disenchantment of college students with political and civic life, and public colleges' and universities' loss…

  15. Political advocacy by the American Society for Cell Biology and its partners.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2012-11-01

    I trace how the American Society for Cell Biology became a strong political advocate for the scientific community. I celebrate how good leadership and an effective staff enabled its energetic volunteer organization to have an impact, but I also ask how the effort can be made more successful.

  16. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. Methods Standardised population-based household surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. One woman aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from each sampled household. Those who had ever had a male partner were asked about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts. We performed multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of physical and/or sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Results Despite wide variations in the prevalence of IPV, many factors affected IPV risk similarly across sites. Secondary education, high SES, and formal marriage offered protection, while alcohol abuse, cohabitation, young age, attitudes supportive of wife beating, having outside sexual partners, experiencing childhood abuse, growing up with domestic violence, and experiencing or perpetrating other forms of violence in adulthood, increased the risk of IPV. The strength of the association was greatest when both the woman and her partner had the risk factor. Conclusions IPV prevention programs should increase focus on transforming gender norms and attitudes, addressing childhood abuse, and reducing harmful drinking. Development initiatives to improve access to education for girls and boys may also have an important role in violence prevention. PMID:21324186

  17. Abuse impedes prevention: The intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV/STI risk among young African American women

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M.; Robinson, LaShun S.; Raiford, Jerris L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risky sexual behavior and STIs among diverse groups of women. IPV was examined as a moderator of efficacy for an HIV/STI intervention. Methods 848 African American women, 18-29, were randomly assigned to an HIV/STI intervention or control condition. Participants completed measures on sociodemographics, IPV, risky sexual behavior and received STI testing. Results IPV predicted inconsistent condom use and a risky sexual partner over 12-month follow-up. A significant interaction indicated that among women who experienced IPV, those in the intervention were more likely to test positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Among intervention participants, those who experienced IPV were more likely to test TV-positive than those who did not. Discussion In an HIV intervention that did not specifically address IPV, women in the control were less likely to acquire TV than those in the intervention. Consideration of contextual/interpersonal factors is essential when developing HIV intervention programs. PMID:25399033

  18. A comparative analysis of prenatal care and fetal growth in eight South American countries.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Cristina; Lopez Camelo, Jorge; Wehby, George L

    2014-01-01

    There has been little work that comprehensively compared the relationship between prenatal care and infant health across multiple countries using similar data sources and analytical models. Such comparative analyses are useful for understanding the background of differences in infant health between populations. We evaluated the association between prenatal care visits and fetal growth measured by birth weight (BW) in grams or low birth weight (<2500 grams; LBW) adjusted for gestational age in eight South American countries using similarly collected data across countries and the same analytical models. OLS and logistic regressions were estimated adjusting for a large set of relevant infant, maternal, and household characteristics and birth year and hospital fixed effects. Birth data were acquired from 140 hospitals that are part of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) network. The analytical sample included 56,014 live-born infants (∼69% of total sample) with complete data born without congenital anomalies in the years 1996-2011 in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Uruguay. Prenatal care visits were significantly (at p<.05) and positively associated with BW and negatively associated with LBW for all countries. The OLS coefficients ranged from 9 grams per visit in Bolivia to 36 grams in Uruguay. The association with LBW was strongest for Chile (OR = 0.87 per visit) and lowest for Argentina and Venezuela (OR = 0.95). The association decreased in the recent decade compared to earlier years. Our findings suggest that estimates of association between prenatal care and fetal growth are population-specific and may not be generalizable to other populations. Furthermore, as one of the indicators for a country's healthcare system for maternal and child health, prenatal care is a highly variable indicator between countries in South America.

  19. Civic Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pew Partnership for Civic Change, Charlottesville, VA.

    This issue of "Civic Partners" is a call to action on behalf of American's cities. The issue opens with John W. Gardner's discussion of the "responsibles" whose vision and energy sustain communities. He stresses that all of us are "responsibles." Among the many tasks that face those responsible for urban improvement is the teaching of conflict…

  20. Adherence and barriers to colorectal cancer screening varies among Arab Americans from different countries of origin.

    PubMed

    Talaat, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans (ArA) in Michigan, USA had the lowest colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) in 2008 compared to the state's general population (45.6% vs. 60.8%). The adherence rate and barriers to CRCS have been identified in a previous study; however, these differences have been not examined among ArA from different countries of origin. Community-based study through a survey filled by 130 Arab-Americans aged ⩾50years. Demographic information and information about CRC screening knowledge were obtained. Responses were compared between the two largest population groups (Lebanese and Yemenis). The majority of the participants (80%) were from Lebanon (52.3%) and Yemen (27.7%). Majority of the Yemenis group have never been screened for CRC (72.2% vs. 27.9%, p<0.001). Majority of the unscreened Yemenis were males (100% vs. 63.2%, p=0.002). Both unscreened groups had similar length of residence in U.S., citizenship status, education level, health insurance and access to primary care physicians. Unscreened Lebanese had a higher family history of CRCS (31.6% vs. 0%, p=0.002). The most common reported barrier for both groups was the misconception that CRCS is not necessary (62% for Yemenis & 42% for Lebanese, p=0.197). Unscreened Yemenis were more unaware about CRCS (46% vs. 11%, p=0.002). CRC screening rates vary among Arab-Americans from different countries of origin. Physicians should consider the country of origin when recommending CRC screening to Arab-Americans. Copyright © 2015 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Barriers to and strategies for recruiting Korean Americans for community-partnered health promotion research.

    PubMed

    Han, Hae-Ra; Kang, Jeonghee; Kim, Kim B; Ryu, Jai P; Kim, Miyong T

    2007-04-01

    While increasing numbers of researchers are targeting ethnic minorities in order to address their health disparities, the unique health needs of Korean Americans are not well known to the mainstream community, and only relatively few systematic research studies have been conducted in this "hard-to reach" population. The purpose of this paper is to describe the barriers to recruiting participants for health promotion research and to identify facilitators in the community that can contribute to this effort. We have analyzed data pertaining to the 14 studies we have conducted since 1998, which included a total sample of about 2,400 Korean Americans. We describe in detail the unique recruitment challenges that we have faced in regard to the culture, language, sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, such as gender and age, and other community level barriers. Multiple strategies at different levels (individual and community) to address these issues are discussed.

  2. Evaluating a community-partnered cancer clinical trials pilot intervention with African American communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa A; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G; Robinson, William S; Taylor, Yhenneko J; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-03-01

    Cancer clinical trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awarenesss and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCT training-of-the-trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs, a role play describing one person's experience with CCTs, or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the call and response (n = 22), role play (n = 60), and workshop (n = 43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and with a mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre- and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the call and response (p < 0.01) and role play modules (p < 0.001), but not the workshop module. Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment.

  3. Evaluating a Community-Partnered Cancer Clinical Trials Pilot Intervention with African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Melissa A.; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G.; Robinson, William S.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cancer Clinical Trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awareness and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Design Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCTs training-of-the trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs; a role-play describing one person's experience with CCTs; or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Results Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the Call and Response (n=22), Role-play (n=60), and Workshop (n=43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access to CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the Call and Response (p < 0.01) and Role-Play modules (p < 0.001), but not the Workshop module. Conclusion Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment. PMID:25564207

  4. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. . Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. )

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Prenatal Care and Fetal Growth in Eight South American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Cristina; Lopez Camelo, Jorge; Wehby, George L.

    2014-01-01

    There has been little work that comprehensively compared the relationship between prenatal care and infant health across multiple countries using similar data sources and analytical models. Such comparative analyses are useful for understanding the background of differences in infant health between populations. We evaluated the association between prenatal care visits and fetal growth measured by birth weight (BW) in grams or low birth weight (<2500 grams; LBW) adjusted for gestational age in eight South American countries using similarly collected data across countries and the same analytical models. OLS and logistic regressions were estimated adjusting for a large set of relevant infant, maternal, and household characteristics and birth year and hospital fixed effects. Birth data were acquired from 140 hospitals that are part of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) network. The analytical sample included 56,014 live-born infants (∼69% of total sample) with complete data born without congenital anomalies in the years 1996–2011 in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Uruguay. Prenatal care visits were significantly (at p<.05) and positively associated with BW and negatively associated with LBW for all countries. The OLS coefficients ranged from 9 grams per visit in Bolivia to 36 grams in Uruguay. The association with LBW was strongest for Chile (OR = 0.87 per visit) and lowest for Argentina and Venezuela (OR = 0.95). The association decreased in the recent decade compared to earlier years. Our findings suggest that estimates of association between prenatal care and fetal growth are population-specific and may not be generalizable to other populations. Furthermore, as one of the indicators for a country’s healthcare system for maternal and child health, prenatal care is a highly variable indicator between countries in South America. PMID:24625630

  6. Intimate Partner Violence Before and During Pregnancy: Related Demographic and Psychosocial Factors and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms among Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Coonrod, Dean V.

    2014-01-01

    Although research examining intimate partner violence (IPV) has expanded in recent years, there has been relatively little examination of the related demographic and psychosocial factors, as well as mental health outcomes, for IPV before and during pregnancy, especially in a Mexican American population. The current study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of IPV in a community sample of low-income, perinatal Mexican American women (n = 320). Results indicated that 13.1% of the women reported IPV before pregnancy and 11.3% reported IPV during pregnancy. For both IPV before and during pregnancy, women born in the U.S. were more likely to report IPV than foreign born women. For IPV before pregnancy, women who were not in a serious romantic relationship or reported a history of childhood trauma were also more likely to report IPV. For IPV during pregnancy, women who reported higher general stress and lower social support were also more likely to report IPV. Finally, the current study provided strong evidence that a history of IPV predicted elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, above and beyond the impact of prenatal depressive symptoms. This study brings greater awareness to a complex and harmful situation in an understudied population. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between demographic and psychosocial risk for IPV before and during pregnancy, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms, as well as the implications for the development of future prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24958135

  7. North and South American countries food-based dietary guidelines: A comparison.

    PubMed

    Montagnese, Concetta; Santarpia, Lidia; Iavarone, Fabio; Strangio, Francesca; Caldara, Anna Rita; Silvestri, Eufemia; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-10-01

    Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are regularly updated educational documents that provide scientific information on nutritional needs and food composition to the general population. The aim of this study was to review the FBDGs of countries in the Americas and compare them based on their pictorial representation, food grouping, and associated messages on healthy eating and behavior, considering intercultural differences. FBDGs from 30 countries in the Americas were collected, representing 97% of the entire North and South American population. Of these FBDGs, 93% (28 of 30) have adopted a food guide illustration shape that conveys local traditions and classifies foods into six or seven groups. The main food groups are vegetables, fruits, cereals, starchy vegetables and fruits, legumes, milk and dairy, protein-rich foods, oils and fats, and sugar and sweeteners. Some differences include single food classifications. Despite the dietary pattern resulting from geographic conditions and cultural heritages, the main nutritional keypoints are similar among the different American FBDGs as follows: (1) Consume large amounts of fruits, vegetables, and cereals; and (2) limit intake of fat, simple sugars, and salt. Although there is general agreement on the basic nutritional messages, FBDGs remain insufficient regarding food groups and the identification of subgroup population nutritional requirements, particularly in countries where both excess and deficit malnutrition are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution of Latin American Countries to Cancer Research and Patent Generation: Recent Patents.

    PubMed

    Perez-Santos, Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Bandala, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Data mining publications and patent data can provide decision support for scientists, inventors and industry in the field of cancer research. The main objective of this article it to identify trends of research and patent generation productivity originating from Latin American countries in the field of cancer. Publications were collected from the Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed database; and patents were collected from Latipat Espacenet databases. Data from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2014 were searched for documents with specific words in cancer as a ''topic'' and a list of 20 Latin American countries as affiliation country. A total of 12,989 items published and 244 patent applications including "cancer" were retrieved. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Peru were highest contributors in cancer research, while Brazil, Mexico, Cuba and Argentina were highest contributors in cancer patent applications. The analysis of the data from this study provides an overview of research and patent activity in Latin America in the cancer field, which can be useful to help health policy makers and people in academia to shape up cancer research in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Maternal Education Gradients in Infant Health in Four South American Countries.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2017-07-11

    Objective We investigate gradients (i.e. differences) in infant health outcomes by maternal education in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela and explore channels related to father's education, household labor outcomes, and maternal health, fertility, and use of prenatal services and technology. Methods We employ secondary interview and birth record data similarly collected across a network of birth hospitals from the early 1980s through 2011 within the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC). Focusing on children without birth defects, we estimate gradients in several infant health outcomes including birth weight, gestational age, and hospital discharge status by maternal education using ordinary least squares regression models adjusting for several demographic factors. To explore channels, we add as covariates father's education, parental occupational activity, maternal health and fertility history, and use of prenatal services and technology and evaluate changes in the coefficient of maternal education. We use the same models for each country sample. Results We find important differences in gradients across countries. We find evidence for educational gradients in preterm birth in three countries but weaker evidence for gradients in fetal growth. The extent to which observed household and maternal factors explain these gradients based on changes in the regression coefficient of maternal education when controlling for these factors as covariates also varies between countries. In contrast, we generally find evidence across all countries that higher maternal education is associated with increased use of prenatal care services and technology. Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in infant health by maternal education and their underlying mechanisms vary and are not necessarily generalizable across countries. However, the positive association between maternal education and use of prenatal services and technology is more

  10. Condom use and correlates of African American adolescent females' infrequent communication with sex partners about preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Cobb, Brenda K; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan L; Hook, Edward W; Oh, M Kim

    2002-04-01

    This study of 522 African American female adolescents, ages 14 to 18, investigated associations between condom use and infrequently communicating with sex partners about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy prevention. Correlates of infrequent communication were identified. Sexually active adolescents were recruited from schools and adolescent medicine clinics in low-income neighborhoods of Birmingham, Alabama. Adolescents completed a self-administered survey and face-to-face interview. Communication frequency was assessed using a five-item scale. Infrequent communication was significantly associated with lower odds of condom use. Multivariate correlates of infrequent communication were less frequent communication with parents about STD/pregnancy prevention, recent sex with a nonsteady partner, low perceived ability to negotiate condom use and fear of this negotiation, and low motivation to use condoms. Given the importance of partner communication in promoting safer sex behaviors, STD and pregnancy prevention programs may benefit adolescents by addressing the identified psychosocial correlates of infrequent communication with their partners.

  11. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  12. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  13. Partnering With Families to Refine and Expand a Diabetes Intervention for Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Marylyn Morris; Murdaugh, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to refine and expand a culturally tailored individual-level diabetes self-management intervention to a family-level intervention. Methods Using community-based participatory research principles, Mexican American adults (n = 12) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and family members (n = 12) in the United States–Mexico border region participated in 6 focus group interviews, conducted by bilingual, bicul-tural facilitators. Facilitators and barriers to T2DM management were identified. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Through an iterative analysis process, 5 categories represented participants with T2DM: (1) strategies my family can use to support our managing T2DM, (2) be sensitive to my challenges, (3) stop telling me what to eat or do, (4) how can we peacefully coexist, and (5) I feel supported. Categories identified by family members were (1) changing behaviors together, (2) sharing not controlling, (3) supporting positive behaviors, and (4) your behaviors frustrate me. Conclusions The family was reinforced as a major influence for successful T2DM management. Family support requires that families value and develop knowledge and skills for T2DM management. This family intervention builds on family assets and relationships, shifting from traditional externally motivated individual models to create a shared commitment to manage T2DM among Mexican American adults. PMID:24685842

  14. Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in Nine Developing Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Santiago; Katz, Craig L; Harry, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among prisoners in Latin America is greatly underestimated, and because of the lack of awareness about mental illness among service providers in Latin American prisons, oftentimes these conditions go unrecognized or are not treated properly. In the worst-case scenarios, human rights violations occur. Despite the high levels of need, many prisoners have not received adequate or timely treatment. The sparse existing literature documents prison conditions throughout Latin American countries, ranging from poor to extremely harsh, overcrowded, and life threatening. Most prison systems do not meet international prison standards. The information on forensic mental health services and the treatment of offenders with mental illness have been less extensively studied and compared with forensic practices in developed American nations. This study analyzes the existing literature on forensic psychiatry, focusing on nine socioeconomically developing nations in Latin America, to improve understanding of treatment approaches for offenders with mental illness and identify emerging themes. A review was conducted and data were included in regression analyses to investigate information relative to the treatment of offenders with mental illness and its interaction with the mental health system. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  15. Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.

  16. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  17. [Reluctant partner: Canada's relationship with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)].

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Klaudia

    2006-01-01

    Despite a strong commitment to multilateralism and international health cooperation in the post World War II era, Canada refrained form joining the Pan American Health Organization - PAHO until 1971. Drawing on letters and memos sent between Canadian diplomats and government representatives, this paper explores official Canadian accounts of the factors that delayed Canada's membership in PAHO. These factors include the initial lack of official relations between Canada and Latin America, US hegemony in the region, and budgetary constraints. Canada's cautious position regarding PAHO is also placed within the context of Canada's overall foreign policy to the region, emphasizing the parallels between Canada's reluctant association with PAHO and the evolution of Canada's engagement with the region as a whole.

  18. Availability and affordability of new medicines in Latin American countries where pivotal clinical trials were conducted

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess whether new pharmaceutical products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 were registered, commercialized and sold at affordable prices in the Latin American countries where they were tested. Methods We obtained a list of new molecular entities (new pharmaceutical products) approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012. FDA medical reviews indicated the countries where pivotal clinical trials had been conducted. The registration status of the products was obtained from pharmaceutical registers; pharmaceutical companies confirmed their availability in national markets and local pricing observatories provided the price of medicines in retail pharmacies. Affordability was assessed as the cost of a course of treatment as a proportion of monthly income. Information on safety and efficacy was gathered from independent drug bulletins. Findings Of an expected 114 registrations, if the 33 products had been registered in all the countries where tested, only 68 (60%) were completed. Eight products were registered and commercialized in all countries but 10 had not been registered in any of the countries. With one exception, products for which we obtained pricing information (n = 18) cost more than the monthly minimum wage in all countries and 12 products cost at least five times the monthly minimum wage. Conclusion Many pharmaceutical products tested in Latin America are unavailable and/or unaffordable to most of the population. Ethical review committees should consider the local affordability and therapeutic relevance of new products as additional criteria for the approval of clinical trials. Finally, clinical trials have opportunity costs that need to be assessed. PMID:26600609

  19. The contribution of limited-resource countries to the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings.

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, Amine

    2009-10-01

    Limited-resource countries (LRCs) are underrepresented in biomedical research, and data with respect to oncology are lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess the participation of LRCs in the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meetings. We analyzed the characteristics of abstracts originating from LRCs presented at the 2005-2007 ASCO meetings. We used a logistic regression model to identify country characteristics associated with contributions to the meetings. Eight percent of abstracts were generated by authors from LRCs. Abstracts from LRCs, compared with abstracts originating from high-income countries (HICs), were less commonly scheduled for oral and poster presentations (1.4% and 26.8% vs 8.8% and 52.8%, respectively; P < 0.001), and were less likely to report industry-provided funding (2.0% vs 12.7%; P < 0.001). However, the presentation type and the rate of reporting industry funding did not significantly differ between HIC abstracts and LRC abstracts involving one or more coauthors from HICs. In multivariate analysis, ASCO-related characteristics, but not geoeconomic parameters, were significantly predictive of country participation in the meetings. These data show that the contribution of LRCs to ASCO annual meetings is very low. Although abstracts originating from LRCs involving authors from HICs were associated with a higher-impact type of presentation, their relevance to the cancer care concerns of LRCs remains to be ascertained.

  20. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  1. The Contribution of European Vocational Training Policy to Reforms in the Partner Countries of the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent developments in EU vocational education and training (VET) policy, and of the issues and challenges faced by VET systems in the Western Balkans, Turkey, and other countries covered by the "wider European neighbourhood" policy. The purpose is to emphasise the relevance for these countries of the…

  2. Study Abroad in a Developing and a Developed Country: A Comparison of American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Ghana and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the differences among the experiences of 7 American undergraduate students; 4 who studied for a semester in Ghana, a developing country, and 3 who studied for a semester in England, a developed country. Using phenomenology as its guiding framework, transcribed interviews were analyzed and the focal phenomenon of the…

  3. Study Abroad in a Developing and a Developed Country: A Comparison of American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Ghana and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the differences among the experiences of 7 American undergraduate students; 4 who studied for a semester in Ghana, a developing country, and 3 who studied for a semester in England, a developed country. Using phenomenology as its guiding framework, transcribed interviews were analyzed and the focal phenomenon of the…

  4. Partnering with American Indian communities in health using methods of strategic collaboration.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Shireen S; Grimm, Brandon; Giroux, Jennifer; Peck, Magda; Ramos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research (APTR) sponsored six regional workshops in 2010 on community engagement and community-engaged research. One of the six workshops was a collaborative effort between the Great Plains Tribal Chairman's Health Board (GPTCHB)-Northern Plains Tribal Epidemiology Center and the College of Public Health at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC-COPH). To create a meaningful and dynamic forum for the exchange of ideas and co-learning between researchers from urban, tribal and nontribal communities and to build the groundwork for development of sustainable partnerships between researchers and American Indian (AI) communities to eliminate health disparities. To enhance meaningful community engagement, we utilized methods of Strategic Collaboration using the Appreciative Inquiry, 4D Change Process Model and designed several interactive group activities including Collaborative Learning and Understanding Exercises (CLUE) and the Research Café. The key themes that emerged from the interactive sessions stressed the importance of building relationships and trust; mutual use and sharing of data; and acquiring knowledge, skills, and abilities to enable sustainable research partnerships with AI communitiesConclusions: Innovative, dynamic, and strategic collaborative methods of Appreciative Inquiry and the World Café can served to engage people in a constructive dialogue to create a shared vision and plan for more meaningful research partnerships based on principles of equity and social justice, essential for the elimination of health disparities. These collaborative methods can be replicated and adapted in diverse communities, locally, nationally, and globally.

  5. Animals in the Zika Virus Life Cycle: What to Expect from Megadiverse Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Marina Galvão; Martinez, Nádia; Abdalla, Lívia; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Chame, Marcia

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in primates in Uganda, West Africa. The virus remained confined to the equatorial regions of Africa and Asia, cycling between infecting monkeys, arboreal mosquitoes, and occasionally humans. The ZIKV Asiatic strain was probably introduced into Brazil in or around late 2013. Presently, ZIKV is in contact with the rich biodiversity in all Brazilian biomes, bordering on other Latin American countries. Infections in Brazilian primates have been reported recently, but the overall impact of this virus on wildlife in the Americas is still unknown. The current epidemic in the Americas requires knowledge on the role of mammals, especially nonhuman primates (NHPs), in ZIKV transmission to humans. The article discusses the available data on ZIKV in host animals and issues of biodiversity, rapid environmental change, and impact on human health in megadiverse Latin American countries. The authors reviewed scientific articles and recent news stories on ZIKV in animals, showing that 47 animal species from three orders (mammals, reptiles, and birds) have been investigated for the potential to establish a sylvatic cycle. The review aims to contribute to epidemiological studies and the knowledge on the natural history of ZIKV. The article concludes with questions that require urgent attention in epidemiological studies involving wildlife in order to understand their role as ZIKV hosts and to effectively control the epidemic.

  6. Animals in the Zika Virus Life Cycle: What to Expect from Megadiverse Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Marina Galvão; Martinez, Nádia; Abdalla, Lívia; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Chame, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in primates in Uganda, West Africa. The virus remained confined to the equatorial regions of Africa and Asia, cycling between infecting monkeys, arboreal mosquitoes, and occasionally humans. The ZIKV Asiatic strain was probably introduced into Brazil in or around late 2013. Presently, ZIKV is in contact with the rich biodiversity in all Brazilian biomes, bordering on other Latin American countries. Infections in Brazilian primates have been reported recently, but the overall impact of this virus on wildlife in the Americas is still unknown. The current epidemic in the Americas requires knowledge on the role of mammals, especially nonhuman primates (NHPs), in ZIKV transmission to humans. The article discusses the available data on ZIKV in host animals and issues of biodiversity, rapid environmental change, and impact on human health in megadiverse Latin American countries. The authors reviewed scientific articles and recent news stories on ZIKV in animals, showing that 47 animal species from three orders (mammals, reptiles, and birds) have been investigated for the potential to establish a sylvatic cycle. The review aims to contribute to epidemiological studies and the knowledge on the natural history of ZIKV. The article concludes with questions that require urgent attention in epidemiological studies involving wildlife in order to understand their role as ZIKV hosts and to effectively control the epidemic. PMID:28005902

  7. Female participation in the labour force of selected Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, F; Briggs, D K

    1979-08-01

    Along with other regions of the developing world, Latin America is characterised by low participation rates of females in the labor force. About 1 in 5 Latin American women of working age are economically active. A woman's decision to enter or remain in the work force depends on financial expediency, availability of employment, her own education and skills, and most importantly, the expectations and attitudes of her family, society, and herself, with regard to the traditional role of housewife and mother. Using the path analysis models, data from 17 Latin American countries were examined in relation to labor force participation and selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics. The 3 most important variables were female education, fertility, and urbanization, but the most significant predictor was the proportion of 15-19 year olds receiving secondary education. The amount of this age group accounted for more than two-thirds of the variation in levels of labor force participation. Statistics were taken from the United Nations Demographic and Statistical Yearbooks and publications of the International Labour Office. Labor force pariticipation was higher for women aged 20-24 than for those aged 40-44 in every country except Nicaragua, where the 2 age ranges showed the same participation rate.

  8. Symptomatic Dengue in Children in 10 Asian and Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, Maïna; Moureau, Annick; Sarti, Elsa; Nealon, Joshua; Zambrano, Betzana; Wartel, T Anh; Villar, Luis; Capeding, Maria R Z; Ochiai, R Leon

    2016-03-24

    The control groups in two phase 3 trials of dengue vaccine efficacy included two large regional cohorts that were followed up for dengue infection. These cohorts provided a sample for epidemiologic analyses of symptomatic dengue in children across 10 countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America in which dengue is endemic. We monitored acute febrile illness and virologically confirmed dengue (VCD) in 3424 healthy children, 2 to 16 years of age, in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) from June 2011 through December 2013 and in 6939 children, 9 to 18 years of age, in Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico, and Puerto Rico) from June 2011 through April 2014. Acute febrile episodes were determined to be VCD by means of a nonstructural protein 1 antigen immunoassay and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. Dengue hemorrhagic fever was defined according to 1997 World Health Organization criteria. Approximately 10% of the febrile episodes in each cohort were confirmed to be VCD, with 319 VCD episodes (4.6 episodes per 100 person-years) occurring in the Asian cohort and 389 VCD episodes (2.9 episodes per 100 person-years) occurring in the Latin American cohort; no trend according to age group was observed. The incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever was less than 0.3 episodes per 100 person-years in each cohort. The percentage of VCD episodes requiring hospitalization was 19.1% in the Asian cohort and 11.1% in the Latin American cohort. In comparable age groups (9 to 12 years and 13 to 16 years), the burden of dengue was higher in Asia than in Latin America. The burdens of dengue were substantial in the two regions and in all age groups. Burdens varied widely according to country, but the rates were generally higher and the disease more frequently severe in Asian countries than in Latin American countries. (Funded by Sanofi Pasteur; CYD14 and CYD15 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01373281 and NCT01374516.).

