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Sample records for american economic review

  1. A May American Economic Review Papers Seminar and an Analytic Project for Advanced Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Catherine S.

    2004-01-01

    The author describes two learning activities for teaching economics at the advanced undergraduate level: a May American Economic Review (AER) papers seminar and an analytic project. Both activities help students learn to "do economics." The May AER papers seminar promotes in-depth synthesis and interpretation on the basis of printed session papers…

  2. Bad Economic News: Worried American Families Face Uncertain Future. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the uncertain economic future facing American families. Specific issues examined include: (1) the weakening economy's impact on low- to middle-wage families; (2) federal income tax rebate checks; (3) shrinking federal budget surplus and shifting of funding from child care for younger children to care for older children; and (4) ways to…

  3. The Economics of Reduced Impact Logging in the American Tropics: A Review of Recent Initiatives

    Treesearch

    Frederick Boltz; Thomas P. Holmes; Douglas R. Carter

    1999-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing and implementing reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques are currently underway in important forest regions of Latin America, given the importance of timber production in the American tropics to national and global markets. RIL efforts focus upon planning and extraction methods which lessen harvest impact on residual commercial timber...

  4. Driving American Economic Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Muriel A.

    2009-01-01

    Surmounting a national--indeed global--recession in the wake of war is not new to America or its leaders. Born out of one of the nation's darkest moments of the 20th century were bold initiatives to empower those who served their country as well as all who sought to enter the American middle class. The GI Bill of Rights was one such measure, as…

  5. Economic consequences of retiree concentrations: a review of North American studies.

    PubMed

    Serow, William J

    2003-12-01

    The study of patterns of residential mobility among individuals around the age of retirement has led to the recognition that for many reasons-climate and cost of living being the most frequently cited-settlement patterns of comparatively affluent retirees will often differ from those of the working-age population. Increasingly, localities may often seek this type of relocation, on the theory that the newcomers will provide a boost to the local economy through expenditures and tax payments. In addition, there is often the perception that such a strategy will not cost the community much in the way of locally provided public services. The past several years have witnessed a substantial increase in efforts to provide some quantitative estimates on the magnitude of these hypothetical effects. This article aims at providing a summary assessment of such analyses, incorporating research projects in both the United States and Canada. Practically all such studies may be characterized as being exclusively short term in nature; that is, they focus more or less exclusively on the near-term implications of retiree inmigration, which do tend to be overwhelmingly positive from an economic or fiscal perspective. In general, this area of inquiry may be characterized by a paucity of knowledge regarding the longer term effects of such population movement. There has been no effort to analyze the aging in place of the erstwhile newcomers or the failure of the retirement migration process to generate other than a plethora of opportunities for comparatively low-skill, low-wage service employment. Policies intended to foster amenity migration as an economic development tool would greatly benefit from longer term analyses of the economic implications of the process.

  6. Technology, enterprise, and American economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.

    1982-03-05

    America may have once led the world in economic development based on technology, but US firms are no longer matching foreign competitors in either the domestic or world markets. Mr. Lewis feels that much of the US supremacy was a post-war phenomenon due to European refugee scientists. Economic and technological strength are more fundamental than deregulation, low expenditures for research and development, lack of capital and long-range planning, and other arguments that, if reversed, would revitalize American industry. The author reviews the relationship of technology and economic growth, pointing out that Japanese industry has faced many of the same problems with different behavior patterns. The variations in behavior due to differences in social values, priorities, and attitudes affect individual performance and response to innovation. Inflation increases the pressure for short-term gains and encourages analytical management. Mr. Lewis thinks that, for international competition to move Americans to develop a sense of common interest between labor and management and producer and consumer, industry must lead the effort to unmask the adversarial barriers to mutual trust. 52 references, 1 figure, 3 tables. (DCK)

  7. American Women: Dimensions in Economic Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casperson, Luvonia J.

    The economic evolution of American women from the colonial era to 1984 is examined. The labor-scarce environment of the colonial era gave women access to any occupation they wished, e.g., field work, household manufacturing. With the Industrial Revolution, 1820-1865, the role of women changed. Industrialists hired women because they would work for…

  8. The Overeducated American? A Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis

    A review is presented of Richard Freeman's "The Overeducated American," a book that proposes that the U.S. has entered an era in which the college degree cannot be assumed to be a safe avenue to economic success. Focus here is on five of the book's seven main conclusions. Freeman's evidence documenting the new depression for…

  9. Economic Hardship and Adaptation among Asian American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2010-01-01

    Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family…

  10. The American Economic System...and Your Part In It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The booklet, intended for adult or continuing education, discusses the American economic system, emphasizing definitions of economic concepts and the individual's role as part of the system. The objective is to provide a simple description of the American economic system and to promote better understanding of it. The booklet is presented in six…

  11. Project Teacher Excellence for Economically Deprived and Culturally Differentiated Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Lady of the Lake Coll., San Antonio, TX.

    Project Teacher Excellence for Economically Deprived and Culturally Differentiated Americans provides for the search for Mexican-Americans living in economically deprived areas of the Southwest who have potential ability but who would not go to college without financial aid. Those identified and selected for aid are admitted to Our Lady of the…

  12. Economic and Community Development Resource Guide for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association on American Indian Affairs, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Association on American Indian Affairs compiled a collection of sources for Native Americans pertaining to economic and community development. Sections included in the resource guide are: (1) information services and sources; (2) computer databases; (3) technical assistance organizations; (4) organizations that support economic development;…

  13. Economic Stress, Parenting, and Child Adjustment in Mexican American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Duffy, Sharon; Buriel, Raymond; Dennis, Jessica; Powers, Justina; French, Sabine; Widaman, Keith F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic hardship on 111 European American and 167 Mexican American families and their 5th-grade (M age 11.4 years) children, a family stress model was evaluated. Structural equation analyses revealed that economic hardship was linked to indexes of economic pressure that were related to depressive symptoms for mothers and…

  14. Economic Values Implicit in the Social Construction of American Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeffery E.

    Five economic hypotheses of what American universities value (profit, production, prestige, faculty consumption, or academic resources and activities) were tested to illustrate the implicit value framework, a conceptual framework for inferring the objective economic values of an organization from the manner in which society has defined its…

  15. Economic stress, parenting, and child adjustment in Mexican American and European American families.

    PubMed

    Parke, Ross D; Coltrane, Scott; Duffy, Sharon; Buriel, Raymond; Dennis, Jessica; Powers, Justina; French, Sabine; Widaman, Keith F

    2004-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic hardship on 111 European American and 167 Mexican American families and their 5th-grade (M age=11.4 years) children, a family stress model was evaluated. Structural equation analyses revealed that economic hardship was linked to indexes of economic pressure that were related to depressive symptoms for mothers and fathers of both ethnicities. Depressive symptoms were linked to marital problems and hostile parenting. Paternal hostile parenting was related to child adjustment problems for European Americans, whereas marital problems were linked to child adjustment problems for Mexican Americans. Maternal acculturation was associated with both higher marital problems and lower hostile parenting. The utility of the model for describing the effects of economic hardship in Mexican Americans is noted.

  16. 3rd latin american and Caribbean congress on health economics.

    PubMed

    Pérez Izquierdo, Victoria; Alvarez Muñiz, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    The 3rd Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Health Economics took place at Havana Convention Center from 28th to 31st October 2008. The conference was an excellent opportunity for the exchange of personal encounters regarding health economics and its related disciplines from the perspectives of research, teaching and management. Specialists from mostly Latin American countries attended the event. High-ranking specialists from other countries highlighted the importance and popularity of the conference. A total of 313 delegates from 23 countries were present at the congress, 160 of whom were Cuban.

  17. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans. PMID:21961060

  18. Native American Traditional Economic Values and Systems: Some Dispersed Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, L. Mayland

    In order to test the hypothesis which states "the economic values of traditional tribal cultures are essentially the same", seven culturally and geographically diversified Native American tribes were investigated via library research. The tribes studied were: Mohawk and/or Iroquois (microthermal climate); Maricopa (tropical desert environment);…

  19. Native American Traditional Economic Values and Systems: Some Dispersed Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, L. Mayland

    In order to test the hypothesis which states "the economic values of traditional tribal cultures are essentially the same", seven culturally and geographically diversified Native American tribes were investigated via library research. The tribes studied were: Mohawk and/or Iroquois (microthermal climate); Maricopa (tropical desert environment);…

  20. Economic Development in American Indian Reservations. Development Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed.

    A collection of 13 scholarly articles and essays, this book makes available hard-to-find information and theories about American Indian economic development. Part I, "The Land and the People", emphasizes cultural traditions and beliefs of Indian people and traces the development of the concept of sovereignty and its applicability to…

  1. Economic Development in American Indian Reservations. Development Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed.

    A collection of 13 scholarly articles and essays, this book makes available hard-to-find information and theories about American Indian economic development. Part I, "The Land and the People", emphasizes cultural traditions and beliefs of Indian people and traces the development of the concept of sovereignty and its applicability to…

  2. Conducting systematic reviews of economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gomersall, Judith Streak; Jadotte, Yuri Tertilus; Xue, Yifan; Lockwood, Suzi; Riddle, Dru; Preda, Alin

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, a working group was established to review and enhance the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidance for conducting systematic review of evidence from economic evaluations addressing a question(s) about health intervention cost-effectiveness. The objective is to present the outcomes of the working group. The group conducted three activities to inform the new guidance: review of literature on the utility/futility of systematic reviews of economic evaluations and consideration of its implications for updating the existing methodology; assessment of the critical appraisal tool in the existing guidance against criteria that promotes validity in economic evaluation research and two other commonly used tools; and a workshop. The debate in the literature on the limitations/value of systematic review of economic evidence cautions that systematic reviews of economic evaluation evidence are unlikely to generate one size fits all answers to questions about the cost-effectiveness of interventions and their comparators. Informed by this finding, the working group adjusted the framing of the objectives definition in the existing JBI methodology. The shift is away from defining the objective as to determine one cost-effectiveness measure toward summarizing study estimates of cost-effectiveness and informed by consideration of the included study characteristics (patient, setting, intervention component, etc.), identifying conditions conducive to lowering costs and maximizing health benefits. The existing critical appraisal tool was included in the new guidance. The new guidance includes the recommendation that a tool designed specifically for the purpose of appraising model-based studies be used together with the generic appraisal tool for economic evaluations assessment to evaluate model-based evaluations. The guidance produced by the group offers reviewers guidance for each step of the systematic review process, which are the same steps followed in JBI reviews of other

  3. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  4. Economic crises and mortality: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Falagas, M E; Vouloumanou, E K; Mavros, M N; Karageorgopoulos, D E

    2009-08-01

    Studies evaluating the association of economic variables with mortality have produced mixed findings. We sought to evaluate whether economic crises confer increase in mortality. We reviewed studies analysing mortality in the general population in periods of economic crisis compared with periods prior to or after the crisis, by searching PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and the World Wide Web. Eleven studies were included in this review; they referred to economic crises that occurred in Russia, South Korea, as well as South or Central American, African or European countries (5, 2, 2, 1 and 1 studies respectively). Periods of economic crises were associated with the increase in all-cause mortality in seven out of eight studies that reported specific relevant data and increase in cardiovascular mortality in six out of seven studies. Increase in mortality because of respiratory infections, chronic liver disease, suicides, homicides and mortality in infants was noted in association with economic crises in all 5, 4, 6, 5 and 3 studies, respectively, that reported specific relevant data. Mortality from transport accidents decreased with economic crises in five out of six studies. Economic crises in less affluent countries are accompanied with the increase in all-cause mortality, as well as mortality from most of the major specific causes. Further data are needed to establish the effect of economic crises on mortality in more affluent countries. We believe that the above-mentioned association could be attributed to increased psychosocial stress during such periods, among other factors. Public health authorities should be aware of this issue and consider appropriate preventive and control measures.

  5. Annual Review of Asian American Psychology, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang; Tilton, Kelsey E.; Juang, Linda; Wang, Yijie

    2015-01-01

    This 2014 review of Asian American psychology is the sixth review in the series. It includes 316 articles that met the inclusion criteria established by the past five annual reviews. Featured articles were derived from three sources: 137 were generated via the search term “Asian American” in PyscINFO, 111 were generated via a search for specific Asian American ethnic groups, and 32 were generated via author searches of articles that met the inclusion criteria. The top primary topic was health and health-related behaviors, the most frequently employed study design was cross-sectional, and the most studied Asian American ethnic group was Chinese. This year’s review includes information on the target population of the primary topic, the age range and developmental period of participants, and whether the study design was cross-sectional or longitudinal. It also identifies top authors and journals contributing to the 2014 annual review. These new features reveal that the most common target population of the primary topic was youths; studies most commonly included emerging adults ages 18–25; cross-sectional study design was employed more often than longitudinal design; the top contributor to the 2014 review was Stephen Chen, who authored the highest number of papers included; and the Asian American Journal of Psychology generated the highest number of publications for this review. PMID:26925199

  6. Research Review: Magazine Management and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on magazine management and economics. Finds that most citations are from business and trade publications; research is being presented at conferences but not published; most management research covers industry trends rather than specific industry topics; and no solid base of conceptual and theoretical magazine management research…

  7. Review of Computer Software for Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison-Thurston, Peggy, Comp.; And Others

    This selective review of educational software provides evaluations of over 80 programs in the home economics subject area. The evaluation form highlights the concerns of sex equity (inviting to all students), content (accurate), presentation (logical, includes graphics and sound), interaction (user friendly), and use (recordkeeping, etc.). A…

  8. Research Review: Magazine Management and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on magazine management and economics. Finds that most citations are from business and trade publications; research is being presented at conferences but not published; most management research covers industry trends rather than specific industry topics; and no solid base of conceptual and theoretical magazine management research…

  9. Economic evaluations in gastroenterology in Brazil: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Turri, Jose Antonio; Leandro, Roseli; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review economic evaluations in gastroenterology, relating to Brazil, published between 1980 and 2013. METHODS: We selected full and partial economic evaluations from among those retrieved by searching the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed); Excerpta Medica; the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database; the Scientific Electronic Library Online; the database of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; the NHS Health Technology Assessment database; the Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health; Scopus; Web of Science; and the Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. RESULTS: We identified 535 health economic evaluations relating to Brazil and published in the 1980-2013 period. Of those 535 articles, only 40 dealt with gastroenterology. Full and partial economic evaluations respectively accounted for 23 (57.5%) and 17 (42.5%) of the 40 studies included. Among the 23 full economic evaluations, there were 11 cost-utility analyses, seven cost-effectiveness analyses, four cost-consequence analyses, and one cost-minimization analysis. Of the 40 studies, 25 (62.5%) evaluated medications; 7 (17.5%) evaluated procedures; and 3 (7.5%) evaluated equipment. Most (55%) of the studies were related to viral hepatitis, and most (63.4%) were published after 2010. Other topics included gastrointestinal cancer, liver transplantation, digestive diseases and hernias. Over the 33-year period examined, the number of such economic evaluations relating to Brazil, especially of those evaluating medications for the treatment of hepatitis, increased considerably. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed in order to ensure that expenditures on health care in Brazil are made as fairly and efficiently as possible. PMID:26855823

  10. Economic evaluations in gastroenterology in Brazil: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Turri, Jose Antonio; Leandro, Roseli; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2016-02-06

    To systematically review economic evaluations in gastroenterology, relating to Brazil, published between 1980 and 2013. We selected full and partial economic evaluations from among those retrieved by searching the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed); Excerpta Medica; the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database; the Scientific Electronic Library Online; the database of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; the NHS Health Technology Assessment database; the Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health; Scopus; Web of Science; and the Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. We identified 535 health economic evaluations relating to Brazil and published in the 1980-2013 period. Of those 535 articles, only 40 dealt with gastroenterology. Full and partial economic evaluations respectively accounted for 23 (57.5%) and 17 (42.5%) of the 40 studies included. Among the 23 full economic evaluations, there were 11 cost-utility analyses, seven cost-effectiveness analyses, four cost-consequence analyses, and one cost-minimization analysis. Of the 40 studies, 25 (62.5%) evaluated medications; 7 (17.5%) evaluated procedures; and 3 (7.5%) evaluated equipment. Most (55%) of the studies were related to viral hepatitis, and most (63.4%) were published after 2010. Other topics included gastrointestinal cancer, liver transplantation, digestive diseases and hernias. Over the 33-year period examined, the number of such economic evaluations relating to Brazil, especially of those evaluating medications for the treatment of hepatitis, increased considerably. Further studies are needed in order to ensure that expenditures on health care in Brazil are made as fairly and efficiently as possible.

  11. The economics of priority review vouchers.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Priority review vouchers (PRVs) were introduced in 2007 by the US Congress as an incentive mechanism to spur pharmaceutical firms' R&D efforts for neglected diseases (NDs). A voucher, which a firm can obtain upon approval of a new treatment for NDs, entitles the holder to prioritize the FDA review for any drug. The proposal generated much controversy regarding its ability to effectively stimulate R&D for NDs. Here, after reviewing the main issues of the debate, i use a stylized economic model to discuss the strength of PRVs as an economic incentive to invest in research. My findings suggest that R&D investments might be higher when the developer could prioritize a valuable compound. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching the Principles of Economics: Reconciling the Canon of the American Economics Association to Catholic Social Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The American Economics Association, through its Committee on Economic Education, has worked since 1950 to develop a set of standards for what is taught in introductory economics courses. The result is the Test for Understanding in College Economics. The TUCE has come to define a canon of expectations for students in college business schools. Some…

  13. Teaching the Principles of Economics: Reconciling the Canon of the American Economics Association to Catholic Social Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The American Economics Association, through its Committee on Economic Education, has worked since 1950 to develop a set of standards for what is taught in introductory economics courses. The result is the Test for Understanding in College Economics. The TUCE has come to define a canon of expectations for students in college business schools. Some…

  14. Silk or Spandex : Chinas Problematic One Road, One Belt Plan to Expand its Economic Boundaries as Seen Through the Lens of American, British, and Japanese Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    Revista de Economia 34, no. 02 (May 2008): 12; Paul Streeten, “Human Development: Means and Ends,” The American Economic Review, 84, no. 02 (May...Review." Revista De Economia 34, no. 2 (2008): 7- 28. Barnhart, Michael A. Japan Prepares for Total War: The Search for Economic Security, 1919–1941

  15. Economic evaluations of homeopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Viksveen, Petter; Dymitr, Zofia; Simoens, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Economic evaluations of commonly used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as homeopathy are needed to contribute to the evidence base on which policy makers, clinicians, health-care payers, as well as patients base their health-care decisions in an era of constrained resources. To review and assess existing economic evaluations of homeopathy. Literature search was made to retrieve relevant publications using AMED, the Cochrane Library, CRD (DARE, NHS EED, HTA), EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the journal Homeopathy (former British Homoeopathic Journal). A hand search of relevant publications was carried out. Homeopathy researchers were contacted. Identified publications were independently assessed by two authors. Fifteen relevant articles reported on 14 economic evaluations of homeopathy. Thirteen studies reported numbers of patients: a total of 3,500 patients received homeopathic treatment (median 97, interquartile range 48-268), and 10 studies reported on control group participants (median 57, IQR 40-362). Eight out of 14 studies found improvements in patients' health together with cost savings. Four studies found that improvements in homeopathy patients were at least as good as in control group patients, at comparable costs. Two studies found improvements similar to conventional treatment, but at higher costs. Studies were highly heterogeneous and had several methodological weaknesses. Although the identified evidence of the costs and potential benefits of homeopathy seemed promising, studies were highly heterogeneous and had several methodological weaknesses. It is therefore not possible to draw firm conclusions based on existing economic evaluations of homeopathy. Recommendations for future research are presented.

  16. Economics Program Review in the State University System of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. Ronnie

    A review of the discipline of economics as it exists in the State University System of Florida is presented. The introduction presents a description of economics as a discipline and a discussion of economics programs from a state perspective. The topics covered included business economics versus economics, college of business versus college of…

  17. Diseases of American lobsters (Homarus americanus): a review.

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The American lobster fishery is a significant economic driver in coastal communities of North America. Increasingly, the impacts of infectious disease are recognized as important components and factors in the population ecology and subsequent management of the lobster fishery. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors impact marine diseases. The review herein highlights aspects of several important bacterial, fungal and protistan diseases, including gaffkemia, shell disease, vibriosis, disease caused by species of Lagenidium, Haliphthoros and Fusarium, paramoebiasis and Bumper Car disease. As the global environment continues to change, these diseases could more severely affect both wild caught and impounded lobsters.

  18. Air quality progress in North American megacities: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David D.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Molina, Luisa; Madronich, Sasha

    2011-12-01

    Air quality progress in the North American megacities of Los Angeles, New York, and Mexico City is reviewed, compared, and contrasted. Enormous progress made in North America over the last 5 decades provides a template for other megacities of the world, especially in developing countries, attempting to achieve rapid economic growth without compromising air quality. While the progress to date has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. The impact of pollutant emissions from megacities is felt long distances away from the local sources but no policy mechanisms currently exist to mitigate air quality impacts resulting from such pollution transport.

  19. [Living arrangements and economic well-being of American children].

    PubMed

    Lichter, D T

    1994-01-01

    "The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which racial variation in children's economic well-being resides in divergent parental work patterns and/or family living arrangements. This is accomplished using recently-released data from the 1 percent sample of the Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 [U.S.] decennial census. The results indicate that racial differences in family structure undermine efforts to eliminate racial inequality among American children. Among blacks, for example, the high proportions of children living in female-headed families account for 60 percent of the difference from white children in poverty rates. Similarly, racial differences in parental work patterns contribute to (but cannot explain completely) racial variation in child poverty. Among black children in married-couple families, poverty rates are roughly twice those of their white counterparts, even though black children are more likely to have both parents working." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  20. Economic Pressure in African American Families: A Replication and Extension of the Family Stress Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Wallace, Lora Ebert; Sun, Yumei; Simons, Ronald L.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Brody, Gene H.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated applicability of family stress model of economic hardship for understanding economic influences on child development among African American families with a 10- or 11-year-old child. Found that economic hardship positively related to economic pressure in families, and to emotional distress of caregivers, which in turn damaged the…

  1. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Fitzner, Karen A.; Jacobs, Daniel I.; Bennett, Charles L.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M.; Grimm, Sean A.; Fisher, Matthew J.; Haleem, Meraaj S.; Ray, Paul S.; McKoy, Judith M.; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. Methods: A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results: Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. Conclusion: With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:25466707

  2. Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

  3. Childlessness and the Economic Well-being of Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The study's purpose is to examine the relationship between childlessness and two key indicators of older Americans’ economic well-being: income and wealth. Methods Using the Health and Retirement Survey, the study estimates this relationship and compares findings from standard ordinary least squares, random effects, quantile regression, and two propensity score models. Results Compared with married parents, childless married couples tend to have slightly more income and about 5% more wealth. Unmarried childless men enjoy no income advantage over unmarried fathers but have 24%–33% more wealth. Compared with older unmarried mothers, unmarried childless women have 12%–31% more income and about 33% more wealth. The strength of these relationships increases as one moves up the distribution of income or wealth. Discussion This study provides evidence on the relationship between childlessness and both income and wealth, including the first evidence for men. The findings may be useful for persons concerned about the determinants of childless adults’ well-being as well as the long-run financial demands on public programs that provide income support, health and nursing home care, and social services for older Americans. PMID:19433650

  4. What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development. American Indian Manual and Handbook Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Stephen, Ed.; Kalt, Joseph P., Ed.

    This collection of research papers focuses on conditions that affect self-determined economic development on American Indian reservations. Topics include obstacles that Indian nations face as they pursue their development goals; development of economic development corporations; effective tribal judicial systems; a model for processing land-use…

  5. Between Inflation and Recession: A Literacy Unit on the American Economic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sharon; And Others

    This four-week unit on the American economic system for secondary students is intended to be a basic literacy unit in economics and to serve as a "sampler kit" demonstrating how economics can be taught interestingly, imaginatively, and with intellectual honesty to the subject matter. The unit's goals for students include ability to list the major…

  6. 78 FR 20137 - Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade Agreement Rules.... 3313), the Commission instituted investigation No. TA-103-027, Probable Economic Effect of Certain... provide advice on the probable economic effect of the proposed modifications on U.S. trade under the...

  7. 75 FR 79330 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... recommendations, together with social and economic factors, in determining TACs and other management strategies... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National... fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area under the...

  8. 76 FR 12884 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... recommendations, together with social and economic factors, in determining TACs and other management strategies... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National.... groundfish fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  9. The Economic Status of Americans of Asian Descent: An Clearinghouse Publication 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; And Others

    This report addresses the issues of whether discrimination adversely affects the economic status of Asian Americans today, and whether this group's relative economic status has improved over time. The study separately examines the economic status of the following six largest Asian groups in America: (1) Chinese; (2) Filipinos; (3) Japanese; (4)…

  10. American Gastroenterological Association Institute technical review on the management of gastric subepithelial masses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo Ha; Rulyak, Stephen D; Kimmey, Michael B

    2006-06-01

    This literature review and the recommendations therein were prepared for the American Gastroenterological Association Institute Clinical Practice and Economics Committee. The paper was approved by the Committee on January 19, 2006, and by the AGA Institute Governing Board on April 20, 2006.

  11. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  12. Smokefree legislation: a review of health and economic outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J

    2010-12-01

    Smokefree legislation is a powerful public health intervention. Despite progress in smokefree legislation, over half of U.S. adults remain unprotected by comprehensive smokefree legislation. This paper reviews the scientific literature on health and economic outcome studies of smokefree legislation from the past decade, 2000 to early 2010, using MEDLINE and key search terms: smoking, smoking cessation, smoking/legislation and jurisprudence, smoking cessation/legislation and jurisprudence, and health policy. There is a wealth of research showing the health benefits to entire populations when communities implement comprehensive smokefree laws and/or regulations. These laws improve the health of hospitality workers and the general population by improving indoor air quality, reducing acute myocardial infarctions and asthma exacerbations, and improving infant and birth outcomes. Some studies report reduced smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption and improved cessation outcomes after smokefree legislation. In addition to the health benefits, economic studies confirm that smokefree laws do not adversely affect business revenues or operating costs. While there is an abundance of smokefree policy outcomes research showing both the health and economic impacts of smokefree legislation, these outcomes may have more to do with implementation effectiveness than adoption, especially among subpopulations. An emerging body of literature documents not only that disparities in health protections remain among subpopulations, but that health outcomes of smokefree legislation may vary by gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and age. Further research is needed on implementation effectiveness of smokefree legislation and differential effects on subpopulations. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic... NABDI's funding of economic development feasibility studies (studies) and long-term strategic.... ] Type of Review: New. Title: NABDI Funding Solicitation for Economic Development Feasibility Studies...

  14. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-05-01

    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  16. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  17. Systematic review of suicide in economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Oyesanya, Mayowa; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier; Dutta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a systematic update of the evidence concerning the relationship between economic recession and suicide. METHODS: A keyword search of Ovid Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES was performed to identify studies that had investigated the association between economic recession and suicide. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met predetermined selection criteria and 31 of them found a positive association between economic recession and increased suicide rates. Two studies reported a negative association, two articles failed to find such an association, and three studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Economic recession periods appear to increase overall suicide rates, although further research is warranted in this area, particularly in low income countries. PMID:26110126

  18. Technology and the American Economic Transition: Choices for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This book analyzes the future of the United States in terms of people in their role as consumers and as employees. It uses conventional economic accounting procedures to document economic growth, but also employs more qualitative standards for measuring progress in eight basic categories of demand or amenity: food, housing, transportation, health,…

  19. Teaching Economic Geography in Two Contrasting Asian Contexts: Decentering Anglo-American Economic Geography in China and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Henry Wai-Chung; Liu, Weidong

    2006-01-01

    Teaching economic geography outside Anglo-American countries presents a particular pedagogical challenge, as theories and concepts developed in these countries might not be directly applicable outside their intellectual and national contexts. In this paper, the authors show how the peculiar institutional and development environments in China and…

  20. Teaching Economic Geography in Two Contrasting Asian Contexts: Decentering Anglo-American Economic Geography in China and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Henry Wai-Chung; Liu, Weidong

    2006-01-01

    Teaching economic geography outside Anglo-American countries presents a particular pedagogical challenge, as theories and concepts developed in these countries might not be directly applicable outside their intellectual and national contexts. In this paper, the authors show how the peculiar institutional and development environments in China and…

  1. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  2. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  3. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical model processes of change associated with consumption of >=5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic...

  4. Process of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of = 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participan...

  5. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  6. Economic Prospects for African Americans, 2001-2010: Politics and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimmer, Andrew F.

    Given the different economic policy approaches of the two candidates for the 2000 presidential election, Vice President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush, the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies analyzed and assessed the plans put forth by both candidates, focusing on the expected impacts on African Americans. Six analyses were…

  7. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  8. The Economic Sensitivity of the American Farm Vote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoke, David; Long, David E.

    1975-01-01

    Using data covering the Presidential elections from 1956 through 1968, the study examined the extent to which partisan variability resulted from both short-term and long-term economic events preceding the Presidential election. (NQ)

  9. 75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY:...

  10. 76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY:...

  11. 77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY:...

  12. The economics of health information technology in medication management: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Daria; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Goeree, Ron; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann

    2012-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the evidence surrounding the cost-effectiveness of health information technology (HIT) in the medication process. Peer-reviewed electronic databases and gray literature were searched to identify studies on HIT used to assist in the medication management process. Articles including an economic component were reviewed for further screening. For this review, full cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses and cost-benefit analyses, as well as cost analyses, were eligible for inclusion and synthesis. The 31 studies included were heterogeneous with respect to the HIT evaluated, setting, and economic methods used. Thus the data could not be synthesized, and a narrative review was conducted. Most studies evaluated computer decision support systems in hospital settings in the USA, and only five of the studied performed full economic evaluations. Most studies merely provided cost data; however, useful economic data involves far more input. A full economic evaluation includes a full enumeration of the costs, synthesized with the outcomes of the intervention. The quality of the economic literature in this area is poor. A few studies found that HIT may offer cost advantages despite their increased acquisition costs. However, given the uncertainty that surrounds the costs and outcomes data, and limited study designs, it is difficult to reach any definitive conclusion as to whether the additional costs and benefits represent value for money. Sophisticated concurrent prospective economic evaluations need to be conducted to address whether HIT interventions in the medication management process are cost-effective.