  9. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services.

    PubMed

    Boeras, Debrah I; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2016-01-01

    It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quality assurance to support quality point-of-care testing on the continent. Through a series of collaborative consultations and workshops, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has gathered lessons learned, tools, and resources and developed quality assurance models that will support point-of-care testing. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is committed to the continued advancement of laboratory diagnostics in Africa and quality laboratory services and point-of-care testing.

  10. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quality assurance to support quality point-of-care testing on the continent. Through a series of collaborative consultations and workshops, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has gathered lessons learned, tools, and resources and developed quality assurance models that will support point-of-care testing. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is committed to the continued advancement of laboratory diagnostics in Africa and quality laboratory services and point-of-care testing. PMID:28879132

  11. Pathways between childhood trauma, intimate partner violence, and harsh parenting: findings from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie; Roselli, Tim; McCook, Sarah; Chan, Ko Ling; Haardörfer, Regine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Although childhood trauma and violence against women are global public health issues, few population-based data from low-income and middle-income countries exist about the links between them. We present data from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific, exploring the pathways between different forms of childhood trauma and violence against women. In this multicountry study, we interviewed multistage representative samples of men and women, aged 18-49 years, in Asia and the Pacific, using standardised population-based household surveys. Men were interviewed in six countries, and women in four. Respondents were asked questions about their perpetration or experience of intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence, childhood trauma, and harsh parenting (smacking their children as a form of discipline). We used maximum likelihood multivariate logit models to explore associations between childhood trauma and violence against women, and fitted path models to explore associations between experience and perpetration of child maltreatment. Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 1, 2012, 10 178 men and 3106 women completed interviews in this study, with between 815 and 1812 men per site and 477 and 1103 women per site. The proportion of men who experienced any childhood trauma varied between 59% (n=478, 95% CI 54·0-63·3; Indonesia rural site) and 92% (n=791, 89·4-93·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). For women, the results ranged from 44% (n=272, 37·7-50·8; Sri Lanka) to 84% (n=725, 80·7-86·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). For men, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with all forms of intimate partner violence perpetration. For women, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with physical intimate partner violence, and both physical and sexual intimate partner violence. There were significant, often gendered, pathways between men's and women's perpetration and experiences of childhood trauma, physical intimate

  12. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti D; Galsky, Matthew D; Chagpar, Anees B; Pyle, Doug; Loehrer, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a global community of health care professionals whose stated purpose is to "make a world of difference" by improving cancer care around the world. Unfortunately, cancer survival rates vary significantly among countries with differing financial and infrastructural resources. Because ASCO is a professional oncology society committed to conquering cancer through research, education, prevention, and delivery of high-quality patient care, it is ideally suited to address this issue. ASCO could bring together oncology professionals and other necessary stakeholders from around the world to improve cancer care and lessen suffering for patients worldwide. As part of the ongoing commitment of ASCO to the future of cancer care, the Leadership Development Program was created to foster the leadership skills of early and midcareer oncologists and provide these participants with a working knowledge of the depth and breadth of the organization. As participants in the inaugural class of the ASCO Leadership Development Program, we were charged with investigating how ASCO might favorably affect cancer prevention and treatment in resource-poor countries in a cost-effective, scalable, and sustainable fashion. ASCO can significantly influence cancer care in low- and middle-income countries through a comprehensive approach that promotes cancer awareness and education, improves clinical practice by identifying and removing barriers to delivery of quality cancer care, and fosters innovation to initiate novel solutions to complex problems.

  14. Dynamics of change in oil and energy use in four Latin American countries. [1970 to 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes changes in energy demand in the 1970--1984 period and the causes for those changes for the four largest Latin-America countries: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezula. Together these countries account for around three-fourths of total energy use in Latin America. Latin American energy use accounts for over 10 percent of the world's total, 40 percent of the LDC total, and has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.8 percent since 1973. The analysis is based on energy and economic data prepared for the Developing Country Data Series developed by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (IES-LBL). Data were obtained from local sources during visits to government offices, academic research institutions, and from the private sector. We first discuss aggregate trends in energy demand in the 1970--1984 period. We then look separately at the four major sectors: industry, transportation, residential/commerical, and power generation. In these sections we focus on change in energy and oil intensity and the structural causes for those changes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Randomized trial of print messaging: the role of the partner and monitoring style in promoting provider discussions about prostate cancer screening among African American men.

    PubMed

    Miller, Suzanne M; Roussi, Pagona; Scarpato, John; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Zhu, Fang; Roy, Gem

    2014-04-01

    Although African American (AA) men are at elevated risk for prostate cancer, medical guidelines do not present consistent screening recommendations for this group. However, all guidelines stress the need for screening decision making with a provider. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a brochure for the female partners of AA men, designed to help promote such discussion on the part of their mates. We also explored the effect of the partner's monitoring style (i.e., the extent to which the partner typically attends to health threats) on promoting discussion. Female partners of AA men (N = 231) were randomized to receive either a prostate cancer screening Centers for Disease Control brochure for AA men, combined with a 'partner' brochure containing strategies to promote men's initiation of a provider visit to discuss screening, or the Centers for Disease Control brochure only and completed preintervention and post-intervention surveys online. The message groups did not differ on taking active steps to engage in provider discussion: relative risk ratio (RRR) = 0.99, p = .98; thinking about it: RRR = 1.13, p = .74. However, among partners who received the partner brochure, monitoring style was associated with 'thinking about initiating a provider visit' on the part of the mate (RRR = 1.74, p < .01). Across conditions, monitoring style was also associated with 'taking active steps to initiate a provider visit' on the part of the mate (RRR = 1.38, p < .05). High monitoring partners may be effective in influencing their AA mates to initiate provider discussion, particularly when tailored messaging is provided. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. ART integration in oral health care systems in Latin American countries as perceived by directors of oral health

    PubMed Central

    RUIZ, Oswaldo; FRENCKEN, Jo E.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to carry out a situation analysis of: a) prevalence of ART training courses; b) integration of ART into the oral healthcare systems and; c) strengths and weaknesses of ART integration, in Latin American countries. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire, consisting of 18 questions, was emailed to directors of national or regional oral health departments of all Latin American countries and the USA. For two countries that had not responded after 4 weeks, the questionnaire was sent to the Dean of each local Dental School. The questions were related to ART training courses, integration of ART in the dental curriculum and the oral healthcare system, barriers to ART implementation in the public health system and recommendations for ART implementation in the services. Factor analysis was used to construct one factor in the barrier-related question. Means and percentages were calculated. Results: The response rate, covering 55% of all Latin American countries, was 76%. An ART training course had been given in all Latin American countries that responded, with more than 2 having been conducted in 64.7% of the respondent countries. ART was implemented in public oral health services in 94.7 % of the countries, according to the respondents. In 15.8% of the countries, ART was applied throughout the country and in 68.4%, in some areas or regions of a country. ART had been used for more, or less, than three years in 42.1% and 47.4% of the countries, respectively. evaluation and monitoring activities to determine the effectiveness of ART restorations and ART sealants had been carried out in 42.1% of the countries, while evaluation training courses had taken place in only 3 countries (15.8%). Respondents perceived the “increase in the number of treated patients” as the major benefit of ART implementation in public oral health services. The major perceived barrier factors to ART implementation were “operator opinion” and

  17. [Production of scientific articles about health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, A; Goldbaum, M; Silvi, J

    1997-01-01

    citation index of 4.36 per article. It is concluded that, despite the inherent limitations, this type of study reveals some general trends in the development of research in the six Latin American countries with the greatest scientific production and makes it possible to formulate hypotheses on the factors that influence these trends. Taken with the paper caution, the results of studies like this one can be of great value in defining health science and technology policies.

  18. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  19. [Dietary fiber potential in Iberian-American countries: food, products and residues].

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Eliana B; Lajolo, Franco M; de Menezes, Elizabete W

    2003-03-01

    The reduced intake of dietary fiber (DF) has been associated with the increase in the incidence of several non-transmissible chronic diseases. Recently many researchers from Iberian-American countries have been studying DF of food and industrial residues in order to improve technological knowledge about concentrates production as well as the development and test of enriched products originated from regional food. The present study aimed to evaluate the regional DF potential based on compilation of data about this nutrient. There is great availability of regional and traditional food with considerable DF amounts as we may find in fruits, vegetables and cereals and legumes. Concentrated sources of DF obtained from different industrial residues were characterized and evaluated making possible their utilization in food enrichment. Cookies added to corn residues (16.8% DF in integral weight) in Colombia, and pasta added to lupine fiber in Chile (11.2%) are examples of tested enriched products. Products like bread with whole wheat (12%), products for especial uses as well as pills of citric DF (55%) and food for enteral diets (1-1.9%) are already available on Cuba market. The dietary fiber contents presented in this work allow us to have an idea of the potential of such nutrient in Iberian-American countries. Such potential has been proved to be considerably representative. It is worth to inform that the complete DF database is available on the CYTED X1.6/CNPq Project Web site (http://www.fcf.usp.br/cytedxi16). It provides data on 817 regional, traditional and not conventional foods, that can be searched and utilized by professional from different areas.

  20. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Javier; González, Álvaro; Castillo, Andrés; Caneo, Luiz Fernando

    To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral Hygiene and Handwashing Practices among Middle School Students in 15 Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    McKittrick, TR; Jacobsen, KH

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the relationship between infrequent toothbrushing and infrequent handwashing among middle school students from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay). Methods: A secondary analysis was done of nationally-representative data from 33 174 middle school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2006 and 2011. Results: In all 15 countries, the association between rarely brushing or cleaning teeth and rarely handwashing after using the toilet was significant for both boys and girls. The pooled odds ratio for this association was 6.7 (5.8, 7.7). Conclusion: Healthcare providers who notice signs of poor dental hygiene or infrequent bathing in adolescents should consider providing comprehensive hygiene education to their patients, since infrequent oral and body hygiene behaviours tend to coexist and both are threats to health. PMID:26426181

  2. Life Expectancy with and without Cognitive Impairment in Seven Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Jagger, Carol; Fouweather, Tony; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of cognitive impairment is an increasing challenge with the ageing of our populations but little is known about the burden in low- and middle- income Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC) that are aging more rapidly than their developed counterparts. We examined life expectancies with cognitive impairment (CILE) and free of cognitive impairment (CIFLE) in seven developing LAC countries. Methods Data from The Survey on Health, Well-being and Ageing in LAC (N = 10,597) was utilised and cognitive status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The Sullivan Method was applied to estimate CILE and CIFLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of age, gender and education on cognitive outcome. Meta-regression models were fitted for all 7 countries together to investigate the relationship between CIFLE and education in men and women at age 60. Results The prevalence of CI increased with age in all countries except Uruguay and with a significant gender effect observed only in Mexico where men had lower odds of CI compared to women [OR = 0.464 95% CInt (0.268 – 0.806)]. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of CI in Brazil [OR = 4.848 (1.173–20.044)], Chile [OR = 3.107 (1.098–8.793), Cuba [OR = 2.295 (1.247–4.225)] and Mexico [OR = 3.838 (1.368–10.765). For males, total life expectancy (TLE) at age 60 was highest in Cuba (19.7 years) and lowest in Brazil and Uruguay (17.6 years). TLE for females at age 60 was highest for Chileans (22.8 years) and lowest for Brazilians (20.2 years). CIFLE for men was greatest in Cuba (19.0 years) and least in Brazil (16.7 years). These differences did not appear to be explained by educational level (Men: p = 0.408, women: p = 0.695). Conclusion Increasing age, female sex and low education were associated with higher CI in LAC reflecting patterns found in other countries. PMID:25799186

  3. Assessment of human resources for health programme implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Sepulveda, Hernan Rodrigo; Costa Couto, Maria Helena; Godue, Charles; Padilla, Monica; Cameron, Rick; Vidaurre Franco, Thais de Andrade

    2015-04-28

    The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. An assessment of the human resources for health (HRH) programmes that have been implemented at the country level was developed as part of the measurement of the 20 HRH regional goals for 2007-2015, adopted in 2007 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference (CSPA). The exercise was a combination of academic research and the development/application of an advocacy tool involving policy makers and stakeholders to influence the decision-making in the development, implementation, or change of HRH programmes while building evidence through a structured approach based on qualitative and quantitative information and the exchange and dissemination of best practices. This paper covers the methodological challenges, as well as a summary of the main findings of the study, which included 15 countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama in the Central America, Dominican Republic in the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in the Andean sub region, and Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the South Cone. Despite the different contexts, the results showed that the programmes evaluated faced common challenges, such as lack of political support and financial unsustainability. The evaluation process allowed the exchange and dissemination of practices, interventions, and programmes currently running in the region. A shared lesson was the importance of careful planning of the implementation of programmes and interventions. The similarities in the problems and challenges of HRH among the participating countries highlighted the need for a cooperation programme on the evaluation and assessment of implementation strategies in the Americas region.

  4. Biotechnology for developing countries. The case of the Central American isthmus.

    PubMed

    León, P E

    1993-12-21

    Recent developments in the fields of chemistry, molecular biology, computer science, and communications promise to transform the way that many things will be done in the near future in diverse fields of scientific R&D. Fortunately for less developed countries (LDCs) some of the technologies involved are user friendly and safe, avoiding the need for radioactive precursors, large machines, or expensive reagents. For instance, tissue culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), dideoxi-sequencing, and recombinant DNA techniques have already invaded clinical laboratories, agricultural field stations, and natural history museums, even in some developing nations. Somatic cell culture for plant biotechnology and immunologic techniques for diagnosis have had wide applications for over a decade in all countries in the Central American Isthmus. More recently, recombinant DNA techniques, including PCR, have been introduced for diagnostic purposes and research at the two largest universities in Costa Rica and at other public institutions and are also used in Guatemala and Panama. Honduras and Nicaragua are only now acquiring these technologies for diagnostic purposes. Biotechnological applications in industry seem to be lagging behind, and presently no good links exist between research laboratories and industry for advanced applications. The application of biotechnologies in environmental problems is slowly underway, with molecular studies of natural wildlife populations and primary forest trees. A major effort is needed to create safe and effective ways of dealing with environmental degradation, wastes, and byproducts of tropical agriculture and industry. The creation of the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) in Costa Rica to elaborate an inventory of flora and fauna and to prospect for useful substances provides a unique opportunity for biotechnological applications. In addition, government policies to promote biotechnological development are supported by CONICIT (National

  5. Criminal History and Assaults on Intimate Partners by Mexican American and Non-Mexican White College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ignacio Luis

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzed a sample of 348 college students to examine the role that criminal history and Mexican ethnicity play in predicting intimate partner violence. Respondents who committed crimes in the past (before the age of 15) had a higher probability of severely physically assaulting a partner than those respondents who had committed crime…

  6. The Country School and the Americanization of Ethnic Groups in North Dakota. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Mary C.; Carlson, Robert L.

    In North Dakota, the schools played the major role in imparting American culture to the immigrants who by 1920 numbered 67% of North Dakota's population, but rural schools were not ideally suited to the task. The immigrants tended to cluster in nationality groups in geographic areas of the state, giving communities distinct ethnic identities. The…

  7. Psychological distress as a correlate of a biologically confirmed STI, risky sexual practices, self-efficacy and communication with male sex partners in African-American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Raiji, Paulomi T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has established the association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behaviour. However, few studies have examined the relationship between psychological distress and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-associated behaviours in African-American youth. The present study examined the association of psychological distress with STI/HIV-risk behaviour and psycho-social mediators of HIV-preventive behaviours. A sample of 715 African-American female adolescents, 15-21 years old, completed an audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) assessing sociodemographics, psychological distress, self-efficacy, communication and STI/HIV-associated sexual behaviours. Participants also provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens, which were assayed for STIs. High levels of psychological distress were defined as having a score of > or =7 on the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. The overall prevalence of high levels of psychological distress was 44.5%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents with high psychological distress, relative to those with low psychological distress, were more likely to have a biologically confirmed STI (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.40), use condoms inconsistently (AOR = 1.50), not use condoms during their last casual sexual encounter (AOR = 1.89), have sex while high on alcohol or drugs (AOR = 1.47), have male sexual partners with concurrent female sexual partners (AOR = 1.98), have low condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 1.54), partner sexual communication self-efficacy (AOR = 1.77), refusal self-efficacy (AOR = 2.05) and be more fearful of communicating with their partners (AOR = 1.98). These findings, although preliminary, could be used to inform HIV intervention programs and physicians/clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African-American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behaviour.

  8. A research experience for American Indian undergraduates: Utilizing an actor-partner interdependence model to examine the student-mentor dyad.

    PubMed

    Griese, Emily R; McMahon, Tracey R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2017-03-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students' skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates.

  9. Closer look at our neighbors to the south: Air quality trends, standards, and monitoring programs of Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.O.; Medina-Vera, M.; Mitchell, W.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS/Air) is a program in which air monitoring data from over 50 countries throughout the world are collected and analyzed. The GEMS/Air program is sponsored by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). As part of a technical systems agreement between the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the UNEP/WHO, collaborative reviews of eighteen Latin American cities were conducted over the past two years. The countries visited include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The findings of these reviews and the future direction of air pollution monitoring programs in these countries are presented.

  10. Evidences on weaknesses and strengths from health financing after decentralization: lessons from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Armando; Orozco, Emanuel; De Icaza, Esteban

    2005-01-01

    The main objective was to identify trends and evidence on health financing after health care decentralization. Evaluative research with a before-after design integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis. Taking into account feasibility, political and technical criteria, three Latin American countries were selected as study populations: Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru. The methodology had two main phases. In the first phase, the study referred to secondary sources of data and documents to obtain information about the following variables: type of decentralization implemented, source of finance, funds of financing, providers, final use of resources and mechanisms for resource allocation. In the second phase, the study referred to primary data collected in a survey of key personnel from the health sectors of each country. The trends and evidence reported in all five financing indicators may identify major weaknesses and strengths in health financing. Weaknesses: a lack of human resources trained in health economics who can implement changes, a lack of financial resource independence between the local and central levels, the negative behavior of the main macro-economic variables, and the difficulty in developing new financing alternatives. Strengths: the sharing between the central level and local levels of responsibility for financing health services, the implementation of new organizational structures for the follow-up of financial changes at the local level, the development and implementation of new financial allocation mechanisms taking as a basis the efficiency and equity principles, new technique of a per-capita adjustment factor corrected at the local health needs, and the increase of financing contributions from households and local levels of government.

  11. COPD screening in primary care in four Latin American countries: methodology of the PUMA Study.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, Eduardo; Stirbulov, Roberto; Hernández Vecino, Ramón; Mercurio, Sandra; Di Boscio, Valentina

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of COPD among patients treated in the healthcare system in Latin America is unknown. The PUMA study (Prevalencia y práctica habitUal -diagnóstico y tratamiento- en población de riesgo de EPOC en Médicos generalistas de 4 países de América Latina) screened at-risk patients attending primary care centers to evaluate the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of COPD in this setting. The aim of this report is to describe the study methodology. Multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study conducted in Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay and Venezuela. Subjects were≥40 years, smokers, former smokers and/or exposed to fossil fuels attending primary care centers. Eligible patients underwent pre- and post- bronchodilator spirometry and completed standardized questionnaires on demographics, smoking, exposure to environmental/domestic pollution, symptoms/history and management of respiratory diseases, comorbidities, and use of healthcare resources. A total of 57 centers in 4 countries participated; 1,907 patients were included, 1,743 completed the PUMA questionnaire and 1,540 patients underwent validated spirometry. We describe the methodology used in the PUMA study, the first systematic multicenter study in four Latin American countries aimed at detecting COPD cases confirmed by spirometry in primary care. Approximately 90% of patients who completed the PUMA questionnaire underwent valid spirometry tests. This gives room for reflection on the feasibility of opportunistic screening at the primary care level to detect patients in the early stages of COPD or with undiagnosed COPD, and improve the diagnosis and management of this disease. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Diet and Respiratory Health in Children from 11 Latin American Countries: Evidence from ISAAC Phase III.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alfonso Mario; Thawer, Sumaiyya; Boyle, Robert J; Villalba, Sara; Jaller, Rodolfo; Tapias, Elmy; Segura, Ana María; Villegas, Rodrigo; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa

    2017-08-28

    The burden of childhood asthma and its risk factors is an important but neglected public health challenge in Latin America. We investigated the association between allergic symptoms and dietary intake in children from this region. As part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase III, questionnaire collected dietary intake was investigated in relation to risk of parental/child reported current wheeze (primary outcome) and rhino-conjunctivitis and eczema. Per-country adjusted logistic regressions were performed, and combined effect sizes were calculated with meta-analyses. 143,967 children from 11 countries had complete data. In children aged 6-7 years, current wheeze was negatively associated with higher fruit intake (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65; 95% CI 0.74, 0.97). Current rhino-conjunctivitis and eczema were statistically negatively associated with fruit intake (aOR 0.72; 95% CI 0.64, 0.82; and OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.56, 0.74, respectively). Vegetable intake was negatively associated with risk of symptoms in younger children, but these associations were attenuated in the 13-14 years old group. Fastfood/burger intake was positively associated with all three outcomes in the older children. A higher intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower prevalence of allergic symptoms in Latin American children. Conversely, intake of fastfood was positively associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze in adolescents. Improved dietary habits in children might help reduce the epidemic of allergic symptoms in Latin America. Food interventions in asthmatic children are needed to evaluate the possible public health impact of a better diet on respiratory health.

  13. An examination of actor-partner social support effects on HIV-related problems and interpersonal outcomes among a sample of HIV-positive African American dyads.

    PubMed

    Mosack, Katie E; Rafferty, Katherine A; Billig, Ashley K; Wendorf, Angela R; Brouwer, Amanda M; Stevens, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Social support is an important resource that has been associated with better mental and physical health outcomes among HIV-positive people. However, researchers have not adequately explored how social support functions among HIV-positive African Americans. The purpose of the current study was to understand whether HIV-related support resources are associated with relational functioning and HIV-related problems among a sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. Exactly 34 HIV-infected (i.e., seroconcordant) dyads compromised of HIV-positive African American adults and their HIV-positive adult "informal supporters" from 3 Midwestern urban cities completed psychosocial questionnaires and a communication task. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, we analyzed dyadic data to determine whether there were actor and/or partner effects within dyadic relationships on measures of conflict and HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and health symptoms. We found significant negative relationships between perceived support and HIV-related problems and perceptions of problem inequity within dyads and a positive relationship between perceived support and communication about these problems within dyads. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relationship between social support and HIV symptoms, relational conflict, or perceptions about dyadic partners' HIV-related problems. Although our study precludes drawing causal conclusions, we found evidence of a relationship between the personal experience of HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and perceptions of social support among a small sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. These findings suggest the need to consider how support-related communication within HIV-infected dyads might influence and be influenced by problem perceptions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  15. A Tale of Two Countries: Media and Messages of the French and American Presidential Campaigns of 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    This paper analyzes the similarities and differences between the French and American presidential election campaigns of 1988, focusing in particular on the processes of political communication. After discussing the framework of law, tradition, and climate of opinion within which political campaigns take place in these two countries, the paper…

  16. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  17. Challenges to reduce the '10/90 gap': mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Razzouk, D; Gallo, C; Olifson, S; Zorzetto, R; Fiestas, F; Poletti, G; Mazzotti, G; Levav, I; Mari, J J

    2008-12-01

    To analyze the status of mental health research in 30 Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify the LAC authors. Their publications were classified according to the topic, type of research and target population studied. Scientific indicators of these countries were assessed in other two different databases: Essential Scientific Information and Atlas of Science Project, both from Institute for Scientific Information. Indexed-publications were concentrated in six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela. Most studies dealt with the burdensome mental disorders but neglected important topics such as violence and other mental health priorities. Mental health research is mostly concentrated in a few LAC countries, but these countries would contribute to reduce the research gap, if they provide research training to their neighbors and engage in bi- or multi-lateral research collaboration on common region priorities.

  18. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    PubMed

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-04

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources.

  19. [Social determinants of exclusion from health services and medicines in three Central American countries].

    PubMed

    Acuña, Cecilia; Marina, Nelly; Mendoza, Adriana; Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Luiza, Vera Lucía; Azeredo, Thiago Botelho

    2014-02-01

    Examine the social determinants that affect population behavior with regard to the search for and acquisition of medicines, and their relationship to exclusion from health services based on aggregate data from three Central American countries: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. A descriptive, observational cross-sectional study was conducted by administration of a household survey. The study sample was selected in accordance with the conglomerate method. Data was analyzed with the SPSS® V.17 program using descriptive statistics, bivariate, multivariate, and principal components analysis (PCA). Although the majority of the persons could access health care, health exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) was the main determinant of lack of access to medicines. The characteristics of housing (OR 0.747, 95% CI), formal employment of head of the household (OR 0.707, 95% CI), and socioeconomic status of the household (OR 0.462, 95% CI) were also important determinants of lack of access to medicines. The phenomena of lack of access to health services and medicines are not independent from one another. It was corroborated that the health system, as an intermediate social determinant of health, is an important factor for improvement of access to medicines. Public policies that aim to achieve universal coverage should consider this relationship in order to be effective.

  20. Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Avibacterium paragallinarum Isolates from Four Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Luna-Galaz, G A; Morales-Erasto, V; Peñuelas-Rivas, C G; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2016-09-01

    The antimicrobial sensitivity of 11 reference strains and 66 Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates from four Latin American countries was investigated. All 11 reference strains were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The 11 reference strains were all resistant to lincomycin. All isolates (100%) from Mexico, Panama, and Peru were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, and fosfomycin. The Ecuadorian isolates showed some level of resistance to all 16 agents tested. The Ecuadorian isolates were significantly more sensitive to erythromycin, lincomycin, and streptomycin, and significantly more resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, than the Mexican isolates. A total of 57.5% (38/66) of tested isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR), with 16 MDR patterns detected in 88.4% (23/26) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Ecuador, and 8 MDR patterns detected in 42.8% (15/35) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Mexico. In conclusion, the variation in antimicrobial sensitivity patterns between isolates from Ecuador and Mexico emphasizes the importance of active, ongoing monitoring of A. paragallinarum isolates.

  1. Country of birth, acculturation status and abdominal obesity in a national sample of Mexican-American women and men.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, J; Winkleby, M

    2000-06-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of country of birth and acculturation status on indicators of obesity using national samples of Mexican-American women and men. We analysed data for 1387 Mexican-American women and 1404 Mexican- American men, ages 25-64, from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). We examined whether waist circumference and abdominal obesity varied by country of birth and acculturation status (primary language spoken), and whether among those with abdominal obesity, number of associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors varied by country of birth and acculturation status. Both country of birth and, to a lesser degree, acculturation status were significantly associated with waist circumference and abdominal obesity. Mexican-born women and men had the smallest waist circumference (90.4 cm, 94.0 cm respectively), US-born English-speaking women and men had intermediate waist circumference (93.6 cm, 97.3 cm), and US-born Spanish-speaking women and men had the largest waist circumference (96.9 cm, 97.7 cm), after accounting for age, education, per cent of energy from dietary fat, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking. All women had high prevalences of abdominal obesity, particularly US-born Spanish-speaking women (68.7%). In addition, US-born Spanish-speaking women with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have one or more of the following CVD risk factors: high serum insulin, non-insulin dependent diabetes, high blood lipids, and/or hypertension. These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the Mexican-American population and suggest that country of birth and lack of acculturation to the majority culture, as well as secondary lifestyle changes, may explain the significant clinical differences observed in abdominal obesity within Mexican-American population subgroups.

  2. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  3. “Come on baby. You know I love you”: African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex

    PubMed Central

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hamilton, Alison B.; Stockman, Jamila K.

    2016-01-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n=19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by “the sexual division of power” from the Theory of Gender and Power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and nonverbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women. PMID:26892099

  4. The Mediating Role of Partner Communication Frequency on Condom Use Among African-American Adolescent Females Participating in an HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Latham, Teaniese P; Wingood, Gina M.; Hardin, James W.; Rose, Eve S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although effective HIV prevention interventions have been developed for adolescents, few interventions have explored whether components of the intervention are responsible for the observed changes in behaviors post-intervention. This study examined the mediating role of partner communication frequency on African-American adolescent females’ condom use post-participation in a demonstrated efficacious HIV risk-reduction intervention. Main Outcome Measures Percent condom use in the past 60 days and consistent condom use in the past 6o days across the 12-month follow-up period. Design As part of a randomized controlled trial of African-American adolescent females (N=715), 15-21 years, seeking sexual health services, completed a computerized interview at baseline (prior to intervention) and again 6- and 12-month follow-up post-intervention participation. The interview assessed adolescents’ sexual behavior and partner communication skills, among other variables, at each time point. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) techniques, both logistic and linear regression models were employed to test mediation over the 12-month follow-up period. Additional tests were conducted to assess the significance of the mediated models. Results Mediation analyses observed that partner communication frequency was a significant partial mediator of both proportion condom-protected sex acts (p =.001) and consistent condom use (p = .001). Conclusion Partner communication frequency, an integral component of this HIV intervention, significantly increased as a function of participating in the intervention partially explaining the change in condom use observed 12-months post-intervention. Understanding what intervention components are associated with behavior change is important for future intervention development. PMID:21843001

  5. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    PubMed

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  6. Dimensions of child sexual abuse before age 15 in three Central American countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable indicators and measures of sexual abuse for the three countries to document the prevalence of abuse, types of perpetrators, and the association of child sexual abuse with recent intimate partner violence. Child sexual abuse was defined as sexual abuse that first occurs before age 15. Nationally representative data from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras were used. In El Salvador, separate questions on forced intercourse and non-penetrative sexual abuse were asked. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using STATA Version 8SE. The prevalence of child sexual abuse varied from 7.8% in Honduras to 6.4% in El Salvador and 4.7% in Guatemala. In all three countries, the overwhelming majority of women who reported child sexual abuse first experienced the abuse before age 11. Perpetrators tended to be a family member, a neighbor, or an acquaintance. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that women who experienced child sexual abuse in Guatemala and Honduras were about two times more likely to be in violent relationships as women who did not experience abuse. This relationship was not significant in multivariate analyses for El Salvador where the prevalence of intimate partner violence was the lowest. Child sexual abuse in Central America is clearly a problem with the prevalence between 5% and 8%. Child sexual abuse can have long-term negative health impacts including exposure to intimate partner violence in adulthood. Programs to prevent abuse and treat victims of child sexual abuse are needed in Central America.

  7. Challenges to reduce the ‘10/90 gap’: mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, D; Gallo, C; Olifson, S; Zorzetto, R; Fiestas, F; Poletti, G; Mazzotti, G; Levav, I; Mari, J J

    2008-01-01

    Razzouk D, Gallo C, Olifson S, Zorzetto R, Fiestas F, Poletti G, Mazzotti G, Levav I, Mari JJ. Challenges to reduce the ‘10/90 gap’: mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Objective: To analyze the status of mental health research in 30 Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Method: Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify the LAC authors. Their publications were classified according to the topic, type of research and target population studied. Scientific indicators of these countries were assessed in other two different databases: Essential Scientific Information and Atlas of Science Project, both from Institute for Scientific Information. Results: Indexed-publications were concentrated in six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela. Most studies dealt with the burdensome mental disorders but neglected important topics such as violence and other mental health priorities. Conclusion: Mental health research is mostly concentrated in a few LAC countries, but these countries would contribute to reduce the research gap, if they provide research training to their neighbors and engage in bi- or multi-lateral research collaboration on common region priorities. PMID:18759812

  8. What is driving people’s dissatisfaction with their own health care in 17 Latin American countries?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minah K.; Blendon, Robert J.; Benson, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  A number of expert reports have pointed to serious problems with health care in many Latin American countries and argued the need to reform and improve health‐care systems. In addition, the Ministers of Health of the Americas have stated that health systems should be accountable to citizens. Objective  This paper examines, in each of 17 Latin American countries, public dissatisfaction with the health care to which people have access, the proportion of people reporting problems with access to and the cost of health care and the factors that are most important in driving public dissatisfaction. Methods  Data are drawn from a 2007 Latinobarómetro survey of 19 212 adults interviewed face‐to‐face in 17 Latin American countries. Results  The proportion of people expressing dissatisfaction with their health care varies a great deal by country, as do the proportions reporting problems with access to and the cost of health care. Problems with access to care seem to matter most in trying to explain public dissatisfaction with their health care. More traditional measures of health outcomes and resources seem to matter less as drivers of dissatisfaction. Conclusions  For governments trying to improve their citizens’ satisfaction with the health care they receive, the highest priority would be improving people’s basic access to health‐care services. Also, it appears that democratic governments are seen as being more responsive to the public’s needs in health care. PMID:22512774

  9. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  10. Study and analysis of information technology in dentistry in Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    López Jordi, María Del C; Figueiredo, Marcia Ç; Barone, Dante; Pereira, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    Dentistry increasingly uses Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which has impact on teaching, research, the profession and dental care in general. However, there is a lack of valid information on ICT resources and use in Latin America. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multi-center, interdisciplinary study, the aim of which was to conduct a survey on how extensively ICT is used in Dentistry in Latin American countries by enquiring into two primary components: 1) use of ICT in student training and 2) use of ICT by professionals in consulting rooms and services. Two questionnaires on ICT were prepared: one for teachers/researchers and another for students/professionals. We received 94 answers from teachers/researchers at universities in the region providing information on ICT resources for teaching (type and implementation) and 221 answers from professionals (personal use and use in healthcare). Data are presented as absolute relative frequencies and analyzed quantitatively as percentages. 1) Teachers highlight ICT as an instrument for development, democratization and fairness in access to knowledge for higher education. 2) ICT supports collaborative learning and generates other innovative resources (e.g. simulators). 3) Innovations in telemedicine and experiences with electronic clinical history were identified in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia. These results are a basis upon which to reach a consensus regarding a set of ICT indicators which are comparable at regional level and serve as input to unify the design and implementation of ICTs experiences in both teaching and dental care in Latin America. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly.

  12. Women’s perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to explore women’s perceptions of the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in West Africa, and the ways in which they understand these causes to interact with the experiences of war. Methods The study was conducted in two locations in Sierra Leone and two in Liberia, using focus group discussions (N groups =14) and individual interviews (N = 20). Results Women perceive the causes of IPV to be linked with other difficulties faced by women in these settings, including their financial dependence on men, traditional gender expectations and social changes that took place during and after the wars in those countries. According to respondents, the wars increased the use of violence by some men, as violence became for them a normal way of responding to frustrations and challenges. However, the war also resulted in women becoming economically active, which was said by some to have decreased IPV, as the pressure on men to provide for their families reduced. Economic independence, together with services provided by NGOs, also gave women the option of leaving a violent relationship. Conclusions IPV was found to be a significant problem for women in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The interactions between war experiences and financial and cultural issues are multi-faceted and not uniformly positive or negative. PMID:25104971

  13. Exploring opportunities for coordinated responses to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in low and middle income countries: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bacchus, Loraine J; Colombini, Manuela; Contreras Urbina, Manuel; Howarth, Emma; Gardner, Frances; Annan, Jeannie; Ashburn, Kim; Madrid, Bernadette; Levtov, Ruti; Watts, Charlotte

    2017-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) by a parent or caregiver are prevalent and overlapping issues with damaging consequences for those affected. This scoping review aimed to identify opportunities for greater coordination between IPV and CM programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Nine bibliographic databases were searched and grey literature was identified through the scoping review team. Eligible studies were published in English; described primary prevention programmes in LMIC that addressed IPV and CM, or addressed one form of violence, but reported outcomes for the other; reported IPV and CM outcomes; and evaluated with any study design. Six studies were identified published between 2013 and 2016 (four randomised controlled trials, one pre-post non-randomised study and one qualitative study). Programmes were based in South Africa (2), Uganda, (2), Liberia (1) and Thailand (1). All except one were delivered within parenting programmes. The emphasis on gender norms varied between programmes. Some parenting programmes addressed gender inequity indirectly by promoting joint decision-making and open communication between caregivers. Conclusions are tentative due to the small evidence base and methodological weaknesses. More robust evaluations are needed. Improved coherence between IPV and CM programmes requires equal attention to the needs of women and children, and the involvement of fathers when it is safe to do so.

  14. Intimate partner violence and HIV risk factors among African American and African Caribbean women in clinic-based settings

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Draughon, Jessica E.; Sabri, Bushra; Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Bertrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite progress against intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV/AIDS in the past two decades, both epidemics remain major public health problems, particularly among women of color. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between recent IPV and HIV risk factors (sexual and drug risk behaviors, STIs, condom use and negotiation) among women of African descent. We conducted a comparative case-control study in women’s health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women aged 18–55 years who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV in the past two years (Baltimore, n=107; USVI, n=235) were compared to women who never experienced any form of abuse (Baltimore, n=207; USVI, n=119). Logistic regression identified correlates of recent IPV by site. In both sites, having a partner with concurrent sex partners was independently associated with a history of recent IPV (Baltimore, AOR: 3.91, 95% CI:1.79–8.55 and USVI, AOR: 2.25, 95% CI:1.11–4.56). In Baltimore, factors independently associated with recent IPV were lifetime casual sex partners (AOR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11–3.57), exchange sex partners (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI:1.92–14.42), infrequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.08–0.72), and infrequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI:0.09–0.93). In contrast, in the USVI, having a concurrent sex partner (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI:1.46–7.60), frequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI:1.06–3.65), frequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 6.29, 95% CI:1.57–25.23), drug use (AOR: 3.16, 95% CI:1.00–10.06), and a past-year STI (AOR: 2.68, 95% CI:1.25–5.72) were associated with recent IPV history. The divergent results by site warrant further investigation into the potential influence of culture, norms, and intentions on the relationships examined. Nonetheless, study findings support a critical need to continue the development and implementation of culturally tailored

  15. The Underlying Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in the Association between Intimate Partner Violence and Deliberate Self-harm among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Duke, Aaron A.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2015-01-01

    African American women are at heightened risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and its negative consequences, including health-compromising behaviors. Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is one clinically-relevant behavior that has been understudied among African American women generally and those with exposure to IPV in particular. To date, no studies have examined factors that may account for the relationship between IPV and DSH. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations among IPV (physical, psychological, and sexual), PTSD, and DSH history and versatility, and the potentially mediating role of PTSD symptoms in the IPV-DSH relation. Participants were 197 African American community women currently experiencing IPV. Sixty participants (31%) reported a history of DSH. Among participants who reported DSH, there was an average endorsement of 2.3 unique forms of deliberate self-harm (i.e., DSH versatility). Significant positive associations were detected among physical IPV severity, psychological IPV severity, PTSD symptom severity, and DSH history and versatility. PTSD symptom severity mediated the relationships between physical and psychological IPV severity and DSH history and versatility. Results highlight the relevance of PTSD symptoms to DSH and suggest that treatments targeting PTSD symptoms may be useful in reducing DSH among IPV-exposed African American women. PMID:25752736

  16. The underlying role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the association between intimate partner violence and deliberate self-harm among African American women.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicole H; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Duke, Aaron A; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-05-01

    African American women are at heightened risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and its negative consequences, including health-compromising behaviors. Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is one clinically-relevant behavior that has been understudied among African American women generally and those with exposure to IPV in particular. To date, no studies have examined factors that may account for the relationship between IPV and DSH. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations among IPV (physical, psychological, and sexual), PTSD, and DSH history and versatility, and the potentially mediating role of PTSD symptoms in the IPV-DSH relation. Participants were 197 African American community women currently experiencing IPV. Sixty participants (31%) reported a history of DSH. Among participants who reported DSH, there was an average endorsement of 2.3 unique forms of deliberate self-harm (i.e., DSH versatility). Significant positive associations were detected among physical IPV severity, psychological IPV severity, PTSD symptom severity, and DSH history and versatility. PTSD symptom severity mediated the relationships between physical and psychological IPV severity and DSH history and versatility. Results highlight the relevance of PTSD symptoms to DSH and suggest that treatments targeting PTSD symptoms may be useful in reducing DSH among IPV-exposed African American women.

  17. Why do Americans have shorter life expectancy and worse health than people in other high-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Americans lead shorter and less healthy lives than people in other high-income countries. We review the evidence and explanations for these variations in longevity and health. Our overview suggests that the US health disadvantage applies to multiple mortality and morbidity outcomes. The American health disadvantage begins at birth and extends across the life-course, and it is particularly marked for American women and for regions in the US South and Midwest. Proposed explanations include differences in health care, individual behaviors, socioeconomic inequalities, and the physical and built environment. While these factors may contribute to poorer health in America, a focus on proximal causes fails to adequately account for the ubiquity of the US health disadvantage across the life-course. We discuss the role of specific public policies and conclude that while multiple causes are implicated, crucial differences in social policy might underlie an important part of the US health disadvantage. PMID:24422560

  18. Non-hormonal and hormonal intrauterine contraception: survey of patients' perceptions in four Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Agnaldo Lopes da; Lira, Josefina; Rocha, Ana Luiza Lunardi; Ferreira, Márcia Cristina França; Lamaita, Rívia Mara; Cândido, Eduardo Batista; Carneiro, Márcia Mendonça

    2016-06-01

    This study sought to understand women's perceived barriers to the use of hormonal and non-hormonal intrauterine contraception in Latin America. We developed an online survey for women in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico who were seeking contraception. The questions aimed at evaluating patient awareness of negative stories and statements, as well as perceived barriers to the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). The survey was mailed to 2300 women. A total of 1953 responses were received from Argentina (n = 465), Brazil (n = 380), Colombia (n = 613) and Mexico (n = 495). More women reported having heard negative stories about the copper IUD than about the LNG-IUS. More women believed that the copper IUD, rather than the LNG-IUS, was suitable only for those who had already had children. More women believed that weight gain (14.3% vs. 38.2%; p < 0.001), mood swings (14.1% vs. 38.7%; p < 0.001) and infertility (16.3% vs. 19.9%; p = 0.016) were possible side effects of the LNG-IUS. By contrast, more women believed that abortion (36% vs. 22.7%; p < 0.001), pelvic infections (42.1% vs. 15.7%; p < 0.001) and ectopic pregnancy (43.5% vs 23.5%; p < 0.001) were side effects more associated with the copper IUD. More believed the copper IUD was associated with less pain during placement and removal compared with the LNG-IUS (42.8% vs. 31.2%; p < 0.001). The perception of increased risk of contracting a sexual transmitted disease did not differ between the methods (IUD vs. LNG-IUS, 21.7% vs. 20.3%; p = 0.388). Respondents to a web-based survey in four Latin American countries have misperceptions regarding the adverse effects and risks of intrauterine contraception, which may hamper the use of these safe and efficient contraceptive methods. Education about the true risks and benefits involved is fundamental to improving patient acceptance and compliance as well as

  19. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in six Latin American countries (SWOG Trial S0701)

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse; Sexton, Rachael; Ferreccio, Catterina; Jimenez, Silvia; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Cook, Paz; Anderson, Garnet; Morgan, Douglas R.; Baker, Laurence H.; Greenberg, E. Robert; Herrero, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection between adults 21–65 years old. Methods Data are from the initial screening visit of a randomized clinical trial of three antibiotic regimens to eradicate H. pylori, conducted in seven sites (Santiago–Chile, Túquerres–Colombia, Guanacaste–Costa Rica, Copán–Honduras, Obregón and Tapachula–México, León–Nicaragua). Thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine adults from the general population were screened for H. pylori infection using an urea breath test (UBT) and were interviewed to assess socioeconomic-, demographic-, and symptom-related characteristics. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between these characteristics and H. pylori positivity at enrollment. Results Among the 1,852 eligible participants for whom a conclusive UBT result was obtained, H. pylori prevalence was 79.4 %, ranging from 70.1 to 84.7 % among the seven centers. Prevalence did not differ by sex (female: 78.4, male: 80.9; p = 0.20) or age (p = 0.08). H. pylori positivity increased with increasing number of siblings (p trend <0.0001). Participants with education beyond 12 years were less likely to be UBT-positive (OR 0.4: 0.3–0.6, compared to participants with 0–6 years of schooling) as were those employed outside the home (OR 0.7: 0.6–1.0). Odds of H. pylori infection increased with the presence of certain living conditions during childhood including having lived in a household with an earth floor (OR 1.8: 1.4–2.4), lack of indoor plumbing (OR 1.3: 1.0–1.8) and crowding (OR 1.4: 1.0–1.8, for having more than two persons per bedroom). Regarding current household conditions, living with more than 3 children in the household (OR 1.7: 1.2–2.5) and crowding (OR 1.8: 1.3–2.3) were associated with H. pylori infection. Conclusions The prevalence of H. pylori in adults was high and differed significantly among the six Latin American countries studied (p < 0.001). Our

  20. Sourcebook on Central American Refugee Policy: A Bibliography with Subject and Country Index. Special Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Margo, Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography on Central American refugee policy is the outgrowth of a year-long research seminar on the topic at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs of the University of Texas at Austin during 1983-1984. That seminar was concerned with several aspects of Central American refugee policy, including policies of the various Central…

  1. Methodology for the development of normative data for ten Spanish-language neuropsychological tests in eleven Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of neuropsychology, there is a significant lack of normative data for individuals in Latin America. To describe the methodology utilized to obtain the data and create norms for 10 Spanish-language neuropsychological tests administered in 11 Latin-American countries in a sample of 3,977 healthy individuals between the ages 18 and 90. The same data manipulation process was applied to the data collected (regardless of the scale or country) using a regression-based procedure that takes into account sex, age, and educational influences on neuropsychological test scores. Following this procedure, we were able to generate age, education, and sex (if relevant) based norms for each test in each of the 11 countries studied. These norms are presented in the 10 articles that comprise this special issue.

  2. Prevalence and Health Impact of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-partner Sexual Violence Among Female Adolescents Aged 15-19 Years in Vulnerable Urban Environments: A Multi-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Olumide, Adesola; Acharya, Rajib; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Covarrubias, Laura; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2014-12-01

    Globally, adolescent women are at risk for gender-based violence (GBV) including sexual violence and intimate partner violence (IPV). Those in economically distressed settings are considered uniquely vulnerable. Female adolescents aged 15-19 from Baltimore, Maryland, USA; New Delhi, India; Ibadan, Nigeria; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Shanghai, China (n = 1,112) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling to participate in a cross-sectional survey. We describe the prevalence of past-year physical and sexual IPV, and lifetime and past-year non-partner sexual violence. Logistic regression models evaluated associations of GBV with substance use, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and self-rated health. Among ever-partnered women, past-year IPV prevalence ranged from 10.2% in Shanghai to 36.6% in Johannesburg. Lifetime non-partner sexual violence ranged from 1.2% in Shanghai to 12.6% in Johannesburg. Where sufficient cases allowed additional analyses (Baltimore and Johannesburg), both IPV and non-partner sexual violence were associated with poor health across domains of substance use, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and self-rated health; associations varied across study sites. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the prevalence of IPV and non-partner sexual violence among adolescent women in economically distressed urban settings, with upwards of 25% of ever-partnered women experiencing past-year IPV in Baltimore, Ibadan, and Johannesburg, and more than 10% of adolescent women in Baltimore and Johannesburg reporting non-partner sexual violence. Findings affirm the negative health influence of GBV even in disadvantaged urban settings that present a range of competing health threats. A multisectoral response is needed to prevent GBV against young women, mitigate its health impact, and hold perpetrators accountable. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Partnering in research: a national research trial exemplifying effective collaboration with American Indian Nations and the Indian Health Service.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jennifer Q; Copeland, Kenneth C; Daniel, Mary R; Erb-Alvarez, Julie A; Felton, Beverly A; Khan, Sohail I; Saunkeah, Bobby R; Wharton, David F; Payan, Marisa L

    2014-12-15

    Despite the fact that numerous major public health problems have plagued American Indian communities for generations, American Indian participation in health research traditionally has been sporadic in many parts of the United States. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and 5 Oklahoma American Indian research review boards (Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, and Choctaw Nation) agreed to participate collectively in a national research trial, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescence and Youth (TODAY) Study. During that process, numerous lessons were learned and processes developed that strengthened the partnerships and facilitated the research. Formal Memoranda of Agreement addressed issues related to community collaboration, venue, tribal authority, preferential hiring of American Indians, and indemnification. The agreements aided in uniting sovereign nations, the Indian Health Service, academics, and public health officials to conduct responsible and ethical research. For more than 10 years, this unique partnership has functioned effectively in recruiting and retaining American Indian participants, respecting cultural differences, and maintaining tribal autonomy through prereview of all study publications and local institutional review board review of all processes. The lessons learned may be of value to investigators conducting future research with American Indian communities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Partnering in Research: A National Research Trial Exemplifying Effective Collaboration With American Indian Nations and the Indian Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Jennifer Q.; Copeland, Kenneth C.; Daniel, Mary R.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie A.; Felton, Beverly A.; Khan, Sohail I.; Saunkeah, Bobby R.; Wharton, David F.; Payan, Marisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that numerous major public health problems have plagued American Indian communities for generations, American Indian participation in health research traditionally has been sporadic in many parts of the United States. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and 5 Oklahoma American Indian research review boards (Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, and Choctaw Nation) agreed to participate collectively in a national research trial, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescence and Youth (TODAY) Study. During that process, numerous lessons were learned and processes developed that strengthened the partnerships and facilitated the research. Formal Memoranda of Agreement addressed issues related to community collaboration, venue, tribal authority, preferential hiring of American Indians, and indemnification. The agreements aided in uniting sovereign nations, the Indian Health Service, academics, and public health officials to conduct responsible and ethical research. For more than 10 years, this unique partnership has functioned effectively in recruiting and retaining American Indian participants, respecting cultural differences, and maintaining tribal autonomy through prereview of all study publications and local institutional review board review of all processes. The lessons learned may be of value to investigators conducting future research with American Indian communities. PMID:25389367

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-55 - Fresh pitaya from certain Central American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... country's NPPO must certify that each place of production has effective fruit fly trapping programs, and.... (iii) The NPPO must maintain records of fruit fly detections for each trap, update the records each... (either from the exporting country's NPPO or at the U.S. port of entry) find a single fruit fly larva in a...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-55 - Fresh pitaya from certain Central American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... country's NPPO must certify that each place of production has effective fruit fly trapping programs, and.... (iii) The NPPO must maintain records of fruit fly detections for each trap, update the records each... (either from the exporting country's NPPO or at the U.S. port of entry) find a single fruit fly larva in a...

  7. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  8. Intimate partner violence and HIV in ten sub-Saharan African countries: what do the Demographic and Health Surveys tell us?

    PubMed

    Durevall, Dick; Lindskog, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have identified a significant positive relation between intimate partner violence and HIV in women, but adjusted analyses have produced inconsistent results. We systematically assessed the association, and under what condition it holds, using nationally representative data from ten sub-Saharan African countries, focusing on physical, sexual, and emotional violence, and on the role of male controlling behaviour. We assessed cross-sectional data from 12 Demographic and Health Surveys from ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The data are nationally representative for women aged 15-49 years. We estimated odds ratios using logistic regression with and without controls for demographic and socioeconomic factors and survey-region fixed effects. Exposure was measured using physical, sexual, emotional violence, and male controlling behaviour, and combinations of these. The samples used were ever-married women, married women, and women in their first union. Depending on specification, the sample size varied between 11 231 and 45 550 women. There were consistent and strong associations between HIV infection in women and physical violence, emotional violence, and male controlling behaviour (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1·2 to 1·7; p values ranged from <0·0001 to 0·0058). The evidence for an association between sexual violence and HIV was weaker and only significant in the sample with women in their first union. The associations were dependent on the presence of controlling behaviour and a high regional HIV prevalence rate; when women were exposed to only physical, sexual, or emotional violence, and no controlling behaviour, or when HIV prevalence rates are lower than 5%, the adjusted odds ratios were, in general, close to 1 and insignificant. The findings indicate that male controlling behaviour in its own right, or as an indicator of ongoing or severe violence, puts women at risk of HIV infection. HIV prevention interventions should focus on high

  9. Country of birth as a risk factor for asthma among Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Holguin, Fernando; Mannino, David M; Antó, Josep; Mott, Joshua; Ford, Earl S; Teague, W Gerald; Redd, Stephen C; Romieu, Isabelle

    2005-01-15

    In the United States, among Hispanics, Mexican Americans have the lowest rate of asthma. However, this population includes Mexican Americans born in the United States and in Mexico, and risk factors that might impact the prevalence of asthma differ between these groups. To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among U.S.- and Mexican-born Mexican Americans, we analyzed data from two U.S. surveys that included 4,574 persons who self-reported their ethnicity as Mexican American from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1998-1994 and 12,980 persons who self-reported their ethnicity as Mexican American from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1997-2001. U.S.-born Mexican Americans were more likely than Mexican-born Mexican Americans to report ever having asthma in both the NHANES III (7% [SE 0.5] vs. 3% [SE 0.3], p < 0.001) and NHIS surveys (8.1% [0.4] vs. 2.5% [0.2], p < 0.001). In a multivariate regression model controlling for multiple demographic variables and health care, the risk for asthma was higher among U.S.-born Mexicans in NHANES III (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-3.3) and NHIS (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.6-5.5). In conclusion, the prevalence of asthma was higher in U.S.-born than in Mexican-born Mexican Americans. This finding highlights the importance of environmental exposures in developing asthma in a migratory population.