  13. American Indian Enrichment Activities. Mini-Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosnick, Sally

    Focusing on American Indians, this annotated bibliography covers a variety of resources for enriching multicultural education in the elementary classroom and includes limited information about Mexican Americans, Blacks, and other cultural groups. Each of the 26 entries provides a descriptive annotation and indicates where the material can be…

  14. “Feeling Poor”: Perceived Economic Position and Environmental Mastery among Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Karraker, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines the relationship between perceived economic position, objective socioeconomic status, and environmental mastery among older Americans. Methods Using data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), I examine a). whether perceived economic position (PEP) is associated with environmental mastery even after accounting for objective economic status and b). whether the relationship between PEP and mastery varies by reference group (peers, Americans). Results High PEP is associated with higher mastery while low PEP is associated with lower mastery, even after controlling for objective economic status. In general, the relationship between PEP and mastery does not vary whether PEP relative to peers or PEP relative to American families is examined. Discussion These analyses provide insights into the important role of social comparisonsin the connection between socioeconomic status and psychological well-being in the later life course. PMID:24567367

  15. American Indians in Transition. Agricultural Economic Report No. 283.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen W.

    The American Indian population is in a period of transition. It is young, growing, and becoming more urban. There were some improvements in income, housing, education, and health in the 1960-70 decade, but Indians remain the most disadvantaged of the minority ethnic groups in the United States. By most of the above measures, Indians, especially…

  16. Economic Development and Employment Opportunities for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, Gary D.

    American Indian unemployment remains high despite efforts by tribes and the federal government to improve employment opportunities. Persistently high unemployment among Indians has resulted in low family incomes and high poverty rates relative to Whites. Particularly serious on reservations, these continuing problems are related in part to low…

  17. American Indians and Federal Aid. Brookings Studies in Social Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorkin, Alan L.

    "American Indians are the poorest of any nonwhite minority in the United States. Life on the reservation offers them few opportunities: if they move to the city, they face problems of adjustment that can prove insurmountable. What is being done--what more could be done--to help Indians satisfy their needs in a largely alien society? To develop the…

  18. REVIEW OF TWO BOOKS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    These are the second and third books in the Allen and Unwin series which publishes work being carried on by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology...Center for International Studies in India. These books arise more or less directly out of the economic research conducted by the Center, in...A major theme underlying both these volumes in the clarification of the contribution that the economist, as economist, can make to the problems of development in a particular country.

  19. Iberian (South American) Model of Judicial Review: Toward Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Latin American countries legislation with the view to identify specific features of South American model of judicial review. The research methodology rests on comparative approach to analyzing national constitutions' provisions and experts' interpretations thereof. The constitutional provisions of Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and…

  20. Surveys of the American Deaf Population: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2009-01-01

    This is a critical review of surveys conducted on the American deaf population since 1990. There is no agreement among the surveys on the number of deaf and hard of hearing individuals in the US. This behooves us to study the question: Why the lack of agreement in estimates and prevalence rates of the American general deaf and the deaf child…

  1. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  2. Variations in Mexican-American Family Life: A Review Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.

    A review of the published empirical literature on families in the several areas of concentrated Mexican American settlement (primarily California, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and various cities in the Midwest) is presented in this paper. Objective is to provide a frame of reference on the sociology of Mexican American families.…

  3. Health Education Interventions among Native Americans: A Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMaster, Pamela L.; Connell, Cathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    A review of 19 studies on Native Americans examined 12 focused on chronic conditions (diabetes, heart disease, substance abuse, fetal alcohol syndrome) and 7 on prevention (dental disease, prenatal/infant health, nutrition, HIV prevention, health promotion). Results showed Native Americans particularly at risk for diabetes and alcohol abuse and…

  4. Contemporary Research on Latin American Education: A Review and Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett; Koppel, Sheree

    To prepare the education chapter for the forthcoming volume of the U.S. Library of Congress'"Handbook of Latin American Studies," the author reviewed over 500 publications on Latin American education issued between 1978 and 1983; the abstracts of approximately 200 of them will be published in the forthcoming volume of the Handbook. The…

  5. Health Education Interventions among Native Americans: A Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMaster, Pamela L.; Connell, Cathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    A review of 19 studies on Native Americans examined 12 focused on chronic conditions (diabetes, heart disease, substance abuse, fetal alcohol syndrome) and 7 on prevention (dental disease, prenatal/infant health, nutrition, HIV prevention, health promotion). Results showed Native Americans particularly at risk for diabetes and alcohol abuse and…

  6. American elm (Ulmus americana) in restoration plantings: a review

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Knight; Linda M. Haugen; Cornelia C. Pinchot; Paul G. Schaberg; James M. Slavicek

    2017-01-01

    The development of disease-tolerant American elm (Ulmus americana) trees has led to a need for reintroduction and restoration methods for the species. Here we review the current state of experimental work to inform reintroduction biology and restoration ecology of American elm. Much of this work is ongoing, and within several years the results will...

  7. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  8. Review of the Literature on Asian American Mental Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Trang Ngoc

    Within the mental health treatment field there is an underutilization of services by Asian Americans. Researchers have questioned how to lessen the gap between the number of Asian Americans who need mental health services and the significantly lower number who successfully use these services. A review of current research points out that matching…

  9. Knee Injuries in American Football: An Epidemiological Review.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Paul; Grau, Luis; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael G

    Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament.

  10. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Assari, Shervin

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed.

  11. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  12. The impact of economic resources on premarital childbearing and subsequent marriage among young American women.

    PubMed

    Aassve, Arnstein

    2003-02-01

    This paper extends previous work on premarital childbearing by modeling both the entry rates and the exit rates of unwed motherhood among young American women. In particular, I investigate the impact of economic resources on the likelihood of experiencing a premarital birth and then of subsequent marriage. Using a multiple-destination, multiple-spell hazard regression model and a microsimulation analysis, I analyze the accumulating effects of various economic variables. The results show that the economic resources are indeed important both for premarital childbearing and for subsequent marriage. However, the simulations show that large changes in these economic variables do not necessarily translate into large changes in nonmarital childbearing.

  13. Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Katayoun; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Marra, Carlo; Lynd, Larry; Alasaly, Kadria; Swiston, John; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma is associated with enormous healthcare expenditures that include both direct and indirect costs. It is also associated with the loss of future potential earnings related to both morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study is to determine the burden of disease costs associated with asthma. Methods We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CDSR, OHE-HEED, and Web of Science Databases between 1966 and 2008. Results Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Hospitalization and medications were found to be the most important cost driver of direct costs. Work and school loss accounted for the greatest percentage of indirect costs. The cost of asthma was correlated with comorbidities, age, and disease severity. Conclusion Despite the availability of effective preventive therapy, costs associated with asthma are increasing. Strategies including education of patients and physicians, and regular follow-up are required to reduce the economic burden of asthma. PMID:19454036

  14. The economic impact of psychotherapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, G O; Lazar, S G; Hornberger, J; Spiegel, D

    1997-02-01

    The authors reviewed data involving the impact of providing psychotherapy for psychiatric disorders on costs of care. In a search of the MEDLINE database limited to peer-reviewed papers published from 1984 through 1994, 686 articles were identified. Forty-one articles, covering 35 studies, were found in which the intervention tested was psychotherapeutic and the study included measures of outcome that had some implications for cost. The exclusion criteria for reviewing these studies included absence of a comparison group, a focus on medical disorders instead of psychiatric illnesses, and outcomes that did not include cost data or measures from which costs could be inferred. On this basis, 18 of the 35 studies were selected for analysis. The studies were categorized according to whether or not subjects were randomly assigned to study groups. Two reviewers independently read each study to identify the following characteristics: inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, types of interventions, main outcome variables, sample size, and statistical tests for significant differences between treatments. Outcomes had to include actual cost accounting or data on medical care utilization or work functioning. The findings of eight (80%) of the 10 clinical trials with random assignment and all eight (100%) of the studies without random assignment suggested that psychotherapy reduces total costs. Psychotherapy appears to have a beneficial impact on a variety of costs when used in the treatment of the most severe psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Much of that impact accrues from reductions in inpatient treatment and decreases in work impairment.

  15. African American single mothers and children in context: a review of studies on risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Murry, V M; Bynum, M S; Brody, G H; Willert, A; Stephens, D

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of research linking single-parent family structure to parenting processes, maternal well-being, and child developmental outcomes among African Americans. The approaches used to study these families, related methodological and conceptual concerns, and the factors linked to maternal well-being, effective parenting processes, family functioning, and child outcomes are addressed. Much work remains to be done on conceptualizing and assessing parenting processes among African Americans in general and single African American mothers in particular. Researchers must examine more carefully the circumstances that foster or impede successful parenting among these mothers. Studies also are needed to disentangle the interactions between economic stress and parenting behavior and to determine the extent to which the findings can be applied to middle-income single African American parents.

  16. Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output in 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    FEBRUARY 2015Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output in 2014In February 2009, in response...to significant weakness in the economy, lawmakers enacted the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The legislation’s numer- ous spending...Program (formerly the Food Stamp program);  Purchasing goods and services—for instance, by funding construction and other investment activities that

  17. Of English Marks and American Reviewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard

    A discussion of the differences between the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), an American test battery, and the Cambridge English Examinations (Cambridge), a British battery, focuses on the different approaches to language test development embodied in the tests as the source of difficulty in translating between them for individual…

  18. American Sign Language Curricula: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2010-01-01

    There is an exponential growth in the number of schools that offer American Sign Language (ASL) for foreign language credit and the different ASL curricula that were published. This study analyzes different curricula in its assumptions regarding language, learning, and teaching of second languages. It is found that curricula vary in their…

  19. American Sign Language Curricula: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2010-01-01

    There is an exponential growth in the number of schools that offer American Sign Language (ASL) for foreign language credit and the different ASL curricula that were published. This study analyzes different curricula in its assumptions regarding language, learning, and teaching of second languages. It is found that curricula vary in their…

  20. American Children's Literature: An Historiographical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, R. Gordon

    1973-01-01

    The bibliographic essays which make up this special issue discuss and cite works under the following titles: "Children's Literature as a Field of Study,""Bibliographies of Children's literature,""Previous General Works in the Field," and "Specialized Studies in American Children's Literature." An essay entitled "Suggestions for Further Work"…

  1. Health economics and nutrition: a review of published evidence.

    PubMed

    Gyles, Collin L; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Carlberg, Jared G; Senanayake, Vijitha; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Inaki; Poley, Marten J; Dubois, Dominique; Jones, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between nutrition and health-economic outcomes is important at both the individual and the societal level. While personal nutritional choices affect an individual's health condition, thus influencing productivity and economic contribution to society, nutrition interventions carried out by the state also have the potential to affect economic output in significant ways. This review summarizes studies of nutrition interventions in which health-related economic implications of the intervention have been addressed. Results of the search strategy have been categorized into three areas: economic studies of micronutrient deficiencies and malnutrition; economic studies of dietary improvements; and economic studies of functional foods. The findings show that a significant number of studies have calculated the health-economic impacts of nutrition interventions, but approaches and methodologies are sometimes ad hoc in nature and vary widely in quality. Development of an encompassing economic framework to evaluate costs and benefits from such interventions is a potentially fruitful area for future research. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  2. Economic Evaluations of Opioid Use Disorder Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean M.; Polsky, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background The economic costs associated with opioid misuse are immense. Effective interventions for opioid use disorders are available; however, given the scarce resources faced by substance-use treatment providers and payers of all kinds, evidence of effectiveness is not always sufficient to encourage the adoption of a given therapy, nor should it be. Economic evaluations can provide evidence that will help stakeholders efficiently allocate their resources. Objective The purpose of this study was to review the literature on economic evaluations of opioid use disorder interventions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the major electronic databases from inception until present (August 2015). A sensitive approach was used to ensure a comprehensive list of relevant articles. Given the quality of existing reviews, we narrowed our search to studies published since 2007. The Drummond checklist was used to evaluate and categorize economic-evaluation studies according to their quality. Results A total of 98 articles were identified as potentially relevant to the current study. Of these 98 articles, half (n=49) were included in this study. Six of the included articles were review in nature. The remaining 43 articles performed an economic evaluation of an intervention for opioid use disorders. In general, the evidence on methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT) supports previous findings that MMT is an economically advantageous opioid-use-disorder therapy. The economic literature comparing MMT to other opioid-use-disorder pharmacotherapies is limited, as is the literature on other forms of therapy. Conclusions With the possible exception of MMT, additional high-quality economic evaluations are needed in order to assess the relative value of existing opioid-use-disorder interventions. PMID:27002518

  3. A review of economic impact of targeted oral anticancer medications.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chan; Chien, Chun-Ru; Geynisman, Daniel M; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Shih, Ya-Chen T

    2014-02-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the use of targeted oral anticancer medications (OAMs) in the past decade. As OAMs are often expensive, economic consideration play a significant role in the decision to prescribe, receive or cover them. This paper performs a systematic review of costs or budgetary impact of targeted OAMs to better understand their economic impact on the healthcare system, patients as well as payers. We present our review in a summary table that describes the method and main findings, take into account multiple factors, such as country, analytical approach, cost type, study perspective, timeframe, data sources, study population and care setting when we interpret the results from different papers, and discuss the policy and clinical implications. Our review raises a concern regarding the role of sponsorship on findings of economic analyses as the vast majority of pharmaceutical company-sponsored studies reported cost advantages toward the sponsor's drugs.

  4. A techno-economic review of thermochemical cellulosic biofuel pathways.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tristan R

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in the thermochemical processing of biomass have resulted in efforts to commercialize several cellulosic biofuel pathways. Until commercial-scale production is achieved, however, techno-economic analysis is a useful methodology for quantifying the economic competitiveness of these pathways with petroleum, providing one indication of their long-term feasibility under the U.S. revised Renewable Fuel Standard. This review paper covers techno-economic analyses of thermochemical cellulosic biofuel pathways in the open literature, discusses and compares their results, and recommends the adoption of additional analytical methodologies that will increase the value of future pathway analyses.

  5. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K H; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M

    2016-05-03

    Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms "vaccine," "economics" and "Canada." Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public health practice, Canada needs improved, transparent and consistent processes

  6. 75 FR 13140 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Native American Graves Protection and... nominations for one member of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee....

  7. 75 FR 65030 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Native American Graves Protection and... nominations for two members of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee....

  8. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Iversen, Johanne Helene; Bloom, David E

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better population health

  9. The Economic Impact of Adult Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Matthew G; Goman, Adele M; Kernizan, Faradia C; Foley, Danielle M; Price, Carrie; Frick, Kevin D; Lin, Frank R

    2017-08-10

    Hearing impairment (HI) is highly prevalent in older adults and has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the overall economic impact of HI is not well described. The goal of this review was to summarize available data on all relevant costs associated with HI among adults. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Scopus was conducted in August 2015. For this systematic review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Eligibility criteria for included studies were presence of quantitative estimation of economic impact or loss of productivity of patients with HI, full-text English-language access, and publication in an academic, peer-reviewed journal or government report prior to August 2015. This review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. A meta-analysis was not performed owing to the studies' heterogeneity in outcomes measures, methodology, and study country. The initial literature search yielded 4595 total references. After 2043 duplicates were removed, 2552 publications underwent title and abstract review, yielding 59 articles for full-text review. After full-text review, 25 articles were included. Of the included articles, 8 incorporated measures of disability; 5 included direct estimates of medical expenditures; 8 included other cost estimates; and 7 were related to noise-induced or work-related HI. Estimates of the economic cost of lost productivity varied widely, from $1.8 to $194 billion in the United States. Excess medical costs resulting from HI ranged from $3.3 to $12.8 billion in the United States. Hearing loss is associated with billions of dollars of excess costs in the United States, but significant variance is seen between studies. A rigorous, comprehensive estimate of the economic impact of hearing loss is needed to help guide policy decisions around the management of hearing loss in adults.

  10. CARDIOVASCULAR SCREENING OF YOUNG ATHLETES: A REVIEW OF ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS.

    PubMed

    Gerkens, Sophie; Van Brabandt, Hans; Desomer, Anja; Leonard, Christian; Neyt, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Some experts have promoted preparticipative cardiovascular screening programs for young athletes and have claimed that such programs were cost-effective without performing a critical analysis of studies supporting this statement. In this systematic review, a critical assessment of economic evaluations on these programs is performed to determine if they really provide value for money. A systematic review of economic evaluations was performed on December 24, 2014. Web sites of health technology assessment agencies, the Cochrane database of systematic review, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo, and EconLit were searched to retrieve (reviews of) economic evaluations. No language or time restrictions were imposed and predefined selection criteria were used. Selected studies were critically assessed applying a structured data extraction sheet. Five relevant economic evaluations were critically assessed. Results of these studies were mixed. However, those in favor of screening made (methodological) incorrect choices, of which the most important one was not taking into account a no-screening alternative as comparator. Compared with no screening, other strategies (history and physical examination or history and physical examination plus electrocardiogram) were not considered cost-effective. Results of primary economic evaluations should not be blindly copied without critical assessment. Economic evaluations in this field lack the support of robust evidence. Negative consequences of screening (false positive findings, overtreatment) should also be taken into account and may cause more harm than good. A mass screening of young athletes for cardiovascular diseases does not provide value for money and should be discouraged.

  11. Acknowledging patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation : a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Janneke P C; Sculpher, Mark; Briggs, Andrew H; Severens, Johan L; Candel, Math J; Stahl, James E; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Boer, Albert; Ramaekers, Bram L T; Joore, Manuela A

    2013-02-01

    Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement. A total of 20 articles and five handbooks were included. The relevant sources of patient heterogeneity (demographics, preferences and clinical characteristics) and the input parameters where they occurred (baseline risk, treatment effect, health state utility and resource utilization) were combined in a framework. Methods were derived for the design, analysis and presentation phases of an economic evaluation. Concerns related mainly to the danger of false-positive results and equity issues. By systematically reviewing current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluations of healthcare programmes, we provide guidance for future economic evaluations. Guidance is provided on which sources of patient heterogeneity to consider, how to acknowledge them in economic evaluation and potential concerns. The improved acknowledgement of patient heterogeneity in future economic evaluations may well improve the

  12. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K. H.; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. Objective: We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Methods: Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms “vaccine,” “economics” and “Canada.” Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Results: 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. Conclusions: We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public

  13. Evolutionary and Political Economic Influences on Biological Diversity in African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Fatimah Linda Collier

    1993-01-01

    Examines existing data on biological diversity among Americans of African descent within the contexts of their evolutionary backgrounds and political and economic realities. Explores the origins of the diversity, and provides an evolutionary and political economy synthesis for evaluating the biological distinctions apparent among African…

  14. Economic impact of the 2008 American Folk Festival in Bangor, Maine

    Treesearch

    Bernardita Silva; Marilynne Mann; Harold. Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Festivals and events are becoming increasingly important drivers of tourism activity in Maine. Based on a survey of festival visitors, this study used an IMPLANTM input-output model to estimate the economic impact of the 2008 American Folk Festival in Bangor, ME. The Center for Tourism Research and Outreach estimated that 95,626 local and...

  15. One Generation of Self-Determination: Native American Economic Self-Reliance in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jojola, Theodore S.; Agoyo, Herman

    This paper examines changes in federal policy that have encouraged economic development by American Indian tribes, and presents examples from New Mexico. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 guaranteed federal provision of education and other services to the tribes, but the newly reorganized tribal governments were regulated almost exclusively by…

  16. African Americans, Economically Disadvantaged, or Attendance Rate Effects on Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sheena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, nonexperimental study was to determine if and to what extent a difference existed in the percentage of African American students, percentage of economically disadvantaged students, and students' attendance rate in elementary schools that made adequate yearly progress (AYP) and those that did not make AYP in one…

  17. Evolutionary and Political Economic Influences on Biological Diversity in African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Fatimah Linda Collier

    1993-01-01

    Examines existing data on biological diversity among Americans of African descent within the contexts of their evolutionary backgrounds and political and economic realities. Explores the origins of the diversity, and provides an evolutionary and political economy synthesis for evaluating the biological distinctions apparent among African…

  18. Latin American Regional Cooperative Security: Civil-Military Relations and Economic Interdependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    times as many people, and at nearly 40 times the rate per month at war ( Centeno , 121). 11 How can Latin American countries be viewed as unduly...1998. Cason, Jeffrey, “On the Road to Southern Cone Economic Integration,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Spring 2000. Centeno

  19. PLANNING THE END OF THE AMERICAN GHETTO--A PROGRAM OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR EQUAL RIGHTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, HERBERT

    SOCIOECONOMIC FORCES CONTINUE TO PERPETUATE GHETTOS, DESPITE THE LEGAL EQUALITY GAINED BY NEGROES. THESE GHETTOS, IN WHICH OVER 10 MILLION MINORITY GROUP AMERICANS LIVE, EXACT AN ENORMOUS ECONOMIC PRICE IN NEEDED SERVICES, IN INCOME LOST BECAUSE OF LOW PRODUCTIVITY, AND IN PROPERTY LOST DURING PROTEST RIOTS. A PROGRAM TO END GHETTOS MUST START…

  20. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of the American Power Act of 2010

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senators Kerry, Graham, and Lieberman for an analysis of the American Power Act of 2010 (APA). APA, as released by Senators Kerry and Lieberman on May 12, 2010, regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and other economic incentives.

  1. Economic evaluation in chronic pain: a systematic review and de novo flexible economic model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, W; Hirst, M; Beard, S; Gladwell, D; Fagnani, F; López Bastida, J; Phillips, C; Dunlop, W C N

    2016-07-01

    There is unmet need in patients suffering from chronic pain, yet innovation may be impeded by the difficulty of justifying economic value in a field beset by data limitations and methodological variability. A systematic review was conducted to identify and summarise the key areas of variability and limitations in modelling approaches in the economic evaluation of treatments for chronic pain. The results of the literature review were then used to support the development of a fully flexible open-source economic model structure, designed to test structural and data assumptions and act as a reference for future modelling practice. The key model design themes identified from the systematic review included: time horizon; titration and stabilisation; number of treatment lines; choice/ordering of treatment; and the impact of parameter uncertainty (given reliance on expert opinion). Exploratory analyses using the model to compare a hypothetical novel therapy versus morphine as first-line treatments showed cost-effectiveness results to be sensitive to structural and data assumptions. Assumptions about the treatment pathway and choice of time horizon were key model drivers. Our results suggest structural model design and data assumptions may have driven previous cost-effectiveness results and ultimately decisions based on economic value. We therefore conclude that it is vital that future economic models in chronic pain are designed to be fully transparent and hope our open-source code is useful in order to aspire to a common approach to modelling pain that includes robust sensitivity analyses to test structural and parameter uncertainty.

  2. Economic effects of recent immigration on American workers.

    PubMed

    Defreitas, G

    1988-01-01

    surveillance of the Mexican-American border and of millions of immigrant employers. A strong case could also be made for more progressive income redistribution programs. Short of these efforts, perhaps the most promising development in the near future is the decline in the supply of new native labor force entrants brought on by falling birth rates and the aging of the baby-boom cohort. If this continues at the forecasted rate, it is likely that the domestic costs of immigration will become smaller and its benefits more pronounced.

  3. Review of American Indian veteran telemental health.

    PubMed

    Shore, Jay; Kaufmann, L Jeanne; Brooks, Elizabeth; Bair, Byron; Dailey, Nancy; Richardson, W J Buck; Floyd, James; Lowe, Jeff; Nagamoto, Herbert; Phares, Robert; Manson, Spero

    2012-03-01

    Rural American Indian veterans have unique healthcare needs and face numerous barriers to accessing healthcare services. Over the past decade, the Department of Veterans Affairs in conjunction with the University of Colorado Denver has turned to the promising field of telemental health to develop a series of videoconferencing-based clinics to reach this vulnerable population and improve mental healthcare services. The ongoing development, implementation, and expansion of these clinics have been assessed as part of a program improvement. The outcomes of these assessments have been documented in a series of published articles, controlled studies, program and case reports, and model descriptions. This article summarizes a decade of experience with the American Indian Telemental Health Clinics, the clinic model, and the literature arising from these clinics and presents lessons learned while establishing, maintaining, and evaluating these clinics. The ability to tailor the clinics to individual sites and cultures and to provide various services has been critical to the operation of the clinics. Culturally specific care through culturally knowledgeable providers, onsite tribal outreach workers, and collaboration with community services has proven essential in operating the clinics, as well as building rapport, trust, and engagement with the target patient population. It is hoped that the lessons learned and practices presented here can not only assist others working to improve the care for rural Native veterans but also serve as a model in the use of telemental health services for improving care and access to rural veteran and non-veteran populations.

  4. Nonmarket Economic Impacts of Forest Insect Pests: A Literature Review

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Rosenberger; Eric L. Smith

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of research on the nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests. The majority of the research reports are journal articles or fulfillment of three USDA Forest Service research contracts. This report also reviews the foundations for methodologies used and classifies the forest insect pests studied, the regions in which research...

  5. Economic outcomes for celecoxib: a systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies.

    PubMed

    Huelin, Rachel; Pokora, Tiffany; Foster, Talia S; Mould, Joaquin F

    2012-08-01

    Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are conditions that are associated with significant clinical burden, and impact on patients' functional status and quality of life. Medical costs related to treating these common and disabling conditions place an economic strain on healthcare systems. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the impact of celecoxib on healthcare costs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. In total, 24 studies examined economic outcomes associated with celecoxib in patients with these conditions. Six of these studies evaluated economic outcomes in developing regions, including Mexico, Asia and Turkey. Across all geographies, most studies were cost-effectiveness analyses comparing celecoxib with nonselective NSAIDs alone or in combination with gastroprotective agents. Overall, based on local standards, economic models indicated favorable cost-effectiveness profiles for celecoxib compared with nonselective NSAIDs and other active-treatment options. Cost analyses indicated that the use of celecoxib resulted in lower direct medical costs.

  6. Health economic evaluations in orthodontics: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sollenius, Ola; Petrén, Sofia; Björnsson, Liselotte; Norlund, Anders; Bondemark, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic evaluation is assuming increasing importance as an integral component of health services research. To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the evidence from studies presenting orthodontic treatment outcomes and the related costs. The literature review was conducted in four steps, according to Goodman's model, in order to identify all studies evaluating economic aspects of orthodontic interventions. The search covered the databases Medline, Cinahl, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, and SCOPUS, for the period from 1966 to September 2014. The inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing at least two different orthodontic interventions, evaluation of both economic and orthodontic outcomes, and study populations of all ages. The quality of each included study was assessed as limited, moderate, or high. The overall evidence was assessed according to the GRADE system (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The applied terms for searches yielded 1838 studies, of which 989 were excluded as duplicates. Application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria identified 26 eligible studies for which the full-text versions were retrieved and scrutinized. At the final analysis, eight studies remained. Three studies were based on cost-effectiveness analyses and the other five on cost-minimization analysis. Two of the cost-minimization studies included a societal perspective, i.e. the sum of direct and indirect costs. The aims of most of the studies varied widely and of studies comparing equivalent treatment methods, few were of sufficiently high study quality. Thus, the literature to date provides an inadequate evidence base for economic aspects of orthodontic treatment. This systematic review disclosed that few orthodontic studies have presented both economic and clinical outcomes. There is currently

  7. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chong, Huey Yi; Teoh, Siew Li; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Kotirum, Surachai; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the top 25 leading causes of disability worldwide in 2013. Despite its low prevalence, its health, social, and economic burden has been tremendous, not only for patients but also for families, caregivers, and the wider society. The magnitude of disease burden investigated in an economic burden study is an important source to policymakers in decision making. This study aims to systematically identify studies focusing on the economic burden of schizophrenia, describe the methods and data sources used, and summarize the findings of economic burden of schizophrenia. A systematic review was performed for economic burden studies in schizophrenia using four electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EconLit) from inception to August 31, 2014. A total of 56 articles were included in this review. More than 80% of the studies were conducted in high-income countries. Most studies had undertaken a retrospective- and prevalence-based study design. The bottom-up approach was commonly employed to determine cost, while human capital method was used for indirect cost estimation. Database and literature were the most commonly used data sources in cost estimation in high-income countries, while chart review and interview were the main data sources in low and middle-income countries. Annual costs for the schizophrenia population in the country ranged from US$94 million to US$102 billion. Indirect costs contributed to 50%-85% of the total costs associated with schizophrenia. The economic burden of schizophrenia was estimated to range from 0.02% to 1.65% of the gross domestic product. The enormous economic burden in schizophrenia is suggestive of the inadequate provision of health care services to these patients. An informed decision is achievable with the increasing recognition among public and policymakers that schizophrenia is burdensome. This results in better resource allocation and the development of policy-oriented research for this highly

  8. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Huey Yi; Teoh, Siew Li; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Kotirum, Surachai; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is one of the top 25 leading causes of disability worldwide in 2013. Despite its low prevalence, its health, social, and economic burden has been tremendous, not only for patients but also for families, caregivers, and the wider society. The magnitude of disease burden investigated in an economic burden study is an important source to policymakers in decision making. This study aims to systematically identify studies focusing on the economic burden of schizophrenia, describe the methods and data sources used, and summarize the findings of economic burden of schizophrenia. Methods A systematic review was performed for economic burden studies in schizophrenia using four electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EconLit) from inception to August 31, 2014. Results A total of 56 articles were included in this review. More than 80% of the studies were conducted in high-income countries. Most studies had undertaken a retrospective- and prevalence-based study design. The bottom-up approach was commonly employed to determine cost, while human capital method was used for indirect cost estimation. Database and literature were the most commonly used data sources in cost estimation in high-income countries, while chart review and interview were the main data sources in low and middle-income countries. Annual costs for the schizophrenia population in the country ranged from US$94 million to US$102 billion. Indirect costs contributed to 50%–85% of the total costs associated with schizophrenia. The economic burden of schizophrenia was estimated to range from 0.02% to 1.65% of the gross domestic product. Conclusion The enormous economic burden in schizophrenia is suggestive of the inadequate provision of health care services to these patients. An informed decision is achievable with the increasing recognition among public and policymakers that schizophrenia is burdensome. This results in better resource allocation and the development of policy

  9. The economic promise of developing and implementing dengue vaccines: Evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Endo, Iara C; Ziegelmann, Patricia K; Patel, Anita

    2016-12-07

    Dengue fever is one of the most rapidly advancing viral vector-borne diseases worldwide and vaccine candidates are in the final stages of clinical trials, representing a decisive opportunity to control the disease. To decide whether and where to support the introduction of new vaccines it is crucial to assess costs imposed by the disease and cost-effectiveness of vaccine programmes. To identify economic evidence about dengue fever immunization, by systematic review, to assist future policy decisions and investment. The electronic search stage was conducted on PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Global Health, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) databases. Searches were restricted to papers published between January 1970 and February 2016. Selected papers were quality assessed using three recognized checklists. Eleven relevant studies were identified and there is economic evidence of a satisfactory quality level, derived through modelling approaches, to conclude that dengue fever vaccines will be economically advantageous when compared to vector preventive strategies, despite uncertainties surrounding vaccine efficacy and costs per vaccine dose. Quality assessment based on checklists showed similar findings and although overall quality was considered satisfactory, there were relevant methodological issues not considered among studies reviewed. Several uncertainties still remain about effectiveness of dengue fever vaccines; however, the reviewed economic evidence suggests that, when available, the vaccine can be economically advantageous at moderate prices. Future research needs to confirm findings from the economic models by using actual costs and effectiveness data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Native American Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kathryn Elizabeth; Cornelius, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Reviews 11 children's books, published 1990-93, suitable for elementary and middle school students, covering Native riddles; Hiawatha as founder of the Iroquois confederacy; Chief Seattle's famous speech; stories about Inuit life and Mexican village life during the 1500s; Sequoyah and the Cherokee alphabet; the Iroquois creation myth; Wampanoag…

  11. Native American Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kathryn Elizabeth; Cornelius, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Reviews 11 children's books, published 1990-93, suitable for elementary and middle school students, covering Native riddles; Hiawatha as founder of the Iroquois confederacy; Chief Seattle's famous speech; stories about Inuit life and Mexican village life during the 1500s; Sequoyah and the Cherokee alphabet; the Iroquois creation myth; Wampanoag…

  12. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a health economic literature review.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. In contrast to the laparoscopic technique, a hysteroscope is used to pass permanent microinserts through the cervix and place them in the fallopian tubes. This procedure does not require local or general anesthesia and can be performed in an office setting. The objective of this analysis was to determine, based on published literature, the cost-effectiveness of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization (HS) compared with laparoscopic tubal ligation (LS) for permanent female sterilization. A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2008, and December 11, 2012. Potentially relevant studies were identified based on the title and abstract. Cost-utility analyses (studies that report outcomes in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life-years) were prioritized for inclusion. When not available, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-consequence analyses were considered. Costing studies were considered in the absence of all other analyses. A total of 33 abstracts were identified. Three cost analyses were included. A retrospective chart review from Canada found that HS was $111 less costly than LS; a prospective activity-based cost management study from Italy reported that it was €337 less costly than LS; and the results of an American decision model showed that HS was $1,178 less costly than LS. All studies had limited applicability to the Ontario health care system due to differences in setting, resource use, and costs. Three cost analyses found that, although the HS procedure was more expensive due to the cost of the microinserts, HS was less costly than LS overall due to the shorter recovery time required. Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional tubal ligation for women who want a permanent method of contraception. Both approaches involve closing off the

  13. Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks) in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies. PMID:20196839

  14. Assessing the Economics of Dengue: Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature and Expert Survey.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.

  15. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a "gray literature search" utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%). In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg

  16. A physiological review of American football.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Bompa, T O

    1997-04-01

    American football has been one of the most popular sports in North America within the past century and has recently received support and increased participation from European nations. Two of the biggest concerns regarding participation in American football are the high incidence of injury and the physical demand for preparation. A basic understanding of the physiological systems utilised in the sport of football is necessary in order to develop optimal training programmes geared specifically for preparation as well as the requirements of individual field positions. Previously, it has been assumed that football relies primarily on an anaerobic source of energy for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resynthesis with approximately 90% coming from the phosphocreatine (PCr) energy system. In lieu of research conducted specifically with football players, it appears that the energy contribution from the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in this sport has been underestimated. The elevated blood lactate levels observed in football players following game participation cast doubt on this hypothesis. Identifying position specific characteristics may also enhance the development of training programmes based on the requirements of the different positions. It appears that offensive and defensive linemen are generally larger, have higher levels of percent body fat and have greater absolute strength scores than all other positions. Offensive backs, defensive backs and wide receivers tend to display the lowest percentages of body fat, lower absolute strength scores, fastest times over 5, 10, 40 and 300m and the highest relative VO2max values. Linebackers appeared to represent a transition group mid way between the backs and linemen for size, body composition, strength, speed and endurance as well as positional duties. Findings within the literature suggest that a lack of cardiovascular development of university and professional football players may prove to be a hindrance to performance with

  17. Physical activity interventions in African American women: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Vanessa; Sharma, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Background: African American women are at high risk of acquiring chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles. This objective of this article was to perform a narrative systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American women published between 2009 and 2015. Methods: A review of literature in following databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus was performed to locate interventions promoting physical activity among African American women. Results: The search yielded 13 interventions. All the studies were conducted within the United States. It was found that walking coupled with healthy food choices were salient strategies in the interventions. Studies using social support along with healthy diet were found to be more efficacious in fostering physical activity among African American women. Conclusion: Walking, social support and a healthy diet were found to be significant strategies promoting physical activity in African American women. Physical activity for African American women must build on the constructs of healthier food choices and social support. PMID:28326284

  18. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.

  19. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Söderman, M. Ljunggren

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.

  20. Evaluation of Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Timothy K; Goodman, Chris D; Boldt, R Gabriel; Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A; Rodrigues, George B; Lock, Michael I; Mishra, Mark V; Zaric, Gregory S; Louie, Alexander V

    2016-04-01

    Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions and policies. We recommend improved adherence to

  1. Systematic Review of the Economic Burden of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuyan; Hu, Huimei; Dong, Hengjin

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), as a life-threatening disease with no efficient cure, may impose a tremendous economic burden on patients and healthcare systems. However, most existing studies have mainly emphasised epidemiology and medications, while large observational studies reporting on the economic burden are currently lacking. To review and evaluate evidence on the costs of PAH and the cost effectiveness of PAH treatments, and to summarise the corresponding cost drivers. Systematic literature searches were conducted in English-language databases (PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect) and Chinese-language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP) to identify studies (published from 2000 to 2014) assessing the costs of PAH or the cost effectiveness of PAH treatments. The search results were independently reviewed and extracted by two reviewers. Costs were converted into 2014 US dollars. Of 1959 citations identified in the initial search, 19 papers were finally included in this analysis: eight on the economic burden of PAH and 11 on economic evaluation of PAH treatments. The economic burden on patients with PAH was rather large, with direct healthcare costs per patient per month varying from $2476 to $11,875, but none of the studies reported indirect costs. Sildenafil was universally reported to be a cost-effective treatment, with lower costs and better efficacy than other medications. Medical costs were reported to be the key cost drivers. The economic burden of patients with PAH is substantial, while the paucity of comprehensive country-specific evidence in this area and the lack of reports on indirect costs of PAH warrant researchers' concern, especially in China.

  2. Economic determinants of diet in older adults: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    Many economic factors are associated with diet, yet the evidence is generally cross-sectional. Older people are considered especially vulnerable to poor diets from negative changes to varied economic factors. This review extends current knowledge on known correlates to decipher actual economic determinants of diet in older adults. Eight bibliometric databases were searched between May and December 2012, supplemented by hand-searches, with no restrictions on publication date or country. Longitudinal studies, or reviews, were eligible when examining diet as a function of change in an economic factor in non-institutionalised adults ≥60 years. Data were extracted using a standardised evidence table and quality assessed before narrative synthesis. We found nine original studies for inclusion, of which eight examined change from work to retirement and one evaluated a food price intervention. Designs were generally pre-post without controls and varying in follow-up. Studies reported mixed impact on food spending and/or food intake. Retirement was shown to both reduce and have no impact on food spending and to have either positive and negative, or positive and no impact on food intake. Subgroup differences were observed, especially between men and women. Despite ample research on economic correlates of older adults' diets, little is still known about actual economic determinants of diet in this population. Studies of retirement suggest divergent effects in some but not all older people. Robust high-quality longitudinal studies to decipher economic drivers of diet must be prioritised in research and policy as firm conclusions remain elusive.

  3. Economic determinants of diet in older adults: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Many economic factors are associated with diet, yet the evidence is generally cross-sectional. Older people are considered especially vulnerable to poor diets from negative changes to varied economic factors. This review extends current knowledge on known correlates to decipher actual economic determinants of diet in older adults. Methods Eight bibliometric databases were searched between May and December 2012, supplemented by hand-searches, with no restrictions on publication date or country. Longitudinal studies, or reviews, were eligible when examining diet as a function of change in an economic factor in non-institutionalised adults ≥60 years. Data were extracted using a standardised evidence table and quality assessed before narrative synthesis. Results We found nine original studies for inclusion, of which eight examined change from work to retirement and one evaluated a food price intervention. Designs were generally pre-post without controls and varying in follow-up. Studies reported mixed impact on food spending and/or food intake. Retirement was shown to both reduce and have no impact on food spending and to have either positive and negative, or positive and no impact on food intake. Subgroup differences were observed, especially between men and women. Conclusions Despite ample research on economic correlates of older adults' diets, little is still known about actual economic determinants of diet in this population. Studies of retirement suggest divergent effects in some but not all older people. Robust high-quality longitudinal studies to decipher economic drivers of diet must be prioritised in research and policy as firm conclusions remain elusive. PMID:23761410

  4. Economic impact of medication error: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Elaine K; Hansen, Christina Raae; Sahm, Laura J; Kearney, Patricia M; Doherty, Edel; Bradley, Colin P

    2017-05-01

    Medication error is a significant source of morbidity and mortality among patients. Clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence are required for the implementation of quality of care interventions. Reduction of error-related cost is a key potential benefit of interventions addressing medication error. The aim of this review was to describe and quantify the economic burden associated with medication error. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL, EconLit, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Complete were searched. Studies published 2004-2016 assessing the economic impact of medication error were included. Cost values were expressed in Euro 2015. A narrative synthesis was performed. A total of 4572 articles were identified from database searching, and 16 were included in the review. One study met all applicable quality criteria. Fifteen studies expressed economic impact in monetary terms. Mean cost per error per study ranged from €2.58 to €111 727.08. Healthcare costs were used to measure economic impact in 15 of the included studies with one study measuring litigation costs. Four studies included costs incurred in primary care with the remaining 12 measuring hospital costs. Five studies looked at general medication error in a general population with 11 studies reporting the economic impact of an individual type of medication error or error within a specific patient population. Considerable variability existed between studies in terms of financial cost, patients, settings and errors included. Many were of poor quality. Assessment of economic impact was conducted predominantly in the hospital setting with little assessment of primary care impact. Limited parameters were used to establish economic impact. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Economic contraction and birth outcomes: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Zilko, C E Margerison

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous research has demonstrated an association between economic contraction at both the individual and aggregate level, and adverse health outcomes. Proposed mechanisms include increased psychosocial stress and loss of resources. The aim of this review is to assess the quantity, validity and consistency of empirical evidence examining economic contraction and birth outcomes. METHODS Empirical, English-language articles examining the effects of economic change at either the aggregate or individual level on birthweight, length of gestation, neonatal mortality and the secondary sex ratio were identified using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. Studies were organized by level of analysis and birth outcome and evaluated for internal and external validity. RESULTS One individual-level study reported a strong association between individual shift to inadequate employment and decreased birthweight. Of seven aggregate-level studies on birthweight, five exhibited moderate to strong validity but reported inconsistent findings. Similarly, findings from five studies (four with moderate to strong validity) examining rates of neonatal mortality reported inconsistent findings. Three of four moderate to strong studies reported a reduced secondary sex ratio following economic contraction. CONCLUSIONS Associations between economic contraction and birthweight, neonatal mortality and the secondary sex ratio remain speculative. Consensus on methodology is needed to compare findings across studies. Further research on economic contraction and the secondary sex ratio, as well as individual-level birthweight and length of gestation, is warranted.

  6. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement--child fatality review.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    Injury remains the leading cause of pediatric mortality and requires public health approaches to reduce preventable deaths. Child fatality review teams, first established to review suspicious child deaths involving abuse or neglect, have expanded toward a public health model of prevention of child fatality through systematic review of child deaths from birth through adolescence. Approximately half of all states report reviewing child deaths from all causes, and the process of fatality review has identified effective local and state prevention strategies for reducing child deaths. This expanded approach can be a powerful tool in understanding the epidemiology and preventability of child death locally, regionally, and nationally; improving accuracy of vital statistics data; and identifying public health and legislative strategies for reducing preventable child fatalities. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the development of federal and state legislation to enhance the child fatality review process and recommends that pediatricians become involved in local and state child death reviews.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease and African Americans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mahid, Suhal S; Mulhall, Aaron M; Gholson, Ryan D; Eichenberger, M Robert; Galandiuk, Susan

    2008-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). There are conflicting reports on whether African Americans have a more severe disease course, presentation, and more frequent extraintestinal manifestations (EIM). We examined the precise nature of this relationship by conducting a systematic review. Using predefined inclusion criteria we searched multiple healthcare databases and Grey literature. Eight reports met the inclusion criteria. Using the parameters as defined in the Montreal classification and the presence or absence of EIM, we compared IBD in African Americans and Caucasians. Over 2000 IBD cases were pooled from 8 reports with African Americans comprising 17%. African Americans and Caucasians had similar distribution of types of IBD, with CD being more common than UC in both groups (CD 76% versus 68% and UC 24% versus 32%, respectively). With respect to CD, both groups presented with nonstricturing and nonpenetrating disease behavior (55% versus 41%) more frequently and had similar rates of ileocolonic disease location (42% versus 38%), and presence of perianal disease (26% versus 29%). In UC patients, proctitis was the most frequent initial presentation in both races. Joint complications were the most frequent EIM in both African Americans (52%) and Caucasians (60%). This study dispels the commonly held views that African Americans with IBD generally have more colonic disease, more severe disease behavior, and more perianal disease than Caucasians. African Americans also have similar variety and frequency of EIMs as compared to Caucasians.

  8. Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Thyroid Surgery in Elderly Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Michael C.; Roman, Sanziana A.; Sosa, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. population is undergoing a dramatic shift in demographics, with a rise in the proportion of elderly Americans. Given an increased prevalence of thyroid disease and malignancy with age, understanding the safety of thyroid surgery in this age group is increasingly pertinent. There remains disagreement regarding the clinical outcomes of elderly patients after thyroidectomy and the applicability of single-institution cohorts to the population at large. This paper reviews the epidemiology of thyroid disease in the elderly, current surgical indications and practice patterns, and the clinical and economic outcomes of elderly patients with thyroid disease after surgical intervention. PMID:22779035

  9. Review of Economic Submissions to NICE Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme.

    PubMed

    Alshreef, Abualbishr; Jenks, Michelle; Green, William; Dixon, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The economic evaluation of medical devices is increasingly used to inform decision making on adopting new or novel technologies; however, challenges are inevitable due to the unique characteristics of devices. Cost-consequence analyses are recommended and employed by the English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme (MTEP) to help address these challenges. The aim of this work was to review the critiques raised for previous MTEP submissions and explore if there were common problems across submissions. We reviewed a sample of 12 economic submissions to MTEP representing 50 % of 24 sets of guidance issued to July 2015. For each submission, we reviewed the External Assessment Centre's (EAC) report and the guidance document produced by NICE. We identified the main problems raised by the EAC's assessments and the committee's considerations for each submission, and explored strategies for improvement. We found that the identification and measurement of costs and consequences are the main shortcomings within economic submissions to MTEP. Together, these shortcomings accounted for 42 % of criticisms by the EACs among the reviewed submissions. In certain circumstances problems with these shortcomings may be unavoidable, for example, if there is a limited evidence base for the device being appraised. Nevertheless, strategies can often be adopted to improve submissions, including the use of more appropriate time horizons, whilst cost and resource use information should be taken, where possible, from nationally representative sources.

  10. SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS OF ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS: HOW EXTENSIVE ARE THEIR SEARCHES?

    PubMed

    Wood, Hannah; Arber, Mick; Glanville, Julie M

    2017-01-01

    Economic evaluation (EE) is an accepted element of decision making and priority setting in healthcare. As the number of published EEs grows, so does the number of systematic reviews (SRs) of EEs. Although search methodology makes an important contribution to SR quality, search methods in reviews of EEs have not been evaluated in detail. We investigated the resources used to identify studies in recent, published SRs of EEs, and assessed whether the resources reflected recommendations. We searched MEDLINE for SRs of EEs published since January 2013 and extracted the following from eligible reviews: databases searched, health technology assessment (HTA) sources searched, supplementary search techniques used. Results were compared against the minimum search resources recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (MEDLINE, Embase, NHS EED, EconLit) for economic evidence for single technology appraisals, and resource types suggested in the summary of current best evidence from SuRe Info (economic databases, general databases, HTA databases, HTA agency Web pages, gray literature). Sixty-five SRs met the inclusion criteria; data were extracted from forty-two. Five reviews (12 percent) met or exceeded the NICE recommended resources. Nine reviews (21 percent) searched at least four of the five types of resource recommended by SuRe Info. Five reviews (12 percent) searched all five. Twenty-three reviews (55 percent) did not meet the NICE recommendations or four of five of the SuRe Info recommended resource types. Search reporting was frequently unclear or incorrect. Searches conducted for the majority of recently published SRs of EEs do not meet two published approaches.

  11. African American Identity Development: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Janeula M.; Halpin, Glennelle

    Beginning from general concepts of identity formation, this review of models of African American identity development proceeds to Marcia's expansion of Erikson's identity model and to Chickering's vector theory. DuBois's concept of "double identity" and Erikson's writings concerning "adaptive coping" in minorities are…

  12. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel...

  13. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies. PMID:19939238

  14. Economic evaluation of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Psaltikidis, Eliane Molina; Silva, Everton Nunes da; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Resende, Mariângela Ribeiro

    2017-08-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) consists of providing antimicrobial therapy by parenteral infusion without hospitalization. A systematic review was performed to compare OPAT and hospitalization as health care modalities from an economic perspective. Areas covered: We identified 1455 articles using 13 electronic databases and manual searches. Two independent reviewers identified 35 studies conducted between 1978 and 2016. We observed high heterogeneity in the following: countries, infection site, OPAT strategies and outcomes analyzed. Of these, 88% had a retrospective observational design and one was a randomized trial. With respect to economic analyses, 71% of the studies considered the cost-consequences, 11% cost minimization, 6% cost-benefit, 6% cost-utility analyses and 6% cost effectiveness. Considering all 35 studies, the general OPAT cost saving was 57.19% (from -13.03% to 95.47%). Taking into consideration only high-quality studies (6 comparative studies), the cost saving declined by 16.54% (from -13.03% to 46.86%). Expert commentary: Although most studies demonstrate that OPAT is cost-effective, the magnitude of this effect is compromised by poor methodological quality and heterogeneity. Economic assessments of the issue are needed using more rigorous methodologies that include a broad range of perspectives to identify the real magnitude of economic savings in different settings and OPAT modalities.

  15. A systematic review of workplace ergonomic interventions with economic analyses.

    PubMed

    Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; de Oliveira, Claire; Amick, Benjamin C; Irvin, Emma

    2010-06-01

    This article reports on a systematic review of workplace ergonomic interventions with economic evaluations. The review sought to answer the question: "what is the credible evidence that incremental investment in ergonomic interventions is worth undertaking?" Past efforts to synthesize evidence from this literature have focused on effectiveness, whereas this study synthesizes evidence on the cost-effectiveness/financial merits of such interventions. Through a structured journal database search, 35 intervention studies were identified in nine industrial sectors. A qualitative synthesis approach, known as best evidence synthesis, was used rather than a quantitative approach because of the diversity of study designs and statistical analyses found across studies. Evidence on the financial merits of interventions was synthesized by industrial sector. In the manufacturing and warehousing sector strong evidence was found in support of the financial merits of ergonomic interventions from a firm perspective. In the administrative support and health care sectors moderate evidence was found, in the transportation sector limited evidence, and in remaining sectors insufficient evidence. Most intervention studies focus on effectiveness. Few consider their financial merits. Amongst the few that do, several had exemplary economic analyses, although more than half of the studies had low quality economic analyses. This may be due to the low priority given to economic analysis in this literature. Often only a small part of the overall evaluation of many studies focused on evaluating their cost-effectiveness.

  16. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Juul, N; Münster, M; Ravn, H; Söderman, M Ljunggren

    2013-09-01

    Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant's economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic pressure and health and weight management behaviors in African American couples: A family stress perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Catherine W; Arnold, Amy Laura; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Wickrama, K A S; Bryant, Chalandra M

    2015-05-01

    This study extends the family stress model by examining the influence of economic pressure on health and weight management behaviors mediated by depressive symptoms and spousal support among 506 African American married couples. The actor-partner interdependence model accounted for the interdependent nature of relationships. Findings support the family stress model; yet pathways differed slightly for husbands and wives. Economic pressure directly influenced depressive symptoms and spousal support. Spousal support was a buffer against poor health and weight management behaviors for husbands, while depressive symptoms exacerbated poor health and weight management behaviors for wives. These mechanisms have implications for practitioners who promote African American couples' well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Economic Studies in Motor Neurone Disease: A Systematic Methodological Review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alan; Young, Carolyn A; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2017-04-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a devastating condition which greatly diminishes patients' quality of life and limits life expectancy. Health technology appraisals of future interventions in MND need robust data on costs and utilities. Existing economic evaluations have been noted to be limited and fraught with challenges. The aim of this study was to identify and critique methodological aspects of all published economic evaluations, cost studies, and utility studies in MND. We systematically reviewed all relevant published studies in English from 1946 until January 2016, searching the databases of Medline, EMBASE, Econlit, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and the Health Economics Evaluation Database (HEED). Key data were extracted and synthesised narratively. A total of 1830 articles were identified, of which 15 economic evaluations, 23 cost and 3 utility studies were included. Most economic studies focused on riluzole (n = 9). Six studies modelled the progressive decline in motor function using a Markov design but did not include mutually exclusive health states. Cost estimates for a number of evaluations were based on expert opinion and were hampered by high variability and location-specific characteristics. Few cost studies reported disease-stage-specific costs (n = 3) or fully captured indirect costs. Utilities in three studies of MND patients used the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire or standard gamble, but included potentially unrepresentative cohorts and did not consider any health impacts on caregivers. Economic evaluations in MND suffer from significant methodological issues such as a lack of data, uncertainty with the disease course and use of inappropriate modelling framework. Limitations may be addressed through the collection of detailed and representative data from large cohorts of patients.

  19. Qualitative Systematic Review of Intimate Partner Violence among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Native Americans is high, and a full understanding of how to prevent it is unclear. Based on this qualitative systematic review of 13 research reports, a model of IPV among Native Americans was developed. IPV appears to be grounded within a history of upheaval and loss, and is entrenched and repressed within families. Victims are reluctant to seek assistance, and when they do, they often experience barriers within the service system. To prevent and resolve IPV, service providers are urged to establish trust with individuals who seek assistance and to leverage cultural strengths. They also are encouraged to adapt theoretical models to optimize care.

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening for Average-Risk North Americans: An Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Steven J.; Hilsden, Robert J.; Au, Flora; Dowden, Scot; Manns, Braden J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) fulfills the World Health Organization criteria for mass screening, but screening uptake is low in most countries. CRC screening is resource intensive, and it is unclear if an optimal strategy exists. The objective of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of CRC screening in average risk North American individuals considering all relevant screening modalities and current CRC treatment costs. Methods and Findings An incremental cost-utility analysis using a Markov model was performed comparing guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) annually, fecal DNA every 3 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy or computed tomographic colonography every 5 years, and colonoscopy every 10 years. All strategies were also compared to a no screening natural history arm. Given that different FIT assays and collection methods have been previously tested, three distinct FIT testing strategies were considered, on the basis of studies that have reported “low,” “mid,” and “high” test performance characteristics for detecting adenomas and CRC. Adenoma and CRC prevalence rates were based on a recent systematic review whereas screening adherence, test performance, and CRC treatment costs were based on publicly available data. The outcome measures included lifetime costs, number of cancers, cancer-related deaths, quality-adjusted life-years gained, and incremental cost-utility ratios. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed. Annual FIT, assuming mid-range testing characteristics, was more effective and less costly compared to all strategies (including no screening) except FIT-high. Among the lifetimes of 100,000 average-risk patients, the number of cancers could be reduced from 4,857 to 1,782 and the number of CRC deaths from 1,393 to 457, while saving CAN$68 per person. Although screening patients with FIT became more expensive than a strategy of no screening when the test performance of FIT was

  1. Colorectal cancer screening for average-risk North Americans: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Steven J; Hilsden, Robert J; Au, Flora; Dowden, Scot; Manns, Braden J

    2010-11-23

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) fulfills the World Health Organization criteria for mass screening, but screening uptake is low in most countries. CRC screening is resource intensive, and it is unclear if an optimal strategy exists. The objective of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of CRC screening in average risk North American individuals considering all relevant screening modalities and current CRC treatment costs. An incremental cost-utility analysis using a Markov model was performed comparing guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) annually, fecal DNA every 3 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy or computed tomographic colonography every 5 years, and colonoscopy every 10 years. All strategies were also compared to a no screening natural history arm. Given that different FIT assays and collection methods have been previously tested, three distinct FIT testing strategies were considered, on the basis of studies that have reported "low," "mid," and "high" test performance characteristics for detecting adenomas and CRC. Adenoma and CRC prevalence rates were based on a recent systematic review whereas screening adherence, test performance, and CRC treatment costs were based on publicly available data. The outcome measures included lifetime costs, number of cancers, cancer-related deaths, quality-adjusted life-years gained, and incremental cost-utility ratios. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed. Annual FIT, assuming mid-range testing characteristics, was more effective and less costly compared to all strategies (including no screening) except FIT-high. Among the lifetimes of 100,000 average-risk patients, the number of cancers could be reduced from 4,857 to 1,393 [corrected] and the number of CRC deaths from 1,782 [corrected] to 457, while saving CAN$68 per person. Although screening patients with FIT became more expensive than a strategy of no screening when the test performance of FIT was reduced, or the cost

  2. A systematic review of economic evaluations of therapy in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Katayoun; Quon, Bradley S; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Marra, Carlo; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asthma’s cost-effectiveness is a major consideration in the evaluation of its treatment options. Our objective was to perform a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of asthma medications. Methods: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OHE-HEED, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessments Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and Web of Science and reviewed references from key articles between 1990 and Jan 2008. Results: A total of 49 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids was found to be very cost-effective and in uncontrolled asthmatics patients currently being treated with ICS, the combination of an ICS/LABA represents a safe, cost-effective treatment. The simplified strategy using budesonide and formoterol for maintenance and reliever therapy was also found to be as cost-effective as salmeterol/fluticasone plus salbutamol. Omalizumab was found to be cost-effective. An important caveat with regard to the published literature is the relatively high proportion of economic evaluations which are funded by the manufacturers of specific drug treatments. Conclusion: Future studies should be completed independent of industry support and ensure that the comparator arms within studies should include dosages of drugs that are equivalent. PMID:21437038

  3. Economic evaluation of enhanced asthma management: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yee V.; Shafie, Asrul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate and compare full economic evaluation studies on the cost-effectiveness of enhanced asthma management (either as an adjunct to usual care or alone) vs. usual care alone. Methods: Online databases were searched for published journal articles in English language from year 1990 to 2012, using the search terms ‘“asthma” AND (“intervene” OR “manage”) AND (“pharmacoeconomics” OR “economic evaluation” OR “cost effectiveness” OR “cost benefit” OR “cost utility”)’. Hand search was done for local publishing. Only studies with full economic evaluation on enhanced management were included (cost consequences (CC), cost effectiveness (CE), cost benefit (CB), or cost utility (CU) analysis). Data were extracted and assessed for the quality of its economic evaluation design and evidence sources. Results: A total of 49 studies were included. There were 3 types of intervention for enhanced asthma management: education, environmental control, and self-management. The most cost-effective enhanced management was a mixture of education and self-management by an integrated team of healthcare and allied healthcare professionals. In general, the studies had a fair quality of economic evaluation with a mean QHES score of 73.7 (SD=9.7), and had good quality of evidence sources. Conclusion: Despite the overall fair quality of economic evaluations but good quality of evidence sources for all data components, this review showed that the delivered enhanced asthma managements, whether as single or mixed modes, were overall effective and cost-reducing. Whilst the availability and accessibility are an equally important factor to consider, the sustainability of the cost-effective management has to be further investigated using a longer time horizon especially for chronic diseases such as asthma. PMID:25580173

  4. Economic evaluation of enhanced asthma management: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yee V; Shafie, Asrul A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare full economic evaluation studies on the cost-effectiveness of enhanced asthma management (either as an adjunct to usual care or alone) vs. usual care alone. Online databases were searched for published journal articles in English language from year 1990 to 2012, using the search terms '"asthma" AND ("intervene" OR "manage") AND ("pharmacoeconomics" OR "economic evaluation" OR "cost effectiveness" OR "cost benefit" OR "cost utility")'. Hand search was done for local publishing. Only studies with full economic evaluation on enhanced management were included (cost consequences (CC), cost effectiveness (CE), cost benefit (CB), or cost utility (CU) analysis). Data were extracted and assessed for the quality of its economic evaluation design and evidence sources. A total of 49 studies were included. There were 3 types of intervention for enhanced asthma management: education, environmental control, and self-management. The most cost-effective enhanced management was a mixture of education and self-management by an integrated team of healthcare and allied healthcare professionals. In general, the studies had a fair quality of economic evaluation with a mean QHES score of 73.7 (SD=9.7), and had good quality of evidence sources. Despite the overall fair quality of economic evaluations but good quality of evidence sources for all data components, this review showed that the delivered enhanced asthma managements, whether as single or mixed modes, were overall effective and cost-reducing. Whilst the availability and accessibility are an equally important factor to consider, the sustainability of the cost-effective management has to be further investigated using a longer time horizon especially for chronic diseases such as asthma.