  10. Effect of face-to-face interview versus computer-assisted self-interview on disclosure of intimate partner violence among African American women in WIC clinics.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Danielle; VanderEnde, Kristin; Colbert, Kia; Houry, Debra; Smith, L Shakiyla; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-03-01

    African American women in the United States report intimate partner violence (IPV) more often than the general population of women. Overall, women underreport IPV because of shame, embarrassment, fear of retribution, or low expectation of legal support. African American women may be especially unlikely to report IPV because of poverty, low social support, and past experiences of discrimination. The purpose of this article is to determine the context in which low-income African American women disclose IPV. Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomized to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales-Short Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Women (n = 368) reported high rates of lifetime and prior-year verbal (48%, 34%), physical (12%, 7%), sexual (10%, 7%), and any (49%, 36%) IPV, as well as IPV-related injury (13%, 7%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more lifetime and prior-year negotiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.54, 3.97) and more prior-year verbal (aOR = 2.10), sexual (aOR = 4.31), and any (aOR = 2.02) IPV than CASI-screened women. African American women in a WIC setting disclosed IPV more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. Findings highlight the potential value of face-to-face screening to identify women at risk of IPV. Programs should weigh the costs and benefits of training staff versus using computer-based technologies to screen for IPV in WIC settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc. (42nd, Raleigh, North Carolina, July 9-10, 1963). Our Concern for the Disadvantaged in Town and Country Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The future of the disadvantaged is discussed in these proceedings of a 1963 conference of the American Country Life Association. Papers presented at 3 panel discussions give detailed information on the disadvantaged. The panel discussion on the types of disadvantaged people covered American Indians, Appalachian whites, migrants, and Negroes. The…

  12. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Campbell, Doris W.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality from violence was fully mediated by depression. IPV should be considered in research and treatment of DE and both IPV and DE assessed when the other or depression is detected. PMID:22849778

  13. The Effects of Gendered Social Capital on U.S. Migration: A Comparison of Four Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Côté, Rochelle R; Jensen, Jessica Eva; Roth, Louise Marie; Way, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    This article contributes to understandings of gendered social capital by analyzing the effects of gendered ties on the migration of men and women from four Latin American countries (Mexico, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic) to the United States. The research theorizes the importance of strong and weak ties to men and women in each sending country as a product of the gender equity gap in economic participation (low/high) and incidence of female-led families (low/high). The findings reveal that ties to men increase the odds of migration from countries where gender equity and incidence of female-led families are low, while ties to women are more important for migration from countries where gender equity and female-led families are high. Previous research on migration and social capital details the importance of network ties for providing resources and the role of gender in mediating social capital quality and access to network support. Results reveal that not only are different kinds of ties important to female and male migration, but migrants from different countries look to different sources of social capital for assistance.

  14. [Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control].

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James Francis; Chaloupka, Frank; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey; Borland, Ron; Hastings, Gerard; Cummings, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to coordinate tobacco control policies around the world that reduce tobacco consumption. The FCTC's recommended policies are likely to be effective in low- and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, policy evaluation studies are needed to determine policy impact and potential synergies across policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC) is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.

  15. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color.

  16. The Effects of Alcohol, Relationship Power, and Partner Type on Perceived Difficulty Implementing Condom Use among African American Adults: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-King, Sarah E.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how “difficult” it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficultly. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women’s ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25277692

  17. iStart smart: a primary-care based and community partnered childhood obesity management program for Chinese-American children: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kwan, Monica; Mac, Allison; Chin, Nai-Ching; Liu, Katrina

    2013-12-01

    Children who are ethnic minorities, low income and live in urban neighborhoods are at higher risk for obesity. This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of a primary care-based and community partnered obesity intervention in Chinese American children. An experimental design with a historical comparison group was used to explore the feasibility of an obesity intervention for overweight Chinese American children, ages 7-12. Data were collected on weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference, physical activity, food intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy about diet and physical activity at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months post-baseline. Significant improvements in BMI, blood pressure, and nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy were found in the intervention group. Intervention group reduced their BMI compared to the comparison group (F = 8.65, p = .004). An obesity intervention in primary care setting is feasible and demonstrates a short-term effect on weight loss in Chinese American children.

  18. T for Texas, T for Tennessee: The Origins of American Country Music Notables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, George O.

    1979-01-01

    Origins of performers, composers, publishers, and executives who have made significant contributions to country music since the late nineteenth century are examined. Most music is produced in a crescent from West Virginia to East Texas. (KC)

  19. From Apprentice to Journeyman to Partner: Benjamin Franklin's Workers and the Growth of the Early-American Printing Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasca, Ralph

    In studying the history of the American press, little attention has been given to printing networks and the apprenticeship system, factors which permitted the press not only to survive but to grow. Essential to press growth was the apprenticeship system, vocational education which replenished and augmented the craft's practitioners. Apprentices…

  20. Resistive Efficacy and Multiple Sexual Partners among American Indian Young Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Kaufman, Carol E.; Beals, Janette

    2005-01-01

    Contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is one of the most serious public health issues for adolescents and young adults; rates of STDs among American Indian youth are among the highest of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although it is one of the key risk factors for spreading STDs, little is known about individual…

  1. National Cancer Institute and American Association for Clinical Chemistry Partner to Bridge the Gap | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute, through its Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) to join forces to promote and educate the clinical chemistry community in the area of proteomic standards and technology advances.

  2. From Apprentice to Journeyman to Partner: Benjamin Franklin's Workers and the Growth of the Early-American Printing Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasca, Ralph

    In studying the history of the American press, little attention has been given to printing networks and the apprenticeship system, factors which permitted the press not only to survive but to grow. Essential to press growth was the apprenticeship system, vocational education which replenished and augmented the craft's practitioners. Apprentices…

  3. Resistive Efficacy and Multiple Sexual Partners among American Indian Young Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Kaufman, Carol E.; Beals, Janette

    2005-01-01

    Contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is one of the most serious public health issues for adolescents and young adults; rates of STDs among American Indian youth are among the highest of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although it is one of the key risk factors for spreading STDs, little is known about individual…

  4. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS).

    PubMed

    Clark, P; Cons-Molina, F; Deleze, M; Ragi, S; Haddock, L; Zanchetta, J R; Jaller, J J; Palermo, L; Talavera, J O; Messina, D O; Morales-Torres, J; Salmeron, J; Navarrete, A; Suarez, E; Pérez, C M; Cummings, S R

    2009-02-01

    In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries. These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those found in the USA using the same standardized methodology. We report the first study of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin America. An age-stratified random sample of 1,922 women aged 50 years and older from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico were included. In all cases a standardized questionnaire and lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine were obtained after informed consent. A standardized prevalence of 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) was found. The prevalence was similar in all five countries, increasing from 6.9% (95% CI 4.6-9.1) in women aged 50-59 years to 27.8% (95% CI 23.1-32.4) in those 80 years and older (p for trend < 0.001). Among different risk factors, self-reported height loss OR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18-2.25), and previous history of fracture OR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03) were significantly (p < 0.003 and p < 0.04 respectably) associated with the presence of radiographic vertebral fractures in the multivariate analysis. In the bivariate analyses HRT was associated with a 35% lower risk OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.93) and physical activity with a 27% lower risk of having a vertebral fracture OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.98), but were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses We conclude that radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures are common in Latin America. Health authorities in the region should be aware and consider implementing measures to prevent vertebral fractures.

  5. Intimate partner violence reported by two samples of deaf adults via a computerized American sign language survey.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Robert Q; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparable between groups. More men than women in both deaf samples reported past-year physical and sexual abuse. Past-year IPV was associated with higher utilization of hospital emergency services. Implications for IPV research, education, and intervention in the Deaf community are discussed.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Two Samples of Deaf Adults via a Computerized American Sign Language Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Robert Q; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparable between groups. More men than women in both deaf samples reported past-year physical and sexual abuse. Past-year IPV was associated with higher utilization of hospital emergency services. Implications for IPV research, education, and intervention in the Deaf community are discussed. PMID:24142445

  7. Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

  8. School Leadership in Two Countries: Shared Leadership in American and Chinese High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Wenlen

    2010-01-01

    Cross-culture educational leadership researchers have shown in their research that national boundaries make a difference. What works in one nation may not work in another one because of different cultures in schools and across nations. This study aims to better understand the similarities and differences between American and Chinese high school…

  9. School Leadership in Two Countries: Shared Leadership in American and Chinese High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Wenlen

    2010-01-01

    Cross-culture educational leadership researchers have shown in their research that national boundaries make a difference. What works in one nation may not work in another one because of different cultures in schools and across nations. This study aims to better understand the similarities and differences between American and Chinese high school…

  10. Five new species and a new country record in American Cerambycidae Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-11-20

    Five new species are described from American fauna: Stizocera boliviensis and Sphaerion lingafelteri from Bolivia (Elaphidiini); Ectenessa wappesi from Panama (Ectenessini); Mecometopus martinsi from Peru and Ecuador (Clytini); Recchia volcanensis from Bolivia (Aerenicini). The new species are included in previous keys. Sphaerion rusticum Burmeister, 1865 is recorded from Bolivia for the first time.

  11. Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

  12. Educational assortative mating and economic inequality: a comparative analysis of three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-05-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.

  13. Educational Assortative Mating and Economic Inequality: A Comparative Analysis of Three Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    TORCHE, FLORENCIA

    2010-01-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses’ schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality. PMID:20608107

  14. Inter-country and ethnic variation in colorectal cancer survival: Comparisons between a Philippine population, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous population-based studies showed differences in international and within country colorectal cancer survival estimates, but few investigated the role of prognostic factors. Using a "high resolution approach", we aimed to determine the effect of ethnicity and health care by comparing Filipino-Americans with Philippine residents, who have the same ethnicity, and with Caucasians living in the US, who have the same health care system. Methods Using databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed and compared between Filipino-American colorectal cancer patients, cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasian patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Much lower 5-year relative survival estimates were obtained for Philippine residents (37%) as compared to those in Filipino-Americans (60.3%) and Caucasians (62.4%). Differences in age, stage and receipt of surgery explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans. However, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents remained after controlling for these and other variables (relative risk, RR, 2.03, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.83-2.25). Conclusions Strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients were disclosed, which most likely reflect differences in access to and utilization of health care. Health education and advocacy, for both patients and health practitioners, should likewise be given priority. PMID:20233442

  15. Report of the Associated Country Women of the World's National Seminar of American Indian Women (Fort Collins, August 2-8, 1970). Indian Women Plan for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Country Women's Council, U.S.A.

    Sponsored by the Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW) and Country Women's Council (CWC), the seminar marked the first time that: (1) American Indian women met on a national basis and (2) Anglo women met with them. Attending the week-long seminar were 67 delegates representing 43 tribes from 23 states. Participants were selected who would…

  16. Is the Hegemonic Position of American Culture Able to Subjugate Local Cultures of Importing Countries? A Constructive Analysis on the Phenomenon of Cultural Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tien-Hui

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that globalization assists the USA to gain a hegemonic position, allowing it to export its culture. Because this exportation leads to the domination by American culture of the local cultures of importing countries, which are the key element in sustaining their citizens' national identity, citizens of these countries are…

  17. Is the Hegemonic Position of American Culture Able to Subjugate Local Cultures of Importing Countries? A Constructive Analysis on the Phenomenon of Cultural Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tien-Hui

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that globalization assists the USA to gain a hegemonic position, allowing it to export its culture. Because this exportation leads to the domination by American culture of the local cultures of importing countries, which are the key element in sustaining their citizens' national identity, citizens of these countries are…

  18. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  19. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Barry D; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers-the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers-Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program-Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  20. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  1. Understanding the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis spoligotypes from cattle in Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, M J; Arriaga, C; Barandiaran, S; Cobos-Marín, L; de Waard, J; Estrada-Garcia, I; Figueiredo, T; Figueroa, A; Giménez, F; Gomes, H M; Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, J A; Macías, A; Milián-Suazo, F; Rodríguez, C A R; Santillán, M A; Suffys, P N; Trangoni, M D; Zárraga, A M; Cataldi, A

    2013-02-01

    Spoligotyping is the most frequently used method for genotyping isolates of Mycobacterium bovis worldwide. In the current work, we compared spoligotypes from 1684 M. bovis isolates from Argentina (816), Brazil (412), Chile (66), Mexico (274) and Venezuela (116), obtained from cattle, humans, pigs, wild boars, farmed deer, goats, buffaloes, cats, and wild animals. A total of 269 different spoligotypes were found: 142 (8.4%) isolates presented orphan spoligotypes, whereas 1542 (91.6%) formed 113 different clusters. In cattle, SB0140 was the most representative spoligotype with 355 (24.6%) isolates, followed by SB0121 with 149 (10.3%) isolates. Clustering of spoligotypes ranged from 95.2% in Argentina to 85.3% in Mexico. Orphan spoligotypes were also variable, ranging from 23.7% in Mexico to 4.1% in Brazil. A large proportion of spoligotypes were common to the neighboring countries Argentina, Brazil and Chile. In conclusion, despite the diversity of spoligotypes found in the five countries studied, there are major patterns that predominate in these neighboring countries. These clusters may reflect a long-lasting active transmission of bovine tuberculosis or common historical origins of infection.

  2. Child health insurance and early preventive care in three South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L

    2013-01-01

    Not much is known about how health insurance affects preventive care for children who have access to general routine paediatric care, especially in less developed settings. This study evaluates the effects of child health insurance on preventive care (measured by whether the child had received all the age-appropriate immunizations) for children with access to routine paediatric care. It uses a unique sample of 1958 children aged 3–24 months attending paediatric practices for routine well-child care in Argentina, Brazil and Ecuador. It compares insured and uninsured children attending the same paediatric clinics for routine care at the time of enrolment into the study and only uses within-clinic variation in insurance status when evaluating its effect on immunization status. Regression models for adequate immunization status adjust for several demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics and are estimated both separately for each country and combining the three countries. The majority of children in the study sample have received all age-appropriate immunizations. However, publicly insured children in Argentina and Ecuador are more likely to have received all age-appropriate immunizations compared with uninsured children by 3.5 and 2.3 percentage points, respectively. In the model that combines the three country samples, insured children (regardless of insurance type) are significantly more likely to have adequate immunization status by 2.5 percentage points compared with uninsured children. The study provides evidence that health insurance may enhance preventive care for young children. PMID:22791558

  3. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  4. [Drug advertising and promotion: regulations and extent of compliance in five Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    Vacca, Claudia; Vargas, Claudia; Cañás, Martín; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2011-02-01

    To analyze differing regulations regarding drug promotion, and the extent of compliance as seen in samples of advertising directed to the public in Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Peru. A total of 683 pieces of promotional material on display in health facilities, pharmacies, and on the street were collected, 132 of which were randomly selected for analysis. The regulations governing pharmaceutical advertising, taken from official websites and interviews with regulatory officials and Ministry of Health staff in the five countries covered, were reviewed, along with their adherence to the ethical criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The contents of the materials in the sample were evaluated to determine their degree of compliance with national regulations and WHO recommendations on drug promotion. The countries have regulations incorporating WHO ethical criteria. Over 80% of the material analyzed included the indications for the drug, while over 70% omitted information on adverse effects. Fifty percent of the advertisements for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs on display in pharmacies listed indications not approved by the relevant health authority. In advertising in pharmacies, the risks from inadequate information were not found to differ significantly for OTC or prescription medications. Compared with materials provided in health facilities, the relative risk of the absence of information on dosage in the material distributed in pharmacies was 2.08 (confidence interval 95% 1.32-3.39). Although regulations on drug promotion and advertising in the five countries studied generally incorporate the WHO recommendations, promotional materials often fail to reflect the fact.

  5. The effects of alcohol, relationship power, and partner type on perceived difficulty implementing condom use among African American adults: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Woolf-King, Sarah E; Maisto, Stephen A

    2015-04-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how "difficult" it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficulty. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women's ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions.

  6. Predicting relationship and life satisfaction from personality in nationally representative samples from three countries: the relative importance of actor, partner, and similarity effects.

    PubMed

    Dyrenforth, Portia S; Kashy, Deborah A; Donnellan, M Brent; Lucas, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    Three very large, nationally representative samples of married couples were used to examine the relative importance of 3 types of personality effects on relationship and life satisfaction: actor effects, partner effects, and similarity effects. Using data sets from Australia (N = 5,278), the United Kingdom (N = 6,554), and Germany (N = 11,418) provided an opportunity to test whether effects replicated across samples. Actor effects accounted for approximately 6% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 10% and 15% of the variance in life satisfaction. Partner effects (which were largest for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability) accounted for between 1% and 3% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 1% and 2% of the variance in life satisfaction. Couple similarity consistently explained less than .5% of the variance in life and relationship satisfaction after controlling for actor and partner effects.

  7. Epidemiology of pertussis in two Ibero-American countries with different vaccination policies: lessons derived from different surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rubén; Masa-Calles, Josefa; Garib, Zacarías; Grullón, Patricia; Santiago, Sandy L; Brache, Altagracia; Domínguez, Ángela; Caylà, Joan A

    2016-11-22

    Pertussis is a re-emerging disease worldwide despite its high vaccination coverage. European and Latin-American countries have used different surveillance and vaccination policies against pertussis. We compared the epidemiology of this disease in two Ibero-American countries with different vaccination and surveillance policies. We compared the epidemiology of pertussis in Spain and the Dominican Republic (DR). We present a 10-year observational study of reported pertussis based on suspected and/or probable cases of pertussis identified by the national mandatory reporting system in both countries between 2005 and 2014. Both countries have a similar case definition for pertussis surveillance, although Spain applies laboratory testing, and uses real time PCR and/or culture for case confirmation while in DR only probable and/or suspected cases are reported. We analyzed incidence, hospitalization, case-fatality rates, mortality and vaccination coverage. The average annual incidence in children aged <1 year was 3.40/100,000 population in Spain and 12.15/100,000 in DR (p = 0.01). While the incidence in DR was generally higher than in Spain, in 2011 it was six times higher in Spain than in DR. The highest infant mortality in Spain was 0.017/100,000 in 2011, and the highest in DR was 0.08/100,000 in 2014 (p = 0.01). The proportion of hospitalized cases per year among children <1 year varied between 22.0% and 93.7% in Spain, and between 1.1% and 29.4% in DR (p = 0.0002), while mortality varied from 0 to 0.017 and 0 to 0.08 per 100,000 population in Spain and DR, respectively (p = 0.001). Vaccination coverage was 96.5% in Spain and 82.2% in DR (p = 0.001). Pertussis is a public health problem in both countries. Surveillance, prevention and control measures should be improved, especially in DR. Current vaccination programs are not sufficient for preventing continued pertussis transmission, even in Spain which has high vaccination coverage.

  8. Preworkshop knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy of rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists of seven North, Central, and South American countries.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Zarza, José E; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel A; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Kalish, Robert A; Canoso, Juan J; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    To report the baseline knowledge of clinical anatomy of rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists from Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, the US, and Uruguay. The invitation to attend a workshop in clinical anatomy was an open call by national rheumatology societies in 4 countries or by invitation from teaching program directors in 3 countries. Prior to the workshop, a practical test of anatomic structures commonly involved in rheumatic diseases was administered. The test consisted of the demonstration of these structures or their function in the participant's or instructor's body. At one site, a postworkshop practical test was administered immediately after the workshop. There were 170 participants (84 rheumatology fellows, 61 rheumatologists, and 25 nonrheumatologists). The overall mean ± SD number of correct answers was 46.6% ± 19.9% and ranged from 32.5-67.0% by country. Rheumatology fellows scored significantly higher than nonrheumatologists. Questions related to anatomy of the hand scored the lowest of the regions surveyed. Rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists showed a deficit in knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy that is of central importance in rheumatologic assessment and diagnosis. This gap may hinder accurate and cost-effective rheumatologic diagnosis, particularly in the area of regional pain syndromes. Presently, widespread use of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) by rheumatologists may be premature, since a key component of expert-level MSUS is the integration of an accurate knowledge of anatomy with the views obtained with the ultrasound probe. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization.

  10. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  11. Health-related quality of life measurement in children and adolescents in Ibero-American countries, 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Rajmil, Luis; Roizen, Mariana; Psy, Alfonso Urzúa; Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos; Fernández, Gabriela; Dapueto, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics of instruments designed to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children, developed or adapted from 2000 to 2010 in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Spain, and Uruguay. The protocol-led literature review included database searching (e.g., Medline, ISI Science Citation Index) and manual searching to retrieve studies focused on measures of HRQOL, health status, or well-being addressed to children and adolescents. Country-specific filters were applied to identify studies carried out in the participating countries. The characteristics of the instruments and type of studies were analyzed. Descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties were analyzed following the guidelines of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. Ninety-nine documents were included. Thirty-one questionnaires were identified, 24 instruments were adapted, and the psychometric properties of 20 HRQOL instruments were reported in the study period. There was substantial variability in the number and characteristics of the dimensions included. Reliability was generally acceptable, and the majority of instruments provided data on internal consistency (n = 18) and, to a lesser extent, on test-retest reliability (n = 12). Nearly all studies reported construct validity, but only four analyzed sensitivity to change. There is a scarcity of instruments to measure HRQOL of children and adolescents in the countries analyzed. Certain psychometric characteristics have been reasonably well tested, but others, most notably sensitivity to change, have not been tested in most instruments. Extension of this study to other Latin American countries would help to further identify gaps in this area and promote the use of HRQOL measurement in children and adolescents in Spanish-speaking cultures. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Migrant Children and Adolescents in American Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2015-08-01

    The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent.

  13. [Preventing asbestos-related diseases: operative action for Italian cooperation with Latin-American countries].

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Comba, Pietro; Bruno, Caterina; Calisti, Roberto; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Mirabelli, Dario; Papa, Lorenzo; Harari, Raúl

    2010-08-01

    The present paper was aimed at promoting countermeasures based on scientific evidence and international cooperation for evaluating the impact on health caused by exposure to asbestos fibres in the workplace and the environment. Scientific evidence regarding asbestos made available by the international scientific community, decades of experience gained in Italy on this issue and being aware that adopting measures to combat the health effects caused by asbestos exposure should be verified considering the specificity of various national and local contexts in Latin-America form the basis for identifying four main areas for intervention which may be developed in the field of technical and scientific cooperation between Italy and Latin-America countries: promoting access to information about asbestos, interventions for reducing exposure to asbestos, health surveillance of exposed subjects and mesothelioma detection. Integrating Colombian and Italian researchers' abilities may lead to such results being achieved, thereby contributing to banning asbestos, which is already underway in Latin-America.

  14. The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel model of direct and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Olalekan Abdulrahman; Moradi, Tahereh; Lawoko, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    We examined associations between country, neighbourhood, and individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 165,983 women and 68,501 men nested within 7465 communities from 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected between 2003 and 2007. Contrary to expectation women were 34% more likely to justify IPVAW than men. We found that sex moderates associations of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVAW. There was a significant positive interaction effect between sex and education attainment; women with no education were more likely to justify IPVAW than men with no education. Negative sex interaction with household wealth status indicates that differences in attitude are less pronounced among women. Unemployed men were more likely to justify IPVAW. Interaction effects indicate that the association of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage with attitudes was more pronounced among women than among men. The association of country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVWA was inconclusive. There was some evidence that neighbourhood modified the association between individual SEP and attitudes towards IPV. Also, there was cross-level interaction between country and neighbourhood SEP. Neighbourhood and individual SEP were independently associated with attitudes towards IPVAW. The relationship with country-level SEP was inconclusive. The findings underscore the need to implement public health prevention/intervention strategies not only at the level of individual SEP but also at the neighbourhood level.

  15. Partners' session spurs progress for Latin women.

    PubMed

    1982-02-18

    A workshop sponsored by Partners of the Americas with support from the US Agency for International Development's Women in Development Office held in Christiana, Jamaica, October 1981 was designed to expand the involvement of women in the development process by strengthening leadership capabilities of women in the Caribbean. Sessions were held on project planning, goal identification, and resource evaluation. By the end of the workshop women representing 11 US states and their partners in 17 Latin American and Caribbean countries had initiated several projects. Some projects are: 1) Colombia-Florida: developing literacy training aids about nutrition information, 2) Guatemala-Alabama: home gardening and nutrition education, and 3) Jamaica-western New York: skills training programs for young mothers.

  16. University students' perceived norms of peers and drug use: a multicentric study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Inés V; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; de Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; de Oliveira Júnior, Hercilio Pereira; Santos Figueroa, Syntia Dinora; Montoya Vásquez, Erika Maria; Cazenave, Angelica; Chaname, Eva; Medina Matallana, Luz Stella; Ramirez Castillo, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared perceived peer drug use and actual drug use in a sample of Latin American university students. Students from nine universities in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Honduras and Peru) completed a questionnaire that addressed the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine. Analysis focused on comparing perceptions to actual drug use. The findings largely, but not completely, confirmed the idea that students overestimate peer drug use. The unexpected findings were those relating to alcohol. While students generally overestimated peer use of tobacco, marijuana and cocaine, they accurately estimated or underestimated peer use of alcohol. Apart from the anomalous findings with regard to alcohol, this study shows that perceived drug use relates to actual drug use in Latin America as it does elsewhere. The results also support the suggestion that interventions using normative feedback would be useful to strengthen drug use prevention programs aimed at youth in Latin America.

  17. Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-06-03

    ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action.

  18. A Prospective Cohort Multicenter Study of Molecular Epidemiology and Phylogenomics of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Nine Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Arias, Cesar A; Reyes, Jinnethe; Carvajal, Lina Paola; Rincon, Sandra; Diaz, Lorena; Panesso, Diana; Ibarra, Gabriel; Rios, Rafael; Munita, Jose M; Salles, Mauro J; Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Labarca, Jaime; Garcia, Coralith; Luna, Carlos M; Mejia-Villatoro, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Narechania, Apurva; Rojas, Laura J; Planet, Paul J; Weinstock, George M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen causing a spectrum of diseases ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening conditions. Bloodstream infections are particularly important, and the treatment approach is complicated by the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. The emergence of new genetic lineages of MRSA has occurred in Latin America (LA) with the rise and dissemination of the community-associated USA300 Latin American variant (USA300-LV). Here, we prospectively characterized bloodstream MRSA recovered from selected hospitals in 9 Latin American countries. All isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 96 MRSA representatives. MRSA represented 45% of all (1,185 S. aureus) isolates. The majority of MRSA isolates belonged to clonal cluster (CC) 5. In Colombia and Ecuador, most isolates (≥72%) belonged to the USA300-LV lineage (CC8). Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that MRSA isolates from participating hospitals belonged to three major clades. Clade A grouped isolates with sequence type 5 (ST5), ST105, and ST1011 (mostly staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec [SCCmec] I and II). Clade B included ST8, ST88, ST97, and ST72 strains (SCCmec IV, subtypes a, b, and c/E), and clade C grouped mostly Argentinian MRSA belonging to ST30. In summary, CC5 MRSA was prevalent in bloodstream infections in LA with the exception of Colombia and Ecuador, where USA300-LV is now the dominant lineage. Clonal replacement appears to be a common phenomenon, and continuous surveillance is crucial to identify changes in the molecular epidemiology of MRSA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Analysis of HIV type 1 diversity in pregnant women from four Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Carrillo, Manuel; Pampuro, Sandra; Duran, Adriana; Losso, Marcelo; Harris, D Robert; Read, Jennifer S; Duarte, Geraldo; De Souza, Ricardo; Soto-Ramirez, Luis; Salomón, Horacio

    2006-11-01

    Worldwide, the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants is not homogeneous. In Latin America and the Caribbean, HIV-1 subtype B predominates. However, in the south of Brazil and in countries of the Southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay) there is a different distribution of viral subtypes and intersubtype recombinants. The aim of this work was to analyze HIV-1 diversity in a cohort of pregnant women (with primarily heterosexual acquisition of the infection) who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection during their current pregnancy and who received ARVs during pregnancy for perinatal transmission prophylaxis. Analysis of 121 partial pol sequences from subjects enrolled in Argentina, Brazil, the Bahamas, and Mexico was performed by phylogenetic and recombinant characterization. Different prevalences of subtype B were observed (100% for specimens from Mexico and the Bahamas, 61% for Brazil, and 30% for Argentina). Subtypes C and F were found, along with BC, BF, FC, and CBF recombinants in specimens from Brazilians. A high prevalence of BF recombinants was found (70%) in specimens from Argentina. The different patterns of HIV- 1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants in South America (Argentina and Brazil) compared to those in Central and North America should be considered in the design of future HIV-1 vaccine trials.