  5. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  6. The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Roncaioli, Mattia; Fiz Perez, Javier; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In 2008 a deep economic crisis started in the US and rapidly spread around the world. The crisis severely affected the labor market and employees’ well-being. Hence, the aim of this work is to implement a systematic review of the principal studies that analyze the impact of the economic crisis on the health of workers. We conducted our search on the PubMed database, and a total of 19 articles were selected for review. All studies showed that the economic crisis was an important stressor that had a negative impact on workers’ mental health. Most of the studies documented that a rise in unemployment, increased workload, staff reduction, and wages reduction were linked to an increased rate of mood disorders, anxiety, depression, dysthymia, and suicide. Some studies showed that problems related to the crisis may have also affected the general health of workers by increasing the risk of such health problems as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Finally, some studies looked at the impact of the crisis on health care services. These studies demonstrated that the reduction in public expenditure on health care services, and the reduction of public hospital budgets due to the recession, led to organizational problems (eg, medical supply shortages). PMID:27143898

  7. The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Roncaioli, Mattia; Fiz Perez, Javier; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In 2008 a deep economic crisis started in the US and rapidly spread around the world. The crisis severely affected the labor market and employees' well-being. Hence, the aim of this work is to implement a systematic review of the principal studies that analyze the impact of the economic crisis on the health of workers. We conducted our search on the PubMed database, and a total of 19 articles were selected for review. All studies showed that the economic crisis was an important stressor that had a negative impact on workers' mental health. Most of the studies documented that a rise in unemployment, increased workload, staff reduction, and wages reduction were linked to an increased rate of mood disorders, anxiety, depression, dysthymia, and suicide. Some studies showed that problems related to the crisis may have also affected the general health of workers by increasing the risk of such health problems as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Finally, some studies looked at the impact of the crisis on health care services. These studies demonstrated that the reduction in public expenditure on health care services, and the reduction of public hospital budgets due to the recession, led to organizational problems (eg, medical supply shortages).

  8. Effects of Economic Disruptions on Alcohol Use and Problems: Why Do African Americans Fare Worse?

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Mulia, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study tested a model of the effects of recession-related job loss on alcohol use disorder (AUD) and examined why African Americans who lost their jobs during the 2008–2009 recession were at increased risk for AUD relative to Whites. We hypothesized that (a) job loss would be positively associated with psychological distress (i.e., higher levels of depressive symptoms) and increased drunkenness, and (b) low levels of family social support and experiences of racial stigma would exacerbate the effects of job loss on distress, especially among African Americans and Hispanics. Method: Data were drawn from the 2010 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (NAS), a cross-sectional survey of the U.S. general population. Using data from the 2010 NAS (telephone survey of 1,111 African American, 964 Hispanic, and 3,133 White adults), we conducted simultaneous path modeling in Mplus to test mediation and moderation hypotheses. Our key outcome was AUD as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Results: Recession-related job loss was significantly associated with AUD through its effects on increased drunkenness, and the associations were positive for Whites, stronger for African Americans than Whites, and nonexistent for Hispanics. Job loss was associated with distress in the overall sample, and distress was positively associated with drunkenness among African Americans only, suggesting that distress is another pathway by which job loss affects AUD among African Americans. Higher levels of family social support mitigated the effects of job loss on psychological distress, and this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: During economic downturns, increased stress and heavy drinking are important pathways through which recession-related job loss can lead to greater AUD among African Americans relative to Whites. PMID:26997184

  9. Effects of Economic Disruptions on Alcohol Use and Problems: Why Do African Americans Fare Worse?

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina

    2016-03-01

    This study tested a model of the effects of recession-related job loss on alcohol use disorder (AUD) and examined why African Americans who lost their jobs during the 2008-2009 recession were at increased risk for AUD relative to Whites. We hypothesized that (a) job loss would be positively associated with psychological distress (i.e., higher levels of depressive symptoms) and increased drunkenness, and (b) low levels of family social support and experiences of racial stigma would exacerbate the effects of job loss on distress, especially among African Americans and Hispanics. Data were drawn from the 2010 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (NAS), a cross-sectional survey of the U.S. general population. Using data from the 2010 NAS (telephone survey of 1,111 African American, 964 Hispanic, and 3,133 White adults), we conducted simultaneous path modeling in Mplus to test mediation and moderation hypotheses. Our key outcome was AUD as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Recession-related job loss was significantly associated with AUD through its effects on increased drunkenness, and the associations were positive for Whites, stronger for African Americans than Whites, and nonexistent for Hispanics. Job loss was associated with distress in the overall sample, and distress was positively associated with drunkenness among African Americans only, suggesting that distress is another pathway by which job loss affects AUD among African Americans. Higher levels of family social support mitigated the effects of job loss on psychological distress, and this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity. During economic downturns, increased stress and heavy drinking are important pathways through which recession-related job loss can lead to greater AUD among African Americans relative to Whites.

  10. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the...

  11. Do Social and Economic Policies Influence Health? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects. PMID:25984439

  12. Do Social and Economic Policies Influence Health? A Review.

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2014-09-01

    Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects.

  13. A review of the economics of adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Seckeler, Michael D; Thomas, Ian D; Andrews, Jennifer; Joiner, Keith; Klewer, Scott E

    2016-01-01

    Adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD) now outnumber children with the disease. Thanks to medical advances over the past 75 years, many of these fatal childhood heart problems have changed to chronic medical conditions. As the population of adults with CHD increases, they will require increasingly complex medical, surgical and catheter-based therapies. In addition, social burdens including education, employment and insurability, which increase the societal costs of adult CHD, are now being recognized for adults living with CHD. This review summarizes the available literature on the economics of adult CHD.

  14. 77 FR 3956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Operating as Catcher...- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels operating as catcher/ processors using pot gear in the Western... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod sideboard limit established for non-AFA crab vessels operating...

  15. Teaching Economics in American History: A Teacher's Manual for Secondary Schools. Second Edition. JCEE Checklist No. 334.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George G.; Prehn, Edward C.

    The primary purpose of this book is to point out events reported in the typical U.S. history course that can be enriched by a consideration of relevant economic topics. The book is organized chronologically by 21 topics: explorers and the early American colonies; the American Revolution; the Confederation period and the Constitutional Convention;…

  16. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA...

  17. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA...

  18. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA trawl catcher/processors in the...

  19. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ≥5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used in cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between processes of change and FV consumption. Consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationships and stimulus control processes were significantly associated with FV consumption (ρ≥.12; p<.01), and were practiced more often by youths who consumed ≥5 daily servings of FVs relative to those who did not (p<.05). Findings highlight the potential of these processes for increasing FV consumption in this population.

  20. Nativity, acculturation, and economic status: explanations of Asian American living arrangements in later life.

    PubMed

    Burr, J A; Mutchler, J E

    1993-03-01

    Using 1980 Census data, we examined the household and nonhousehold living arrangements for older, unmarried women of Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and Korean descent, finding substantial variation across ethnic groups. We tested three hypotheses regarding the effects of acculturation, economic status, and nativity/immigration status. The results from our multivariate analyses show that Chinese-origin and Filipino-origin women who are less acculturated are more likely to live with others than those who are more acculturated. Members from each Asian American group who can afford independent living are more likely to purchase their privacy. The most consistent finding shows that older, unmarried Asian American women who have migrated to the United States since 1965 are more likely than similar native-born women to live in a complex household as compared to living alone.

  1. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  2. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was...., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  3. 75 FR 82375 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... American Free Trade Agreement. Second and Third Requests for Panel Review were filed by GD Affiliates S. de.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a...

  4. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel review was... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to...

  5. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  6. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  7. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  8. High-Growth Firms and the Future of the American Economy. Kauffman Foundation Research Series: Firm Formation and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangler, Dane

    2010-01-01

    Into early 2010, more than two years after the recession began, the American economy continues to send out mixed signals with respect to economic recovery: GDP (gross domestic product) growth looks set to recover, while unemployment is projected to remain high for many more years. The most important economic matter facing the country is job…

  9. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  10. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  11. The economic impact of gout: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Trieste, Leopoldo; Palla, Ilaria; Fusco, Francesco; Tani, Chiara; Baldini, Chiara; Mosca, Marta; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article performs a systematic literature review of the last decade studies assessing the economic impact of gout. The literature review confirms the fact that gout reduces productivity and increases annual total healthcare costs, since care of gout absorbs relevant amounts of healthcare resources. One important aspect to be considered is represented by prevention and monitoring of the disease after the diagnosis, as gout is sometimes underestimated by patients and this leads to a reduced adherence to follow up and to treatment with consequences on the disease course and outcome. In fact, the lack of prevention and the scarce adherence to monitoring increase the number and costs of hospitalisation. Prevention, monitoring the level of sUA and using a urate-lowering therapy appear to have a central role for controlling gout and reducing hospitalisation, with positive advantages in terms of healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation. One limitation on the analysis of gout related costs, however, resides in the fact that the majority of the retrieved studies are retrospective and the definition of the economic impact of the disease is made difficult by differences in inclusion criteria, costs assessment, use of gout-related healthcare resources.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is expected to be commercialised during the next decade as renewable energy for transport. Competiveness with first generation bioethanol and with gasoline is commonly considered in techno-economic analyses for commercial stage. Several existing reviews conclude about the high spread of current and projected production costs of lignocellulosic ethanol due to the significant differences in assumptions concerning the following factors: composition and cost of feedstock, process design, conversion efficiency, valorisation of co-products, and energy conservation. Focusing on the studies in the United States of America and in Europe, the present review investigates the different natures of the techno-economic evaluations during the development process of the supply chain i.e., standard costing with respect to Value Engineering, and Target Costing based on the projected market price. The paper highlights the significant contribution of feedstock to the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost and the need to consider competition between different uses for resources. It is recommended the use of a value-based approach that considers sustainability characteristics and potential competition for resources complementarily to Target Costing and Value Engineering.

  13. Economic healthcare costs of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghantoji, S S; Sail, K; Lairson, D R; DuPont, H L; Garey, K W

    2010-04-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. CDI increases patient healthcare costs due to extended hospitalisation, re-hospitalisation, laboratory tests and medications. However, the economic costs of CDI on healthcare systems remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to summarise available studies aimed at defining the economic healthcare costs of CDI. We conducted a literature search for peer-reviewed studies that investigated costs associated with CDI (1980 to present). Thirteen studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. CDI costs in 2008 US dollars were calculated using the consumer price index. The total and incremental costs for primary and recurrent CDI were estimated. Of the 13, 10 were from the USA and one each from Canada, UK, and Ireland. In US-based studies incremental cost estimates ranged from $2,871 to $4,846 per case for primary CDI and from $13,655 to $18,067 per case for recurrent CDI. US-based studies in special populations (subjects with irritable bowel disease, surgical inpatients, and patients treated in the intensive care unit) showed an incremental cost range from $6,242 to $90,664. Non-US-based studies showed an estimated incremental cost of $5,243 to $8,570 per case for primary CDI and $13,655 per case for recurrent CDI. Economic healthcare costs of CDI were high for primary and recurrent cases. The high cost associated with CDI justifies the use of additional resources for CDI prevention and control. Copyright (c) 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High School Completion Programs: A Community Guide Systematic Economic Review.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Hahn, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    On-time high school graduation rate is among the 26 leading health indicators for Healthy People 2020. High school completion (HSC) programs aim to increase the likelihood that students finish high school and receive a high school diploma or complete a GED (General Educational Development) program. This systematic review was conducted to determine the economic impact of HSC interventions, assess variability in cost-effectiveness of different types of programs, and compare the lifetime benefit of completing high school with the cost of intervention. Forty-seven included studies were identified from 5303 articles published in English from January 1985 to December 2012. The economic evidence was summarized by type of HSC program. All monetary values were expressed in 2012 US dollars. The data were analyzed in 2013. Thirty-seven studies provided estimates of incremental cost per additional high school graduate, with a median cost for HSC programs of $69 800 (interquartile interval = $35 900-$130 300). Cost-effectiveness ratios varied depending on intervention type, study settings, student populations, and costing methodologies. Ten studies estimated the lifetime difference of economic benefits between high school nongraduates and graduates; 4 used a governmental perspective and reported benefit per additional high school to range from $187 000 to $240 000; 6 used a societal perspective and reported a range of $347 000 to $718 000. Benefits exceeded costs in most studies from a governmental perspective and in all studies from a societal perspective. Interventions to increase HSC rates produce substantial economic benefits to government and society including averted health care costs. From a societal perspective, the benefits also exceed costs, implying a positive rate of return from investment in HSC programs.

  15. Review of the american psychiatric publishing textbook of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hellerstein, David J

    2007-03-01

    Reviews the book, The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders edited by John M. Oldham, Andrew E. Skodol, and Donna S. Bender (see record 2005-05013-000). Definitive, encyclopedic, and somewhat daunting, The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders is a monument to the progress of contemporary psychiatry and related disciplines in understanding and treating the Axis II disorders--as well as to its limitations. One may properly ask, how well does this volume succeed in providing guidance for professionals who work with individuals diagnosed with personality disorders? To a large degree, I believe it succeeds. With all its exciting insights into the impact of trauma, the interaction between genes, serotonin and impulsive behavior, and so forth, and with its occasional frustrations, the Textbook of Personality Disorders provides an accurate, in-depth depiction of a true frontier of psychiatry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. American Indians Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

  17. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  18. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  19. The Economics of Developing Countries Component of GCE "A" Level Economics--A Review of Examination Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith

    1984-01-01

    A review of the summer examination papers in 'A' level economics set by the eight boards of England and Wales during the period 1979-1983 show that, with two notable exceptions, the boards have not devoted much space to questions relating to the economics of developing countries. (Author/RM)

  20. Global economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccines: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kotirum, Surachai; Vutipongsatorn, Naaon; Kongpakwattana, Khachen; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-06-08

    World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Rotavirus vaccines to prevent and control rotavirus infections. Economic evaluations (EE) have been considered to support decision making of national policy. Summarizing global experience of the economic value of rotavirus vaccines is crucial in order to encourage global WHO recommendations for vaccine uptake. Therefore, a systematic review of economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccine was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, NHS EED, EconLit, CEA Registry, SciELO, LILACS, CABI-Global Health Database, Popline, World Bank - e-Library, and WHOLIS. Full economic evaluations studies, published from inception to November 2015, evaluating Rotavirus vaccines preventing Rotavirus infections were included. The methods, assumptions, results and conclusions of the included studies were extracted and appraised using WHO guide for standardization of EE of immunization programs. 104 relevant studies were included. The majority of studies were conducted in high-income countries. Cost-utility analysis was mostly reported in many studies using incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per DALY averted or QALY gained. Incremental cost per QALY gained was used in many studies from high-income countries. Mass routine vaccination against rotavirus provided the ICERs ranging from cost-saving to highly cost-effective in comparison to no vaccination among low-income countries. Among middle-income countries, vaccination offered the ICERs ranging from cost-saving to cost-effective. Due to low- or no subsidized price of rotavirus vaccines from external funders, being not cost-effective was reported in some high-income settings. Mass vaccination against rotavirus was generally found to be cost-effective, particularly in low- and middle-income settings according to the external subsidization of vaccine price. On the other hand, it may not be a cost-effective intervention at market price in some high-income settings. This systematic review provides

  1. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State rural economic development review panel. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In... responsible for economic and community development or the person designated by the director to serve on...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true State rural economic development review panel. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In order for a State to become or remain an eligible State, the State must have a rural economic...

  3. Cervical degenerative disease: systematic review of economic analyses.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Matthew D; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Klineberg, Eric; Riew, K Daniel; Fischer, Dena J; Norvell, Daniel C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2014-10-15

    Systematic review. To perform an evidence-based synthesis of the literature assessing the cost-effectiveness of surgery for patients with symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD). Cervical DDD is a common cause of clinical syndromes such as neck pain, cervical radiculopathy, and myelopathy. The appropriate surgical intervention(s) for a given problem is controversial, especially with regard to quality-of-life outcomes, complications, and costs. Although there have been many studies comparing outcomes and complications, relatively few have compared costs and, more importantly, cost-effectiveness of the interventions. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis registry database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database for full economic evaluations published through January 16, 2014. Identification of full economic evaluations that were explicitly designed to evaluate and synthesize the costs and consequences of surgical procedures or surgical intervention with nonsurgical management in patients with cervical DDD were considered for inclusion, based on 4 key questions. Five studies were included, each specific to 1 or more of our focus questions. Two studies suggested that cervical disc replacement may be more cost-effective compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Two studies comparing anterior with posterior surgical procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy suggested that anterior surgery was more cost-effective than posterior surgery. One study suggested that posterior cervical foraminotomy had a greater net economic benefit than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in a military population with unilateral cervical radiculopathy. No studies assessed the cost-effectiveness of surgical intervention compared with nonoperative treatment of cervical myelopathy or radiculopathy, although it is acknowledged that existing studies

  4. Book review: Ecology of North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This book will be important in courses for upper undergraduates studying fish ecology or for graduate students. However, it will also be an excellent reference for the fishery manager who asks ‘Why does this fish do that?’. With the wealth of great information contained in Ross’ book, chances are an answer will be found. Review info: Ecology of North American freshwater fishes. Edited by Stephen T. Ross, 2013. ISBN: 978-0520249455, 408 pp.

  5. A systematic review of economic evaluations of cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Pong; Feng, Jun; Pwee, Keng Ho; Lim, Jeremy

    2012-08-08

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a multidisciplinary program consisting of exercise, risk factor modification and psychosocial intervention, forms an integral part of managing patients after myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions, as well as patients with heart failure (HF). This systematic review seeks to examine the cost-effectiveness of CR for patients with MI or HF and inform policy makers in Singapore on published cost-effectiveness studies on CR. Electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, NHS EED, PEDro, CINAHL) were searched from inception to May 2010 for published economic studies. Additional references were identified through searching bibliographies of included studies. Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quality assessment of economic evaluations was undertaken using Drummond's checklist. A total of 22 articles were selected for review. However five articles were further excluded because they were cost-minimization analyses, whilst one included patients with stroke. Of the final 16 articles, one article addressed both centre-based cardiac rehabilitation versus no rehabilitation, as well as home-based cardiac rehabilitation versus no rehabilitation. Therefore, nine studies compared cost-effectiveness between centre-based supervised CR and no CR; three studies examined that between centre- and home based CR; one between inpatient and outpatient CR; and four between home-based CR and no CR. These studies were characterized by differences in the study perspectives, economic study designs and time frames, as well as variability in clinical data and assumptions made on costs. Overall, the studies suggested that: (1) supervised centre-based CR was highly cost-effective and the dominant strategy when compared to no CR; (2) home-based CR was no different from centre-based CR; (3) no difference existed between inpatient and outpatient CR; and (4) home

  6. 75 FR 9429 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of three meetings of the Native American Graves... Review Committee was established in Section 8 of the Native American Graves Protection and...

  7. Economic review of immunization information systems to increase vaccination rates: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mona; Pabst, Laura; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Hopkins, David; Groom, Holly; Myerburg, Stuart; Morgan, Jennifer Murphy

    2015-01-01

    A recent systematic review found that use of an immunization information system (IIS) is an effective intervention to increase vaccination rates. The purpose of this review was to evaluate costs and benefits associated with implementing, operating, and participating with an IIS. The speed of technology change has had an effect on costs and benefits of IIS and is considered in this review. An economic evaluation for IIS was conducted using methods developed for Community Guide systematic reviews. The literature search covered the period from January 1994 to March 2012 and identified 12 published articles and 2 government reports. Most studies involving cost data evaluated (1) system costs of building an IIS and (2) cost of exchanging immunization data; most economic benefits focused on administrative efficiency. A major challenge to evaluating a technology-based intervention is the evolution that comes with technology improvements and advancements. Although the cost and benefit data may be less applicable today due to changes in system technology, data exchange methods, availability of vendor support, system functionalities, and scope of IIS, it is likely that more up-to-date estimates and comprehensive estimates of benefits would support the findings of cost savings in this review. More research is needed to update and address limitations in the available evidence and to enable assessment of economic costs and benefits of present-day IIS.

  8. Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tremmel, Maximilian; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nilsson, Peter M; Saha, Sanjib

    2017-04-19

    Background: The rising prevalence of obesity represents an important public health issue. An assessment of its costs may be useful in providing recommendations for policy and decision makers. This systematic review aimed to assess the economic burden of obesity and to identify, measure and describe the different obesity-related diseases included in the selected studies. Methods: A systematic literature search of studies in the English language was carried out in Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science databases to select cost-of-illness studies calculating the cost of obesity in a study population aged ≥18 years with obesity, as defined by a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m², for the whole selected country. The time frame for the analysis was January 2011 to September 2016. Results: The included twenty three studies reported a substantial economic burden of obesity in both developed and developing countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches, target populations, study time frames, and perspectives. This prevents an informative comparison between most of the studies. Specifically, there was great variety in the included obesity-related diseases and complications among the studies. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent obesity in order to save societal resources. Moreover, international consensus is required on standardized methods to calculate the cost of obesity to improve homogeneity and comparability. This aspect should also be considered when including obesity-related diseases.

  9. Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tremmel, Maximilian; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Saha, Sanjib

    2017-01-01

    Background: The rising prevalence of obesity represents an important public health issue. An assessment of its costs may be useful in providing recommendations for policy and decision makers. This systematic review aimed to assess the economic burden of obesity and to identify, measure and describe the different obesity-related diseases included in the selected studies. Methods: A systematic literature search of studies in the English language was carried out in Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science databases to select cost-of-illness studies calculating the cost of obesity in a study population aged ≥18 years with obesity, as defined by a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m², for the whole selected country. The time frame for the analysis was January 2011 to September 2016. Results: The included twenty three studies reported a substantial economic burden of obesity in both developed and developing countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches, target populations, study time frames, and perspectives. This prevents an informative comparison between most of the studies. Specifically, there was great variety in the included obesity-related diseases and complications among the studies. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent obesity in order to save societal resources. Moreover, international consensus is required on standardized methods to calculate the cost of obesity to improve homogeneity and comparability. This aspect should also be considered when including obesity-related diseases. PMID:28422077

  10. A systematic review on health resilience to economic crises.

    PubMed

    Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women's mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men's. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience factors

  11. A Systematic Review on Health Resilience to Economic Crises

    PubMed Central

    Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S.; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. Methods We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. Results From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women’s mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men’s. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Conclusions Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies

  12. Economic evaluations of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Pinilla-Domínguez, Pilar; García-Quintana, Antonio; Caballero-Dorta, Eduardo; García-García, F Javier; Linertová, Renata; Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the cost-effectiveness studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A systematic review of the literature published in English or Spanish was performed by electronically searching MEDLINE and MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, NHS-EED, and EconLit. Some keywords were implantable cardioverter defibrillator, heart failure, heart arrest, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, syncope, sudden death. Selection criteria were the following: (1) full economic evaluations published after 1995, model-based studies or alongside clinical trials (2) that explored the cost-effectiveness of ICD with or without associated treatment compared with placebo or best medical treatment, (3) in adult patients for primary or secondary prevention of SCD because of ventricular arrhythmias. Studies that fulfilled these criteria were reviewed and data were extracted by two reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed and a narrative synthesis was prepared. In total, 24 studies were included: seven studies on secondary prevention and 18 studies on primary prevention. Seven studies were performed in Europe. For secondary prevention, the results showed that the ICD is considered cost-effective in patients with more risk. For primary prevention, the cost-effectiveness of ICD has been widely studied, but uncertainty about its cost-effectiveness remains. The cost-effectiveness ratios vary between studies depending on the patient characteristics, methodology, perspective, and national settings. Among the European studies, the conclusions are varied, where the ICD is considered cost-effective or not dependent on the study.

  13. Family economic stress and academic well-being among Chinese-American youth: the influence of adolescents' perceptions of economic strain.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; Benner, Aprile D; Tan, Connie S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the pathways by which family economic stress influenced youth's educational outcomes in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (M ages = 13.0, 17.1 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). Using latent variable structural equation modeling, results across two waves of data, spanning early to late adolescence, demonstrated that the influence of parent report of economic stress on youth academic achievement (i.e., GPA), school engagement, and positive attitudes about education was mediated through youth's perceptions of family economic strain and self-reports of depressive symptoms. These relationships were observed to remain significant after accounting for selection bias using individual fixed-effects models. Finally, youth's perceptions of family economic strain were found to more strongly predict depressive symptoms during later, as compared to earlier, adolescence; all other modeled relationships were equivalent across the two time periods. Implications for expanding theoretical tenets of the Family Economic Stress Model are discussed.

  14. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  15. Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alouki, Koffi; Delisle, Hélène; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk subjects. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results. Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion. This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes. PMID:26885527

  16. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  17. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a...

  18. A review of Latin American studies on binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Kaio, Glauber Higa; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Claudino, Angélica Medeiros

    2011-05-01

    To review the state of the art of the scientific literature on binge eating disorder in Latin America. A literature search of studies conducted in Latin American countries using the term "binge eating" was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, and PsycINFO. Selected articles described studies developed with Latin American samples that met partial or complete DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder. 8,123 articles were screened and 30 studies met the inclusion criteria (18 cross-sectional studies, 5 clinical trials, 4 case reports, 2 validity studies, and 1 cohort study). Most of the studies were conducted in Brazil (27), one in Argentina, one in Colombia, and one in Venezuela. The prevalence of binge eating disorder among obese people attending weight loss programs ranged between 16% and 51.6%. The comparison between obese people with and without binge eating disorder showed a tendency of higher weight, longer history of weight fluctuation, more concern about shape and weight, and association with psychiatric comorbidity in those with binge eating disorder. Binge eating disorder is a detectable phenomenon in Latin America with clinical features similar to those found in the international literature. This review provides support for the consideration of binge eating disorder as a distinct eating disorder in the International Classification of Diseases - 11th edition.

  19. A systematic review of care delivery models and economic analyses in lymphedema: health policy impact (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Stout, N L; Weiss, R; Feldman, J L; Stewart, B R; Armer, J M; Cormier, J N; Shih, Y-C T

    2013-03-01

    A project of the American Lymphedema Framework Project (ALFP), this review seeks to examine the policy and economic impact of caring for patients with lymphedema, a common side effect of cancer treatment. This review is the first of its kind undertaken to investigate, coordinate, and streamline lymphedema policy initiatives in the United States with potential applicability worldwide. As part of a large scale literature review aiming to systematically evaluate the level of evidence of contemporary peer-reviewed lymphedema literature (2004 to 2011), publications on care delivery models, health policy, and economic impact were retrieved, summarized, and evaluated by a team of investigators and clinical experts. The review substantiates lymphedema education models and clinical models implemented at the community, health care provider, and individual level that improve delivery of care. The review exposes the lack of economic analysis related to lymphedema. Despite a dearth of evidence, efforts towards policy initiatives at the federal and state level are underway. These initiatives and the evidence to support them are examined and recommendations for translating these findings into clinical practice are made. Medical and community-based disease management interventions, taking on a public approach, are effective delivery models for lymphedema care and demonstrate great potential to improve cancer survivorship care. Efforts to create policy at the federal, state, and local level should target implementation of these models. More research is needed to identify costs associated with the treatment of lymphedema and to model the cost outlays and potential cost savings associated with comprehensive management of chronic lymphedema.

  20. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Drummond, Michael; Eisenstein, Eric; Mallender, Jacqueline; McDaid, David; Vale, Luke; Walker, Damian

    2006-01-01

    Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as well as regular dialogue between

  1. Is More Better? The Impact of Postsecondary Education on the Economic and Social Well-Being of American Society. American Higher Education Report Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Adriane; Swail, Watson Scott

    2005-01-01

    This literature review attempts to discern whether more education is actually better for the individual and society. We investigate the literature and ask: What are the economic and non-economic returns to postsecondary education investments? Who reaps the benefits of those investments? And, most important, are there sufficient returns, both…

  2. 77 FR 74874 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee (Review Committee). This meeting will be open to the... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a telephonic meeting of the Native American...

  3. 76 FR 48145 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews... American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Termination of Panel Review of the Final...

  4. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel... North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial...

  5. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel...., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade...

  6. Risky Business and the American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K.; Houser, T.; Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Larsen, K.; Jina, A.; Delgado, M.; Muir-Wood, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.; Mastrandrea, M.; Wilson, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The United States faces a range of economic risks from global climate change - from increased flooding and storm damage, to climate-driven changes in crop yields and labor productivity, to heat-related strains on energy and public health systems. The Risky Business Project commissioned a groundbreaking new analysis of these and other climate risks by region of the country and sector of the economy. The American Climate Prospectus (ACP) links state-of-the-art climate models with econometric research of human responses to climate variability and cutting edge private sector risk assessment tools, the ACP offers decision-makers a data driven assessment of the specific risks they face. We describe the challenge, methods, findings, and policy implications of the national risk analysis, with particular focus on methodological innovations and novel insights.