  20. Social determination of the oral health-disease process: a social-historical approach in four Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Mendoza, Diana Carolina; Morales Borrero, María Carolina

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to contrast the perspectives on the social determination of oral health present in the scientific literature published in Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Mexico since 1970 until 2012. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study on the Latin American scientific production published in specialized databases between 1970 and 2012. The social determination of oral health in Latin America is characterized by the conflict among the players when seeking to overcome the limitations and traditional perspectives in health. The differences among the countries studied are explained by the existing relationship among research, higher education, and the socio-political trajectories of the countries and the similarities by health systems that have permitted accumulation of inequities in health. In Brazil, the concern for the individual and collective in local settings is important, while in Ecuador, Mexico, and Colombia the explanation based on the social determinants of the diseases predominates. The view of the social determination of the oral health-disease process in Latin America is characterized by a continuous dispute between emancipation and accumulation approaches. The scant impact of social determination in oral health obeys to the history of the odontology profession, the predominance of care policies and services of technical care nature.

  1. Virology research in a Latin American developing country: a bibliometric analysis of virology in Colombia (2000-2013).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Saenz, Julian; Martinez-Gutierrez, Marlen

    2015-11-30

    Bibliometric analysis demonstrates that the virology research in Latin America has increased. For this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate Colombian publications on viruses and viral diseases in indexed journals during the period from 2000 to 2013. The bibliographic data were collected from MedLine, SciELO, LILACS and Scopus databases. The database was constructed in Excel descriptive statistics. The SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) was evaluated using the SCImago Journal & Country Rank in 2013 and was used as an indicator of the quality of the journals used by the Colombian researchers. The total number of papers published was 711, of which 40.4% were published in local journals, and 59.6% were published in foreign journals. Most (89.2%) were original papers. Moreover, 34.2% of the papers were published in collaboration with international researchers, with the United States being the most represented. Of the journals used, 85.6% had an SJR, and 14.4% did not. The median SJR of the papers was 0.789, and the median of the papers with international collaborators was higher compared to the SJR of the papers without international collaboration. Papers were most frequently published in journals whose categories were medicine (miscellaneous), virology, and infectious diseases. The viruses that appeared in the papers more frequently were HIV, dengue, and papillomavirus. This study provides data for use in research, health planning, and policy analysis as it relates to virology in Colombia and other developing Latin American countries.

  2. Profile and professional expectations of medical students from 11 Latin American countries: the Red-LIRHUS project.

    PubMed

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2017-04-20

    Latin America is undergoing a human resource crisis in health care in terms of labor shortage, misdistribution and poor orientation to primary care. Workforce data are needed to inform the planning of long-term strategies to address this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the academic and motivational profile, as well as the professional expectations, of Latin American medical students. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, multi-country study evaluating medical students from 11 Spanish-speaking countries in 2011-2012. Motivations to study medicine, migration intentions, intent to enter postgraduate programs, and perceptions regarding primary care were evaluated via a self-administered questionnaire. Outcomes were measured with pilot-tested questions and previously validated scales. A total of 11,072 valid surveys from 63 medical schools were gathered and analyzed. This study describes the profile and expectations of the future workforce being trained in Latin America. The obtained information will be useful for governments and universities in planning strategies to improve their current state of affairs regarding human resources for health care professions.

  3. Sexual and reproductive behaviour among single women aged 15-24 in eight Latin American countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed M; Cleland, John

    2005-03-01

    A comparative analysis of exposure to sexual activity, contraceptive use, conceptions, and pregnancy resolutions among single women aged 15-24 in eight Latin American countries is presented. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys complete contraceptive and reproductive histories are constructed for single women aged 15-24 during the 5 year period preceding each survey. Pre-marital conception rates and overall and cause-specific life-table probabilities of contraceptive discontinuation are estimated. Pregnancy outcome and intention status of births are summarized. Trends in virginity, contraceptive protection, and conception rates for five sites are documented. In all eight countries, virginity accounts for over half of all single woman-years of exposure between age 15 and 24. The percentage of sexually active time protected by contraception is less than 20% in five countries, is about 30% in Peru and 50% in Brazil and Colombia. The contribution of condoms to contraceptive protection ranges from one-tenth to one-fifth. Pre-marital conception rates among sexually active single women range from 14.1 per 100 woman-years in Nicaragua to 25.8 in Bolivia. Most pre-marital conceptions ended in live birth, and births that are legitimized by marriage or cohabitation are more likely to be wanted. In five settings, virginity has fallen over time, especially in Northeast Brazil and Colombia, and uptake of condoms has increased faster than use of other methods. Because of pervasive declines in the protective effect of virginity, conception rates among single women in Latin America are rising. Contraceptive uptake, particularly of condoms, is increasing but not sufficiently to offset the decline in virginity.

  4. [Ethical dilemmas in gastroenterology practice in Latin-American countries: the AIGE survey].

    PubMed

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E

    1999-01-01

    .9% of men (p < 0.05) indicate HIV screening test without any explanation to the patient because "he could transmit a fatal disease". In this same case, time from graduation was related to differences in option selection: 80.9% in the group > 20 years of professional exercise asked for patient consent and accepted his decision, versus 52.7 and 27.5% in 0-9 and 10-19 years group respectively (p < 0.05). Usual medical and social worries as communication (truth, informed consent), the autonomic decision of biological death versus the sacrament of life, justice in allocation resources, confidentiality and social concern, abortion, and many other controversies linked to tecno-scientific development, impact the practice of Gastroenterology in latinoamerican countries. However medical answers to ethical dilemmas are not uniform. Although our results ought to be verified by other studies they clearly suggest the needs for systematic incorporation of applicated Ethics in pre and postgraduate Gastroenterology curricula, besides the regular activities of our regional institutions.

  5. Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: Current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of

  6. Characterization and Clinical Impact of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Seven Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Pallares, Christian J.; Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Correa, Adriana; Álvarez, Carlos; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Luna, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Cortesía, Manuel; Guzmán-Suárez, Alfonso; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health problem associated with higher mortality rates, longer hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. We carried out a study to describe the characteristics of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-CPE bloodstream infection (BSI) from Latin American hospitals and to determine the clinical impact in terms of mortality and antibiotic therapy. Methods Between July 2013 and November 2014, we conducted a multicenter observational study in 11 hospitals from 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were included and classified either as CPE or non-CPE based on detection of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by polymerase chain reaction. Enrolled subjects were followed until discharge or death. Demographic, microbiological and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the information. Results A total of 255 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI were included; CPE were identified in 53 of them. In vitro non-susceptibility to all screened antibiotics was higher in the patients with CPE BSI, remaining colistin, tigecycline and amikacin as the most active drugs. Combination therapy was significantly more frequent in the CPE BSI group (p < 0.001). The most common regimen was carbapenem + colistin or polymyxin B. The overall mortality was 37% (94/255). Overall and attributable mortality were significantly higher in patients with CPE BSI (p < 0.001); however, we found that patients with CPE BSI who received combination therapy and those who received monotherapy had similar mortality. After multivariate adjustment, CPE BSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–9.5; p = 0.002) and critical illness (aOR 6.5; 95% CI 3.1–13.7; p < 0

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3 + 1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Martí, Sebastián García; Colantonio, Lisandro; Bardach, Ariel; Galante, Julieta; Lopez, Analía; Caporale, Joaquín; Knerer, Gerhart; Gomez, Jorge Alberto; Augustovski, Federico; Pichon-Riviere, Andrés

    2013-08-30

    A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3 + 1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy to improve infant population

  9. Hydatid disease of the central nervous system: a review of literature with an emphasis on Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Ali; Vannemreddy, Prasad; Minagar, Alireza; Toledo, Eduardo González; Palacios, Enrique; Nanda, Anil

    2010-04-01

    To provide an up to date review of the epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prevention of hydatid cyst of the central nervous system, with an emphasis in South American countries. We searched the PubMed databases for articles containing the terms 'hydatid cyst' and 'nervous system'. We found and reviewed 303 articles and their related references. We provide the available information on the pathology, life cycle and diagnostic modalities (laboratory tests and imaging) along with possible complications of the disease. Current treatment methods of hydatid cyst in the brain and spine are also being discussed. Echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease, endemic in some parts of South America. The epidemiology of echinococcosis is influenced by agricultural, educational, economic, medical and cultural factors. Human infestation occurs through the fecal-oral route. Infection of the central nervous system is rare, and the mainstay of treatment is surgical excision of the intracranial or spinal cyst, when present. Preventive programs should break the parasite life cycle and also educate the farmers in endemic areas.

  10. HIV Risk Behaviors Among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latina Female Partners of Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    McCuller, William J.; Chavers, Constance

    2013-01-01

    We examined the frequencies of HIV-related risk factors among women reporting and not reporting sex with a man who has sex with men and women (MSMW). We used data from 15,625 visits of Black and Hispanic/Latina females, ages 15–64 years, to Los Angeles County HIV testing sites (2007–2008). The following risk factors were associated with reporting an MSMW partner: number of sex partners, use of party drugs, anal sex, and sexual partners with other risk factors. Overall, females who reported an MSMW partner differed little in their likelihood of testing HIV positive (0.93%) compared to those who did not (0.58%, p value =0.19). Among females reporting one male sex partner, having an MSMW partner was strongly associated with HIV (2.8 vs. 0.63%, p = 0.03). Interventions targeting women who report other risky behaviors may reach many who have been with MSMW. Women with one partner are an important focus of such efforts. PMID:22290608

  11. HIV risk behaviors among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latina Female partners of men who have sex with men and women.

    PubMed

    Harawa, Nina T; McCuller, William J; Chavers, Constance; Janson, Mike

    2013-03-01

    We examined the frequencies of HIV-related risk factors among women reporting and not reporting sex with a man who has sex with men and women (MSMW).We used data from 15,625 visits of Black and Hispanic/Latina females, ages 15–64 years, to Los Angeles County HIV testing sites (2007–2008). The following risk factors were associated with reporting an MSMW partner: number of sex partners, use of party drugs, anal sex, and sexual partners with other risk factors. Overall, females who reported an MSMW partner differed little in their likelihood of testing HIV positive (0.93%) compared to those who did not (0.58%, p value = 0.19). Among females reporting one male sex partner, having an MSMW partner was strongly associated with HIV (2.8 vs. 0.63%, p = 0.03). Interventions targeting women who report other risky behaviors may reach many who have been with MSMW. Women with one partner are an important focus of such efforts.

  12. 'A preferred consultant and partner to the Royal Government, NGOs, and the community': British American Tobacco's access to policy-makers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  13. Adiposity, dietary and physical activity patterns in ethnic Chinese youths: a cross-country comparison of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, M C; Ho, T F; Block, G; Lee, M; Anderson, J; Sabry, Z

    1994-06-01

    During the last decade, childhood obesity has been on the increase in Singapore and many newly industrialized Asian countries. We compared the mean body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF) values, as well as the dietary and physical activity patterns of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese American youths. Chinese Americans had a higher mean BMI but a lower mean TSF than Singaporean Chinese. Dietary comparisons suggest that Singaporean Chinese ate fish and grain products more often than Chinese American youths, while Chinese American youths consumed processed meats, dairy products and snack foods more frequently. Mean frequency of consumption of low fat, traditional Chinese foods such as rich porridge was higher among the Singaporean Chinese, while typical 'American' foods including cheese were consumed more often among the Chinese Americans. Certain food items that were more 'neutral' in terms of their cultural identity, such as carbonated drinks, cookies and bread were consumed with the same mean frequencies in both cohorts. In terms of physical activity, Singaporean Chinese youths, on average, spent more time in sedentary activities, less time sitting, and more time in light or moderate activities. The mean time spent on vigorous activities per day was only one hour in both cohorts. Our study suggests differences in body fat distribution and composition, as well as in dietary and activity patterns, between Chinese American and Singaporean Chinese youths. There is a need to develop obesity indicators that are appropriate for the specific populations involved, and to carefully investigate environmental influences on childhood obesity.

  14. Natural hazards and decision-making in the most densely populated country in the American continent: a 20-year perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Martínez, Celina; Cepeda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    With a population density of ~300 per km2, El Salvador is the most densely populated country in the American continent and the capital, San Salvador, is probably the city in the Americas most frequently hit by natural hazards, earthquakes in particular. As a consequence of a magnitude 5.4 earthquake in 1986, 1500 people were killed, with as many as one-third of these casualties associated to the collapse of engineered structures, a high rate compared to contemporary figures worldwide. Four years earlier, during a long precipitation period in September 1982, a debris flow was triggered from the summit of the San Salvador volcano and travelled ~4 km for about one hour before it killed up to 500 people in an area to the North-West of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS). This same area had been previously hit by a similar event 50 years earlier, but with no consequences at that time since it was uninhabited. These are only some examples of the main facts that motivated the creation of the Office for Urban Planning of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (OPAMSS) in 1990. This institution is an autonomous municipal organisation whose functions and attributes comprise the planning and control of urban development. After 20 years of the foundation of OPAMSS, this paper presents its history and evolution, the main achievements and challenges, focusing on how the institution has been shaped by some key milestones, such as the earthquake-triggered landslide at Las Colinas neighbourhood in January 2001, which killed ~600 people in the Western AMSS, and the widespread flooding in October 2005 after the urban drainage network collapsed during Hurricane Stan. The development of OPAMSS as a key organisation in land use management and decision-making is an example that illustrates how the integration of technical and legal aspects can be oriented towards the improvement of governance at the scale of metropolitan areas.

  15. Use of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in eight Latin American Countries between 1999 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Mol, Peter G M; Verdijk, Jonneke; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Taxis, Katja

    2013-04-01

    To assesses the safety and rationale of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in Latin America and determine the extent of their use. Analysis of FDCs was based on retail sales data for eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) between 1999 and 2009. FDCs were classified according to the pre-defined criteria. Use was expressed as daily defined doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID). A total of 175 antibacterial FDCs contained a mean of 1.3 antibacterial substances and 3.2 other active substances. Thirty-seven (21%) FDCs were classified as unsafe, 124 (70%) as lacking sufficient evidence for efficacy and only 14 (9%) of all FDCs were considered rational, for example amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Consumption of unsafe FDCs decreased by 0.011 DDD/TID (95% CI: -0.012 to -0.009) annually, from 0.173 DDD/TID in 1999 to 0.070 DDD/TID in 2009 (overall decrease, 59.7%). Consumption of FDCs lacking sufficient evidence decreased by 30.3% (-0.018 DDD/TID [95% CI: -0.028 to -0.008] annually), while use of rational FDCs increased by 17.1% (from 1.283 DDD/TID to 1.497 DDD/TID annually). The majority of antibacterial FDCs in the private sector lack therapeutic benefit. Despite the decrease in the consumption of unsafe antibacterials and those lacking sufficient evidence, their use remains high and their marketing does not fit into strategies of prudent use of antibiotics to contain antibacterial resistance. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Testosterone levels and their associations with lifetime number of opposite sex partners and remarriage in a large sample of American elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Thomas V; van der Meij, Leander; Cobey, Kelly D; Buunk, Abraham P

    2011-06-01

    Testosterone (T) has been argued to modulate mating and parenting behavior in many species, including humans. The role of T for these behaviors has been framed as the challenge hypothesis. Following this hypothesis, T should be positively associated with the number of opposite sex partners a male has. Indeed research in humans has shown that T is positively related to the number of opposite sex partners a young man has had. Here we test, in both men and women, whether this relationship extends to the lifetime number of sex partners. We also explored whether or not T was associated with current marital status, partnership status and whether or not the participant remarried. Using a large sample of elderly men and women (each sample n>700), we show that T is positively and sizably associated with the number of opposite sex partners in men. When controlling for potential confounding variables such as educational attainment, age, BMI, ethnicity, specific use of a medication and time of sampling this effect remained. For women, the relationship between T and number of opposite sex partners was positive but did not prove to be robust. In both men and women there was no evidence for an association between T and current marital status and partnership status (being in a relationship or not). However, remarriage was positively associated with T, but only in males. Results are discussed with reference to the literature on T and sex partners, remarriage and more broadly the challenge hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2011-05-19

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard

  18. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high

  19. Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Roselli, Tim; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    Rape perpetration is under-researched. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of rape of non-partner women and of men, and the reasons for rape, from nine sites in Asia and the Pacific across six countries: Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka. In this cross-sectional study, undertaken in January 2011-December 2012, for each site we chose a multistage representative sample of households and interviewed one man aged 18-49 years from each. Men self-completed questions about rape perpetration. We present multinomial regression models of factors associated with single and multiple perpetrator rape and multivariable logistic regression models of factors associated with perpetration of male rape with population-attributable fractions. We interviewed 10,178 men in our study (815-1812 per site). The prevalence of non-partner single perpetrator rape varied between 2·5% (28/1131; rural Bangladesh) and 26·6% (225/846; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), multiple perpetrator rape between 1·4% (18/1246; urban Bangladesh) and 14·1% (119/846; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), and male rape between 1·5% (13/880; Jayapura, Indonesia) and 7·7% (65/850; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). 57·5% (587/1022) of men who raped a non-partner committed their first rape as teenagers. Frequent reasons for rape were sexual entitlement (666/909; 73·3%, 95% CI 70·3-76·0), seeking of entertainment (541/921; 58·7%, 55·0-62·4), and as a punishment (343/905; 37·9%, 34·5-41·4). Alcohol was a factor in 249 of 921 cases (27·0%, 95% CI 24·2-30·1). Associated factors included poverty, personal history of victimisation (especially in childhood), low empathy, alcohol misuse, masculinities emphasising heterosexual performance, dominance over women, and participation in gangs and related activities. Only 443 of 1933 men (22·9%, 95% CI 20·7-25·3) who had committed rape had ever been sent to prison

  20. Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Fulu, Emma; Jewkes, Rachel; Roselli, Tim; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) is under-researched. In this Article, we present data for the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of IPV from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of perpetration of partner violence, identify factors associated with perpetration of different forms of violence, and inform prevention strategies. We undertook standardised population-based household surveys with a multistage representative sample of men aged 18-49 years in nine sites in Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Papua New Guinea between January, 2011, and December, 2012. We built multinomial regression models of factors associated with lifetime violence perpetration: physical IPV, sexual IPV, both physical and sexual IPV, multiple emotional or economic IPV versus none, and calculated population-attributable fractions. In the analysis, we considered factors related to social characteristics, gender attitudes and relationship practices, victimisation history, psychological factors, substance misuse, and participation in violence outside the home. 10,178 men completed interviews in our study (between 815 and 1812 per site). The response rate was higher than 82·5% in all sites except for urban Bangladesh (73·2%) and Sri Lanka (58·7%). The prevalence of physical or sexual IPV perpetration, or both, varied by site, between 25·4% (190/746; rural Indonesia) and 80·0% (572/714; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). When multiple emotional or economic abuse was included, the prevalence of IPV perpetration ranged from 39·3% (409/1040; Sri Lanka) to 87·3% (623/714; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). Factors associated with IPV perpetration varied by country and type of violence. On the basis of population-attributable fractions, we show factors related to gender and relationship practices to be most important, followed by experiences of

  1. Exploring Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman-Mills, S.; Gonzalez, W. Y.; Melendez, M. O.; Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, J. D.; Juarez, C. G.; Martinez, E. A.; Penalba, S. J.; Pizzanelli, E. M.; Solorzano, L. I.; Wright, M. G. M.; Cumsille, F.; De La Haye, W.; Sapag, J. C.; Khenti, A.; Hamilton, H. A.; Erickson, P. G.; Brands, B.; Flam-Zalcman, R.; Simpson, S.; Wekerle, C.; Mann, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Research from developed countries shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. However, little evidence on this relationship is available from developing countries, and recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to…

  2. Exploring Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman-Mills, S.; Gonzalez, W. Y.; Melendez, M. O.; Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, J. D.; Juarez, C. G.; Martinez, E. A.; Penalba, S. J.; Pizzanelli, E. M.; Solorzano, L. I.; Wright, M. G. M.; Cumsille, F.; De La Haye, W.; Sapag, J. C.; Khenti, A.; Hamilton, H. A.; Erickson, P. G.; Brands, B.; Flam-Zalcman, R.; Simpson, S.; Wekerle, C.; Mann, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Research from developed countries shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. However, little evidence on this relationship is available from developing countries, and recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to…

  3. Trauma system evaluation in developing countries: applicability of American College of Surgeons/Committee on Trauma (ACS/COT) basic criteria.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; Ziemba, Michelle; Leppäniemi, Ari; Dasho, Erion; Dogjani, Agron; Shatri, Zhaneta; Kociraj, Agim; Oldashi, Fatos; Shosha, Lida

    2014-08-01

    Trauma continues to be a major health problem worldwide, particularly in the developing world, with high mortality and morbidity. Yet most developing countries lack an organized trauma system. Furthermore, developing countries do not have in place any accreditation process for trauma centers; thus, no accepted standard assessment tools exist to evaluate their trauma services. The aims of this study were to evaluate the trauma system in Albania, using the basic trauma criteria of the American College of Surgeons/Committee on Trauma (ACS/COT) as assessment tools, and to provide the Government with a situational analysis relative to these criteria. We used the ACS/COT basic criteria as assessment tools to evaluate the trauma system in Albania. We conducted a series of semi-structured interviews, unstructured interviews, and focus groups with all stakeholders at the Ministry of Health, at the University Trauma Hospital (UTH) based in Tirana (the capital city), and at ten regional hospitals across the country. Albania has a dedicated national trauma center that serves as the only tertiary center, plus ten regional hospitals that provide some trauma care. However, overall, its trauma system is in need of major reforms involving all essential elements in order to meet the basic requirements of a structured trauma system. The ACS/COT basic criteria can be used as assessment tools to evaluate trauma care in developing countries. Further studies are needed in other developing countries to validate the applicability of these criteria.

  4. Intimate partner violence and HIV risk factors among African-American and African-Caribbean women in clinic-based settings.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Lucea, Marguerite B; Draughon, Jessica E; Sabri, Bushra; Anderson, Jocelyn C; Bertrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress against intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV/AIDS in the past two decades, both epidemics remain major public health problems, particularly among women of color. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between recent IPV and HIV risk factors (sexual and drug risk behaviors, sexually transmitted infections [STIs], condom use, and negotiation) among women of African descent. We conducted a comparative case-control study in women's health clinics in Baltimore, MD, USA and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women aged 18-55 years who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV in the past two years (Baltimore, n=107; USVI, n=235) were compared to women who never experienced any form of abuse (Baltimore, n=207; USVI, n=119). Logistic regression identified correlates of recent IPV by site. In both sites, having a partner with concurrent sex partners was independently associated with a history of recent IPV (Baltimore, AOR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.79-8.55 and USVI, AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.11-4.56). In Baltimore, factors independently associated with recent IPV were lifetime casual sex partners (AOR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11-3.57), exchange sex partners (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI: 1.92-14.42), infrequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.08-0.72), and infrequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09-0.93). In contrast, in the USVI, having a concurrent sex partner (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.46-7.60), frequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.06-3.65), frequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 6.29, 95% CI: 1.57-25.23), drug use (AOR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.00-10.06), and a past-year STI (AOR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.25-5.72) were associated with recent IPV history. The divergent results by site warrant further investigation into the potential influence of culture, norms, and intentions on the relationships examined. Nonetheless, study findings support a critical need to continue the development and implementation of

  5. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  6. Solicitation and Selection of Partner Projects, Technical Team Leads, and Measurement and Validation Contractors for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funded Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.; Baechler, Michael C.; Iverson, Megan M.

    2010-09-30

    In March 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) joined two other labs receiving ARRA funding, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable National Laboratory (NREL), to began weekly conference calls with the goal of coordinating a joint lab solicitation to support the ARRA-funded CBP project. Two solicitations were identified for: 1) new CBP Partners; 2) technical contractors to provide technical assistance and measurement and verification (M&V) contractors. The M&V contractors support the work by providing model reviews and conducting monitoring studies to verify building performance. This report documents the process used by the labs for the solicitations, and describes the process and outcomes for PNNL, selection of candidate Partners, technical teams, and M&V contractors.

  7. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  8. United States and the New International Economic Order: an analysis of American foreign policy regarding the transfer of technology to the less-developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Asim, Z.M.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this study to demonstrate that the concept of a New International Economic Order is not just a passing phase confined to verbal polemics in the United Nations, but that it is a highly serious effort to alter the existing global economic system of the non-Communist world. It is further maintained that while the New International Economic Order is not wholly what its title suggests, it is, nevertheless, a growing movement being pursued by the less-developed countries in numerous international fora. The role of the United States is the subject of a sharper focus, particularly in regard to its response to the New International Economic Order. A chronological survey of United States policies since the inception of the NIEO, indicates that the American response to Southern demands for a new order has been mostly negative, unimaginative, defensive, and contrary to often enunciated American ideals. The second facet of this study deals specifically with the issues pertaining to the transfer of technology to the LDCs. This phase attempts to show the potential problems and promises that such technology transfers might present. The study concludes with a set of proposals for an affirmative and globally-oriented American foreign policy toward the LDCs' economic agenda as envisioned in the NIEO, and toward their particular needs for American technology.

  9. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates or...

  10. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates or...

  11. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates or...

  12. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates or...

  13. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates or...

  14. Building Schools for American Kids Abroad: How to Prepare to Design and Build in a Foreign Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carington, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed American School in Aberdeen, Scotland, serves the children of U.S. oil company employees and other Scottish and foreign children. Describes the program manager's role, explains how to select the architect and contractor, and offers advice on what to remember when building abroad. (MLF)

  15. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence.