  7. Health economics and outcomes research fellowship practices reviewed.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kangho; Gabriel, Susan; Adams, Michelle A; Arcona, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The guidelines for health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) fellowship training programs devised by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) and the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) suggest that continuous improvements are made to ensure that postgraduate training through didactic and professional experiences prepare fellows for HEOR research careers. The HEOR Fellowship Program at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation was standardized to enhance the fellows' HEOR research understanding and align professional skill sets with the ACCP-ISPOR Fellowship Program Guidelines. Based on feedback from an internal task force comprised of HEOR employees and current and former fellows, the HEOR Fellowship Program was normatively and qualitatively assessed to evaluate the current curricular program. Fellowship program activities were instituted to ensure that the suggested minimum level requirements established by the guidelines were being met. Research opportunities enabling fellows to work hand-in-hand with other fellows and HEOR professionals were emphasized. Curricular enhancements in research methodology and professional training and development, and materials for a structured journal club focusing on specific methodological and HEOR research topics were developed. A seminar series (e.g., creating SMART Goals, StrengthsFinder 2.0) and professional courses (e.g., ISPOR short courses, statistics.com) were included to enhance the fellows' short- and long-term professional experience. Additional program attributes include an online reference library developed to enrich the current research facilities and a Statistical Analysis Software training program. Continuously assessing and updating HEOR fellowship programs keeps programs up-to-date in the latest HEOR concepts and approaches used to evaluate health care, both professionally and educationally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  9. Reviewing the economic efficiency of disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    There is a lot of rhetoric suggesting that disaster risk management (DRM) pays, yet surprisingly little in the way of hard facts. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is one major tool that can provide quantitative information about the prioritization of disaster risk management (DRM) (and climate adaptation) based on economic principles. Yet, on a global scale, there has been surprisingly little robust evidence on the economic efficiency and benefits of risk management measures. This review shows that for the limited evidence reported the economic case for DRM across a range of hazards is strong and that the benefits of investing in DRM outweigh the costs of doing so, on average, by about four times the cost in terms of avoided and reduced losses. Most studies using a CBA approach focus on structural DRM and most information has been made available on physical flood prevention. There have been some limited studies on preparedness and risk financing. The global evidence base is limited and estimates appear not very solid, and overall, in line with the conclusion of the recent IPCC SREX report, there is limited evidence and medium agreement across the literature. Some of the factors behind the limited robustness are inherent to CBA more widely: these challenges comprise the inability to price intangibles, evaluating strategies rather than single projects, difficulties in assessing softer rather than infrastructure-related options, choices regarding a proper discount rate, lack of accounting for the distribution of benefits and costs and difficulties with assessing nonmarket values such as those related to health, the environment, or public goods. Although techniques exist to address some of these challenges, they are not very likely to easily go away. Other challenges associated specifically with DRM, such as the need and difficulty to undertake risk -based analysis can be overcome, and there have been manuals and reports providing a way forward. In an age of austerity, cost

  10. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among African American Women Who Trade Sex for Drugs Versus Economic Resources.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eugene M; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Khan, Maria R; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Melnikov, Alex; Latimer, William W

    2014-07-01

    Trading sex for money, drugs, goods, services, or a place to stay is prevalent among women who use drugs and has been associated with women's risk of HIV acquisition. There is evidence that trading sex for drugs only may be associated with elevated risk of HIV compared with trading sex for money. The purpose of this study was to assess whether HIV risk behaviors and HIV prevalence differ among African American drug using women (N = 92) who traded sex for drugs only, traded sex for economic resources (defined as money, shelter, or other resources) only, or traded sex for both economic resources and drugs. In this study, lower rates of condom use and higher rates of HIV were found among women who traded sex for drugs only compared to women who traded sex for economic resources or for economic resources and drugs. These findings suggest that African American women who trade sex for drugs only represent an understudied yet highly vulnerable group.

  11. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  12. Tests of the theory of work adjustment with economically distressed African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Heather Z; Velez, Brandon L; Mehta, Mansi; Neill, Natalie

    2014-07-01

    The present study tested 2 competing, extended models of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) with a sample of 100 economically distressed working African Americans receiving services at a nonprofit community center. Model 1 depicted a mediated model consistent with postulations of the TWA's original theorists. Model 2 depicted a moderated mediation model consistent with cultural critiques of the TWA. Bivariate correlations indicated that perceptions of person-organization (P-O) fit were positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intentions, and job satisfaction was negatively related to turnover intentions. Furthermore, perceptions of racial climate were positively related to perceptions of P-O fit and job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intentions. Moreover, results of the path analyses indicated stronger support for Model 2, the moderated mediation model, in which the indirect link of P-O fit with turnover intentions through job satisfaction was conditional on levels of racial climate. Specifically, when racial climate was perceived as less supportive, the indirect link of P-O fit with turnover intentions was nonsignificant, but when employees reported moderate and more supportive levels of racial climates, this indirect relation was significant. Research and career counseling implications of the present study's findings for financially distressed African American employees are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. A systematic review of the social and economic burden of influenza in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    de Francisco Shapovalova, Natasha; Donadel, Morgane; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2015-11-27

    The economic burden of seasonal influenza outbreaks as well as influenza pandemics in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has yet to be specifically systematically reviewed. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the evidence of influenza economic burden assessment methods in LMIC and to quantify the economic consequences of influenza disease in these countries, including broader opportunity costs in terms of impaired social progress and economic development. We conducted an all language literature search across 5 key databases using an extensive list of key words for the time period 1950-2013. We included studies which explored direct costs (medical and non-medical), indirect costs (productivity losses), and broader economic impact in LMIC associated with different influenza outcomes such as confirmed seasonal influenza infection, influenza-like illnesses, and pandemic influenza. We included 62 full-text studies in English, Spanish, Russian, Chinese languages, mostly from the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean and East Asia and Pacific with pertinent cost data found in 39 papers. Estimates for direct and indirect costs were the highest in Latin American and the Caribbean. Compared to high-income economies, direct costs in LMIC were lower and productivity losses higher. Evidence on broader impact of influenza included impact on the wider national economy, security dimension, medical insurance policy, legal frameworks, distributional impact, and investment flows. The economic burden of influenza in LMIC encompasses multiple dimensions such as direct costs to the health service and households, indirect costs due to productivity losses as well as broader detriments to the wider economy. Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa and in pregnant women remains very limited. Heterogeneity of methods used to estimate cost components makes data synthesis challenging. There is a strong need for standardizing research, data collection and evaluation methods

  14. A Comparative Review of North American Tundra Delineations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Kirk C.; Carroll, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Recent profound changes have been observed in the Arctic environment, including record low sea ice extents and high latitude greening. Studying the Arctic and how it is changing is an important element of climate change science. The Tundra, an ecoregion of the Arctic, is directly related to climate change due to its effects on the snow ice feedback mechanism and greenhouse gas cycling. Like all ecoregions, the Tundra border is shifting, yet studies and policies require clear delineation of boundaries. There are many options for ecoregion classification systems, as well as resources for creating custom maps. To help decision makers identify the best classification system possible, we present a review of North American Tundra ecoregion delineations and further explore the methodologies, purposes, limitations, and physical properties of five common ecoregion classification systems. We quantitatively compare the corresponding maps by area using a geographic information system.

  15. A review of recent American military space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Dwayne A.

    1993-12-01

    The United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD) has launched a large number of satellites into Earth orbit during the past five and a half years. These range from highly classified signals intelligence and imaging satellites to more mundane scientific and experimental microsats. This period saw a dramatic overhaul in operations due to the Challenger and other launch disasters. Many of these resources were used during the war in the Persian Gulf, which highlighted some of the limitations of current systems. A significant amount of new information has emerged in recent years due to the changing political situation, leading to this general overview of American military satellite programs during this period using unclassified and declassified sources as well as informed specculation. It is primarily a review of space operations and technical developments rather than the policy and doctrine that drives them.

  16. Economic performance of irrigation capacity development to adapt to climate in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.

    2016-09-01

    Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with

  17. Economic evaluation of Varicella vaccination: results of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Unim, Brigid; Saulle, Rosella; Boccalini, Sara; Taddei, Cristina; Ceccherini, Vega; Boccia, Antonio; Bonanni, Paolo; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study is to review the economic burden of varicella disease and the benefit of universal varicella vaccination in different settings pending its implementation in all Italian regions. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. Score quality and data extraction were performed for all included studies. Results: Twenty-three articles met the criteria: 15 cost-effectiveness, 8 cost-benefit and one cost-utility analysis. Varicella vaccination could save the society from €637,762 (infant strategy) to 53 million annually (combined infant and adolescent strategy). The median and the mean quality scores resulted in 91.8% and 85.4% respectively; 11 studies were considered of high quality and 12 of low quality. Discussion: The studies are favorable to the introduction of universal varicella vaccination in Italy, being cost saving and having a positive impact on morbidity. The quality score of the studies varied greatly: recent analyses were of comparable quality to older studies. PMID:23823940

  18. A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Pacemaker Telemonitoring Systems.

    PubMed

    López-Villegas, Antonio; Catalán-Matamoros, Daniel; Martín-Saborido, Carlos; Villegas-Tripiana, Irene; Robles-Musso, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, telemedicine applied to pacemaker monitoring has undergone extraordinary growth. It is not known if telemonitoring is more or less efficient than conventional monitoring. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review analyzing the available evidence on resource use and health outcomes in both follow-up modalities. We searched 11 databases and included studies published up until November 2014. The inclusion criteria were: a) experimental or observational design; b) studies based on complete economic evaluations; c) patients with pacemakers, and d) telemonitoring compared with conventional hospital monitoring. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 2852 patients, with a mean age of 81 years. The main indication for device implantation was atrioventricular block. With telemonitoring, cardiovascular events were detected and treated 2 months earlier than with conventional monitoring, thus reducing length of hospital stay by 34% and reducing routine and emergency hospital visits as well. There were no significant intergroup differences in perceived quality of life or number of adverse events. The cost of telemonitoring was 60% lower than that of conventional hospital monitoring. Compared with conventional monitoring, cardiovascular events were detected earlier and the number or hospitalizations and hospital visits was reduced with pacemaker telemonitoring. In addition, the costs associated with follow-up were lower with telemonitoring. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacologic management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: systematic review of economic evidence and primary economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hodge, William; Brown, Allan; Kymes, Steve; Cruess, Alan; Blackhouse, Gord; Hopkins, Robert; McGahan, Lynda; Sharma, Sanjay; Pan, Irene; Blair, Jason; Vollman, David; Morrison, Andra

    2010-06-01

    To examine the economic implications for the Canadian health system of pharmacologic treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Systematic review of economic literature and a primary economic evaluation. Economic literature search identified 392 potentially relevant articles, 12 of which were included for final review. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (i) provision of a summary measure of the trade-off between costs and consequences; (ii) participants of 40 years and older with neovascular AMD; (iii) interventions and comparators: comparison of photodynamic therapy using verteporfin (V-PDT), pegaptanib, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, anecortave acetate, intravitreal triamcinolone, placebo, or clinically relevant combinations; and (iv) outcome reported as an incremental measure of the implication of moving from the comparator to the intervention. The following databases were searched through the OVID interface: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, CINAHL, PubMed, Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED), and the Cochrane Library. For the economic evaluation, we took a decision analytic approach and modeled a cost-utility analysis, conducting it as a microsimulation of a Markov model. In general, V-PDT is more cost effective than conventional macular laser, and pegaptanib is likely more cost effective than V-PDT. The primary economic analysis revealed ranibizumab to be effective but at an unacceptably high cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY)(>$50,000 per QALY). Although ranibizumab is effective for wet AMD, its cost is unacceptably high based on cost-utility theory.

  20. 78 FR 12318 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Price Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... concerning economic price adjustment. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 69442, on.... ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0068, Economic Price Adjustment by any...

  1. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... University of California--Santa Barbara by the Division of Social and Economic Sciences (10748). Dates.... Frederick Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology, and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic...

  2. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... State University by the Division Social and Economic Sciences ( 10748). Dates & Times: May 2, 2012; 7 p...; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990, National...

  3. 76 FR 69282 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a meeting of the Native American Graves Protection and... Committee was established in Section 8 of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of...

  4. 78 FR 21410 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of two meetings of the Native American Graves... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of two meetings of the Native American Graves...

  5. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  6. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  7. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review of...

  8. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review of...

  9. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Position and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidlow, Christopher; Johnston, Lynne Halley; Crone, Diane; Ellis, Naomi; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present review was to examine epidemiological evidence to determine if there is strong evidence of a positive gradient of increasing physical activity across the socio-economic strata, and how relationships are affected by socio-economic measurement. Design: Systematic review. Method: A search of major databases was…

  11. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Principals in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools with High African American Male Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Rhonda Cherie Crutchfield

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the self-efficacy beliefs of three high school principals in economically disadvantaged high schools with consistently high graduation rates for African American males. With the demand on school systems to perform in a politically driven, assessment-based paradigm, there is a need to describe and analyze the…

  12. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for... Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Western... allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod sideboard limits apportioned to non-AFA crab vessels catching Pacific cod...

  13. 75 FR 3875 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for... Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central... allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod sideboard limits apportioned to non-AFA crab vessels catching Pacific cod...

  14. 76 FR 3045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for... Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for processing... for non-AFA crab vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central...

  15. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for... Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the... season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod sideboard limits apportioned to non-AFA crab vessels catching...

  16. 76 FR 4551 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for... Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for processing... for non-AFA crab vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the...

  17. 76 FR 47083 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the.../processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl catcher-processors in...

  18. Using Maps as Evidence: Lessons in American Social and Economic History. Instructional Activities Series IA/S-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edmond T.; Conzen, Michael P.

    These activities are part of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. The activity involves students in the use of maps as a source of information about American social and economic history. It outlines six learning activities which employ inductive methods. Given…

  19. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    PubMed

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.'s entrepreneurial successes.

  20. Economic Restructuring and Racialization: Incorporation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans in the Rural Midwest. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Nancy A.

    An 8-year ethnographic study in two rural Iowa towns examined the incorporation of recently arrived Mexicans and Mexican Americans into the social, economic, and political life of the community. Relocating to work in a nearby food processing plant, the newcomers altered the ethnic composition of this formerly homogeneous area. Data were gathered…

  1. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Chairman Henry Waxman and Chairman Edward Markey for an analysis of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACESA). ACESA, as passed by the House of Representatives on June 26, 2009, is a complex bill that regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

  2. 75 FR 6588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher Vessels in the Inshore Open Access... catcher vessels participating in the inshore open access fishery in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering... season allowance of the 2010 pollock total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to the inshore open access...

  3. What are Asian-American youth consuming? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.

  4. A Bicentennial Review of the Black Contribution to American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ella D. Lewis

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the importance of black people in American history, specific individuals are identified who played major roles in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, exploration and pioneering, and science and technology. (AV)

  5. A Guide to Critical Reviews: Part I: American Drama, 1909-1969. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, James M.

    This second edition of the "Guide to Critical Reviews" provides a bibliography of critical reviews of over 1,700 American plays performed on the New York stage--mostly Broadway, but some off-Broadway productions--from 1909 to 1969. Opening dates and performance totals are given with each play. Among the 290 American dramatists listed are those who…

  6. American Psychologist Task Force Report: Clarifying Mission, Coverage, Communication, and Review Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2002-01-01

    An American Psychological Association task force reviewed the role and function of "American Psychologist," (AP) focusing on its coverage domain and issues related to its editorial review process. This report examines AP editorial domain, AP editorial instructions, AP editorship, communications within the AP editorial process, use of ad…

  7. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel... American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the...

  8. Economic evaluation of dental sealants: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Akinlotan, Marvellous; Chen, Bradley; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Chen, Annie; Fan, Victoria Y

    2017-09-06

    To systematically review the literature on economic evaluations of dental sealants and examine the costs and effectiveness of caries prevention using sealants. Of 21 full-text articles examined, a total of 13 were included in this study. These studies are grouped by the type of intervention as follows: (i) sealants compared with no sealants; (ii) sealants compared with other forms of caries prevention; (iii) resin-based sealants compared with glass-ionomer sealants; (iv) different sealing strategies in primary teeth; (v) different sealing strategies in permanent teeth; and (vi) sealants based on school- or clinic-based setting of delivery. All currency is reported in constant 2010 US$. Cost-effectiveness analyses differed due to varying study designs, assumptions, sealant delivery settings, outcomes, caries risk assessment and study durations. Findings varied on the cost-effectiveness of sealants compared with other caries-preventive strategies. Under the assumption of equal caries risk, always sealing primary molars appeared to be the most effective strategy, whereas risk-based sealing was the optimal strategy with differing caries risk. Studies that assessed sealing strategies in permanent teeth reported that risk-based sealing was more cost-effective than not sealing, but they differed on the cost-effectiveness of risk-based seal compared with non-risk-based seal. Sealants delivered in school settings had mixed results on costs but were as equally effective as sealants delivered in private practices. The cost-effectiveness of sealants is dependent on the conditions of delivery. The list of cost-effectiveness ratios for each intervention can support policy makers to estimate expected returns on their investments in dental sealants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The American Climate Prospectus: a risk-centered analysis of the economic impacts of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; Houser, T.; Hsiang, S. M.; Kopp, R. E., III; Delgado, M.; Larsen, K.; Mohan, S.; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.; Wilson, P. S.; Muir-Wood, R.

    2014-12-01

    The American Climate Prospectus (ACP), the analysis underlying the Risky Business project, quantitatively assessed the climate risks posed to the United States' economy in six sectors - crop yields, energy demand, coastal property, crime, labor productivity, and mortality [1]. The ACP is unique in its characterization of the full probability distribution of economic impacts of climate change throughout the 21st century, making it an extremely useful basis for risk assessments. Three key innovations allow for this characterization. First, climate projections from CMIP5 models are scaled to a temperature probability distribution derived from a coarser climate model (MAGICC). This allows a more accurate representation of the whole distribution of future climates (in particular the tails) than a simple ensemble average. These are downscaled both temporally and spatially. Second, a set of local sea level rise and tropical cyclone projections are used in conjunction with the most detailed dataset of coastal property in the US in order to capture the risks of rising seas and storm surge. Third, we base many of our sectors on empirically-derived responses to temperature and precipitation. Each of these dose-response functions is resampled many times to populate a statistical distribution. Combining these with uncertainty in emissions scenario, climate model, and weather, we create the full probability distribution of climate impacts from county up to national levels, as well as model the effects upon the economy as a whole. Results are presented as likelihood ranges, as well as changes to return intervals of extreme events. The ACP analysis allows us to compare between sectors to understand the magnitude of required policy responses, and also to identify risks through time. Many sectors displaying large impacts at the end of the century, like those of mortality, have smaller changes in the near-term, due to non-linearities in the response functions. Other sectors, like

  10. Systematic Review and Quality Appraisal of Economic Evaluation Publications in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Tonmukayakul, U; Calache, H; Clark, R; Wasiak, J; Faggion, C M

    2015-10-01

    Economic evaluation (EE) studies have been undertaken in dentistry since the late 20th century because economic data provide additional information to policy makers to develop guidelines and set future direction for oral health services. The objectives of this study were to assess the methodological quality of EEs in oral health. Electronic searching of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database from 1975 to 2013 were undertaken to identify publications that include costs and outcomes in dentistry. Relevant reference lists were also searched for additional studies. Studies were retrieved and reviewed independently for inclusion by 3 authors. Furthermore, to appraise the EE methods, 1 author applied the Drummond 10-item (13-criteria) checklist tool to each study. Of the 114 publications identified, 79 studies were considered full EE and 35 partial. Twenty-eight studies (30%) were published between the years 2011 and 2013. Sixty-four (53%) studies focused on dental caries prevention or treatment. Median appraisal scores calculated for full and partial EE studies were 11 and 9 out of 13, respectively. Quality assessment scores showed that the quality of partial EE studies published after 2000 significantly improved (P = 0.02) compared to those published before 2000. Significant quality improvement was not found in full EE studies. Common methodological limitations were identified: absence of sensitivity analysis, discounting, and insufficient information on how costs and outcomes were measured and valued. EE studies in dentistry increased over the last 40 y in both quantity and quality, but a number of publications failed to satisfy some components of standard EE research methods, such as sensitivity analysis and discounting. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  11. Coupling Recruitment Forecasts with Economics in the Gulf of Maine's American Lobster Fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, R.; Oppenheim, N.; Brady, D. C.; Dayton, A.; Sun, C. H. J.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate predictions of fishery recruitment and landings represent an important goal of fisheries science and management, but linking environmental drivers of fish population dynamics to financial markets remains a challenge. A fundamental step in that process is understanding the environmental drivers of fishery recruitment. American lobster (Homarus americanus) populations of the northwest Atlantic have been undergoing a dramatic surge, mostly driven by increases the Gulf of Maine. Settler-recruit models that track cohorts after larvae settle to the sea bed are proving useful in predicting subsequent fishery recruitment some 5-7 years later. Here we describe new recruitment forecasting models for the lobster fishery at 11 management areas from Southern New England to Atlantic Canada. We use an annual survey of juvenile year-class strength and environmental indicators to parameterize growth and mortality terms in the model. As a consequence of a recent widespread multi-year downturn in larval settlement, our models suggest that the peak in lobster abundance in the Gulf of Maine will be passed in the near future. We also present initial steps in the coupling of forecast data with economic models for the fishery. We anticipate that these models will give stakeholders and policy makers time to consider their management choices for this most valuable of the region's fisheries. Our vision is to couple our forecast model outputs to an economic model that captures the dynamics of market forces in the New England and Canadian Maritime lobster fisheries. It will then be possible to estimate the financial status of the fishery several years in advance. This early warning system could mitigate the adverse effects of a fluctuating fishery on the coastal communities that are perilously dependent upon it.

  12. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

  14. Issues in the incorporation of economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methods for systematic reviews of the effects of health interventions have focused mainly on addressing the question of 'What works?’ or 'Is this intervention effective in achieving one or more specific outcomes?’ Addressing the question 'Is it worth it given the resources available?’ has received less attention. This latter question can be addressed by applying an economic lens to the systematic review process. This paper reflects on the value and desire for the consideration by end users for coverage of an economic perspective in a Cochrane review and outlines two potential approaches and future directions. Methods Two frameworks to guide review authors who are seeking to include an economic perspective are outlined. The first involves conducting a full systematic review of economic evaluations that is integrated into a review of intervention effects. The second involves developing a brief economic commentary. The two approaches share a set of common stages but allow the tailoring of the economic component of the Cochrane review to the skills and resources available to the review team. Results The number of studies using the methods outlined in the paper is limited, and further examples are needed both to explore the value of these approaches and to further develop them. The rate of progress will hinge on the organisational leadership, capacity and resources available to the CCEMG, author teams and other Cochrane entities. Particular methodological challenges to overcome relate to understanding the key economic trade-offs and casual relationships for a given decision problem and informing the development of evaluations designed to support local decision-makers. Conclusions Methods for incorporating economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane intervention reviews are established. Their role is not to provide a precise estimate of 'cost-effectiveness’ but rather to help end-users of Cochrane reviews to determine the implications of the

  15. Family Economic Hardship, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Polymorphisms, and Depressive Symptoms in Rural African American Youths

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To use pooled data from 2 independent studies of rural African American youths to test the moderation effect of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) on the link between family economic hardship and trajectories of depressive symptoms. Methods Two longitudinal studies were conducted involving African Americans, 16 (N = 474) and 18 (N = 419) years of age, who were randomly recruited in rural Georgia. Family economic hardship and youths’ depressive symptoms were assessed 4 times across 2 1/2 years. Genetic data also were collected. Haplotype analysis was performed on single nucleotide polymorphisms of CRHR1; 2 haplotypes were aggregated to form a CRHR1 index. Growth curve models were executed to determine whether CRHR1 moderated the link between Wave 1 family economic hardship and youths’ development of depression. Results CRHR1 × family economic hardship interactions significantly predicted youths’ depressive symptoms. When exposed to family economic hardship 1 standard deviation above the mean at Wave 1, youths who scored 0 on the CRHR1 index showed high and increasing depressive symptoms across time, whereas those who scored 2 on the index showed a decrease in depressive symptoms. Conclusions The CRHR1 gene reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among youths living in families undergoing high levels of economic hardship. PMID:26206446

  16. Obesity and asian americans in the United States: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggon

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in the world today. Asian Americans are usually less overweight and obese than African Americans and Hispanic Americans, but the rate of obesity in Asian Americans is still increasing, especially in younger generations. This research examines Asian American obesity using existing research, as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research. In this research literature review, Asian American obesity using existing research as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research is examined. A systematic review is done in order to find Asian American obesity research, due to the minimal amount of existing studies. In total, there were only nine papers which were not duplicates and which still met the criteria for inclusion, from an initial 106 papers. There is very little research on obesity in Asian Americans. Although the rate of obesity among Asian Americans is increasing, there are few related articles, projects, and surveys, and there is little information. There is a need for more specific and in-depth analysis of Asian American obesity. Asian Americans are associated with a lower waist circumference (WC) and BMI, while Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders are associated with a higher WC and BMI. Typically, Asian Americans who were born in the United States (US) tend to be overweight and more obese than those born in foreign countries. Based on this literature review, it is concluded that there is a shortage of Asian American obesity research, even though there is an evident need for particular obesity intervention programs that target Asian Americans.

  17. Review of capital investment in economic growth cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffie, Siti Salihah; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Mohamad, Daud

    2016-11-01

    The study of linkages of macroeconomics factors is prominent in order to understand how the economic cycle affects one another. These factors include interest rate, growth rate, saving and capital investment which are mutually correlated to stabilize the GDP. Part of this study, it will look upon the impact of investment which emphasize the efficiency of capital investment to the economic growth. Capital investment is one investment appraisal that gives impact to the economic growth. It is a long term investment and involve with large amount of capital to incorporate the development of private and public capital investment.

  18. Stroke in American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lonnie A.; Muller, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of published studies on stroke epidemiology in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). We used MeSH terms and strict inclusion criteria to search PubMed, identifying a relevant sample of 57 refereed publications. We report a consensus view in which prevalent stroke is more common, and estimates of cerebrovascular risk factors are higher, among AI/ANs than among other US populations. Like other minority groups, AI/ANs suffer stroke at younger ages than do non-Hispanic Whites. However, data on AI/AN stroke mortality are significantly compromised by racial misclassification and nonrepresentative sampling. Studies correcting for these problems have found that stroke mortality rates among AI/ANs are among the highest of all US racial and ethnic groups. As with Black and non-Hispanic White stroke mortality, AI/AN stroke mortality varies by geographic region, with the highest rates in Alaska and the Northwest and the lowest in the Southwest. Our results underscore the need for a concerted national effort to collect accurate cross-sectional and longitudinal data on stroke in AI/ANs. PMID:26066955

  19. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Piette, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines: 1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries; and 2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the United States to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of U.S.-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include: 1) deployment of community health workers (“promotoras”) for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs; 2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions; 3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery; 4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications; and 5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  20. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered

  1. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  2. Economic Evaluation and Transferability of Physical Activity Programmes in Primary Prevention: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Wenig, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aims to assess the characteristics of, and the clinical and economic evidence provided by, economic evaluations of primary preventive physical exercise interventions, and to analyse their transferability to Germany using recommended checklists. Fifteen economic evaluations from seven different countries met eligibility criteria, with seven of the fifteen providing high economic evidence in the special country context. Most of the identified studies conclude that the investigated intervention provide good value for money compared with alternatives. However, this review shows a high variability of the costing methods between the studies, which limits comparability, generalisability and transferability of the results. PMID:20617050

  3. What is the economic evidence for mHealth? A systematic review of economic evaluations of mHealth solutions.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Sarah J; Cato, Kenrick; Falzon, Louise; Stone, Patricia W

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is often reputed to be cost-effective or cost-saving. Despite optimism, the strength of the evidence supporting this assertion has been limited. In this systematic review the body of evidence related to economic evaluations of mHealth interventions is assessed and summarized. Seven electronic bibliographic databases, grey literature, and relevant references were searched. Eligibility criteria included original articles, comparison of costs and consequences of interventions (one categorized as a primary mHealth intervention or mHealth intervention as a component of other interventions), health and economic outcomes and published in English. Full economic evaluations were appraised using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist and The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Searches identified 5902 results, of which 318 were examined at full text, and 39 were included in this review. The 39 studies spanned 19 countries, most of which were conducted in upper and upper-middle income countries (34, 87.2%). Primary mHealth interventions (35, 89.7%), behavior change communication type interventions (e.g., improve attendance rates, medication adherence) (27, 69.2%), and short messaging system (SMS) as the mHealth function (e.g., used to send reminders, information, provide support, conduct surveys or collect data) (22, 56.4%) were most frequent; the most frequent disease or condition focuses were outpatient clinic attendance, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 79.6% (range 47.62-100, STD 14.18) and the top quartile reported 91.3-100%. In 29 studies (74.3%), researchers reported that the mHealth intervention was cost-effective, economically beneficial, or cost saving at base case. Findings highlight a growing body of economic evidence for mHealth interventions. Although all studies included a comparison of intervention effectiveness of a health

  4. What is the economic evidence for mHealth? A systematic review of economic evaluations of mHealth solutions

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Kenrick; Falzon, Louise; Stone, Patricia W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) is often reputed to be cost-effective or cost-saving. Despite optimism, the strength of the evidence supporting this assertion has been limited. In this systematic review the body of evidence related to economic evaluations of mHealth interventions is assessed and summarized. Methods Seven electronic bibliographic databases, grey literature, and relevant references were searched. Eligibility criteria included original articles, comparison of costs and consequences of interventions (one categorized as a primary mHealth intervention or mHealth intervention as a component of other interventions), health and economic outcomes and published in English. Full economic evaluations were appraised using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist and The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Results Searches identified 5902 results, of which 318 were examined at full text, and 39 were included in this review. The 39 studies spanned 19 countries, most of which were conducted in upper and upper-middle income countries (34, 87.2%). Primary mHealth interventions (35, 89.7%), behavior change communication type interventions (e.g., improve attendance rates, medication adherence) (27, 69.2%), and short messaging system (SMS) as the mHealth function (e.g., used to send reminders, information, provide support, conduct surveys or collect data) (22, 56.4%) were most frequent; the most frequent disease or condition focuses were outpatient clinic attendance, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 79.6% (range 47.62–100, STD 14.18) and the top quartile reported 91.3–100%. In 29 studies (74.3%), researchers reported that the mHealth intervention was cost-effective, economically beneficial, or cost saving at base case. Conclusions Findings highlight a growing body of economic evidence for mHealth interventions. Although all studies included a comparison of

  5. How Do Five American Political Science Textbooks Deal with the Economic Dimension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Poul Thois

    2011-01-01

    Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension--implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An…

  6. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  7. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  8. Economic evaluation of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles: A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Elena; Donald, Faith; DiCenso, Alba; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carter, Nancy; Reid, Kim; Marshall, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Advanced practice nurses (e.g., nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists) have been introduced internationally to increase access to high quality care and to tackle increasing health care expenditures. While randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have demonstrated the effectiveness of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles, their cost-effectiveness has been challenged. The poor quality of economic evaluations of these roles to date raises the question of whether current economic evaluation guidelines are adequate when examining their cost-effectiveness. To examine whether current guidelines for economic evaluation are appropriate for economic evaluations of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles. Our methodological review was informed by a qualitative synthesis of four sources of information: 1) narrative review of literature reviews and discussion papers on economic evaluation of advanced practice nursing roles; 2) quality assessment of economic evaluations of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles alongside randomised controlled trials; 3) review of guidelines for economic evaluation; and, 4) input from an expert panel. The narrative literature review revealed several challenges in economic evaluations of advanced practice nursing roles (e.g., complexity of the roles, variability in models and practice settings where the roles are implemented, and impact on outcomes that are difficult to measure). The quality assessment of economic evaluations of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles alongside randomised controlled trials identified methodological limitations of these studies. When we applied the Guidelines for the Economic Evaluation of Health Technologies: Canada to the identified challenges and limitations, discussed those with experts and qualitatively synthesized all findings, we concluded that standard guidelines for economic evaluation are appropriate for economic

  9. A global comprehensive review of economic interventions to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.

  10. Corrections and the Mexican American Citizen: A Need for Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompa, Gilbert G.