  16. CONCOMITANT FORMS OF ABUSE AND HELP-SEEKING BEHAVIOR AMONG WHITE, AFRICAN AMERICAN, AND LATINA WOMEN WHO EXPERIENCE INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n=1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse were less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking were more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse was not associated with help-seeking. Ethnic differences were found in help-seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618

  17. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  18. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  19. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  20. Trends in life satisfaction in European and North-American adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in over 30 countries.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Franco; Dalmasso, Paola; Ottová-Jordan, Veronika; Brooks, Fiona; Mazur, Joanna; Välimaa, Raili; Gobina, Inese; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Raven-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Life satisfaction (LS) is an indicator which is widely used for assessing the perception of a child's feeling about his life. LS is assessed in Health Behaviour in School-aged Children via the Cantril ladder with 10 steps indicating the worst and best possible life. This range of values (0-10) was dichotomized into 'low' (0-5) vs. 'high' (6-10). Countries, age groups and genders were compared based on the odds ratio (OR) of declaring a higher LS in 2010 with respect to 2002. Analyzing the difference between 2002 and 2010, six countries from Western Europe show decreasing LS: Austria, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, Finland and Greenland. In contrast, a group of Eastern European Countries, that is, Estonia, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and Ukraine, show a significant increase in LS. Data on gender and age differences confirm the lower rating of LS in girls and a decreasing rating with age. The LS scale appears to be a tool capable of discriminating the level of wellbeing of adolescent population among countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on coverage and timing of pentavalent vaccination – Experience from 2 Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, A.; Pessler, F.; Akmatov, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined the coverage and timing of rotavirus vaccination and the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on coverage and timing of the pentavalent vaccine. We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Honduras (2011/2012) and Peru (2012). The samples were divided into 2 subcohorts: children born before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared coverage and timing of the pentavalent vaccine in the aforementioned subcohorts. Coverage with the first and second doses of rotavirus vaccination was 95% (95% confidence intervals: 93–97%) and 91% (89–95%) in Honduras and 79% (77–82%) and 72% (69–75%) in Peru, respectively. Coverage increased in both countries over the years. The proportion of children vaccinated according to age-appropriate vaccination schedules varied between 67% (second dose of rotavirus vaccinations in Peru) and 89% (first dose of rotavirus vaccination in Honduras). Coverage with the first and second doses of pentavalent vaccination remained constant over the years in Honduras, while in Peru there was a significant increase in coverage over the years (p for trend, <0.0001). In both countries, timing of pentavalent vaccination was better in post-rota-cohorts than in pre-rota-cohorts. Since its introduction, coverage of rotavirus vaccination has improved over time in both countries. An introduction of rotavirus vaccination in both countries appears to have improved the coverage and timing of other similarly scheduled vaccinations. PMID:26833132

  2. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  3. Patterns, trends and sex differences in HIV/AIDS reported mortality in Latin American countries: 1996-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background International cohort studies have shown that antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved survival of HIV-infected individuals. National population based studies of HIV mortality exist in industrialized settings but few have been presented from developing countries. Our objective was to investigate on a population basis, the regional situation regarding HIV mortality and trends in Latin America (LA) in the context of adoption of public ART policies and gender differences. Methods Cause of death data from vital statistics registries from 1996 to 2007 with "good" or "average" quality of mortality data were examined. Standardized mortality rates and Poisson regression models by country were developed and differences among countries assessed to identify patterns of HIV mortality over time occurring in Latin America. Results Standardized HIV mortality following the adoption of public ART policies was highest in Panama and El Salvador and lowest in Chile. During the study period, three overall patterns were identified in HIV mortality trends- following the adoption of the free ART public policies; a remarkable decrement, a remarkable increment and a slight increment. HIV mortality was consistently higher in males compared to females. Mean age of death attributable to HIV increased in the majority of countries over the study period. Conclusions Vital statistics registries provide valuable information on HIV mortality in LA. While the introduction of national policies for free ART provision has coincided with declines in population-level HIV mortality and increasing age of death in some countries, in others HIV mortality has increased. Barriers to effective ART implementation and uptake in the context of free ART public provision policies should be further investigated. PMID:21801402

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL PRICING POLICIES ON ACCESS TO INNOVATIVE DRUGS: THE CASE OF TRASTUZUMAB IN SEVEN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Augustovski, Federico; Vallejos, Carlos; Huayanay, Leandro; Bueno, Maria del Pilar Navia; Rodriguez, Alarico; de Andrade, Carlos José Coelho; Buendía, Jefferson Antonio; Drummond, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Differential pricing, based on countries' purchasing power, is recommended by the World Health Organization to secure affordable medicines. However, in developing countries innovative drugs often have similar or even higher prices than in high-income countries. We evaluated the potential implications of trastuzumab global pricing policies in terms of cost-effectiveness (CE), coverage, and accessibility for patients with breast cancer in Latin America (LA). A Markov model was designed to estimate life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs from a healthcare perspective. To better fit local cancer prognosis, a base case scenario using transition probabilities from clinical trials was complemented with two alternative scenarios with transition probabilities adjusted to reflect breast cancer epidemiology in each country. Incremental discounted benefits ranged from 0.87 to 1.00 LY and 0.51 to 0.60 QALY and incremental CE ratios from USD 42,104 to USD 110,283 per QALY (2012 U.S. dollars), equivalent to 3.6 gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) per QALY in Uruguay and to 35.5 GDPPC in Bolivia. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 0 percent probability that trastuzumab is CE if the willingness-to-pay threshold is one GDPPC per QALY, and remained so at three GDPPC threshold except for Chile and Uruguay (4.3 percent and 26.6 percent, respectively). Trastuzumab price would need to decrease between 69.6 percent to 94.9 percent to became CE in LA. Although CE in other settings, trastuzumab was not CE in LA. The use of health technology assessment to prioritize resource allocation and support price negotiations is critical to making innovative drugs available and affordable in developing countries.

  5. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison by birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; Derose, Alessandra; Digiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-11-01

    According to the 'reproductive polarization' hypothesis, family-policy regimes unfavourable to the combination of employment with motherhood generate greater socio-economic differentials in fertility than other regimes. This hypothesis has been tested mainly for 'liberal' Anglo-American regimes. To investigate the effects elsewhere, we compared education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types. Women with low educational attainment have continued to have first births early, not only in Britain and the USA but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Women at all other levels of education have experienced a shift towards later first births, a shift that has been largest in Southern Europe. Unlike the educationally heterogeneous changes in age pattern at first birth seen under the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes, the changes across birth cohorts in the study's two 'universalistic' countries, Norway and France, have been educationally homogeneous.

  6. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern-European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097

  7. Social media in public health: an analysis of national health authorities and leading causes of death in Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Novillo-Ortiz, David; Hernández-Pérez, Tony

    2017-02-03

    Information and communications technologies, like social media, have the potential to reduce some barriers in disease prevention and control in the Americas. National health authorities can use these technologies to provide access to reliable and quality health information. A study was conducted to analyze availability of information about the leading causes of death on social media channels of national health authorities in 18 Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries. We gathered data of national health authorities's institutional presence in social media. Exploratory-descriptive research was useful for analysis and interpretation of the data collected. An analysis was carried out for 6 months, from April 1 to September 30, 2015. Sixteen of the 18 countries studied have institutional presences on social media. National health authorities have a presence in an average of almost three platforms (2.8%). An average of 1% of the populations with Internet access across the 18 countries in this study follows national health authorities on social media (approximately, an average of 0.3% of the total population of the countries under study). On average, information on 3.2 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on the national health authorities' Facebook pages, and information on 2.9 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on their Twitter profiles. Additionally, regarding public health expenditures and the possibility of retrieving information on the leading causes of death, an apparent negative correlation exists in the case of Facebook, r(13) = -.54, P = .03 and a weak negative correlation in the case of Twitter, r(14) = -.26, P = .31, for the countries with presences in those networks. National health authorities can improve their role in participating in conversations on social media regarding the leading causes of death affecting their countries. Taking into account Internet accessibility levels in the countries under study

  8. Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from Disease Cases in Latin American and Caribbean Countries, SIREVA II 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Methods Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Results Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Conclusions Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised. PMID:22952888

  9. Right Directions, Wrong Maps: Understanding the Involvement of Low-SES African American Parents to Enlist Them as Partners in College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Research extols the benefits of parent involvement in college choice, but low-SES African American parents are unable to match efforts of wealthier parents. This qualitative study found that in their communities the high school diploma was the normative credential for upward mobility. To this end, parents used narratives of struggle to motivate…

  10. Right Directions, Wrong Maps: Understanding the Involvement of Low-SES African American Parents to Enlist Them as Partners in College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Research extols the benefits of parent involvement in college choice, but low-SES African American parents are unable to match efforts of wealthier parents. This qualitative study found that in their communities the high school diploma was the normative credential for upward mobility. To this end, parents used narratives of struggle to motivate…

  11. Health financing changes in the context of health care decentralization: the case of three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, A; Parada, I

    2000-10-01

    The results of an evaluative longitudinal study, which identified the effects of health care decentralization on health financing in Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru are presented in this article. The methodology had two main phases. In the first, secondary sources of data and documents were analyzed with the following variables: type of decentralization implemented, source of financing, funds for financing, providers, final use of resources, mechanisms for resource allocation. In the second phase, primary data were collected by a survey of key personnel in the health sector. Results of the comparative analysis are presented, showing the changes implemented in the three countries, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each country in matters of financing and decentralization. The main financing changes implemented and quantitative trends with respect to the five financing indicators are presented as a methodological tool to implement corrections and adjustments in health financing.

  12. Folic acid flour fortification: impact on the frequencies of 52 congenital anomaly types in three South American countries.

    PubMed

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to search for a reduction in birth prevalence estimates of 52 selected types of congenital anomalies, associated with folic acid fortification programs in Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. The material included 3,347,559 total births in 77 hospitals of the three countries during the 1982-2007 period: 596,704 births (17 hospitals) in Chile, 1,643,341 (41 hospitals) in Argentina, and 1,107,514 (19 hospitals) in Brazil. We compared pre- and post-fortification rates within each hospital and the resulting Prevalence Rate Ratios (PRRs) were pooled by country. Statistically significant reductions in birth prevalence estimates after fortification were observed for neural tube defects (NTDs), septal heart defects, transverse limb deficiencies, and subluxation of the hip. However, only the reduction of NTDs appeared to be associated with folic acid fortification and not due to other factors, because of its consistency among the three countries, as well as with previously published reports, and its strong statistical significance. Among the NTDs, the maximum prevalence reduction was observed for isolated cephalic (cervical-thoracic) spina bifida, followed by caudal (lumbo-sacral) spina bifida, anencephaly, and cephalocele. This observation suggests etiologic and pathogenetic heterogeneity among different levels of spina bifida, as well as among different NTD subtypes. We concluded that food fortification with folic acid prevents NTDs but not other types of congenital anomalies.

  13. American Brachytherapy Society: Brachytherapy treatment recommendations for locally advanced cervix cancer for low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Gita; Brown, Derek; Chang, Amy; Erickson, Beth; Fidarova, Elena; Grover, Surbhi; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Nag, Subir; Narayan, Kailash; Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory; Viegas, Celia; Viswanathan, Akila N; Lin, Ming Yin; Gaffney, David

    Most cervix cancer cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), and outcomes are suboptimal, even for early stage disease. Brachytherapy plays a central role in the treatment paradigm, improving both local control and overall survival. The American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) aims to provide guidelines for brachytherapy delivery in resource-limited settings. A panel of clinicians and physicists with expertise in brachytherapy administration in LMIC was convened. A survey was developed to identify practice patterns at the authors' institutions and was also extended to participants of the Cervix Cancer Research Network. The scientific literature was reviewed to identify consensus papers or review articles with a focus on treatment of locally advanced, unresected cervical cancer in LMIC. Of the 40 participants invited to respond to the survey, 32 responded (response rate 80%). Participants were practicing in 14 different countries including both high-income (China, Singapore, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States) and low-income or middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam). Recommendations for modifications to existing ABS guidelines were reviewed by the panel members and are highlighted in this article. Recommendations for treatment of locally advanced, unresectable cervical cancer in LMIC are presented. The guidelines comment on staging, external beam radiotherapy, use of concurrent chemotherapy, overall treatment duration, use of anesthesia, applicator choice and placement verification, brachytherapy treatment planning including dose and prescription point, recommended reporting and documentation, physics support, and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Partner Selection among Latino Immigrant Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Shedlin, Michele G.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Penha, Marcelo Montes; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592

  15. What do you do, partner?

    PubMed

    Evans, I

    1996-07-27

    With support from the UN Population Fund, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the World Bank, Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe launched the Partners in Population and Development Program at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The goal was to create a more effective mechanism through which developing countries can share their experiences in family planning and reproductive health. An interim secretariat was established at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York City, paving the way for a small secretariat in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Partners' governing board, comprised of the highest-ranking officials responsible for reproductive health in each of the 10 countries, held a meeting in Mexico City attended by representatives of donor organizations and nongovernmental organizations, and by international experts in reproductive health research and policy. During associated field visits, there was an opportunity to see how Mexico caters to the reproductive health needs of its urban and rural populations. Mexico has many programs which other Partners could adapt for their own needs. Other Partner countries are equally willing to share their successes.

  16. Informal employment, unpaid care work, and health status in Spanish-speaking Central American countries: a gender-based approach.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ruiz, María; Benavides, Fernando G; Vives, Alejandra; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2017-03-01

    To assess the relationship between paid work, family characteristics and health status in Central American workers; and to examine whether patterns of association differ by gender and informal or formal employment. Cross-sectional study of 8680 non-agricultural workers, based on the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health (2011). Main explicative variables were paid working hours, marital status, caring for children, and caring for people with functional diversity or ill. Using Poisson regression models, adjusted prevalence ratios of poor self-perceived and mental health were calculated by sex and social security coverage (proxy of informal employment). A clear pattern of association was observed for women in informal employment who were previously married, had care responsibilities, long working hours, or part-time work for both self-perceived and mental health. No other patterns were found. Our results show health inequalities related to unpaid care work and paid work that depend on the interaction between gender and informal employment. To reduce these inequalities suitable policies should consider both the labor (increasing social security coverage) and domestic spheres (co-responsibility of care).

  17. Pharma partnering: other people's science.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Partnering is an ideal field if someone is seeking to move from a scientific to a more business-oriented discipline. Partnering's goal is to identify and acquire external innovation. These discoveries are then included in a company's pipeline and help bring novel treatments to patients. Advanced scientific training is essential in the identification and evaluation of these external assets. Here I describe how partnering works in a pharmaceutical company and offer advice on how to make a successful transition from a PhD program to a business career. © 2017 Hofmann. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner violence and suicidal behaviors: self-esteem, social support, and religious coping.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Rebekah; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2005-12-01

    There is a dearth of research on risk/protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), presenting for suicidal behavior or routine medical care in a large, urban hospital. We examined self-esteem, social support, and religious coping as mediators between experiences of child maltreatment (CM) and IPV and symptoms of PTSD in a sample (N = 134) of low-income African American women. Instruments used included the Index of Spouse Abuse, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Taylor Self-Esteem Inventory, the Multidimensional Profile of Social Support, the Brief Religious Coping Activities Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. Both CM and IPV related positively to PTSD symptoms. Risk and resilience individual difference factors accounted for 18% of the variance in PTSD symptoms over and above IPV and CM, with self-esteem and negative religious coping making unique contributions. Both variables mediated the abuse-PTSD symptom link. In addition, we tested an alternate model in which PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between abuse and both self-esteem and negative religious coping.

  20. Low detection of Vibrio cholerae carriage in healthcare workers returning to 12 Latin American countries from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Llanes, R; Somarriba, L; Hernández, G; Bardaji, Y; Aguila, A; Mazumder, R N

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This investigation was undertaken to characterize the prevalence of intestinal Vibrio cholerae in healthcare workers (HCWs) returning from Haiti due to the ongoing cholera epidemic. Eight hundred and fifty asymptomatic HCWs of the Cuban Medical Brigade, who planned to leave Haiti, were studied by laboratory screening of stool culture for V. cholerae. A very low percentage (0.23%) of toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa was found. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the largest reported screening study for V. cholerae infection in asymptomatic HCWs returning from a cholera-affected country. Cholera transmission to health personnel highlights a possible risk of transmitting cholera during mobilization of the population for emergency response. Aid workers are encouraged to take precautions to reduce their risk for acquiring cholera and special care should be taken by consuming safe water and food and practising regular hand washing.

  1. Setting Up an ECMO Program in a South American Country: Outcomes of the First 104 Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Claudia X; Bermon, Anderson; Castillo, Victor R; Salazar, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    Less than 1% of the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO) registry patients are from South America. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an expensive therapy not only in terms of direct financial cost but also with respect to technical and human resources. Finding a successful ECMO model that developing countries can afford is critical to the expansion of therapy to include the availability of this technology for patients in the developing world. We retrospectively studied the first 104 pediatric ECMO patients in the Fundacion Cardiovascular de Colombia between May 2007 and May 2013. We collected the ELSO registry data from electronic medical records to determine the survival rate, mortality risk factors, and complications in pediatric patients who received ECMO support for cardiac failure, respiratory failure, or ECMO for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the setting of refractory cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We describe our model of ECMO care regarding staff, training process, care protocol, ECMO circuit, and costs. Of 104 patients, 82 were diagnosed with congenital heart disease. Of those, 50 had biventricular and 32 had univentricular physiology, with a significantly higher survival rate at discharge in the biventricular group (44% vs 18.7%, odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-10.52, P = .01). Pediatric patients with a cardiac indication had survival rates of 76.3% at weaning and 52.6% at discharge, which is roughly comparable to those reported by the ELSO in 2013. Univentricular physiology, ECPR, severe pre-ECMO acidosis, ECMO-associated renal failure, and duration of ECMO support were factors associated with increased mortality. Despite limited availability of technical and economic resources, ECMO therapy can be done successfully in a developing country. A model of care based on nurses as ECMO specialists, supported by a multidisciplinary team, is cost-effective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas' disease in Colombia and other South American countries].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.

  3. Patient and provider attitudes toward screening for Down syndrome in a Latin American country where abortion is illegal.

    PubMed

    Wong, Amy E; Kuppermann, Miriam; Creasman, Jennifer M; Sepulveda, Waldo; Vargas, Juan E

    2011-12-01

    To examine patient and provider attitudes toward first trimester nuchal translucency (NT) screening for Down syndrome and to assess how patients consent to screening in a country where abortion is illegal. Patients presenting for first trimester ultrasound including NT screening in two obstetric units in Chile completed a questionnaire about their attitudes toward NT screening and perspectives on the consent process. A follow-up questionnaire assessed satisfaction with the test. Prenatal care providers also completed a questionnaire ascertaining their perspectives on NT screening. A total of 107 patients completed the initial questionnaire and 78 completed the follow-up questionnaire. Although 98 (94%) patients desired NT screening only 38 (38%) indicated that they would undergo diagnostic testing if they received screen positive results. Only 3 patients screened positive; however, 15 (20%) participants experienced increased anxiety after the test. Almost all of the 36 providers surveyed indicated that they counsel their patients thoroughly, but 38 (39%) patients reported that they received adequate information. NT screening is often performed without patients' full understanding of the implications of potential results and may cause anxiety. Providers should elicit patients' preferences regarding prenatal testing and engage them in shared decision making about whether to undergo screening, particularly when abortion is not an option. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The contribution of Latin American and Caribbean countries on culture bound syndromes studies for the ICD-10 revision: key findings from a working in progress.

    PubMed

    Razzouk, Denise; Nogueira, Bruno; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2011-05-01

    This review aims to verify the scientific evidences for the inclusion of culture bound syndromes in the International Classification of Diseases towards its 11th edition based on studies from Latin American and Caribbean countries. Studies were identified in Medline, LILACS and EMBASE databases for the period between 1992 and 2008, and then classified according to the type of study, to the mental disorder, country and number of publications per year. 163 studies were selected and classified: 33 in MedlLne, 90 in EMBASE e 40 in LILACS. The percentage of culture bound-syndrome corresponded to 9% in Medline, 12% in EMBASE e 2.5% in LILACS. Among fifteen studies on cultural bound syndromes, two were about "nervios and ataque de nervios", two about "susto", four about the relationship between religion beliefs, witchery, trance and mental disorders, one with a proposal for new diagnostic category, three about theoretic issues and three about the pathoplasty of mental disorders. The scarcity of studies on culture bound syndromes might be due to the indexation problems hindering the screening of studies; lack of interest on publishing such studies in indexed journals (publication bias) and due to difficulty to access them. There is no robust evidence identified among cross-cultural studies to recommend changes for International Classification of Diseases-11th edition.

  5. The American Thoracic Society methods in epidemiologic, clinical, and operations research program. A research capacity-building program in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Buist, A Sonia; Parry, Vivienne

    2013-08-01

    Respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The greatest impact of many of these diseases is felt in low- and middle-income countries, but their control and management is hampered by lack of accurate estimates of their prevalence, risk factors, and distribution, and knowledge of the social and cultural setting in which they occur. Providing enough information for cost-effective response to respiratory diseases requires research by trained investigators and public health personnel. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) Methods in Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Operations Research (MECOR) Program was launched in 1994 to provide a sustainable means of increasing local and national research capacity aimed at addressing this need. As of March 2013, approximately 1,015 students have completed at least one level of the training program. Post-MECOR, 64% of participants have published a medical paper, 79% have presented at a scientific or academic meeting, 51% have submitted a research protocol for funding, and 42% have had one funded. One-quarter have been awarded an academic or clinical fellowship, and 78% reported that MECOR had made a significant or extremely important contribution to their professional life and accomplishments. Future challenges include funding, recruitment of local faculty, helping to build the research infrastructure in MECOR countries, and providing ongoing mentoring for research.

  6. Not All Those Who Wander Are Lost: Examining the Impact of Sojourner Adjustment and Drinking Motives on Alcohol Consequences Experienced by Americans Studying in Foreign Countries

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective American students studying in foreign countries represent a unique group at risk for increased and problematic drinking. Examination of risk and protective factors for negative alcohol-related consequences can lead to the development of efficacious preventive interventions for reducing high-risk drinking while abroad. The present study examined the relationship between sojourner adjustment (i.e., the sociocultural and psychological adjustment of short-term residents in foreign environments), drinking motives, and alcohol-related consequences. Method Participants were 248 college students (81% women) who recently completed study-abroad trips and completed online surveys about their drinking motives and behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and sojourner adjustment. Results In general, positive sojourner adjustment (i.e., social interaction with host nationals, language development and use, and host culture identification) was protective against negative consequences, whereas negative sojourner adjustment (i.e., social interaction with co-nationals and homesickness/feeling out of place) was associated with increased reporting of consequences. Unexpectedly, the positive sojourner adjustment factor of cultural understanding and participation was associated with greater alcohol-related consequences. Social motives for drinking also predicted consequences. Drinking motives moderated several of the relationships between sojourner adjustment and consequences. Conclusions Interest in and adoption of the host country culture may protect against problematic alcohol use; however, this may vary based on students' reasons for drinking. These findings support the need for further examination of sojourner adjustment in college students abroad and indicate potential areas for development of preventive interventions. PMID:23036220

  7. America's Country Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Andrew

    The book examines the one-room schoolhouse and the memories of this important part of the American past through sections on the country school legacy, country school architecture, and country school preservation. The architectural and historical significance of this distinctive building type is evocatively portrayed by more than 400 photographs.…

  8. America's Country Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Andrew

    The book examines the one-room schoolhouse and the memories of this important part of the American past through sections on the country school legacy, country school architecture, and country school preservation. The architectural and historical significance of this distinctive building type is evocatively portrayed by more than 400 photographs.…

  9. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (≥30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

  10. Research capacity building and collaboration between South African and American partners: the adaptation of an intervention model for HIV/AIDS prevention in corrections research.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Priscilla; Taylor, Sandra E; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a partnership between researchers from the United States who are involved in corrections health issues and scientists from South Africa who conduct prison health research, a previously underresearched area in South Africa. The article discusses some of the challenges as well as opportunities for knowledge and skills exchange via capacity building and collaboration strategies. Through historical and contemporary perspectives, it also discusses barriers and benefits of collaboration when forging links between researchers from developed and less developed nations. A focus on conducting public health research in South Africa, and on HIV/AIDS studies in particular, is placed within the context of the 2001 document of the Council on Health Research for Development. The South African prison health study represents a collaborative between the South African National Health Promotion Research and Development Group of the Medical Research Council, the South African Department of Correctional Services, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The article illuminates the process of adapting a model for a postapartheid prison study from one designed for use in the American correctional system.