    Organizations like the Mexican American Correctional Association have brought to the attention of Spanish-speaking criminal justice groups the problems affecting Mexican American citizens. Although changes are necessary in all facets of the administration of the justice system, substantive progress is being made. For example, the Office for…

  11. The Guardian Program for Native Americans: A Historiographic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Lance

    This report, written for the Americans for Indian Opportunity "Ambassador Program," addresses the need to research the detrimental effects of the guardianship program on Native Americans. The guardianship program was established by the United States government during the early 1900s to protect monies that Indians received from mineral…

  12. NTS American Indian Religious Freedom Act Compliance Program complying with AIRFA: A literature review and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.

    1991-09-01

    The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the inherent right of all Americans to freedom of religion. However, since the religious practices of Native Americans are significantly different from those of the majority of Americans, their religious freedom has often restricted. Section 2 of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) of 1978 (Public Law 95-341) directs federal agencies to consult with Native Americans to determine appropriate procedures to protect the inherent rights of Native Americans to believe, express, and exercise their traditional religions including, but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and freedom to worship through ceremonials and traditional rites. The NTS AIRFA Compliance Program was initiated in October 1989 to assist DOE in expanding its compliance with AIRFA to incorporate all weapons testing activities on the NTS. It is directed at the development and implementation of a consultation plan designed to solicit, on behalf of DOE, Native American comments regarding the effects of the DOE`s nuclear testing activities on historic properties of Native American origin and the expression and exercise of traditional Native American religions. The program has been developed around a phased approach that includes; (1) literature review and evaluation, (2) preparation of a baseline document, (3) preparation of a study design, (4) consultation with Native Americans, (5) preparation of a draft report, (6) Native American and State consultation and review, and (7) preparation of a final report.

  13. NTS American Indian Religious Freedom Act Compliance Program complying with AIRFA: A literature review and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.

    1991-09-01

    The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the inherent right of all Americans to freedom of religion. However, since the religious practices of Native Americans are significantly different from those of the majority of Americans, their religious freedom has often restricted. Section 2 of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) of 1978 (Public Law 95-341) directs federal agencies to consult with Native Americans to determine appropriate procedures to protect the inherent rights of Native Americans to believe, express, and exercise their traditional religions including, but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and freedom to worship through ceremonials and traditional rites. The NTS AIRFA Compliance Program was initiated in October 1989 to assist DOE in expanding its compliance with AIRFA to incorporate all weapons testing activities on the NTS. It is directed at the development and implementation of a consultation plan designed to solicit, on behalf of DOE, Native American comments regarding the effects of the DOE's nuclear testing activities on historic properties of Native American origin and the expression and exercise of traditional Native American religions. The program has been developed around a phased approach that includes; (1) literature review and evaluation, (2) preparation of a baseline document, (3) preparation of a study design, (4) consultation with Native Americans, (5) preparation of a draft report, (6) Native American and State consultation and review, and (7) preparation of a final report.

  14. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    PubMed Central

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.’s entrepreneurial successes. PMID:23997248

  15. The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: A review

    Treesearch

    Ikuho Kochi; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    The economic costs of adverse health effects associated with exposure to wildfire smoke should be given serious consideration in determining the optimal wildfire management policy. Unfortunately, the literature in this research area is thin. In an effort to better understand the nature of these economic costs, we review and synthesise the relevant literature in three...

  16. Transport losses in market weight pigs: I. A review of cefinitions, incidence and economic impact

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transport losses (dead and non-ambulatory pigs) present animal welfare, legal, and economic challenges to the U.S. swine industry. The objectives of this review are to explore: 1) the historical perspective of transport losses; 2) the incidence and economic implications of transport losses; 3) the s...

  17. Potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites in Mexico review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of cond...

  18. A Technical and Economic Review of Solar Hydrogen Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Erik; Fowler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen energy systems are being developed to replace fossil fuels-based systems for transportation and stationary application. One of the challenges facing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy vector is the lack of an efficient, economical, and sustainable method of hydrogen production. In the short term, hydrogen produced from…

  19. Guam '79: Facing the New Pacific Era. Annual Economic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Dept. of Commerce, Agana.

    Socioeconomic conditions and developments are analysed in this report, designed to be useful to planners in government and the private sector. The introduction summarizes Guam's economic outlook emphasizing the effect of federal funds for reconstruction following Supertyphoon Pamela in 1976, moderate growth in tourism, and Guam's potential to…

  20. Economics of Education Research: A Review and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Lorraine; Machin, Stephen; Vignoles, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we offer an appraisal of the economics of education research area, charting its history as a field and discussing the ways in which economists have contributed both to education research and to education policy-making. In particular, we highlight the theoretical and methodological contributions that economists have made to the field…

  1. A Technical and Economic Review of Solar Hydrogen Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Erik; Fowler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen energy systems are being developed to replace fossil fuels-based systems for transportation and stationary application. One of the challenges facing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy vector is the lack of an efficient, economical, and sustainable method of hydrogen production. In the short term, hydrogen produced from…

  2. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  3. Social, Economic and Health Characteristics of Older American Indians (Part 2 of 2). Statistical Reports on Older Americans, June 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Blanch S.

    In 1970 the Indian population of all ages was 763,000; 148,600 were 45 years of age or older and 43,800 were 65 years of age or older. Two-thirds of all older American Indian women and slightly more than one-third of the older men were either single, widowed, or divorced. Half of the older Indians received incomes below $1,408; this was 24% below…

  4. Economic Evaluations of Thrombophilia Screening Prior to Prescribing Combined Oral Contraceptives: A Systematic and Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Erin; Hiedemann, Bridget; Bowie, Bonnie H

    2017-03-13

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), particularly among women with inherited clotting disorders. The World Health Organization classifies combined hormonal contraception as an "unacceptable health risk" for women with thrombogenic mutations but advises against universal thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs given the low prevalence of thrombophilia and high screening costs. Through the lens of lifetime costs and benefits, this paper systematically and critically reviews all published economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening prior to prescribing COCs. We searched relevant databases for economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs. After extracting the key study characteristics and economic variables, we evaluated each article using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) and the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) instruments. Seven economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs met our inclusion criteria. Only the two economic evaluations focusing exclusively on selective screening exceeded the 75-point threshold for high-quality economic studies based on the QHES instrument, whereas only one of these exceeded the 85% CHEERS threshold. Only three of the seven economic evaluations performed sensitivity analysis on key parameters. Most studies underestimated the benefits of thrombophilia screening by comparing one-time costs of genetic screening against benefits per person-year, thus implicitly assuming a 1-year duration of COC use, neglecting the long-term implications of VTE and/or neglecting the lifetime benefits of awareness of inherited thrombophilia. Our review highlights the lack of methodologically rigorous economic evaluations of universal thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs.

  5. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  6. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-10-01

    Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid 'balance sheet' approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy.

  7. Adjustment Issues of International Students Enrolled in American Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Abrahao Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature concerning the adjustment issues experienced by international students enrolled in American colleges and universities. Convergent findings indicated that English fluency, social support, length of stay in the U.S., perceived discrimination or prejudice, establishing relationships with Americans, and…

  8. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  9. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  10. "Survival This Way: Interviews with American Indian Poets" by Joseph Bruchac. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, John Woodrow

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a volume of 21 interviews with American Indian poets focusing on the issues of the new role of women in Native American poetry; the tension of two cultures, particularly for half-breeds; and cultural, national, and personal survival. The book includes a poem by each poet, with commentaries. (SV)

  11. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  12. Prevention of Alcohol Misuse: A Review of Health Promotion Efforts among American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.; Moran, James R.

    1995-01-01

    A review of research on prevention of alcohol abuse among American Indians found that they experience many alcohol-related health problems. Indians have earlier age of first involvement with alcohol, more frequent drinking, and more negative consequences than non-Indians. Prevention programs must consider American Indian heterogeneity and cultural…

  13. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  14. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  15. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  16. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to...

  17. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  18. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  19. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... to the Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel dated...

  20. Methodological reviews of economic evaluations in health care: what do they target?

    PubMed

    Hutter, Maria-Florencia; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto; Antonanzas, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    An increasing number of published studies of economic evaluations of health technologies have been reviewed and summarized with different purposes, among them to facilitate decision-making processes. These reviews have covered different aspects of economic evaluations, using a variety of methodological approaches. The aim of this study is to analyze the methodological characteristics of the reviews of economic evaluations in health care, published during the period 1990-2010, to identify their main features and the potential missing elements. This may help to develop a common procedure for elaborating these kinds of reviews. We performed systematic searches in electronic databases (Scopus, Medline and PubMed) of methodological reviews published in English, period 1990-2010. We selected the articles whose main purpose was to review and assess the methodology applied in the economic evaluation studies. We classified the data according to the study objectives, period of the review, number of reviewed studies, methodological and non-methodological items assessed, medical specialty, type of disease and technology, databases used for the review and their main conclusions. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis and checked how generalizability issues were considered in the reviews. We identified 76 methodological reviews, 42 published in the period 1990-2001 and 34 during 2002-2010. The items assessed most frequently (by 70% of the reviews) were perspective, type of economic study, uncertainty and discounting. The reviews also described the type of intervention and disease, funding sources, country in which the evaluation took place, type of journal and author's characteristics. Regarding the intertemporal comparison, higher frequencies were found in the second period for two key methodological items: the source of effectiveness data and the models used in the studies. However, the generalizability issues that apparently are creating a growing interest in the

  1. [Book review] Middle American Herpetology, by Jaime Villa, Larry David Wilson, and Jerry D. Johnson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Review of: Middle American Herpetology: a bibliographic checklist. By Jaime Villa, Larry David Wilson and Jerry D. Johnson. 1988. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Missouri 65211. 132 p., 16 color plates, $35.00 (hardcover).

  2. Health economic evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis treatments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Daniel S; Casas, Carmen N P R; Pereira, Claudia C de A; Leite, Iuri C

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify, describe, classify and analyze the scientific health economic evidence of VL-related technologies. A web search of combinations of free text and Mesh terms related to the economic evaluation of visceral leishmaniasis was conducted on scientific publication databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Medline via the Pubmed and Lilacs). A manual search of references lists of articles previously identified by the authors was also included. Articles written in English, Portuguese, Spanish or French were considered suitable for inclusion. Articles that matched the inclusion criteria were screened by at least two researchers, who extracted information regarding the epidemiologic scenario and methodological issues on a standardized form. The initial search retrieved 107 articles, whose abstracts were inspected according to the inclusion criteria leading to a first selection of 49 (46%) articles. After the elimination of duplicates, the list was reduced to 21 (20%) articles. After careful reading and application of exclusion criteria, 14 papers were eligible according to the description, classification and analysis process proposed by the study. When classified by type of economic evaluation, articles were 7 (50%) cost-effectiveness, 5 (36%) cost-minimization, 1(7%) cost-benefit, and 1(7%) budget impact. When classified by methodology, studies were mainly nested to clinical-trials ("piggy back") 8(57%). Discount rates for outcomes and costs were present in 3 (43%) of the cost-effectiveness studies, and according to WHO's recommendations, the discount rate of 3% was used in all studies. This article showed that health economic evaluations on visceral leishmaniasis used a wide range of technologies and methods. Nevertheless it is important to point out the geographic concentration of studies, which makes their transferability uncertain to different epidemiological scenarios, especially those concerning visceral leishmaniasis caused by

  3. Economic analyses of rubella and rubella vaccines: a global review.

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Alan R.; Irons, Beryl; Lewis, Merle; Kandola, Kami

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the incorporation of rubella vaccine into immunization programmes in developing countries is economically justified. METHODS: A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published between 1970 and 2000 that dealt with economic analyses of rubella and rubella-containing vaccines. The Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Africa regional Index Medicus databases and the LILACS database for Latin America and the Caribbean were also searched. FINDINGS: For developed countries, five cost- benefit analyses of rubella vaccine and five of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine as well as two cost-effectiveness analyses were found. For developing countries, five cost analyses and five cost-benefit analyses were found. All the cost-benefit analyses had a benefit:cost ratio greater than 1 and the cost-effectiveness studies indicated that rubella immunization was a cost-effective means of reducing the impact of congenital rubella syndrome. However, the methodologies were not standardized. CONCLUSION: The data support the inclusion of rubella vaccine in the immunization programmes of both developing and developed countries and indicate economic benefits comparable to those associated with hepatitis B vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. More studies should be carried out on costs for care and immunization using standardized methodologies and locally obtained information. PMID:12075361

  4. Economic analyses of rubella and rubella vaccines: a global review.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Alan R; Irons, Beryl; Lewis, Merle; Kandola, Kami

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether the incorporation of rubella vaccine into immunization programmes in developing countries is economically justified. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published between 1970 and 2000 that dealt with economic analyses of rubella and rubella-containing vaccines. The Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Africa regional Index Medicus databases and the LILACS database for Latin America and the Caribbean were also searched. For developed countries, five cost- benefit analyses of rubella vaccine and five of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine as well as two cost-effectiveness analyses were found. For developing countries, five cost analyses and five cost-benefit analyses were found. All the cost-benefit analyses had a benefit:cost ratio greater than 1 and the cost-effectiveness studies indicated that rubella immunization was a cost-effective means of reducing the impact of congenital rubella syndrome. However, the methodologies were not standardized. The data support the inclusion of rubella vaccine in the immunization programmes of both developing and developed countries and indicate economic benefits comparable to those associated with hepatitis B vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. More studies should be carried out on costs for care and immunization using standardized methodologies and locally obtained information.

  5. Health economics in haemophilia: a review from the clinician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Escobar, M A

    2010-05-01

    Health economic evaluations provide valuable information for healthcare providers, facilitating the treatment decision-making process in a climate where demand for healthcare exceeds the supply. Although an uncommon disease, haemophilia is a life-long condition that places a considerable burden on patients, healthcare systems and society. This burden is particularly large for patients with haemophilia with inhibitors, who can develop serious bleeding complications unresponsive to standard factor replacement therapies. Hence, bleeding episodes in these patients are treated with bypassing agents such as recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrates (pd-APCC). With the efficacy of these agents now well established, a number of health economic studies have been conducted to compare their cost-effectiveness for the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in haemophiliacs with inhibitors. In a cost-utility analysis, which assesses the effects of treatment on quality of life (QoL) and quantity of life, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (US $44,834) indicated that rFVIIa was cost-effective. Similarly, eight of 11 other economic modelling evaluations found that rFVIIa was more cost-effective than pd-APCC in the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes. These findings indicate that treating patients with haemophilia promptly and with the most effective therapy available may result in cost savings.

  6. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  7. Economics of collaborative care for management of depressive disorders: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Byard, Guthrie J; Chapman, Daniel P

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorders are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. Collaborative Care models developed from the Chronic Care Model during the past 20 years have improved the quality of depression management in the community, raising intervention cost incrementally above usual care. This paper assesses the economic efficiency of collaborative care for management of depressive disorders by comparing its economic costs and economic benefits to usual care, as informed by a systematic review of the literature. The economic review of collaborative care for management of depressive disorders was conducted in tandem with a review of effectiveness, under the guidance of the Community Preventive Services Task Force, a nonfederal, independent group of public health leaders and experts. Economic review methods developed by the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used by two economists to screen, abstract, adjust, and summarize the economic evidence of collaborative care from societal and other perspectives. An earlier economic review that included eight RCTs was included as part of the evidence. The present economic review expanded the evidence with results from studies published from 1980 to 2009 and included both RCTs and other study designs. In addition to the eight RCTs included in the earlier review, 22 more studies of collaborative care that provided estimates for economic outcomes were identified, 20 of which were evaluations of actual interventions and two of which were based on models. Of seven studies that measured only economic benefits of collaborative care in terms of averted healthcare or productivity loss, four found positive economic benefits due to intervention and three found minimal or no incremental benefit. Of five studies that measured both benefits and costs, three found lower collaborative care cost because of reduced healthcare utilization or enhanced productivity, and one found the same for a subpopulation of the intervention group

  8. Unintentional Insider Threats: A Review of Phishing and Malware Incidents by Economic Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Unintentional Insider Threats: A Review of Phishing and Malware Incidents by Economic Sector Produced for Department of Homeland Security...Collected Cases 13 2.1 Representative Cases 13 2.1.1 PHISHING/SOCIAL 14 2.1.2 Malware 14 3 Cases by Economic Sector 16 3.1 Case Studies, Characteristics...and Patterns of Threat Vector by Economic Sector 16 3.1.1 PHISHING/SOCIAL Threat Vector by Economic Sector 16 3.1.2 Malware Threat Subvector by

  9. Health Economic Evaluations of Visceral Leishmaniasis Treatments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Daniel S.; Casas, Carmen N. P. R.; Pereira, Claudia C. de A.; Leite, Iuri C.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe form of the leishmaniasis-disease complex. Its importance to public health relies on its high fatality rate in non-treated cases, the socio-economic impact related to its morbidity, and its endemicity on different continents. The estimated burden of disease of VL varies from 1,969,000 to 2,357,000 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). VL is classified as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), and is strongly related to poverty and its consequences. Visceral leishmaniasis calls for the development of cost-effective technologies for diagnosis and treatment. Objective The main objective of this study was to identify, describe, classify and analyze the scientific health economic evidence of VL-related technologies. Methods A web search of combinations of free text and Mesh terms related to the economic evaluation of visceral leishmaniasis was conducted on scientific publication databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Medline via the Pubmed and Lilacs). A manual search of references lists of articles previously identified by the authors was also included. Articles written in English, Portuguese, Spanish or French were considered suitable for inclusion. Articles that matched the inclusion criteria were screened by at least two researchers, who extracted information regarding the epidemiologic scenario and methodological issues on a standardized form. Results The initial search retrieved 107 articles, whose abstracts were inspected according to the inclusion criteria leading to a first selection of 49 (46%) articles. After the elimination of duplicates, the list was reduced to 21 (20%) articles. After careful reading and application of exclusion criteria, 14 papers were eligible according to the description, classification and analysis process proposed by the study. When classified by type of economic evaluation, articles were 7 (50%) cost-effectiveness, 5 (36%) cost-minimization, 1(7%) cost-benefit, and 1(7%) budget impact. When

  10. Critical review of economic evaluation studies of interventions promoting low-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Giovanni; Ferrè, Francesca; Meregaglia, Michela; Fattore, Elena; Agostoni, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Various national and local policies encouraging healthy eating have recently been proposed. The present review aims to summarize and critically assess nutrition-economic evaluation studies of direct (e.g., diet counseling) and indirect (e.g., food labeling) interventions aimed at improving dietary habits. A systematic literature review was performed by searching 5 databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, EconLit, Agricola, and Embase) using a combination of diet-related (fat, diet, intake, nutrition) and economics-related (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-utility, health economics, economic evaluation) key words. The search yielded 36 studies that varied in target population, study design, economic evaluation method, and health/economic outcome. In general, all provide limited experimental evidence and adopt the framework of economic evaluations in healthcare. Certain important aspects were not well considered: 1) the non-health-related effects of nutrition interventions on well-being; 2) the private nature of food expenditures; 3) the distributional effects on food expenditures across socioeconomic groups; and 4) the general economic implications (e.g., agrofoods, import/export) of such interventions. Overall, the methodology for the economic evaluation of nutrition interventions requires substantial improvement. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Economics of Life and Death: Mortality and Survival Rates for African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Char, S. V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the correlates of premature death, infant mortality rates, and associated costs for African Americans using census and other government data. There is unimpeachable evidence to confirm the inferior health and survival rates of African Americans at all age intervals. (SLD)

  12. Economic Capital and the Educational Ascent of 10 Mexican American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Victor A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Life-history narratives of ten academically successful Mexican American men and their recollections of the salient factors that facilitated their education attainment. In seeking an understanding to the phenomenon, the research was guided by two general questions: What barriers did Mexican American men…

  13. Economic evidence for the prevention and treatment of atopic eczema: a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sach, Tracey Helen; McManus, Emma; Mcmonagle, Christopher; Levell, Nick

    2016-05-27

    Eczema, synonymous with atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin disease that has a similar impact on health-related quality of life as other chronic diseases. The proposed research aims to provide a comprehensive systematic assessment of the economic evidence base available to inform economic modelling and decision making on interventions to prevent and treat eczema at any stage of the life course. Whilst the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT) database collects together the effectiveness evidence for eczema, there is currently no such systematic resource on the economics of eczema. It is important to gain an overview of the current state of the art of economic methods in the field of eczema in order to strengthen the economic evidence base further. The proposed study is a systematic review of the economic evidence surrounding interventions for the prevention and treatment of eczema. Relevant search terms will be used to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EconLit, Scopus, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Science in order to identify relevant evidence. To be eligible for inclusion studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating the cost, utility or full economic evaluation of interventions for preventing or treating eczema. Two reviewers will independently assess studies for eligibility and perform data abstraction. Evidence tables will be produced presenting details of study characteristics, costing methods, outcome methods and quality assessment. The methodological quality of studies will be assessed using accepted checklists. The systematic review is being undertaken to identify the type of economic evidence available, summarise the results of the available

  14. The role of behavioral economics and behavioral decision making in Americans' retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Melissa A Z

    2010-01-01

    Traditional economic theory posits that people make decisions by maximizing a utility function in which all of the relevant constraints and preferences are included and weighed appropriately. Behavioral economists and decision-making researchers, however, are interested in how people make decisions in the face of incomplete information, limited cognitive resources, and decision biases. Empirical findings in the areas of behavioral economics and judgment and decision making (JDM) demonstrate departures from the notion that man is economically rational, illustrating instead that people often act in ways that are economically suboptimal. This article outlines findings from the JDM and behavioral-economics literatures that highlight the many behavioral impediments to saving that individuals may encounter on their way to financial security. I discuss how behavioral and psychological issues, such as self-control, emotions, and choice architecture can help policymakers understand what factors, aside from purely economic ones, may affect individuals' savings behavior.

  15. Home Economics Education: A Review and Synthesis of the Research, Fifth Edition. Information Series No. 313.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redick, Sharon S.; And Others

    This fifth edition of a review and synthesis of research in home economics education covers the period from 1979 through 1985. The review covers research found in the ERIC database, the Comprehensive Dissertation Index, and professional journals, as well as from solicitations to the field. Criteria for selection include validity and reliability of…

  16. Economic impact of corporate wellness programs in Europe: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lemos, R Iván

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the economic impact of corporate wellness programs (CWPs) in Europe from the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to 2013. A review was undertaken by searching for RCTs with key words in the following databases: PubMed, SPORT-Discus, and Business Source Premier. Only RCTs that evaluated the economic impact of CWPs, and included analyses performed in Europe with results converted into monetary values, were eligible for inclusion. An approach to economic analyses from both an employer's perspective and a societal perspective was also undertaken. Eleven RCTs were identified, and review of these studies determined that the economic impact of the majority of CWPs analyzed was mostly negative. We discuss a possible explanation for these discrepancies with regard to prior reviews in this area. Despite the fact that the RCT is the "gold standard" for investigating without bias, several limitations to the methodology may have influenced the results of the studies in this review and suggested the use of caution in the interpretation of the results. The findings of this review could be a "wake up call" for companies regarding the high probability of bias from non-RCT studies, the majority of which report a positive economic impact of these programs, and the risk of taking inappropriate decisions based on the results of such studies.

  17. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk.

  18. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918

  19. Health behavior and behavioral economics: economic preferences and physical activity stages of change in a low-income African-American community.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. A cross-sectional, community-based study. A low-income, urban, African-American neighborhood. One hundred sixty-nine adults. Self-reported physical activity stages of change-precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured body mass index and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, p < .05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR = 1.68, p < .01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g., from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each one-unit increase in financial risk tolerance or one-unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples.

  20. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, p<0.05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR=1.68, p<0.01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g. from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each 1 unit increase in financial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  1. The Analysis of Economic Discourse. A General Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Terry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses some of the main protagonists in the debate between economists about their own discourse and reviews significant studies by applied linguists in this area. The article suggests that these studies may be grouped according to the categories micro-studies, macro-studies and educational studies. (57 references) (Author/CK)

  2. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans: an updated review.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, V.; Schneider, R.; Alexander, C.; Staggers, F.

    1997-01-01

    This is a comprehensive and integrative review of multiple factors underlying the greater prevalence of hypertension in African Americans compared with whites. Evidence linking stress with hypertension and cardiovascular disease in African Americans is reviewed. A survey of mechanisms of hypertension in African Americans and existing behavioral strategies for the treatment of hypertension is presented. Given that the excess of hypertension may be mediated in part by behavioral factors operating through biological mechanisms, a case is presented for behavioral stress reduction measures. This review of stress reduction techniques especially the Transcendental Mediation program for the treatment of hypertension in African Americans highlights current issues facing the field. New information is provided to help direct future nonpharmacological research and practice in hypertension to prevent morbidity and premature mortality in this underserved population. PMID:9220696

  3. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Barnes, V; Schneider, R; Alexander, C; Staggers, F

    1997-07-01

    This is a comprehensive and integrative review of multiple factors underlying the greater prevalence of hypertension in African Americans compared with whites. Evidence linking stress with hypertension and cardiovascular disease in African Americans is reviewed. A survey of mechanisms of hypertension in African Americans and existing behavioral strategies for the treatment of hypertension is presented. Given that the excess of hypertension may be mediated in part by behavioral factors operating through biological mechanisms, a case is presented for behavioral stress reduction measures. This review of stress reduction techniques especially the Transcendental Mediation program for the treatment of hypertension in African Americans highlights current issues facing the field. New information is provided to help direct future nonpharmacological research and practice in hypertension to prevent morbidity and premature mortality in this underserved population.

  4. Questioning Assumptions about the Role of Education in American Society: A Review of Schooling in Capitalist America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Seth

    2004-09-01

    According to many scholars, classrooms in America are overwhelmingly authoritarian and undemocratic. They focus on fragmented knowledge that is disconnected from the students' lives. Proven reforms are resisted at all levels, and systematic progressive change is non-existent nearly a century after the progressive movement. Why is this so? The standard liberal outlook is that the schools are `broken' and `neglected', but that they have the potential, with reform, to be a major progressive force in society. This paper questions these assumptions through a review of the seminal educational-economic work by Bowles and Gintis: Schooling in Capitalist America. The major claim of this text is that our educational system's primary role is to mirror, support, stabilize, and reproduce the fundamentally hierarchical and undemocratic social relationships that exist in the majority of American workplaces. The major arguments and evidence of this text are reviewed, and implications for PER will be briefly mentioned.

  5. Asian Immigrants, Asian Americans, and the Politics of Economic Mobilization in San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Linda Trinh

    1996-01-01

    Presents an ethnographic study of the Asian Business Association in San Diego (California) highlighting the role that well-educated first generation immigrants play in pan-Asian economic mobilization. It examines how the first and subsequent generations challenged the institutionalized economic barriers in order to protect and promote their…

  6. A Systematic Review of the Economic Evaluation of Telemedicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Miki; Yoo, Byung-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    There is no systematic review on economic evaluations of telemedicine in Japan, despite over 1000 trials implemented. Our systematic review aims to examine whether Japan's telemedicine is cost-saving or cost-effective, examine the methodological rigorousness of the economic evaluations, and discuss future studies needed to improve telemedicine's financial sustainability. We searched five databases, including two Japanese databases, to find peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 in English and Japanese that performed economic evaluations of Japan's telemedicine programs. The methodological rigorousness of the economic analyses was assessed with a well-established checklist. We calculated the benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) when a reviewed study reported related data but did not report the BCR. All cost values were adjusted to 2014 US dollars. Among the 17 articles identified, six studies reported on settings connecting physicians for specialist consultations, and eleven studies on settings connecting healthcare providers and patients at home. There are three cost-benefit analyses and three cost-minimization analyses. The remaining studies measured the benefit of telemedicine only, using medical expenditure saved or users' willingness-to-pay. There was substantial diversity in the methodological rigorousness. Studies on teledermatology and teleradiology indicated a favorable level of economic efficiency. Studies on telehomecare gave mixed results. One cost-benefit analysis on telehomecare indicated a low economic efficiency, partly due to public subsidy rules, e.g., a too short budget period. Overall, telemedicine programs in Japan were indicated to have a favorable level of economic efficiency. However, the scarcity of the economic literature indicates the need for further rigorous economic evaluation studies.

  7. A Systematic Review of the Economic Evaluation of Telemedicine in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is no systematic review on economic evaluations of telemedicine in Japan, despite over 1000 trials implemented. Our systematic review aims to examine whether Japan’s telemedicine is cost-saving or cost-effective, examine the methodological rigorousness of the economic evaluations, and discuss future studies needed to improve telemedicine’s financial sustainability. Methods: We searched five databases, including two Japanese databases, to find peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 in English and Japanese that performed economic evaluations of Japan’s telemedicine programs. The methodological rigorousness of the economic analyses was assessed with a well-established checklist. We calculated the benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) when a reviewed study reported related data but did not report the BCR. All cost values were adjusted to 2014 US dollars. Results: Among the 17 articles identified, six studies reported on settings connecting physicians for specialist consultations, and eleven studies on settings connecting healthcare providers and patients at home. There are three cost-benefit analyses and three cost-minimization analyses. The remaining studies measured the benefit of telemedicine only, using medical expenditure saved or users’ willingness-to-pay. There was substantial diversity in the methodological rigorousness. Studies on teledermatology and teleradiology indicated a favorable level of economic efficiency. Studies on telehomecare gave mixed results. One cost-benefit analysis on telehomecare indicated a low economic efficiency, partly due to public subsidy rules, e.g., a too short budget period. Conclusions: Overall, telemedicine programs in Japan were indicated to have a favorable level of economic efficiency. However, the scarcity of the economic literature indicates the need for further rigorous economic evaluation studies. PMID:27499161

  8. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S...-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement...

  9. American Fiction for Reluctant Readers (Resources and Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Milton E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a high school course in American fiction in which students read an excerpt from a work of literature, watch the film adaptation of the work, and study both from a particular literary standpoint. Notes that such an approach appeals to reluctant readers. (RS)

  10. Comparing International and American Students' Challenges: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cody J.

    2016-01-01

    International student numbers have increased drastically in the past few years. International students provide benefits to universities and American students such as greater revenue, and more open-mindedness. There have been myriad studies that have examined the international student experience, but most have focused solely on international…

  11. Economic review of the geopressured-geothermal resource with recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.M.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Faulder, D.D.; Lunis, B.C.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents the results of an economic study conducted by the INEL under DOE Contract No. AC07-76ID01570 to evaluate the breakeven price to market energy from a geopressured-geothermal resource. A breakeven price is a minimum, per unit charge required for the developer to recover all direct and indirect costs and a rate of return sufficient to compensate the developer for depreciation, the time value of money, and the risk of failure. The DOE Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program and the DOE well testing and operations at three locations in the Gulf Coast region provide the bulk of resource and economic characteristics for this study. A menu-driven model was developed in LOTUS-123 to calculate the breakeven price to market gas and electricity from a geopressured-geothermal resource. This model was developed using the present value methodology and conservative assumptions. Assuming present well constraints and current off-the-shelf conversion technology, the breakeven price for electricity is about $0.26/kWh using only the thermal energy from a Hulin-type resource. Assuming identical resource and technology constraints, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.15/kWh when using all available energy forms (methane, hydraulic, and thermal). Assuming the use of available advanced technologies, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.10/kWh. Assuming the higher quality resource (with higher temperature and gas content) in the South Texas cases, the breakeven cost is about $0.095/kWh. Using advanced technology, this cost is further reduced to about $0.05/kWh. Both costs are within program goals. The results of this study suggest that the future direction of the Geopressured-Geothermal Program emphasize (a) selection of higher quality resource, (b) advanced energy conversion technology, and (c) total energy utilization.

  12. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  13. Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Units Dedicated to Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Azeredo-Da-Silva, André Luis Ferreira; Perini, Silvana; Rigotti Soares, Pedro Henrique; Polaczyk, Carisi Anne

    2016-01-01

    Dedicated units for the care of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been submitted to economic evaluations; however, the results have not been systematically presented. To identify and summarize economic outcomes of studies on hospital units dedicated to the initial care of patients with suspected or confirmed ACS. A systematic review of literature to identify economic evaluations of chest pain unit (CPU), coronary care unit (CCU), or equivalent units was done. Two search strategies were used: the first one to identify economic evaluations irrespective of study design, and the second one to identify randomized clinical trials that reported economic outcomes. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and National Health Service (NHS)Economic Evaluation Database. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. Costs were inflated to 2012 values. Search strategies retrieved five partial economic evaluations based on observational studies, six randomized clinical trials that reported economic outcomes, and five model-based economic evaluations. Overall, cost estimates based on observational studies and randomized clinical trials reported statistically significant cost savings of more than 50% with the adoption of CPU care instead of routine hospitalization or CCU care for suspected low-to-intermediate risk patients with ACS (median per-patient cost US $1,969.89; range US $1,002.12-13,799.15). Model-based economic evaluations reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below US $ 50,000/quality-adjusted life-year for all comparisons between intermediate care unit, CPU, or CCU with routine hospital admissions. This finding was sensible to myocardial infarction probability. Published economic evaluations indicate that more intensive care is likely to be cost-effective in comparison to routine hospital admission for patients with suspected ACS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Economic Hardship, Neighborhood Context, and Parenting: Prospective Effects on Mexican–American Adolescent’s Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Coxe, Stefany; Roosa, Mark W.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Saenz, Delia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and neighborhood influences relevant to low-income status to determine how they combine to predict the parenting behaviors of Mexican–American mothers and fathers. The study also examined the role of parenting as a mediator of these contextual influences on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Study hypotheses were examined in a diverse sample of Mexican–American families in which 750 mothers and 467 fathers reported on their own levels of parental warmth and harsh parenting. Family economic hardship, neighborhood familism values, and neighborhood risk indicators were all uniquely associated with maternal and paternal warmth, and maternal warmth mediated the effects of these contextual influences on adolescent externalizing symptoms in prospective analyses. Parents’ subjective perceptions of neighborhood danger interacted with objective indicators of neighborhood disadvantage to influence maternal and paternal warmth. Neighborhood familism values had unique direct effects on adolescent externalizing symptoms in prospective analyses, after accounting for all other context and parenting effects. PMID:21103925

  15. Can choices between alternative hip prostheses be evidence based? a review of the economic evaluation literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Total hip replacement surgery places a considerable financial burden on health services and society. Given the large number of hip prostheses available to surgeons, reliable economic evidence is crucial to inform resource allocation decisions. This review summarises published economic evidence on alternative hip prostheses to examine the potential for the literature to inform resource allocation decisions in the UK. Methods We searched nine medical and economics electronic databases. 3,270 studies were initially identified, 17 studies were included in the review. Studies were critically appraised using three separate guidelines. Results Several methodological problems were identified including a lack of observed long term prosthesis survival data, limited up-to-date and UK based evidence and exclusion of patient and societal perspectives. Conclusions More clinical trials including long term follow-up and economic evaluation are needed. These should compare the cost-effectiveness of different prostheses with longer-term follow-up and including a wider perspective. PMID:21034434

  16. Late-life Depression in Older African Americans: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological and Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Yolonda R.; Bazelais, Kisha N.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The population of older African Americans is expected to triple by 2050, highlighting the public health importance of understanding their mental health needs. Despite evidence of the negative impact of late-life depression, less is known of how this disorder affects the lives of older African Americans. Lack of studies focusing on how depression presents in older African Americans and their subsequent treatment needs lead to a gap in epidemiologic and clinical knowledge for this population. In this review, we aim to present a concise report of prevalence, correlates, course, outcomes, symptom recognition, and treatment of depression for these individuals. Method We performed a literature review of English-language articles identified from PubMed and Medline published between January 1990 and June 2012. Studies included older adults and contained the key words “geriatric depression in African Americans,” “geriatric depression in Blacks,” and geriatric depression in minorities.” Results Although in most studies older African Americans had higher or equivalence prevalence of depression compared to Caucasian Americans, we also found lower rates of recognition of depression and treatment. Many studies reported worse outcomes associated for depression among older African Americans compared older Caucasians. Conclusions Serious racial and ethnic disparities persist in the management of older African Americans with depression. Understanding their unmet needs and improving depression care for these individuals is necessary to reduce these disparities. PMID:23225736

  17. Poverty and the American Family: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edin, Kathryn; Kissane, Rebecca Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Because of dramatic levels of economic volatility and massive changes in welfare policies, scholars in this decade worried anew about whether our official poverty measure, adopted in the 1960s, is adequate. Poverty's causes continued to be debated, with demographic factors often pitted against policy and maternal employment changes. Some scholars…

  18. Poverty and the American Family: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edin, Kathryn; Kissane, Rebecca Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Because of dramatic levels of economic volatility and massive changes in welfare policies, scholars in this decade worried anew about whether our official poverty measure, adopted in the 1960s, is adequate. Poverty's causes continued to be debated, with demographic factors often pitted against policy and maternal employment changes. Some scholars…

  19. Economics for Grades K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gregory P.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the National Survey of American Economic Literacy and asserts that U.S. citizens and students show significant and serious deficiencies in knowledge of economics and the economy. Provides suggestions for improving course content and instructional strategies. Includes a list of teacher resources. (CFR)

  20. A review of economic research into determinants of divorce.

    PubMed

    Cameron, S

    1995-02-01

    "This paper reviews econometric work on the determinants of divorce. There is a fair degree of agreement over some of the key variables. It seems well-established that the effect of male wage rates is negative while the effect of female wage rates is positive. Nonetheless, controversy still rages over the effect of legal changes. Further work is needed on this. Viewed as a scientific research programme, the study of the determinants of divorce needs access to a wider range of populations. The databases at present are primarily U.S. sample surveys." excerpt

  1. Smoking cessation: an economic analysis and review of varenicline.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Michele A

    2009-01-01

    Despite efforts to decrease tobacco use, smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. The associated economic burden is substantial, both in the form of direct costs (healthcare expenditures) and indirect costs (lost productivity), regardless of whether the burden is assessed from the standpoint of an employer, a health plan, or society as a whole. Cessation programs are considered among the most cost-effective in healthcare, and are often used as a benchmark for other medical interventions. This analysis specifically considers the cost-effectiveness of varenicline, a novel α(4)β(2) partial agonist used for smoking cessation, in comparison to other approved therapies. Clinical trial data have demonstrated that varenicline has the ability to decrease cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and lessen positive reinforcement associated with smoking. Varenicline's novel mechanism has translated into superior efficacy in comparison to other available therapies. For this reason, despite an initial cost that typically exceeds that of other medications, varenicline is a cost-effective option for smoking cessation.

  2. Economic evaluations of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yeo, Q Q; Ko, Y

    2016-04-01

    To review and evaluate the most recent literature on the economic outcomes of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes. The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Although pharmacist-managed services have been shown to improve people's health outcomes, the economic impact of these programmes remains unclear. A systematic review was conducted of six databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) original research; (2) evaluation of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes; (3) an economic evaluation; (4) English-language publication; and (5) full-text, published between January 2006 and December 2014. The quality of the full economic evaluations reviewed was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist. A total of 2204 articles were screened and 25 studies were selected. These studies were conducted in a community pharmacy (n = 10), a clinic- /hospital-based outpatient facility (n = 8), or others. Pharmacist-managed services included targeted education (n = 24), general pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (n = 21), health screening or laboratory testing services (n = 9), immunization services (n = 2) and pharmacokinetic monitoring (n = 1). Compared with usual care, pharmacist-managed services resulted in cost savings that varied from $7 to $65,000 ($8 to $85,000 in 2014 US dollars) per person per year, and generated higher quality-adjusted life years with lower costs. Benefit-to-cost ratios ranged from 1:1 to 8.5:1. Among the 25 studies reviewed, 11 were full economic evaluations of moderate quality. Pharmacist-managed services had a positive return in terms of economic viability. With the expanding role of pharmacists in the healthcare sector, alongside increasing health expenditure, future economic studies of high quality are needed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of these services. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  3. Philosophy, Religion and Education American Style: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Terry Anne

    2007-01-01

    This literature review presents an overview of Christian higher education in the United States with particular attention to philosophical trends and their influence on institutions of Christian origin. This literature review is situated in the context of the discussion of the need, or lack thereof, for helping students integrate their faith with…

  4. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  5. ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTEES: A SCOPING REVIEW OF COMPARATIVE STUDIES.

    PubMed

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Lewandowski, Amanda; Klenow, Tyler D; Orriola, John J; Miro, Rebecca M; Hill, Owen T; Raschke, Sylvia Ursula; Orendurff, Michael S; Highsmith, James T; Sutton, Bryce S

    2016-09-01

    Transtibial amputation (TTA) is life-altering emotionally, functionally, and economically. The economic impact to all stakeholders is largely unknown, as is the cost-effectiveness of prosthetic intervention. This scoping report's purpose was to determine if there is sufficient evidence to conduct a formal systematic review or meta-analysis in any particular prosthetic intervention area and to determine if any evidence statements could be synthesized relative to economic evaluation of interventions provided to patients with TTA. The scoping review revealed six articles representing three topical areas of transtibial care: Care Models, Prosthetic Treatment, and Prosthetic Sockets. All six articles were cost-identification or cost-consequence design and included a total of 704 subjects. Presently, it can be concluded with moderate confidence that specific weight-bearing and total-contact sockets for transtibial amputees are functionally and economically equivalent in the short term when costs, delivery time, and all stakeholder perspectives are considered. Long-term socket outcomes are relatively unexplored. Further primary research is needed beyond this to determine cost-effectiveness for other areas of transtibial prosthetic care although clinical outcomes are somewhat established through systematic review and meta-analysis in other areas of care. Conversely, evaluation of narrative economic reports relative to transtibial care may be sufficient to warrant further analysis. Guidance from the profession may also be useful in devising a strategy for how to assure economic analyses are a routine element of future prosthetic science.

  6. Economic evaluation of diagnostic methods used in dentistry. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christell, Helena; Birch, Stephen; Horner, Keith; Lindh, Christina; Rohlin, Madeleine

    2014-11-01

    To review the literature of economic evaluations regarding diagnostic methods used in dentistry. Four databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, The Cochrane library, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database) were searched for studies, complemented by hand search, until February 2013. Two authors independently screened all titles or abstracts and then applied inclusion and exclusion criteria to select full-text publications published in English, which reported an economic evaluation comparing at least two alternative methods. Studies of diagnostic methods were assessed by four reviewers using a protocol based on the QUADAS tool regarding diagnostic methods and a check-list for economic evaluations. The results of the data extraction were summarized in a structured table and as a narrative description. From 476 identified full-text publications, 160 were considered to be economic evaluations. Only 12 studies (7%) were on diagnostic methods, whilst 78 studies (49%) were on prevention and 70 (40%) on treatment. Among studies on diagnostic methods, there was between-study heterogeneity methodologically, regarding the diagnostic method analysed and type of economic evaluation addressed. Generally, the choice of economic evaluation method was not justified and the perspective of the study not stated. Costing of diagnostic methods varied. A small body of literature addresses economic evaluation of diagnostic methods in dentistry. Thus, there is a need for studies from various perspectives with well defined research questions and measures of the cost and effectiveness. Economic resources in healthcare are finite. For diagnostic methods, an understanding of efficacy provides only part of the information needed for evidence-based practice. This study highlighted a paucity of economic evaluations of diagnostic methods used in dentistry, indicating that much of what we practise lacks sufficient evidence.

  7. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  8. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women’s health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women’s health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. Results The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women’s health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. Conclusions This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women’s health. Societies that prioritize women

  9. Review of the theater of trauma: american modernist drama and the psychological struggle for the american mind, 1900-1930.

    PubMed

    Gold, Steven N

    2006-01-01

    Reviews the book, The Theater of Trauma: American Modernist Drama and the Psychological Struggle for the American Mind, 1900-1930 by Michael Cotsell (2005). For most of the 20th century, psychoanalytic theory and its myriad offshoots so pervasively influenced literary criticism in the United States that for many it is difficult to imagine examining American literature of that era through any other psychological lens. In his new book The Theater of Trauma: American Modernist Drama and the Psychological Struggle for the American Mind, 1900-1930, Michael Cotsell alerts us to the existence of an alternate psychological perspective that dominated the American landscape before Freudian analysis gained widespread acceptance on this side of the Atlantic--dissociationism. He makes a compelling case that from the waning years of the 19th through the early decades of the 20th century American modernist drama was primarily shaped not by psychoanalytic thought, but by dissociationist psychology. Cotsell argues that it is dissociationism that informed and sustained the modernist sensibility in American drama, and that once dissociationist psychology was eclipsed by psychoanalytic theory, the demise of modernist playwriting was inevitable. Despite the breadth of this book, it is no more realistic that a single work could provide the last word on the relevance of dissociationism to drama than that one volume could offer a comprehensive discussion of the pertinence of psychoanalytic theory to the theater. Cotsell reminds us of the existence of a conceptual framework that carries tremendous explanatory power in its capacity to cogently link the realm of the psychological and personal to that of the social and political. The continued ubiquity of trauma and dissociation in contemporary life render the dissociationist perspective as relevant today as it was in the modernist epoch. Consequently, the significance of The Theater of Trauma extends well beyond the specific territory it

  10. Lyme borreliosis: reviewing potential vaccines, clinical aspects and health economics.

    PubMed

    Šmit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystem infectious disease with a growing burden in many parts of North America, Asia and Europe. Persistent infection of LB can usually be treated effectively with antibiotic therapy, but it may be followed by post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Therefore, it is important to begin with treatment in the early phase of the disease. Vaccination shows potential as the most effective way of preventing LB and reducing its burden in these continents. It is concluded that there is a need for continuous effort in research from all perspectives on LB, especially regarding prevention with novel vaccines, their development, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness. This review may help to further develop (cost-) effective strategies for prevention and control of the disease to reduce its burden and achieve population-wide health benefits.

  11. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying genes and biological pathways regulating arterial stiffness may provide insight into the genetics underlying the increased risk of hypertension in African Americans. This paper reviews the genetic findings to date in the area of arterial stiffness and blood pressure in African Americans with an emphasis on the current limitations and new efforts to move the field forward. PMID:22492025

  12. An economy of scales: A selective review of obesity's economic causes, consequences, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2015-09-01

    This paper reviews the economic research on obesity, covering topics such as the measurement of, and trends in, obesity, the economic causes of obesity (e.g. the monetary price and time cost of food, food assistance programs, income, education, macroeconomic conditions, and peer effects), and the economic consequences of obesity (e.g. lower wages, a lower probability of employment, and higher medical care costs). It also examines the extent to which obesity imposes negative externalities, and economic interventions that could potentially internalize such externalities, such as food taxes, subsidies for school-based physical activity programs, and financial rewards for weight loss. It discusses other economic rationales for government intervention with respect to obesity, such as imperfect information, time inconsistent preferences, and irrational behavior. It concludes by proposing a research agenda for the field. Overall, the evidence suggests that there is no single dominant economic cause of obesity; a wide variety of factors may contribute a modest amount to the risk. There is consistent evidence regarding the economic consequences of obesity, which are lower wages and higher medical care costs that impose negative externalities through health insurance. Studies of economic approaches to preventing obesity, such as menu labeling, taxes on energy-dense foods, and financial rewards for weight loss find only modest effects on weight and thus a range of policies may be necessary to have a substantial effect on the prevalence of obesity.

  13. An integrative review of relationships between discrimination and Asian American health.

    PubMed

    Nadimpalli, Sarah B; Hutchinson, M Katherine

    2012-06-01

    Many ethnic minorities in the United States experience disproportionate rates of adverse health outcomes or health disparities. Factors such as socioeconomic status do not fully explain how these disparities are generated and maintained. Research has demonstrated that chronic experiences of discrimination are harmful to the health of African Americans and Latinos. However, there is a dearth of research examining Asian Americans' experiences with discrimination and health disparities. The purpose of this integrative review was to summarize the current literature examining discrimination and the mental and physical health of Asian Americans. Combinations of search terms related to discrimination, health, and Asian Americans were used to search five electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were primary research studies, published in English between 1980 and 2011, Asian American adults, and discrimination examined in relationship to a physical or mental health outcome. The search initially yielded 489 results; 14 quantitative studies met inclusion criteria. Quantitative studies in this review revealed several significant associations between discrimination and health outcomes in Asian Americans. Discrimination was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in seven studies. Three studies found associations between discrimination and physical health, including cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, obesity, and diabetes. Although the literature was limited by self-reported data, cross-sectional designs, and inconsistent definitions and measurement of discrimination, the findings suggest that discrimination is a significant contributor to poorer health and health disparities for Asian Americans. The findings clearly demonstrate the need for further nursing research in this area to inform evidence-based practice and social policy. Patient care providers can recognize discrimination as a significant stressor or purveyor of illness and explore ways to

  14. The Estimation and Inclusion of Presenteeism Costs in Applied Economic Evaluation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Given the significant costs of reduced productivity (presenteeism) in comparison to absenteeism, and overall societal costs, presenteeism has a potentially important role to play in economic evaluations. However, these costs are often excluded. The objective of this study is to review applied cost of illness studies and economic evaluations to identify valuation methods used for, and impact of including presenteeism costs in practice. A structured systematic review was carried out to explore (i) the extent to which presenteeism has been applied in cost of illness studies and economic evaluations and (ii) the overall impact of including presenteeism on overall costs and outcomes. Potential articles were identified by searching Medline, PsycINFO and NHS EED databases. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from economic evaluations and cost of illness studies incorporating presenteeism costs. A total of 28 studies were included in the systematic review which also demonstrated that presenteeism costs are rarely included in full economic evaluations. Estimation and monetisation methods differed between the instruments. The impact of disease on presenteeism whilst in paid work is high. The potential impact of presenteeism costs needs to be highlighted and greater consideration should be given to including these in economic evaluations and cost of illness studies. The importance of including presenteeism costs when conducting economic evaluation from a societal perspective should be emphasised in national economic guidelines and more methodological work is required to improve the practical application of presenteeism instruments to generate productivity cost estimates. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic review of economic evaluations of treatments for patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, Ben F M; van Mastrigt, Ghislaine A P G; Evers, Silvia M A A; Gershuni, Olga; Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; Majoie, Marian H J M; Postulart, Debby; Aldenkamp, Bert A P; de Kinderen, Reina J A

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of treatment options and the high costs associated with epilepsy have fostered the development of economic evaluations in epilepsy. It is important to examine the availability and quality of these economic evaluations and to identify potential research gaps. As well as looking at both pharmacologic (antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) and nonpharmacologic (e.g., epilepsy surgery, ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation) therapies, this review examines the methodologic quality of the full economic evaluations included. Literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Econlit, Web of Science, and CEA Registry. In addition, Cochrane Reviews, Cochrane DARE and Cochrane Health Technology Assessment Databases were used. To identify relevant studies, predefined clinical search strategies were combined with a search filter designed to identify health economic studies. Specific search strategies were devised for the following topics: (1) AEDs, (2) patients with cognitive deficits, (3) elderly patients, (4) epilepsy surgery, (5) ketogenic diet, (6) vagus nerve stimulation, and (7) treatment of (non)convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 40 publications were included in this review, 29 (73%) of which were articles about pharmacologic interventions. Mean quality score of all articles on the Consensus Health Economic Criteria (CHEC)-extended was 81.8%, the lowest quality score being 21.05%, whereas five studies had a score of 100%. Looking at the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS), the average quality score was 77.0%, the lowest being 22.7%, and four studies rated as 100%. There was a substantial difference in methodology in all included articles, which hampered the attempt to combine information meaningfully. Overall, the methodologic quality was acceptable; however, some studies performed significantly worse than others. The heterogeneity between the studies stresses the need to

  16. Where's the evidence? a systematic review of economic analyses of residential aged care infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Easton, Tiffany; Milte, Rachel; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2017-03-21

    Residential care infrastructure, in terms of the characteristics of the organisation (such as proprietary status, size, and location) and the physical environment, have been found to directly influence resident outcomes. This review aimed to summarise the existing literature of economic evaluations of residential care infrastructure. A systematic review of English language articles using AgeLine, CINAHL, Econlit, Informit (databases in Health; Business and Law; Social Sciences), Medline, ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science with retrieval up to 14 December 2015. The search strategy combined terms relating to nursing homes, economics, and older people. Full economic evaluations, partial economic evaluations, and randomised trials reporting more limited economic information, such as estimates of resource use or costs of interventions were included. Data was extracted using predefined data fields and synthesized in a narrative summary to address the stated review objective. Fourteen studies containing an economic component were identified. None of the identified studies attempted to systematically link costs and outcomes in the form of a cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analysis. There was a wide variation in approaches taken for valuing the outcomes associated with differential residential care infrastructures: 8 studies utilized various clinical outcomes as proxies for the quality of care provided, and 2 focused on resident outcomes including agitation, quality of life, and the quality of care interactions. Only 2 studies included residents living with dementia. Robust economic evidence is needed to inform aged care facility design. Future research should focus on identifying appropriate and meaningful outcome measures that can be used at a service planning level, as well as the broader health benefits and cost-saving potential of different organisational and environmental characteristics in residential care. International Prospective Register of

  17. How do economic crises affect migrants' risk of infectious disease? A systematic-narrative review.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David

    2015-12-01

    It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for addressing this vulnerability. © The

  18. How do economic crises affect migrants’ risk of infectious disease? A systematic-narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. Methods: We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. Results: The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. Conclusions: There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for

  19. The Influence of Demographic and Economic Factors on Fear of Crime among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Keith D.; Onyekwuluje, Anne B.

    1992-01-01

    Studies factors associated with fear of crime for 585 African-American urban residents from Atlanta (Georgia) and Washington (DC). Many residents thought the streets were safe day or night. Gender was a predictor of fear of crime during the day, and gender and age predicted fear of night crime. (SLD)

  20. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  1. 78 FR 19214 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring Requirements for American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... input from owners and operators of American Fisheries Act (AFA) catcher vessels and shoreside processors... inside the codend; (2) the installation of software and communication equipment to enhance observer data... saltwater tanks prior to delivery to a shoreside processor. The intent of this requirement is to reduce...

  2. Being Poor, Black, and American: The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William Julius

    2011-01-01

    Through the second half of the 1990s and into the early years of the 21st century, public attention to the plight of poor black Americans seemed to wane. There was scant media attention to the problem of concentrated urban poverty (neighborhoods in which a high percentage of the residents fall beneath the federally designated poverty line), little…

  3. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  4. Experiences of African American Parents Following Perinatal or Pediatric Death: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Boyden, Jackelyn Y.; Kavanaugh, Karen; Issel, L. Michele; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Meert, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    A child’s death is one of life’s most difficult experiences. Little is known about the unique factors that influence the grief experience for bereaved African American parents. Through an integrative review of 10 publications, the authors describe the grief responses, outcomes, and implications for African American parents who experience the death of a child. Four themes emerged: (a) emotional response to loss; (b) factors that added to the burden of loss; (c) coping strategies; and (d) health consequences of grief. Healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers should be sensitive to the unique needs of African American parents following a child’s death. PMID:24666143

  5. Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans: a review.

    PubMed

    Calderon, R; Schneider, R H; Alexander, C N; Myers, H F; Nidich, S I; Haney, C

    1999-01-01

    Psychological stress may directly contribute to the disproportionately high rates of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and its etiologic risk factors in African Americans. Specifically, acute and chronic stress have been shown to raise serum lipids and are associated with clinical coronary events. The mechanisms by which stress contributes to alterations in lipid levels are not fully known, but various pathways (ie, hormonal, dietary, etc) have been implicated. Traditional methods for reducing blood serum lipids include diet, drugs or both. These methods have been criticized because of issues of compliance, side effects, and cost. Because of these limitations, nondrug behavioral methods are recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program as the first line of prevention and treatment for hypercholesterolemia and other risk factors. Research shows that CHD morbidity and mortality and major risk factors may be modifiable by behavioral intervention. Specifically, the Transcendental Meditation technique, an effective antidote to stress, reduces levels of major CHD risk factors including hypercholesterolemia, as well as blood pressure and smoking. Using an effective stress reduction approach for prevention and treatment of CHD and its risk factors in African Americans may prove to be a valuable asset for this underserved population.

  6. Assessing the Quality of Economic Evaluations of FDA Novel Drug Approvals: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Woersching, Alex L; Borrego, Matthew E; Raisch, Dennis W

    2016-12-01

    To systematically review and assess the quality of the novel drugs' economic evaluation literature in print during the drugs' early commercial availability following US regulatory approval. MEDLINE and the United Kingdom National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were searched from 1946 through December 2011 for economic evaluations of the 50 novel drugs approved by the FDA in 2008 and 2009. The inclusion criteria were English-language, peer-reviewed, original economic evaluations (cost-utility, cost-effectiveness, cost-minimization, and cost-benefit analyses). We extracted and analyzed data from 36 articles considering 19 of the 50 drugs. Two reviewers assessed each publication's quality using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument and summarized study quality on a 100-point scale. Study quality had a mean of 70.0 ± 16.2 QHES points. The only study characteristics associated with QHES score (with P < 0.05) were having used modeling or advanced statistics, 75.1 versus 61.9 without; using quality-adjusted life years as an outcome, 75.9 versus 64.7 without; and cost-utility versus cost-minimization analysis, 75.9 versus 58.7. Studies most often satisfied quality aspects about stating study design choices and least often satisfied aspects about justifying design choices. The reviewed literature considered a minority of the 2008-2009 novel drugs and had mixed study quality. Cost-effectiveness stakeholders might benefit from efforts to improve the quality and quantity of literature examining novel drugs. Editors and reviewers may support quality improvement by stringently imposing economic evaluation guidelines about justifying study design choices. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Systematic review of the quality of economic evaluations in the otolaryngology literature.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Carrie; Lui, Justin; Oddone Paolucci, Elizabeth; Rudmik, Luke

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of economic evaluations published in the otolaryngology--head and neck surgery literature, which will identify methodologic weaknesses that can be improved on in future studies. A secondary objective is to identify factors that may be associated with higher quality economic evaluations. Ovid Medline (including PubMed), Embase, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation databases. A systematic search was performed of the aforementioned databases according to PRISMA guidelines. The search was performed using otolaryngology key terms combined with the term cost. A manual search of 36 otolaryngology journals was also performed. Included studies were graded using the Quality of Health Economics Studies instrument, a 16-item checklist providing a total quality score of 100. Fifty studies were identified, and the mean quality rating was 54.7/100 (SD = 30.9). The most commonly omitted methodology components were a lack of discussion of limitations and biases, failure to address the negative outcomes of examined interventions, and a lack of a robust sensitivity analysis. Higher quality economic evaluations were associated with a higher journal impact factor (correlation coefficient r = 0.62, P = .0001), having an author with a PhD in health economics (r = 0.56, P = .0001), and having authors who have published prior economic evaluations (r = 0.46, P = .001). Results from this study have demonstrated that there are several methodological domains that can be improved on when publishing economic evaluations in the otolaryngology literature. Authors should follow recommended methodological and reporting guidelines to optimize the transparency and accuracy of the overall conclusions. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  8. Economic evaluation of nurse staffing and nurse substitution in health care: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Griffiths, Peter; Maben, Jill

    2011-04-01

    Several systematic reviews have suggested that greater nurse staffing as well as a greater proportion of registered nurses in the health workforce is associated with better patient outcomes. Others have found that nurses can substitute for doctors safely and effectively in a variety of settings. However, these reviews do not generally consider the effect of nurse staff on both patient outcomes and costs of care, and therefore say little about the cost-effectiveness of nurse-provided care. Therefore, we conducted a scoping literature review of economic evaluation studies which consider the link between nurse staffing, skill mix within the nursing team and between nurses and other medical staff to determine the nature of the available economic evidence. Scoping literature review. English-language manuscripts, published between 1989 and 2009, focussing on the relationship between costs and effects of care and the level of registered nurse staffing or nurse-physician substitution/nursing skill mix in the clinical team, using cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit analysis. Articles selected for the review were identified through Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Google Scholar database searches. After selecting 17 articles representing 16 unique studies for review, we summarized their main findings, and assessed their methodological quality using criteria derived from recommendations from the guidelines proposed by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care. In general, it was found that nurses can provide cost effective care, compared to other health professionals. On the other hand, more intensive nurse staffing was associated with both better outcomes and more expensive care, and therefore cost effectiveness was not easy to assess. Although considerable progress in economic evaluation studies has been reached in recent years, a number of methodological issues remain. In the future

  9. Mental health outcomes in times of economic recession: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Frasquilho, Diana; Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Salonna, Ferdinand; Guerreiro, Diogo; Storti, Cláudia C; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, José M

    2016-02-03

    Countries in recession experience high unemployment rates and a decline in living conditions, which, it has been suggested, negatively influences their populations' health. The present review examines the recent evidence of the possible association between economic recessions and mental health outcomes. Literature review of records identified through Medline, PsycINFO, SciELO, and EBSCO Host. Only original research papers, published between 2004 and 2014, peer-reviewed, non-qualitative research, and reporting on associations between economic factors and proxies of mental health were considered. One-hundred-one papers met the inclusion criteria. The evidence was consistent that economic recessions and mediators such as unemployment, income decline, and unmanageable debts are significantly associated with poor mental wellbeing, increased rates of common mental disorders, substance-related disorders, and suicidal behaviours. On the basis of a thorough analysis of the selected investigations, we conclude that periods of economic recession are possibly associated with a higher prevalence of mental health problems, including common mental disorders, substance disorders, and ultimately suicidal behaviour. Most of the research is based on cross-sectional studies, which seriously limits causality inferences. Conclusions are summarised, taking into account international policy recommendations concerning the cost-effective measures that can possibly reduce the occurrence of negative mental health outcomes in populations during periods of economic recession.

  10. Economic evaluation of pediatric influenza immunization program compared with other pediatric immunization programs: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Sigmundsson, Birgir; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared the economic value of pediatric immunisation programmes for influenza to those for rotavirus (RV), meningococcal disease (MD), pneumococcal disease (PD), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and varicella reported in recent (2000 onwards) cost-effectiveness (CE) studies identified in a systematic review of PubMed, health technology, and vaccination databases. The systematic review yielded 51 economic evaluation studies of pediatric immunisation — 10 (20%) for influenza and 41 (80%) for the other selected diseases. The quality of the eligible articles was assessed using Drummond's checklist. Although inherent challenges and limitations exist when comparing economic evaluations of immunisation programmes, an overall comparison of the included studies demonstrated cost-effectiveness/cost saving for influenza from a European-Union-Five (EU5) and United States (US) perspective; point estimates for cost/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) from dominance (cost-saving with more effect) to ≤45,444 were reported. The economic value of influenza programmes was comparable to the other vaccines of interest, with cost/QALY in general considerably lower than RV, Hep B, MD and PD. Independent of the perspective and type of analysis, the economic impact of a pediatric influenza immunisation program was influenced by vaccine efficacy, immunisation coverage, costs, and most significantly by herd immunity. This review suggests that pediatric influenza immunisation may offer a cost effective strategy when compared with HPV and varicella and possibly more value compared with other childhood vaccines (RV, Hep B, MD and PD). PMID:26837602

  11. A systematic review of the economic evidence for interventions for family carers of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Margaret; Forster, Anne; Healey, Andy; Patel, Anita

    2016-02-01

    To examine the economic evidence for interventions aimed at family carers of stroke patients. Searches (limited to those published in English since 1990) were performed in key databases along with hand searches of relevant papers. Papers were restricted to studies including any economic data (broadly defined) for any intervention targeting carers explicitly or explicitly referring to a carer element, beyond involving carers in the care or intervention for patients (i.e. more than just carers being invited to observe an intervention targeted at the patient). Two reviewers independently screened full papers and extracted data using guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (cohort studies), the Delphi list (randomised controlled trials) and guidelines on economic quality from the British Medical Journal. Data were reviewed descriptively as meta analyses were inappropriate due to non-comparability of studies. Ten papers were included in the review. These were heterogeneous in their design, intervention and economic analyses making comparison difficult. Only three of the ten papers included economic evaluations. All three reported that the intervention was less costly and had better or equivalent outcomes than the control comparator although two of these were based on the same intervention using the same dataset. There is some limited evidence that interventions for family carers of stroke patients are effective and cost effective. However, due to variation in the types of interventions examined, little can be concluded regarding implications for clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Economic evaluation of pediatric influenza immunization program compared with other pediatric immunization programs: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Sigmundsson, Birgir; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-05-03

    This study compared the economic value of pediatric immunisation programmes for influenza to those for rotavirus (RV), meningococcal disease (MD), pneumococcal disease (PD), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and varicella reported in recent (2000 onwards) cost-effectiveness (CE) studies identified in a systematic review of PubMed, health technology, and vaccination databases. The systematic review yielded 51 economic evaluation studies of pediatric immunisation - 10 (20%) for influenza and 41 (80%) for the other selected diseases. The quality of the eligible articles was assessed using Drummond's checklist. Although inherent challenges and limitations exist when comparing economic evaluations of immunisation programmes, an overall comparison of the included studies demonstrated cost-effectiveness/cost saving for influenza from a European-Union-Five (EU5) and United States (US) perspective; point estimates for cost/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) from dominance (cost-saving with more effect) to ≤45,444 were reported. The economic value of influenza programmes was comparable to the other vaccines of interest, with cost/QALY in general considerably lower than RV, Hep B, MD and PD. Independent of the perspective and type of analysis, the economic impact of a pediatric influenza immunisation program was influenced by vaccine efficacy, immunisation coverage, costs, and most significantly by herd immunity. This review suggests that pediatric influenza immunisation may offer a cost effective strategy when compared with HPV and varicella and possibly more value compared with other childhood vaccines (RV, Hep B, MD and PD).

  13. The Impact of Economic Crises on American Universities: Lessons from the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Universities around the world have been affected by the recent global economic crisis. Many are challenged by reduced resources, yet they also face greater demands to help spur recovery in their respective countries. This paper explores how colleges and universities in the United States were affected by, and subsequently responded to, several 20th…

  14. 76 FR 10006 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Surveys of American Samoa, Guam, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... analyses will not only provide indicators of social-economic benefits of the marine ecosystem, a... and instructions should be directed to Minling Pan, National Marine Fisheries Service, (808) 983-5347 or Minling.Pan@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The National Marine...

  15. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  16. Ethnic Segmentation in the American Metropolis: Increasing Divergence in Economic Incorporation, 1980-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John; Alba, Richard D.; Dill, Michael; Zhou, Min

    2000-01-01

    Tracks the evolution of metropolitan ethnic economics between 1980-90, when most immigrant groups experienced explosive population growth. Uses census data to describe ethnic enclaves, entrepreneurial niches, and employment niches in metropolitan areas. Results suggest that initial successes of some groups (Whites, Cubans, Koreans, and Chinese)…

  17. Five Thousand American Families--Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Morgan, James N., Ed.

    The chapters in this volume summarize and analyze the first ten years of data of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Mary Corcoran and Martha Hill analyzed the economic burden of unemployment among heads of households. James Morgan takes various methodological approaches in studying the determinants of the number of work hours of male heads of…

  18. The Impact of Economic Crises on American Universities: Lessons from the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Universities around the world have been affected by the recent global economic crisis. Many are challenged by reduced resources, yet they also face greater demands to help spur recovery in their respective countries. This paper explores how colleges and universities in the United States were affected by, and subsequently responded to, several 20th…

  19. The Economic Prospects for American Higher Education. AGB/ACE Joint Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of resources to which colleges and universities might reasonably expect access over the next 30 years. It is organized in three sections. The first section examines some historical relationships between higher education and general economic trends. The second section projects resource levels available to higher…

  20. The Economics of American Universities. Management, Operations, and Fiscal Environment. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoenack, Stephen A., Ed.; Collins, Eileen L., Ed.

    This collection of nine papers summarize research on the economics of university functioning including production processes, incentives and governance structures, cost and supply behavior, student attendance demands, and funding environments. The nine papers are: (1) "The Higher Education Production Function: Theoretical Foundations and Empirical…

  1. Rescuing the American Dream: Halting the Economic Freefall of Today's Young Families with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Arloc

    Since 1973, families headed by someone younger than 30 years of age have experienced a collapse in the value of their incomes, a surge in poverty, and an erosion of employer-provided health benefits. This report details the deep economic losses among young families with children and warns of consequences from these losses for young and old…

  2. The state of health economic and pharmacoeconomic evaluation research in Zimbabwe: A review

    PubMed Central

    Gavaza, Paul; Rascati, Karen; Brown, Carolyn; Lawson, Kenneth; Mann, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Economic evaluation of health care has developed into a substantial body of work, and its contribution to medical decision making is increasingly being recognized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and quality of health economic (including pharmacoeconomic) evaluation research studies related to Zimbabwe. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify published health economic evaluation studies related to Zimbabwe. HEED, PubMed, MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EconLit, and PsycINFO databases and sociological and dissertation abstracts were used to search for economic analyses. The searches used the following terms alone and in combination: costs, budgets, fee, economics, health, pharmacy, pharmacy services, medicines, drugs, health economics, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-minimization, cost utility analysis, and Zimbabwe. Only original applied economic evaluations addressing a health-related topic pertaining to Zimbabwe and published in full were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated and scored each study in the final sample using the data collection form designed for the study. RESULTS: Fifty-nine studies were identified in the database searches, 18 of which were excluded because they were not about Zimbabwe (3 studies) or were not health related (15). Of the 41 remaining studies, 8 were excluded after further review because they were not original research, 6 because they were not economic analyses, and 1 because it was not about Zimbabwe. The final 26 studies appeared in 13 different journals (based mostly [17 (65%)] outside of Zimbabwe). The mean (SD) number of authors of each study was 3.36 (2.13); most of the authors had medical/clinical training. The number of studies peaked between 1994 and 1997. Based on a 10-point scale, with 10 indicating the highest quality, the mean (SD) quality score for all studies was 5.40 (1.56); 8 of the studies (31%) were considered to be of poor quality (score

  3. Immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation in adults: a systematic review and economic model.

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Snowsill, Tristan; Haasova, Marcela; Coelho, Helen; Crathorne, Louise; Cooper, Chris; Mujica-Mota, Ruben; Peters, Jaime; Varley-Campbell, Jo; Huxley, Nicola; Moore, Jason; Allwood, Matt; Lowe, Jenny; Hyde, Chris; Hoyle, Martin; Bond, Mary; Anderson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring renal replacement therapy: kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (induction and maintenance therapy) to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. OBJECTIVES To review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) and rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) (Thymoglobulin(®), Sanofi) as induction therapy, and immediate-release tacrolimus (TAC) (Adoport(®), Sandoz; Capexion(®), Mylan; Modigraf(®), Astellas Pharma; Perixis(®), Accord Healthcare; Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma; Tacni(®), Teva; Vivadex(®), Dexcel Pharma), prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf(®) Astellas Pharma), belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (Arzip(®), Zentiva; CellCept(®), Roche Products; Myfenax(®), Teva), mycophenolate sodium (MPS) (Myfortic(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd), sirolimus (SRL) (Rapamune(®), Pfizer) and everolimus (EVL) (Certican(®), Novartis) as maintenance therapy in adult renal transplantation. METHODS Clinical effectiveness searches were conducted until 18 November 2014 in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (via Wiley Online Library) and Web of Science (via ISI), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Health Technology Assessment (The Cochrane Library via Wiley Online Library) and Health Management Information Consortium (via Ovid). Cost-effectiveness searches were conducted until 18 November 2014 using a costs or economic literature search filter in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (via Wiley Online Library), Web of Science (via ISI

  4. Immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation in adults: a systematic review and economic model.

    PubMed

    Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Snowsill, Tristan; Haasova, Marcela; Coelho, Helen; Crathorne, Louise; Cooper, Chris; Mujica-Mota, Ruben; Peters, Jaime; Varley-Campbell, Jo; Huxley, Nicola; Moore, Jason; Allwood, Matt; Lowe, Jenny; Hyde, Chris; Hoyle, Martin; Bond, Mary; Anderson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring renal replacement therapy: kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (induction and maintenance therapy) to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. To review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) and rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) (Thymoglobulin(®), Sanofi) as induction therapy, and immediate-release tacrolimus (TAC) (Adoport(®), Sandoz; Capexion(®), Mylan; Modigraf(®), Astellas Pharma; Perixis(®), Accord Healthcare; Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma; Tacni(®), Teva; Vivadex(®), Dexcel Pharma), prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf(®) Astellas Pharma), belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (Arzip(®), Zentiva; CellCept(®), Roche Products; Myfenax(®), Teva), mycophenolate sodium (MPS) (Myfortic(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd), sirolimus (SRL) (Rapamune(®), Pfizer) and everolimus (EVL) (Certican(®), Novartis) as maintenance therapy in adult renal transplantation. Clinical effectiveness searches were conducted until 18 November 2014 in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (via Wiley Online Library) and Web of Science (via ISI), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Health Technology Assessment (The Cochrane Library via Wiley Online Library) and Health Management Information Consortium (via Ovid). Cost-effectiveness searches were conducted until 18 November 2014 using a costs or economic literature search filter in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (via Wiley Online Library), Web of Science (via ISI), Health Economic Evaluations

  5. [Nutrition transition: a review of Latin American profile].

    PubMed

    Barría, R Mauricio; Amigo, Hugo

    2006-03-01

    The nutrition situation has evolved in different ways in Latin-American countries. The aim of the study was to analyze the nutritional change and some conditions within Latin America in the last years. An electronic and manual search of articles published between 1995 and 2005 was made, selecting those that included the nutritional situation of Latin American countries. Additionally, data was collected from national surveys and international reports including information since 1990. The countries have evolved through different transition stages. For example, an increase of excess of weight, particularly in adult women, which exceeded 30% in some countries also reached up to 70% in others. Equally worrisome was the over 6% obesity level in children in five of the countries surveyed. There is a tendency to diminish the deficit of weight with seven of nine countries displaying a reduction of women with low weight while stunting diminished globally. An increase of the caloric availability in 17 of 20 countries was also observed. The total population that lives under the poverty line has diminished in 9 of 13 countries although some exceeded 60%. Some indicators of sedentary lifestyle have increased, the number of cars has been increasing in all countries and similar figures are recorded with respect to television and personnel computers. The evolution of the nutritional status is reflected through the action of set factors, the most important of which being the increase in caloric ingestion and sedentary activities in an urbanized environment, the promotion of the use of technologies that limit physical activity. There is also a reduction in food insecurity due to a fall in poverty levels although social inequalities still persist.

  6. Effect of Environmental Risk and Externalizing Comorbidity on Internalizing Problems Among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingwen; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Mustanski, Brian; Kertes, Darlene A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined effects of racial discrimination, community violence, and stressful life events on internalizing problems among African American youth from high poverty neighborhoods (N = 607; 293 boys; Mage = 16.0 years, SD = 1.44 years). Mediated effects via externalizing problems on these relations were also examined, given the high comorbidity rate between internalizing and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems partially mediated the effect of stressful life events on internalizing problems and fully mediated the effect of racial discrimination for boys but not for girls. Exposure to violence had a significant indirect effect on internalizing problems via externalizing problems. The findings call for greater attention to internalizing problems among African American youth and pathways to internalizing problems via externalizing problems. PMID:27594775

  7. Economic Preferences and Obesity among a Low-Income African American Community.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Leonard, Tammy C M; Shuval, Kerem; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the US, with a significantly higher fraction of African Americans who are obese than whites. Yet there is little understanding of why some individuals become obese while others do not. We conduct a lab-in-field experiment in a low-income African American community to investigate whether risk and time preferences play a role in the tendency to become obese. We examine the relationship between incentivized measures of risk and time preferences and weight status (BMI), and find that individuals who are more tolerant of risk are more likely to have a higher BMI. This result is driven by the most risk tolerant individuals. Patience is not independently statistically related to BMI in this sample, but those who are more risk averse and patient are less likely to be obese.

  8. Effect of Environmental Risk and Externalizing Comorbidity on Internalizing Problems Among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingwen; Bolland, John M; Dick, Danielle; Mustanski, Brian; Kertes, Darlene A

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the effects of racial discrimination, community violence, and stressful life events on internalizing problems among African American youth from high-poverty neighborhoods (N = 607; 293 boys; Mage = 16.0 years, SD = 1.44 years). Mediated effects via externalizing problems on these relations were also examined, given the high comorbidity rate between internalizing and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems partially mediated the effect of stressful life events on internalizing problems and fully mediated the effect of racial discrimination for boys but not for girls. Exposure to violence had a significant indirect effect on internalizing problems via externalizing problems. The findings call for greater attention to internalizing problems among African American youth and pathways to internalizing problems via externalizing problems. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  9. Effect of Environmental Risk and Externalizing Comorbidity on Internalizing Problems Among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingwen; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Mustanski, Brian; Kertes, Darlene A

    2016-09-01

    This study examined effects of racial discrimination, community violence, and stressful life events on internalizing problems among African American youth from high poverty neighborhoods (N = 607; 293 boys; Mage = 16.0 years, SD = 1.44 years). Mediated effects via externalizing problems on these relations were also examined, given the high comorbidity rate between internalizing and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems partially mediated the effect of stressful life events on internalizing problems and fully mediated the effect of racial discrimination for boys but not for girls. Exposure to violence had a significant indirect effect on internalizing problems via externalizing problems. The findings call for greater attention to internalizing problems among African American youth and pathways to internalizing problems via externalizing problems.

  10. The effect of economic downturn on the volume of surgical procedures: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Nasa; Lark, Meghan E; Fujihara, Yuki; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-08-01

    Economic downturn can have a wide range of effects on medicine at both individual and national levels. We aim to describe these effects in relation to surgical volume to guide future planning for physician specialization, patient expectations in the face of economic crises, or estimating healthcare expenditure. We hypothesized that because of high out-of-pocket costs, cosmetic procedure volumes would be most affected by economic decline. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and ABI/INFORMS. The main search terms were "economic recession" and "surgical procedures, operative". Studies were included if surgical volumes were measured and economic indicators were used as predictors of economic conditions. Twelve studies were included, and the most common subject was cosmetic (n = 5), followed by orthopedic (n = 2) and cardiac surgeries (n = 2). The majority of studies found that in periods of economic downturn, surgical volume decreased. Among the eight studies using Pearson's correlation analysis, there were no significant differences between cosmetic procedures and other elective procedures, indicating that cosmetic procedures may display trends similar to those of non-cosmetic elective procedures in periods of economic downturn. Surgical volume generally decreased when economic indicators declined, observed for both elective and non-elective surgery fields. However, a few specific procedure volumes such as vasectomy and caesarean section for male babies increased during the economic downturn. Knowledge of these trends can be useful for future surgical planning and distribution of healthcare resources. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Technical Change in the North American Forestry Sector: A Review

    Treesearch

    Jeffery C. Stier; David N. Bengston

    1992-01-01

    Economists have examined the impact of technical change on the forest products sector using the historical, index number, and econometric approaches. This paper reviews econometric analyses of the rate and bias of technical change, examining functional form, factors included, and empirical results. Studies are classified as first- second-, or third-generation...

  12. Religion in American Textbooks: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppewal, Donald

    This section, from a larger report describing a project designed to systematically investigate how religious and traditional values are represented in today's public school curricula, presents a review of the literature focusing on studies that have analyzed the treatment of religion and values in elementary and secondary textbooks. This survey is…

  13. American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popenoe, David

    1993-01-01

    Draws from U.S. Census data to review family trends of past 30 years. Appraises evidence for family decline in three areas: demographic, institutional, and cultural. Argues that families have lost functions, power, and authority; that familism as cultural value has diminished; and that people have become less willing to invest time, money, and…

  14. American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popenoe, David

    1993-01-01

    Draws from U.S. Census data to review family trends of past 30 years. Appraises evidence for family decline in three areas: demographic, institutional, and cultural. Argues that families have lost functions, power, and authority; that familism as cultural value has diminished; and that people have become less willing to invest time, money, and…

  15. Depression symptoms among Mexican American youth: paternal parenting in the context of maternal parenting, economic stress, and youth gender.

    PubMed

    García, Jorge I Ramírez; Manongdo, Jennifer A; Ozechowski, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Mexican American youth (N = 146; age range: 14-19 years) living in an immigrant enclave who resided with both parents reported depression symptoms, paternal and maternal acceptance, paternal and maternal harsh parenting, and economic stress. Despite lower levels of youth-reported paternal parenting relative to maternal parenting, paternal acceptance was significantly related to youth depression symptoms in a path model that accounted for parenting intercorrelations as well as other significant correlates of youth depression symptoms. We found evidence suggesting that the relation between youth-reported paternal acceptance and depression might be stronger for girls than for boys. Using an ecological analytic framework, we found that: (a) the link between economic stress and youth depression was robust, and (b) only one parenting variable (paternal acceptance) may partially mediate the link between economic stress and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting and youth gender deserve further consideration in longitudinal research and intervention research addressing depression among Latino youth. Ecological models that highlight the influence of settings where Latino youth and families live should be considered in research on the family relationship context of youth depression.

  16. A Health Economics Response to the Review of the Liverpool Care Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Coast, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: In 2011 the Palliative Care Funding Review highlighted concerns about the funding, provision, and quality of care at the end of life. Two years on, an independent review of the Liverpool Care Pathway—prompted by a storm of negative media coverage— has raised concerns around a lack of funding, availability of support for the dying and their relatives, and patient centered care. There are recommendations to increase funding through a national tariff for palliative care services, address inconsistencies, and replace the Liverpool Care Pathway with individual end-of-life care plans. Objective: This paper explores the economic implications of the review's recommendations and links these to inadequacies with the current economic framework currently recommended for use in the United Kingdom by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, before highlighting aspects of ongoing research aimed at addressing these inadequacies. Methods: As well as the published report More Care, Less Pathway, we draw upon preliminary qualitative evidence from 19 semistructured interviews conducted with academics specializing in economics and/or end-of-life care. Conclusions: While there is a need for increased funding in the short term (highlighted in recent reviews), increasing funding to services that have little evidence base appears to be an irresponsible long-term strategy. Hence there should also be increased investment in research and increased emphasis in particular on developing economic tools to evaluate services. PMID:24199790

  17. 78 FR 15745 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation (NSF) announces...

  18. Nonmarket economic values of forest insect pests: An updated literature review

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Rosenberger; Lauren A. Bell; Patricia A. Champ; Eric. L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    This report updates the literature review and synthesis of economic valuation studies on the impacts of forest insect pests by Rosenberger and Smith (1997). A conceptual framework is presented to establish context for the studies. This report also discusses the concept of ecosystem services; identifies key elements of each study; examines areas of future research; and...

  19. Ecological economics of soil erosion: a review of the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhim; Nadella, Karthik

    2011-02-01

    The economics of land degradation has received relatively little attention until recent years. Although a number of studies have undertaken valuation of ecosystem services ranging from the global to the micro level, and quite a few studies have attempted to quantify the costs of soil erosion, studies that address the full costs of land degradation are still scarce. In this review, we attempt to analyze different land resource modeling and valuation techniques applied in earlier research and the type of data used in these analyses, and to assess their utility for different forms of land resource and management appraisal. We also report on the strengths and weaknesses of different valuation techniques used in studies on the economics of soil erosion, and the relevance of these valuation techniques. We make a case for the need for more appropriate models that can make the analysis more robust in estimating the economic costs of land degradation while recognizing the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and economic conditions.

  20. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  1. ECONOMIC EVALUATION STUDIES OF SELF-MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS IN CHRONIC DISEASES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    van Eeden, Mitchel; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Mastrigt, Ghislaine A P G; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, there has been no overall systematic review focusing on the methodological quality of full economic evaluation studies of self-management interventions. Our objective was to systematically review the literature of full economic evaluation studies of self-management interventions in adult chronic patients and to investigate their methodological quality and cost-effectiveness. A data extraction form was developed to assess general and randomized controlled trial (RCT) -related characteristics, quality, of the RCTs, economic information and quality of the economic evaluation studies by means of a quality assessment (CHEC-list for trial-based studies, adjusted CHEC-list for model-based studies). Twenty-three reports were found. Sixteen studies (73 percent) lack information on the control intervention(s). Only one study fulfilled all three criteria for quality of RCTs and five studies (23 percent) did not meet any of these criteria. This review included one model-based study; the other studies were trial-based economic evaluation studies based on a RCT. Eight studies (35 percent) used a societal perspective and 12 (60 percent) synthesized costs and effects. Seven studies were categorized into the highest category (<15 score), nine studies into the "moderate" group (9-14 score), six studies received a "low" score (<8) on the CHEC-list. Eighteen studies found the self-management intervention(s) to be cost-effective compared with other interventions Conclusions: Self-management interventions for adult chronic patients were heterogeneous and there was no clear, well-considered definition of self-management. Overall, the methodological quality of the full economic evaluation studies was moderate and, therefore, cost-effectiveness results must be interpreted with caution. Future research will benefit from further improvements in methodological quality of both economic study design and analysis, as well as a taxonomy for describing self

  2. The "American" (North American) Model of Constitutional Review: Historical Background and Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the impact of the continental system exerted on the constitutional and political evolution of both the United States and individual states and tries to characterize the development of constitutional review phenomenon within the framework of the continental legal system and the Anglo-Saxon legal system. The research stands on the…

  3. A critical review of health-related economic evaluations in Australia: implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, G; Davey, P; Arnolda, G

    1995-02-01

    In Australia, as in many other countries, economic evaluation is increasingly seen by health care policy makers as a useful aid to priority setting and resource allocation. In Australia, economic evaluation is now a requirement for new drugs to be listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme which provides a government subsidy on the price of listed drugs for purchasers. Yet, despite recognition of the importance of economic evaluation by policy makers, there is a paucity of published evaluations in Australia. We reviewed all of the 33 health-related economic evaluations conducted in Australia and subsequently published since 1978. This study assesses how well informed decision makers might be if they used the results and conclusions of published economic evaluations as an aid to resource allocation. The review highlights several issues: (i) it is difficult to interpret the conclusions or assess the generalisability of individual papers without information on the context of the original study; (ii) the choice of comparator(s) was often unexplained and most papers did not employ marginal analysis; (iii) in the absence of marginal analysis, the comparability of cost-effectiveness ratios in league tables must be questioned as well as the completeness (were all the relevant alternatives included?) of studies; and (iv) the quality of effectiveness evidence varies enormously, with some authors content to use the best available evidence (even if it is of poor quality). The development of standards for economic evaluation methods might ensure a more consistent and scientific approach to evaluative work, but they cannot guarantee it. A more concerted effort to disseminate the principles and methods of economic evaluation to policy makers and non-economist evaluators might be a more important precursor to improving the credibility and usefulness of economic evaluations in priority setting.

  4. Educational assortative mating and economic inequality: a comparative analysis of three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-05-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.

  5. Educational Assortative Mating and Economic Inequality: A Comparative Analysis of Three Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    TORCHE, FLORENCIA

    2010-01-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses’ schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality. PMID:20608107

  6. Economic benefits of controlling internal and external parasites in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R S; Windsor, R H; Teran, M

    1992-06-16

    A trial was carried out in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) to determine the economic benefits of controlling both external and internal parasites by the use of ivermectin ("Ivomec," Merck Sharp & Dohme). After four months the treated male alpacas gained on average 3.1 kg more than the untreated males, and their fleece weighed 0.36 kg more. The treated female alpacas gained 1.9 kg more than the controls, but their fleece weighed 0.03 kg less. This treatment gave a net financial benefit to the farmer of U.S. $3.54 for each of his male alpacas and U.S. $1.36 for each of his female alpacas. The results for the llamas were not significant because there was great variation in the weight gains (and losses). Because the value of llama fleece is less, the economic benefits were also less.

  7. Economic evaluation of therapeutic cancer vaccines and immunotherapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Geynisman, Daniel M; Chien, Chun-Ru; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Shen, Chan; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field in oncology. One attractive feature of cancer immunotherapy is the purported combination of minimal toxicity and durable responses. However such treatments are often very expensive. Given the wide-spread concern over rising health care costs, it is important for all stakeholders to be well-informed on the cost and cost-effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. We performed a comprehensive literature review of cost and cost-effectiveness research on therapeutic cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, to better understand the economic impacts of these treatments. We summarized our literature searches into three tables by types of papers: systematic review of economic studies of a specific agent, cost and cost-effectiveness analysis. Our review showed that out of the sixteen immunotherapy agents approved, nine had relevant published economic studies. Five out of the nine studied immunotherapy agents had been covered in systematic reviews. Among those, only one (rituximab for non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was found to be cost-effective. Of the four