  11. Founder and Recurrent Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Latin American Countries: State of the Art and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ossa, Carlos Andrés; Torres, Diana

    2016-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological factors affect the probability of developing breast or ovarian cancer, but no predictor is as determinant as inheriting a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The concept of the founder effect explains the reduced genetic variability in some populations, according to the theory that new populations can be formed from a reduced number of individuals, so the new population would carry only a small fraction of the genetic variability of the original population. The main purpose of this review is to provide an update on the state of the art in founder mutations and some recurrent mutations that have recently been described in Latin America. A literature search was performed in the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, LILACS, and BIREME using the terms BRCA1, BRCA2, founder mutation, Latin American population, and Hispanic. Sixty-two papers were identified, of which 38 were considered relevant for this review. Each result is shown per country. In Latin America, clear founder effects have been reported in Mexico (BRCA1 del exons 9-12), Brazil (BRCA1 5382insC and BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu), and Colombia (BRCA1 3450del4, A1708E, and BRCA2 3034del4) and in Latinas residing in Southern California (BRCA1 185delAG, IVS5+1G>A, S955x, and R1443x). Of these, mutation BRCA1 3450del4 has also been reported in Brazil and Chile, whereas mutation BRCA2 3034del4 has been reported in Argentina and Peru. These data support the idea that although most Hispanic populations are the result of a mixture between Europeans, Africans, and Amerindians, the relative proportion of each genetic component varies throughout the Hispanic populations, making it necessary to identify the mutations characteristic of each population to generate mutation profiles adjusted to each one of them. In Latin American countries, and even among regions of the same country, there is great heterogeneity of ancestors. Therefore, Latinas should not be analyzed like other population groups without taking

  12. Founder and Recurrent Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Latin American Countries: State of the Art and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background. Numerous epidemiological factors affect the probability of developing breast or ovarian cancer, but no predictor is as determinant as inheriting a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The concept of the founder effect explains the reduced genetic variability in some populations, according to the theory that new populations can be formed from a reduced number of individuals, so the new population would carry only a small fraction of the genetic variability of the original population. The main purpose of this review is to provide an update on the state of the art in founder mutations and some recurrent mutations that have recently been described in Latin America. Methods. A literature search was performed in the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, LILACS, and BIREME using the terms BRCA1, BRCA2, founder mutation, Latin American population, and Hispanic. Sixty-two papers were identified, of which 38 were considered relevant for this review. Each result is shown per country. Results. In Latin America, clear founder effects have been reported in Mexico (BRCA1 del exons 9–12), Brazil (BRCA1 5382insC and BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu), and Colombia (BRCA1 3450del4, A1708E, and BRCA2 3034del4) and in Latinas residing in Southern California (BRCA1 185delAG, IVS5+1G>A, S955x, and R1443x). Of these, mutation BRCA1 3450del4 has also been reported in Brazil and Chile, whereas mutation BRCA2 3034del4 has been reported in Argentina and Peru. These data support the idea that although most Hispanic populations are the result of a mixture between Europeans, Africans, and Amerindians, the relative proportion of each genetic component varies throughout the Hispanic populations, making it necessary to identify the mutations characteristic of each population to generate mutation profiles adjusted to each one of them. Conclusion. In Latin American countries, and even among regions of the same country, there is great heterogeneity of ancestors. Therefore, Latinas should not be analyzed

  13. Workshop on "Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe." Proceedings. (Turin, Italy, December 15-16, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    These proceedings contain reports of the plenary and working group sessions of a seminar to exchange information on such topics as the social dialogue on vocational education and training (VET) at the European level and involvement of social partners in development and implementation of European Community VET policy. Each report is introduced by a…

  14. The education and training of clinical medical physicists in 25 European, 2 North American and 2 Australasian countries: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Stefanoyiannis, A P; Christofides, S; Psichis, K; Geoghegan, D S; Gerogiannis, I; Round, W H; Geronikola-Trapali, X; Armeniakos, I; Kaplanis, P A; Prentakis, A; Chatziioannou, S N

    2012-07-01

    The clinical medical physicist is part of a team responsible for safe and competent provision of radiation-based diagnostic examinations and therapeutic practices. To ensure that the physicist can provide an adequate service, sufficient education and training is indispensable. The aim of this study is to provide a structured description of the present status of the clinical medical physicist education and training framework in 25 European, 2 North American and 2 Australasian countries. For this study, data collection was based on a questionnaire prepared by the European Federation of Organizations in Medical Physics (EFOMP) and filled-in either by the corresponding scientific societies-organizations or by the authors. In the majority of cases, a qualified medical physicist should have an MSc in medical physics and 1-3 years of clinical experience. Education and training takes place in both universities and hospitals and the total duration of the programs ranges from 2.5 to 9 years. In 56% of all European countries, it is mandatory to hold a diploma or license to work as a medical physicist, the situation being similar in Australasian and 4 states of USA. Generally, there are national registers of medical physicists with inclusion on the register being voluntary. There are renewal mechanisms in the registers usually based on a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) system. In conclusion, a common policy is followed in general, on topics concerning education and training as well as the practice of the medical physicist profession, notwithstanding the presence of a few differences. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  15. Doctors' experience of coordination across care levels and associated factors. A cross-sectional study in public healthcare networks of six Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Samico, Isabella; Eguiguren, Pamela; Cisneros, Angelica-Ivonne; Huerta, Adriana; Muruaga, María-Cecilia; Bertolotto, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Improving coordination between primary care (PC) and secondary care (SC) has become a policy priority in recent years for many Latin American public health systems looking to reinforce a healthcare model based on PC. However, despite being a longstanding concern, it has scarcely been analyzed in this region. This paper analyses the level of clinical coordination between PC and SC experienced by doctors and explores influencing factors in public healthcare networks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay. A cross-sectional study was carried out based on a survey of doctors working in the study networks (348 doctors per country). The COORDENA questionnaire was applied to measure their experiences of clinical management and information coordination, and their related factors. Descriptive analyses were conducted and a multivariate logistic regression model was generated to assess the relationship between general perception of care coordination and associated factors. With some differences between countries, doctors generally reported limited care coordination, mainly in the transfer of information and communication for the follow-up of patients and access to SC for referred patients, especially in the case of PC doctors and, to a lesser degree, inappropriate clinical referrals and disagreement over treatments, in the case of SC doctors. Factors associated with a better general perception of coordination were: being a SC doctor, considering that there is enough time for coordination within consultation hours, job and salary satisfaction, identifying the PC doctor as the coordinator of patient care across levels, knowing the doctors of the other care level and trusting in their clinical skills. These results provide evidence of problems in the implementation of a primary care-based model that require changes in aspects of employment, organization and interaction between doctors, all key factors for coordination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published

  16. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  17. WaterSense Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WaterSense partners are ambassadors that promote the value of water efficiency and WaterSense-labeled products, new homes, and programs. Partners help educate communities while transforming the marketplace.

  18. New Partner Orientation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Transport Partnership Program, including key information about EPA, Partners' roles, benefits, tools, partner recognition, awards, and brand value. Transcript available.

  19. Prevalence of Diabetes and Intermediate Hyperglycemia Among Adults From the First Multinational Study of Noncommunicable Diseases in Six Central American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Alberto; Gregg, Edward W.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Wong, Roy; Perez Flores, Enrique; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Cafiero, Elizabeth; Altamirano, Lesbia; Ascencio Rivera, Melanie; de Cosio, Gerardo; de Maza, Martha Dinorah; del Aguila, Roberto; Emanuel, Englebert; Gil, Enrique; Gough, Ethan; Jenkins, Valerie; Orellana, Patrícia; Palma, Ruben; Palomo, Ruben; Pastora, Martha; Peña, Rodolfo; Pineda, Elia; Rodriguez, Bismark; Tacsan, Luis; Thompson, Loraine; Villagra, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The increasing burdens of obesity and diabetes are two of the most prominent threats to the health of populations of developed and developing countries alike. The Central America Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) is the first study to examine the prevalence of diabetes in Central America. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The CAMDI survey was a cross-sectional survey based on a probabilistic sample of the noninstitutionalized population of five Central American populations conducted between 2003 and 2006. The total sample population was 10,822, of whom 7,234 (67%) underwent anthropometry measurement and a fasting blood glucose or 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS The total prevalence of diabetes was 8.5%, but was higher in Belize (12.9%) and lower in Honduras (5.4%). Of the screened population, 18.6% had impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS As this population ages, the prevalence of diabetes is likely to continue to rise in a dramatic and devastating manner. Preventive strategies must be quickly introduced. PMID:22323417

  20. Evaluating intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2002-11-01

    To describe the incidence, assessment, and management of intimate partner violence (IPV) from a cultural perspective emphasizing the values, strengths, and health care needs of African-American women. Review of the published scientific literature, U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) supplemented with hypothetical cases. Violence is a social and public health emergency affecting over 10% of the population during their lives and 22% of women who are physically assaulted by an intimate. Roughly 3 million to 4.4 million women report being battered annually, although this is a low estimate. Neither gender nor age nor sexual orientation protects one from IPV. Violent crime causes 2.2 million known injuries with a huge cost in hospital days and other expenses. Women often hesitate to report violence; health care professionals detect as few as 5% of battered women. Women suffer for months and years before accurate diagnosis. Clinicians need to be vigilant in case finding, education, prevention, and treatment. Cultural differences in values and beliefs, and behavioral norms influence evaluation, treatment, and referral.

  1. Sexual counselling for individuals with cardiovascular disease and their partners: a consensus document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP).

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny; Barnason, Susan A; Byrne, Molly; Doherty, Sally; Dougherty, Cynthia M; Fridlund, Bengt; Kautz, Donald D; Mårtensson, Jan; Mosack, Victoria; Moser, Debra K

    2013-11-01

    After a cardiovascular event, patients and their families often cope with numerous changes in their lives, including dealing with consequences of the disease or its treatment on their daily lives and functioning. Coping poorly with both physical and psychological challenges may lead to impaired quality of life. Sexuality is one aspect of quality of life that is important for many patients and partners that may be adversely affected by a cardiac event. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as '… a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences ….'(1(p4)) The safety and timing of return to sexual activity after a cardiac event have been well addressed in an American Heart Association scientific statement, and decreased sexual activity among cardiac patients is frequently reported.(2) Rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are twice as high as those in the general population, with similar rates of sexual dysfunction in females with CVD.(3) ED and vaginal dryness may also be presenting signs of heart disease and may appear 1-3 years before the onset of angina pectoris. Estimates reflect that only a small percentage of those with sexual dysfunction seek medical care;(4) therefore, routine assessment of sexual problems and sexual counselling may be of benefit as part of effective management by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers.

  2. Washington Partners: How Relationships Shape Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavalin, Kuna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how positioning an organization to be seen as trusted and expert on an issue requires careful relationship-building, patience, and an abundance of time. Such an effort often requires help, and so American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) and Washington Partners are working together to further AIHEC's goals.…

  3. Washington Partners: How Relationships Shape Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavalin, Kuna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how positioning an organization to be seen as trusted and expert on an issue requires careful relationship-building, patience, and an abundance of time. Such an effort often requires help, and so American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) and Washington Partners are working together to further AIHEC's goals.…

  4. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Fillmann, Gilberto; Ahrens, Lutz; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Aristizábal, Beatriz; Bastos, Wanderley; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Cortés, Johana; Fentanes, Oscar; Gusev, Alexey; Hernandez, Maricruz; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Lana, Nerina B; Lee, Sum Chi; Martínez, Ana Patricia; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Segovia, Federico; Siu, May; Tominaga, Maria Yumiko

    2015-03-17

    A passive air sampling network has been established to investigate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) sites and six additional sites in the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January 2011 [period 1 (January to June 2011), period 2 (July to December 2011), period 3 (January to June 2012), and period 4 (July 2012 to January 2013)]. Results show that (i) the GAPS passive samplers (PUF disk type) and analytical methodology are adequate for measuring PCDD/F burdens in air and (ii) PCDD/F concentrations in air across the GRULAC region are widely variable by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The highest concentrations in air of Σ4-8PCDD/Fs were found at the urban site São Luis (Brazil, UR) (i.e., 2560 fg/m3) followed by the sites in São Paulo (Brazil, UR), Mendoza (Argentina, RU), and Sonora (Mexico, AG) with values of 1690, 1660, and 1610 fg/m3, respectively. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air were observed at the background site Tapanti (Costa Rica, BA), 10.8 fg/m3. This variability is attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources as well as meteorological influences. The measurements of PCDD/Fs in air agree well with model-predicted concentrations performed using the Global EMEP Multimedia Modeling System (GLEMOS) and emission scenario constructed on the basis of the UNEP Stockholm Convention inventory of dioxin and furan emissions.

  5. Resistance among Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Latin American countries: SMART 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Lob, Sibylle H; Sahm, Daniel F

    Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are important etiologic agents of nosocomial infection that are frequently resistant to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens were collected from hospitalized patients in 11 Latin American countries from 2013 to 2015 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program. In total, 2113 isolates from intra-abdominal infections (IAI) and 970 isolates from urinary tract infections (UTI) were tested against antimicrobial agents using standardized CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Of the agents tested, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility (%) for K. pneumoniae (92.2, 92.3), Enterobacter spp. (97.5, 92.1), and P. aeruginosa (85.3, 75.2) isolates from both IAI and UTI, respectively. Ertapenem (68.5, 62.6) and imipenem (79.2, 75.9) showed substantially higher rates of susceptibility (%) than other β-lactams, including piperacillin-tazobactam (35.9, 37.4) against ESBL-positive isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively. Rates of susceptibility to all agents tested against A. baumannii were ≤30.9%. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from Latin America demonstrated compromised in vitro susceptibility to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum, parenteral antimicrobial agents. Continued surveillance is warranted. New antimicrobial agents with potent activity against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Not early drinking but early drunkenness is a risk factor for problem behaviors among adolescents from 38 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Rossow, Ingeborg; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kokkevi, Anna; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have reported that the earlier the age at first drink (AFDrink) the higher the later drinking levels and related problems. However, unless adolescents proceed into drunkenness, it is unclear why consuming small quantities at early age should lead to later problems. This study investigates the link between AFDrink and problem behaviors (smoking, cannabis use, injuries, fights, and low academic performance) among 15-year-olds who did and did not proceed into drunkenness. Among those with drunkenness experience, we tested whether AFDrink predicted problem behaviors over and above the age at first drunkenness (AFDrunk). Multilevel structural equation models were estimated based on a sample of 44,801 alcohol-experienced 15-year-olds from 38 North American and European countries and regions who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-national survey. Overall, there was a significant association between AFDrink and all 5 problem behaviors. However, this was the case only among those with drunkenness experiences but not among those never drunk. Among the former, AFDrunk was a strong predictor for all 5 problem behaviors, but time from first drink to first drunk did not predict problem behaviors. Not early alcohol initiation but early drunkenness was a risk factor for various adolescent problem behaviors at the age of 15, that is, there was not consistent relationship for the time before the first drunkenness (i.e., since first drinking). Besides targeting early drinking, particular efforts are needed to impede early drunkenness to prevent associated harm in adolescence and beyond. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Intimate partner homicide.

    PubMed

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner homicides represent the most severe outcome of intimate partner violence, and constitute more than a quarter (26%) of all homicides in adults over 15 years of age in Southern Denmark. In our experience the victims of partner homicides are primarily women, often from socially disadvantaged families, and that these homicides usually are the result of an impulsive act, with the perpetrator often committing suicide after the act. The aim of this study was to investigate these hypotheses further, and to provide an up-to-date overview of intimate partner homicides in Southern Denmark.

  8. Partner selection among Latino immigrant men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation.

  9. [Guidelines of the OIE (world organisation for animal health) for the organisation of Veterinary Services and their relations with private-sector partners, with particular reference to developing countries].

    PubMed

    Le Brun, Y

    2003-08-01

    Developing countries are being confronted with changes in the international rules governing trade in animal products. At the same time, state control over Veterinary Services, which has been in place for many years, is gradually giving way to private-sector involvement. In light of these developments, the International Animal Health Code (the Code), must ensure that it includes guidelines that take into account the new role of private-sector professionals. Integrating these professionals into the national networks of Veterinary Services is vital for the improvement of the services. Moreover, the situation in the field in developing countries has at times given rise to the emergence of 'alternative' methods of veterinary care, whose uncontrolled development may be an obstacle to achieving the required levels of service provision. It is recommended that countries shun apparently attractive short-term solutions, and adapt their national legislation to allow for the gradual reform of their Veterinary Services, pursuant to international standards.

  10. Is Routine Screening for Intimate Partner Violence Feasible in Public Health Care Settings in Kenya?

    PubMed

    Undie, Chi-Chi; Maternowska, M Catherine; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Askew, Ian

    2016-01-01

    More than a third of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) or non-partner sexual violence. The short- and long-term health effects of violence can be disabling if left undetected. A recent World Health Organization (WHO) report indicates that Africa is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of physical and/or sexual IPV among ever-partnered women. Routine screening for IPV can potentially improve the care and treatment of women suffering from violence. Although routine screening is commonplace in European and American countries, health systems barriers in developing countries have deterred introduction of this practice. Results from this feasibility study indicate that providers are willing and able to incorporate IPV screening into their practice and that IPV screening in a variety of health care settings in a public hospital is feasible and welcomed by clients. Referral uptake by women suffering from IPV was low compared with provider referral rates, but ways in which referral and management services could be improved were identified. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  12. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Selected South American Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. A Workshop Report, September-October, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich-Langen, Caroline, Ed.

    Information about the educational systems of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay that may be helpful to U.S. college admission officers is presented. For each of the four countries, information is provided on: country facts, the educational system, primary and secondary education, higher education, other institutions, placement recommendations,…

  13. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Patients About ACOG A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs A Partner's Guide ... May 2016 PDF Format A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Pregnancy Why is it important to be supportive ...

  14. Depressive Symptoms in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2005-01-01

    The study was a cross-sectional examination of African American women positive for intimate partner violence (IPV) who presented to the medical or psychiatric emergency department (ED) for treatment. African American women with a recent history of IPV who presented following an attempted suicide (n = 100) were compared to demographically…

  15. Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc., National 4-H Club Center (41st, Washington, D.C., July 10-11, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The theme for this conference was "Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself." The following papers were presented at this conference: (1) "The Miracle of Production--Can We Keep It" (Aubrey D. Gates); (2) "Recent U.S. Population Trends and Their Causes" (Calvin L. Beale and Donald J. Bogue); (3) "Commercial…

  16. Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc., National 4-H Club Center (41st, Washington, D.C., July 10-11, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The theme for this conference was "Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself." The following papers were presented at this conference: (1) "The Miracle of Production--Can We Keep It" (Aubrey D. Gates); (2) "Recent U.S. Population Trends and Their Causes" (Calvin L. Beale and Donald J. Bogue); (3) "Commercial…

  17. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  18. Partners in Pollinator Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Partners include USDA, states, international organizations, and stakeholders such as NGOs and bee keepers. Efforts include identifying and using best management practices to reduce honey bee exposure to dust from pesticide-treated seed.

  19. Pacific Partners Wargame Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    such as medical qualifications and malpractice considerations, can be explored as part of interoperability. Partner nations are motivated to...specialized problems. Intellectual exchanges and fora involving experts from government, industry, academic and other institutions could be employed in

  20. Burn Wise - Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Within this site you will find information for consumers to make informed decisions about what it means to burn wise. And partners will learn about how they can work with EPA to bring cleaner-burning appliances to market.

  1. Resources for Partners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes the resources and opportunities available to partners how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.

  2. CHP Partnership Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Partners of EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership include federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users, energy service companies, CHP project developers and consultants, and equipment manufacturers.

  3. Partnering for the Future

    NASA Image and Video Library

    With an ambitious new direction and a new way of doing business, NASA's Kennedy Space Center is embracing a new relationship with the commercial space industry and other partners to build a multi-u...

  4. Find RAD Partner Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RAD partner programs help protect the ozone layer and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by disposing of older, inefficient refrigerated appliances using the best environmental practices and technologies available.

  5. AgSTAR Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AgSTAR’s Partner Program builds stronger relationships with state and non-governmental stakeholders to support all phases of anaerobic digester projects: planning, deployment, and long-term success.

  6. The Risk of Partner Violence among Low-Income Hispanic Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Sonia M.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2005-01-01

    Women with few social resources are at elevated risk of partner abuse. Certain evidence suggests that African American and Hispanic women, who are overrepresented in the lower socioeconomic strata, are at particularly high risk. We compare women's risk of partner violence, defined as moderate and severe, among 2,400 low-income African American,…

  7. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  8. Health care providers' assessments of the quality of advanced-cancer care in Latin American medical institutions: a comparison of predictors in five countries: Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru.

    PubMed

    Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Aday, Lu Ann; Reyes-Gibby, Cielito; De Lima, Liliana; Herrera, Angelica P; Mendoza, Tito; Cleeland, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative Pan-American survey on advanced-cancer care and examines the quality-of-care provided by Latin American institutions. A convenience sample of 777 physicians and nurses who treat cancer patients in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru were surveyed. Providers were identified through mass mailings, distribution at professional meetings and conferences, collaboration with regional institutions, professional organizations, and PAHO and online posting. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of quality-of-care assessments in each country. The five predictive models were subsequently compared descriptively. Higher access to care ratings and greater availability of end-of-life services corresponded with improved institutional quality-of-care ratings for all five countries. Barring respondents from Cuba, providers from the other four nations who practice in public institutions rated the quality of advanced-cancer care in their own institutions lower than those practicing in private hospitals or specialized cancer centers. Other institutional quality-of-care predictors included type of city, affordability-of-care ratings, availability of opioid analgesics, where patients die, barriers to cancer pain management, and the provider's specialty and gender. These findings highlight the need for providing accessible care and services to improve the quality of advanced-cancer care in Latin American institutions. Efforts should be aimed at improving the care offered in public institutions and addressing other types of disparities that may exist within countries by creating supportive and palliative cancer care programs that are accessible and affordable to those most in need.

  9. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility.

  10. Perceived partner serostatus, attribution of responsibility for prevention of HIV transmission, and sexual risk behavior with "MAIN" partner among adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daniel S; Goldstein, Risë B; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Wong, F Lennie; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2006-04-01

    Persons living with HIV (PLH) often attribute HIV status to sexual partners based on observable partner characteristics. The present study investigated the relationship of sexual behavior with most recent "main" partner to that partner's perceived serostatus among 1,232 PLH interviewed in clinics and community agencies in Los Angeles, California. PLH who believed their most recent main partner to be HIV-negative more often identified partner appearance as a basis for their perceptions than those who believed their most recent main partner to be HIV-positive. PLH who perceived their most recent main partner as HIV-negative were more likely to assume responsibility for partner protection and always to use condoms, and less likely to report recent unprotected vaginal or anal sex with that partner. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse with their most recent main partner was less common among African American, Latino, and White participants who believed that partner to be HIV-negative. Although PLH appear protective toward HIV-negative main partners, interventions to encourage valid methods of identifying partner serostatus are needed.

  11. Caribou: mon pays blanc. Serie: Villes Franco-Americaines de la Nouvelle - Angleterre (Caribou, My Snowy Country. Collection: French-American Cities of New England, Vol. 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipyn, Michel

    This text is the second in a series of materials dealing with cities in New England having a distinct Franco-American presence. The text and supporting audio-visual materials present an overview of the city of Caribou, Maine, as seen through the eyes of its people. Its primary objective is to provide up-to-date, culturally valid Franco-American…

  12. The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia

    2013-09-07

    Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide. A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately. Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative. At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse

  13. The effects of intimate partner violence duration on individual and partner-related sexual risk factors among women.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Lee-St John, Terrence J; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among women, but less is known about mechanisms of this association and if length of relationship violence is a factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the duration of IPV and both individual and partner-related sexual risk factors that may increase women's risk for STIs and HIV. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the medical records of 2000 women. Four distinct categories defined the duration of partner violence: violence in the past year only, past year and during the past 5 years, past year plus extending for greater than 5 years, and no past year violence but a history of partner violence. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between the duration of partner violence and individual sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of sexual partners, drug and/or alcohol use, anal sex) and partner-related sexual risk factors (eg, nonmonogamy, STI risk, condom nonuse). Nearly 30% of the women in the study reported a history of partner violence during their lifetime. All of the individual risk factors, as well as partner-related risk factors, were significantly associated (P < .05) with partner violence and duration of violence. The study findings extend the knowledge related to partner violence as a risk factor for STIs/HIV, highlighting the effects of partner violence duration on the health of women. Assessing for lifetime experiences of partner violence may improve outcomes for women and their families. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  15. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  16. A Study of the Perceptions of Career American Missionaries in the Countries of Kenya and Tanzania Relating to Their Overseas Field-Based Orientation Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experience of 12 missionaries living in the Countries of Kenya and Tanzania who had participated in various field based orientation programs in order to determine their perceptions of personal success and make recommendations for future field based orientation programs for missionary personnel.…

  17. A Study of the Perceptions of Career American Missionaries in the Countries of Kenya and Tanzania Relating to Their Overseas Field-Based Orientation Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experience of 12 missionaries living in the Countries of Kenya and Tanzania who had participated in various field based orientation programs in order to determine their perceptions of personal success and make recommendations for future field based orientation programs for missionary personnel.…

  18. Availability of information in Public Health on the Internet: An analysis of national health authorities in the Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Novillo-Ortiz, David; Hernández-Pérez, Tony; Saigí-Rubió, Francesc

    2017-04-01

    Access to reliable and quality health information and appropriate medical advice can contribute to a dramatic reduction in the mortality figures of countries. The governments of the Americas are faced with the opportunity to continue working on this challenge, and their institutional presence on their websites should play a key role in this task. In a setting where the access to information is essential to both health professionals and citizens, it is relevant to analyze the role of national health authorities. Given that search engines play such a key role in the access to health information, it is important to specifically know - in connection to national health authorities - whether health information offered is easily available to the population, and whether this information is well-ranked in search engines. Quantitative methods were used to gather data on the institutional presence of national health authorities on the web. An exploratory and descriptive research served to analyze and interpret data and information obtained quantitatively from different perspectives, including an analysis by country, and also by leading causes of death. A total of 18 web pages were analyzed. Information on leading causes of death was searched on websites of national health authorities in the week of August 10-14, 2015. The probability of finding information of national health authorities on the 10 leading causes of death in a country, among the top 10 results on Google, is 6.66%. Additionally, ten out the 18 countries under study (55%) do not have information ranked among the top results in Google when searching for the selected terms. Additionally, a total of 33 websites represent the sources of information with the highest visibility for all the search strategies in each country on Google for the ten leading causes of death in a country. Two websites, the National Library of Medicine and Wikipedia, occur as a result with visibility in the total of eighteen countries of the

  19. Temporal trends in diarrhea-related hospitalizations and deaths in children under age 5 before and after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in four Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, L H; Giglio, N; Ciapponi, A; García Martí, S; Kuperman, M; Sanwogou, N J; Ruiz-Matus, C; Marinho de Sousa, M F

    2013-07-02

    Rotavirus infection mainly affects children under 5 years of age and causes 453,000 deaths annually throughout the world. Several countries in Latin America have introduced the rotavirus vaccine and the majority have epidemiological data to measure impact following vaccine introduction. To assess the impact of rotavirus immunization on the number of all-cause diarrhea-related deaths and hospitalizations in children under 1 and 5 years of age in Bolivia, El Salvador, Honduras and Venezuela. Interrupted time-series analyzed with the integral method and the projection method to evaluate the pre and post-vaccine introduction trend in diarrheal disease compared to Argentina as the control country. The analysis period was from 2002 to 2010, including 2 to 4 post-vaccine years depending on the country. Information sources included records from PAHO, the Ministry of Health, public hospitals, social security, the private health system, the Expanded Programme on Immunization and UNPop 2008. Over the period studied, reductions were observed in trends of diarrhea-related deaths and hospitalizations in children under five. In diarrhea-related deaths, under the integral method, the range of reduction was between 15.7% (13.5-17.9) and 56.8% (56.0-57.5) while with the projection method was between 19.9% (4.9-34.8) and 63.7%(56.1-71.4). In diarrhea-related hospitalizations, under the integral method was 5.6% (4.1-6.7) and 17.9% (16.7-19.1)) while with the projection method was between 5.1%(1.7-8.7) and 11.1% (5.8-16.3) CONCLUSIONS: A decrease was observed in the number of diarrhea related deaths and hospitalizations in all countries under study following introduction of the rotavirus vaccine as opposed to the control country. The impact on reduction of deaths was greater than hospitalization. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Partners of distressed transvestites.

    PubMed

    Wise, T N; Dupkin, C; Meyer, J K

    1981-09-01

    The authors studied partners of 18 transvestites who sought consultation because of their disorder. They found that all of these women were moral masochists and that all tolerated the self-centered, obsessive-compulsive behavior of their transvestic spouses. Many of these women had experienced multiple losses and poor parenting, and their transvestic partners fulfilled their dependency needs. The authors recommend supportive and insight-oriented therapy for such women who, in order to stay with a transvestic man, sacrifice their own self-esteem and desire to engage in a mutual relationship.

  1. The Discriminatory Ability of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST): An International Study in Spain and Four Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Antonio; Torres, Xavier; Messina, Osvaldo D; Vidal, Luis F; Clark, Patricia; Ríos, Carlos; Solé, Emília; Arias, Anna; Perrot, Serge; Salomon, Patricia A

    2016-05-01

    To assess the transcultural equivalency of the Spanish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) and its discriminatory ability in different Latin American samples. Validation study. Departments of Rheumatology in general hospitals and private centers; fibromyalgia unit in a university hospital. 350 chronic pain patients from Spain, Argentina, Mexico, Peru, and Ecuador. The cultural relevance of the Spanish version of the FiRST was evaluated. The ability of the FiRST as a screening tool for fibromyalgia was assessed by logistic regression analysis. To determine the degree to which potential confounders, such as differences in demographics, pain, affective distress, catastrophizing, and disability, might affect the discriminatory ability, the tool was reassessed by hierarchical multivariate logistic regression. Slightly different versions of the FiRST were recommended for use in each Latin American subsample. The FiRST showed acceptable criterion validity and was able to discriminate between fibromyalgia and non-fibromyalgia patients even after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. However, low specificities were observed in samples from Spain and Mexico. The Spanish version of the FiRST may be used as a screening tool for fibromyalgia in several Latin American subsamples, even in those patients with high scores on potential confounders. In Spain and Mexico, the low specificity of the FiRST suggests, however, that it would be best used to support a suspected diagnosis of fibromyalgia, rather than to exclude the diagnosis. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Partners of the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

  3. Partner Schools Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard W.

    A partner school simultaneously provides: (1) an exemplary education for a segment of K-12 children, (2) internships and other educational experiences for prospective teachers and administrators, and (3) continuing education for members of the profession. School districts and institutions of higher education are jointly responsible for governance…

  4. Partner Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Special Education.

    The study investigated the effectiveness of the Partner Project, a participation strategy on the participation of learning disabled high school students and their parents during the annual individualized education program (IEP) conference. Eleven students and their parents received the IEP participation strategy training which focused on…

  5. Partners: Forging Strong Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Ellen, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This newsletter issue asserts that sound, effective relationships in which diverse groups of people and organizations work together toward a common goal are the basis of the collaborative efforts in education that can accomplish change. The first article, "Partners: Forging Strong Relationships" (Sarah E. Torian), briefly describes the…

  6. Partners of the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

  7. Content for Conversation Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  8. Partners in Accomplished Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Arlington, VA.

    This report describes Partners in Accomplished Teaching, a project of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) designed to help increase the number of teachers achieving National Board Certification. It focuses on efforts in St. Paul, Minnesota; Mississippi; North Carolina; and San Antonio, Texas. The St. Paul program is a…

  9. 16 Extraordinary Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    The lives of many Hispanic Americans have made a difference in the story of America. Hispanic Americans are people whose families can be traced to the Spanish speaking countries. At the time of the 1990 census, there were 22,400,000 Hispanic Americans in the United States. They should be proud of their heritage, and should recognize the…

  10. Partner roles in contraceptive use: what do adolescent mothers say?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Dinah A; Martins, Summer L; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2012-12-01

    To examine the role of sexual partners in adolescent mothers' use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. 40 African American adolescent mothers completed surveys and qualitative interviews during the first postpartum year as part of a larger longitudinal study in Chicago, Illinois. Themes related to contraception and sexual partners were analyzed. Adolescent mothers' reports of partners' roles in the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods (i.e., oral contraceptives, intrauterine contraception, and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate). Partners largely supported the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods, yet mechanisms of support varied greatly, from advocating for specific methods to facilitating participants' continuation of their chosen method. Unsupportive partners either expressed concerns about the safety and side effects of specific methods or desired another child in the near future. Participants valued these preferences to different degrees when making their contraceptive decisions. Partners of adolescent mothers play varying roles in postpartum contraceptive decisions. They thus have the potential both to inhibit and to facilitate the use of non-coital dependent contraception. Quantitative research is needed to further evaluate how partner attitudes and support behaviors, among other factors, affect contraceptive initiation and continuation among adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  12. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement.

  13. Alcohol may not cause partner violence but it seems to make it worse: a cross national comparison of the relationship between alcohol and severity of partner violence.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Gmel, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    This study assesses whether severity of physical partner aggression is associated with alcohol consumption at the time of the incident, and whether the relationship between drinking and aggression severity is the same for men and women and across different countries. National or large regional general population surveys were conducted in 13 countries as part of the GENACIS collaboration. Respondents described the most physically aggressive act done to them by a partner in the past 2 years, rated the severity of aggression on a scale of 1 to 10, and reported whether either partner had been drinking when the incident occurred. Severity ratings were significantly higher for incidents in which one or both partners had been drinking compared to incidents in which neither partner had been drinking. The relationship did not differ significantly for men and women or by country. We conclude that alcohol consumption may serve to potentiate violence when it occurs, and this pattern holds across a diverse set of cultures. Further research is needed that focuses explicitly on the nature of alcohol's contribution to intimate partner aggression. Prevention needs to address the possibility of enhanced dangers of intimate partner violence when the partners have been drinking and eliminate any systemic factors that permit alcohol to be used as an excuse. Clinical services for perpetrators and victims of partner violence need to address the role of drinking practices, including the dynamics and process of aggressive incidents that occur when one or both partners have been drinking.

  14. Country of birth is associated with very low food security among Mexican American older adults living in colonias along the south Texas border with Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate household food supply is critical for the older population. There is little work that has examined food security and the influence of nativity on food security among older Mexican Americans living along the Texas-Mexico border. Using data from 140 older women (age ≥ 50 y) who participated in the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA), we examined demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, quality of food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. 77% of participants experienced food insecurity, with 68% experiencing very low food security. Very low food security was associated with being born in Mexico, adjusting for household income and food assistance program participation. This article provides compelling evidence for enhanced research efforts that will better understand coping strategies and the use of food and nutrition assistance programs for reducing hardship associated with very low food security among older U.S.- and Mexico-born Mexican American women.

  15. Committee opinion no 632: Expedited partner therapy in the management of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women and create a preventable threat to their fertility. One factor that contributes to young women's high rates of STIs is reinfection from an untreated sexual partner. One way to address this problem is through expedited partner therapy, the practice of treating the sexual partners of patients in whom STIs are diagnosed. Expedited partner therapy enables the obstetrician-gynecologist or other provider to give prescriptions or medications to patients to take to their partners without first examining these partners. Despite the effectiveness of expedited partner therapy, numerous legal, medical, practical, and administrative barriers hinder its routine use by obstetrician-gynecologists. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the use of expedited partner therapy as a method of preventing gonorrhea and chlamydial reinfection when a patient's partners are unable or unwilling to seek medical care. Expedited partner therapy should be accompanied by patient counseling and written treatment instructions for the patient's partner(s). Partners receiving expedited partner therapy should be encouraged to seek additional medical evaluation as soon as possible to discuss screening for other STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

  16. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women’s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. 10,119 married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 are included in the analysis. Probit regression models are used to assess the association between intimate partner violence and mental health, after controlling for other demographic factors and partner characteristics. The questionnaire uses selected questions from the SRQ-20 to measure symptoms of mental health problems. Results Intimate partner violence is common in Bolivia, with 47% of women experiencing some type of spousal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Women exposed to physical spousal violence in the past year are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and psychotic disorders, after controlling for other demographic and partner characteristics. Women who experienced sexual abuse by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental health issues. Psychological abuse is also associated with an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychogenic seizures. Women who experienced only psychological abuse report mental health problems similar to those who were physically abused. Conclusion This study demonstrates an urgent need for research on the prevalence and health consequences of psychological abuse in developing countries. Our findings highlight the need for mental health services for victims of intimate partner violence. Because physical and psychological violence are often experienced concurrently

  17. 2014 RAD Spring Partner Meeting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The RAD program held an in-person Partner Meeting on April 29, 2014. As in prior years, the meeting was structured as a facilitated roundtable dialogue for partners to share recycling program experiences, opportunities and challenges.

  18. 2015 RAD Fall Partner Meeting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This meeting covered the following discussion topics: 2014 RAD partner achievements and trends, national and international efforts to address HFCs, enhancing RAD partner recognition, and communicating the benefits of RAD.

  19. Racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in four South American countries: the role of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. DESIGN. Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries.

  20. Racial Gaps in Child Health Insurance Coverage in Four South American Countries: The Role of Wealth, Human Capital, and Other Household Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. Design Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. Data Collection/Extraction Methods In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. Principal Findings The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. Conclusions Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries. PMID:21210797

  1. Parents as Writing Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

  2. [Anesthesiology: partner or competitor?].

    PubMed

    Körner, C M; Weigand, M A; Martin, E

    2012-04-01

    Surgery and anesthesiology have always been closely connected. Within the increasing complexity of therapies and technical capabilities both subjects overlap in certain areas. This article deals with the question whether anesthesiology is acting as a partner or competitor in the cooperation with the various operative specialties. In several studies it has been shown that the outcome of surgical patients can be improved by communication and interaction with anesthesiology and that forming multidisciplinary teams will be highly beneficial for patients in intensive care units.

  3. A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential elections in 2010, and a comparison with other Latin American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Diógenes

    2011-05-01

    A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential election is presented. We assume that the electoral system consists of citizens embedded in a political environment, and that this environment can be considered as an information bath characterized by the entropic parameter q ( q∈[0,∞]). First, for q=1, the electoral outcomes of 2010 are translated into a set of probabilities (relative frequencies of the events) P={P1,P2,…,PN}, with N possible independent results. Then, for 0≤q<∞, the electoral system is characterized by using the thermodynamic-like method for probabilistic systems proposed in a previous article. Some general considerations of the macro-description of a probabilistic system and a comparison of presidential elections in five countries are also included.

  4. 78 FR 23101 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... trade with our partners abroad and open new markets for American products. We have worked together to..., and Peru, we are making progress toward a Trans-Pacific Partnership. And inter-American trade is... April 17, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 8957--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013...

  5. What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.

  6. High Level of Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Ten American Countries as a Crucial Factor in the Spread of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Girod, Romain

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a major public health problem. In 2004, CHIKV began an unprecedented global expansion and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa, Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean region, and surprisingly, in temperate regions, such as Europe. Intriguingly, no local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had been reported in the Americas until recently, despite the presence of vectors and annually reported imported cases. Here, we assessed the vector competence of 35 American Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito populations for three CHIKV genotypes. We also compared the number of viral particles of different CHIKV strains in mosquito saliva at two different times postinfection. Primarily, viral dissemination rates were high for all mosquito populations irrespective of the tested CHIKV isolate. In contrast, differences in transmission efficiency (TE) were underlined in populations of both species through the Americas, suggesting the role of salivary glands in selecting CHIKV for highly efficient transmission. Nonetheless, both mosquito species were capable of transmitting all three CHIKV genotypes, and TE reached alarming rates as high as 83.3% and 96.7% in A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations, respectively. A. albopictus better transmitted the epidemic mutant strain CHIKV_0621 of the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype than did A. aegypti, whereas the latter species was more capable of transmitting the original ECSA CHIKV_115 strain and also the Asian genotype CHIKV_NC. Therefore, a high risk of establishment and spread of CHIKV throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more real than ever. IMPORTANCE Until recently, the Americas had never reported chikungunya (CHIK) autochthonous transmission despite its global expansion beginning in 2004. Large regions of the continent are highly infested with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and millions of dengue (DEN

  7. Profits for nonprofits: find a corporate partner.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, A R

    1996-01-01

    Here's a familiar story. A nonprofit organization joins forces with a corporation in a caused-related marketing campaign. It seems like a win-win deal, but the nonprofit--and the media--find out several weeks into the campaign that the corporation's business practices are antithetical to the nonprofit's mission. The nonprofit's credibility is severely damaged. Is the moral of the story that nonprofits should steer clear of alliances with for-profit organizations? Not at all, Alan Andreasen says. Nonprofit managers can help their organizations avoid many of the risks and reap the rewards of cause-related marketing alliances by thinking of themselves not as charities but as partners in the marketing effort. More than ever, nonprofits need what many companies can offer: crucial new sources of revenue. But nonprofits offer corporate partners a great deal in return: the opportunity to enhance their image--and increase the bottom line--by supporting a worthy cause. Consider the fruitful partnership between American Express and Share Our Strength, a hunger-relief organization. Through the Charge Against Hunger program, now in its fourth year, American Express has helped contribute more than +16 million to SOS. In return, American Express has seen an increase in transactions with the card and in the number of merchants carrying the card. How can nonprofit managers build a successful partnership? They can assess their organization to see how it can add value to a corporate partner. They can identify those companies that stand to gain the most from a cause-related marketing alliance. And they can take an active role in shaping the partnership and monitoring its progress.

  8. Ethical Considerations in the Recruitment of Military Partners in Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Research.

    PubMed

    Yambo, Teresa W; Hamilton, Rebekah; Johnson, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of military partners in combat-related posttraumatic disorder (PTSD) research necessitates nurses' awareness to their unique ethical concerns. Safeguarding the ethical rights of partners living with veterans with PTSD is crucial to the development and implementation of quality, rigorous research designs. Nurses should understand the unique ethical considerations that pertain to partners' participation in PTSD research. To describe the ethical considerations relating to the recruitment of partners in PTSD research. A succinct discussion of the recent concerns in the recruitment of military partners in PTSD research. The ethical guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association are employed to describe implications for researchers, educators, and administrators. For clinical nurses, the American Nurses Association's initiative to support military families is used to guide our discussion. Nurses are in a leading position to advocate for the ethical recruitment of military partners in PTSD research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is gravidity 4+ a risk factor for oral clefts? A case-control study in eight South american countries using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Gili, Juan Antonio; Poletta, Fernando Adrián; Campaña, Hebe; Comas, Belén; Pawluk, Mariela; Rittler, Monica; López-Camelo, Jorge Santiago

    2013-09-01

    Background : There is disagreement about the association between cleft lip with or without cleft palate and multigravidity, which could be explained by differences of adjusting for maternal age, Amerindian ancestry, and socioeconomic status. Objective : The aim was to evaluate gravidity 4+ (four or more gestations) as a risk factor for cleft lip with or without cleft palate in South America. Design : We used a matched (1:1) case-control study with structural equation modeling for related causes. Data were obtained from 1,371,575 consecutive newborn infants weighing ≥500 g who were born in the hospitals of the Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congénitas (ECLAMC) network between 1982 and 1999. There were a total of 1,271 cases with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (excluding midline and atypical cleft lip with or without cleft palate). A total of 1,227 case-control pairs were obtained, matched by maternal age, newborn gender, and year and place of birth. Potential confounders and intermediary variables were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Results : The crude risk of gravidity 4+ was 1.41 and the 95% confidence interval was 1.14 to 1.61. When applying structural equation modeling, the effect of multigravidity on the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate was 1.22 and the 95% confidence interval was 0.91 to 1.39. Conclusions : Multigravid mothers (more than four gestations) showed no greater risk of bearing children who had cleft lip with or without cleft palate than mothers with two or three births. Therefore, the often observed and reported association between multigravidity and oral clefts likely reflects the effect of other risk factors related to low socioeconomic status in South American populations.

  10. Fear of past abusive partner(s) impacts current posttraumatic stress among women experiencing partner violence.

    PubMed

    Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning.

  11. FEAR OF PAST ABUSIVE PARTNER(S) IMPACTS CURRENT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS AMONG WOMEN EXPERIENCING PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514

  12. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  13. Classifying partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisoned for the murder of their female partner or spouse in England were identified from two prison samples. A content dictionary defining offense and offender characteristics associated with two dimensions of psychopathology and criminality was developed. These variables were extracted from institutional records via content analysis and analyzed for thematic structure using multidimensional scaling procedures. The resultant framework classified 80% (n = 72) of the sample into three subgroups of men characterized by (a) low criminality/low psychopathology (15%), (b) moderate-high criminality/ high psychopathology (36%), and (c) high criminality/low-moderate psychopathology (49%). The latter two groups are akin to Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) generally violent/antisocial and dysphoric/borderline offender, respectively. The implications for intervention, developing consensus in research methodology across the field, and examining typologies of domestic violent men prospectively are discussed.

  14. Gastric bypass may promote weight loss in overweight partners.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Floor; Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Geenen, Rinie; von Rosenstiel, Ines A; Hinnen, Chris; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; Gerdes, Victor E A

    2015-01-01

    Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. In this observational prospective study, family members of patients who had gastric bypass surgery (88 partners, 20 children ≥18 years old, and 25 children between 12 and 17 years old) were repeatedly assessed. Family members were asked to assess their weight and height before and 3, 6, and 12 months following bariatric surgery, and they filled out the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Between baseline and 1 year following surgery, 49 partners of patients who underwent gastric bypass surgery (66.2%) lost weight, 6 (8.1%) remained stable, and 19 (25.7%) gained weight. Body mass index of partners (P = .002), particularly of overweight partners (P < .001)-but not children-showed a small, significant decrease over time. No significant changes in eating behavior among partners or children were found. The study indicates that gastric bypass surgery may have a ripple effect, with body weight in partners of patients decreasing over time. However, there is considerable variation in the postoperative weight loss of partners. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: screening and intervention.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Christian A; Bullock, Linda; Ferguson, James E Jef

    2017-08-01

    In the first part of this review, we provided currently accepted definitions of categories and subcategories of intimate partner violence and discussed the prevalence and health impacts of intimate partner violence in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Herein we review current recommendations for intimate partner violence screening and the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of intimate partner violence interventions. Screening for intimate partner violence may include exclusively identification of victims of intimate partner violence or both the identification of and intervention for victims. Until recently, many professional organizations did not recommend universal screening for intimate partner violence because of a lack of evidence of effectiveness of screening, lack of evidence demonstrating that screening is not harmful, and/or a lack of consensus regarding the most effective screening tool. The lack of evidence supporting an intervention posed an additional barrier to screening. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has been a staunch advocate for universal intimate partner violence screening, even when other groups either did not endorse screening or recommended it only for high-risk women. Recent published data confirm that screening is more reliable than usual care in identifying victims of intimate partner violence, both during pregnancy and in nonpregnant women. Likewise, recent published data show that there are no apparent harms of screening for intimate partner violence and that the act of screening may have an empowering effect on women and improve their relationship with and trust in their health care providers. Despite these findings, the implementation rate of intimate partner violence screening remains low. Most encouraging are the recent data showing that interventions performed after screening for intimate partner violence are effective in reducing depression symptoms and episodes of violence as well as improving some

  16. Eastern and Central Kansas Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sara E.

    Country schools in eastern and central Kansas are explored from six different aspects: country schools as historic sites; teachers (their roles, rules, and restrictions); reading, writing, arithmetic, and recitation (a day in a rural school); country schools and the Americanization of ethnic groups; country schools as community centers; and…

  17. Communication Partner Training in Aphasia: An Updated Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Raymer, Anastasia; Cherney, Leora R

    2016-12-01

    To update a previous systematic review describing the effect of communication partner training on individuals with aphasia and their communication partners, with clinical questions addressing effects of partner training on language, communication activity/participation, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. Twelve electronic databases were searched using 23 search terms. References from relevant articles were hand searched. Three reviewers independently reviewed abstracts, excluding those that failed to meet inclusion criteria. Thirty-two full text articles were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. Articles not meeting inclusion criteria were eliminated, resulting in a corpus of 25 articles for full review. For the 25 articles, 1 reviewer extracted descriptive data regarding participants, intervention, outcome measures, and results. A second reviewer verified the accuracy of the extracted data. The 3-member review team classified studies using the American Academy of Neurology levels of evidence. Two independent reviewers evaluated each article using design-specific tools to assess research quality. All 25 of the current review articles reported positive changes from partner training. Therefore, to date, 56 studies across 2 systematic reviews have reported positive outcomes from communication partner training in aphasia. The results of the current review are consistent with the previous review and necessitate no change to the earlier recommendations, suggesting that communication partner training should be conducted to improve partner skill in facilitating the communication of people with chronic aphasia. Additional high-quality research is needed to strengthen the original 2010 recommendations and expand recommendations to individuals with acute aphasia. High-quality clinical trials are also needed to demonstrate implementation of communication partner training in complex environments (eg, health care). Copyright © 2016 American Congress of

  18. EPA and Partners Announce National Plan to Prevent Lung Cancer Deaths Due to Radon Exposure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), American Lung Association, and other partners are announcing a strategy for preventing 3,200 lung cancer deaths annually by 2020 through radon exposure reduction strategies. Exposur

  19. Bed Partner "Gas-Lighting" as a Cause of Fictitious Sleep-Talking.

    PubMed

    Bashford, James; Leschziner, Guy

    2015-10-15

    A case report highlighting a rare and striking, but perhaps under-recognized, cause of reported sleep-talking to a specialist sleep clinic, involving "gas-lighting" by the bed partner. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  1. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  2. Convening Our Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Describes the American Association of Community Colleges' first summit on workforce development. Presents key points from the summit, including: (1) the possible creation of a National Business Forum; (2) the marketing of community colleges as a major part of economic development in the nation; and (3) a more unified research agenda among and…

  3. Food insecurity and intimate partner violence against women: results from the California Women's Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Ricks, Joni L; Cochran, Susan D; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Williams, John K; Seeman, Teresa E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence in a population-based sample of heterosexual women. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between three levels of food insecurity and intimate partner violence. Data from 6 years of the California Women's Health Survey. Randomly selected women (n 16 562) aged 18 years and older from the State of California, USA. We found: (i) that African-American women had a higher prevalence of food insecurity and were more likely to report severe intimate partner violence; (ii) a strong positive association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence; (iii) evidence of effect modification of the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence by marital status; and (iv) higher odds of intimate partner violence among those reporting more severe food insecurity. Food insecurity is an important risk indicator for intimate partner violence among women. Understanding the factors that put women, especially minority women, at greatest risk facilitates intervention development.

  4. Latin American Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsunce, Cesar A. Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Examination of the situation of archives in four Latin American countries--Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica--highlights national systems, buildings, staff, processing of documents, accessibility and services to the public and publications and extension services. (EJS)

  5. North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology

    MedlinePlus

    ... removeClass('notactive'); autoPlay();}); }); About NASPAG The North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG), founded in ... Bayer/NASPAG Young Investigator Grant The North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) has partnered ...

  6. Country Reports on Terrorism 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Palestine- General Command (PFLP-GC) Al-Qaida (AQ) Al-Qaida in Iraq (AQI) Real IRA (RIRA) Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC...the Country Reports provides such a summary, and complements the detailed observations contained in other parts of the document. General Trends in...most prominent current terrorist threat to the United States and our international partners. However, some general trends -- beyond solely al-Qaida

  7. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  8. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  9. Partnering with NASA: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Partnerships is an important part of doing business at NASA. NASA partners with external organizations to access capabilities under collaborative agreements; enters into agreements for partner access to NASA capabilities; expand overall landscape of space activity; and spurring innovation. NASA partnerships consist of Reimbursable and Non-Reimbursable Space Act Agreements. Partnerships at Ames aligns with Ames' core competencies, and Partners often office in the NASA Research Park, which is an established regional innovation cluster that facilitates commercialization and services as a technology accelerator via onsite collaborations between NASA and its partners.

  10. China seeks Korean partners

    SciTech Connect

    Hyoungjin Kim

    1993-03-03

    In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May.

  11. The Latin American Center for Pediatric Oncology Nursing Education: development, implementation, and accomplishments.

    PubMed

    Day, Sara W; Segovia, Lorena; Viveros, Paola; Alqudimat, Mohammad R; Rivera, Gaston K

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric oncology nurses in low- and middle-income countries have limited access to specialized education and clinical training. This is a major impediment for treating children with cancer and contributes to the disparity in survival rates between high- and low-income countries. The International Outreach Nursing Program at St Jude Children's Research Hospital established full-time nurse educator positions at partner sites throughout Latin America. Experienced nurses were hired as educators; however, they had no formal pediatric oncology education, limited teaching experience, and no mentors as this was a new nursing role in low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to create a regional education center to prepare nurse educators to succeed in this pioneering role. The Latin American Center for Pediatric Oncology Nursing Education was created at Calvo Mackenna Hospital in Santiago, Chile, to provide education, resources, and support to educators. Education resources, including a comprehensive orientation program and courses in chemotherapy and central venous line care, were developed. A 4-week on-site comprehensive educator course and an organized support system were implemented. Education, resources, and support have been provided to 13 nurse educators representing 7 Latin American countries. The educators have provided pediatric oncology education to more than 1000 nurses. The center promotes excellence in pediatric oncology nursing by preparing and supporting educators, who in turn educate the entire nursing staff at partner sites. Nurse educators equipped with knowledge and skills can improve the quality of care and ultimately survival of patients throughout Latin America.

  12. Sexual Partner Type Taxonomy Use Among Black Adolescent Mothers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H.; Dozier, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research on sexual-partner type focuses mostly on “main” and “casual” partner categories. The literature indicates that adolescent girls are less likely to use condoms with main partners, and more likely to use condoms with casual partners. Adolescent mothers may have different types of sexual partners than other adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the range of male sexual partner types reported by Black adolescent mothers. Design and Sample This study was a qualitative description of the perspectives of Black, predominantly African-American, mothers (n=31). Data were generated using focus groups and interviews. The participants' ages ranged from 15–19 years. Measures A semi-structured qualitative questioning guide was used to stimulate focused discussions. Transcribed data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The range of sexual partner types of the women were reflected in three themes (1) All main partners are not created equal; (2) They're not casual partners because there are strings attached; (3) “Wham, bam, thank you ma'am:” No strings attached. Nine partner types were identified under these three themes, including a “baby daddy” partner. Conclusion The partner-types of Black adolescent mothers are more robust than the “main” and “casual” partner categories typically referenced in the research literature. The range of sex partners includes the birth fathers of their children. Clinicians and researchers must consider how co-parenthood status is used in the construction of the “baby daddy” partner and what implications this unique sexual partner type may have on risk reduction behaviors such as condom use. PMID:25382990

  13. Phare Multi-Country Programme for Distance Education. Programme Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This publication provides information on the achievements of the Phare Multi-Country Program for Distance Education. Chapter 1 contains two introductory papers. Chapter 2 contains country profiles that describe establishment of distance education infrastructures in the 13 Phare partner countries: Albania; Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;…

  14. "Competence" and Occupational Standards: Observations from Six European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Stan; Religa, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the use of "competence" as a concept and through the use of occupational competence standards in six European countries. Design/methodology/approach: Partners in an Erasmus+ project in each of the six countries prepared a review of the use of "competence" in their countries using…

  15. Country case report Uganda.

    PubMed

    Amandua, Jacinto; Bakeera, Solome Kiribakka; Mpeka, Betty A; Sund, Birgitta

    2003-01-01

    Health status indicators for Uganda are poor partly because of the repercussions of the historical conflicts. Poverty among the population is high. According to the Burden of Disease study done in 1995, over 75% of the life years lost due to premature death were due to ten preventable diseases. Government of Uganda, in collaboration with the Development Partners, has evolved a number of strategies to address priority concerns in the Health Sector. In 1999 a 10-year National Health Policy (NHP) was adopted together with the development of a five year Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP) to guide the implementation of the NHP. The NHP and the HSSP guide the current structure of the health services in the country, including the hospital services. However the focus in the reform process has been on primary health care but the hospitals have not been given sufficient attention. This country report concludes that the resources available for the health services in the country are very limited and the biggest challenge is to get the most out of these scanty resources. A further challenge identified is the need also to bring the hospitals in the mainstreamed health reform process. There is need for the hospitals to re-orientate themselves and strengthen the promotive and preventive services in addition to curative, rehabilitative and palliatives services. Finally, there is the need to improve access to hospital services as well as the standard of the hospital service.

  16. WASPs (Wives As Senior Partners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline

    For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under…

  17. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  19. WASPs (Wives As Senior Partners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline

    For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under…

  20. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans.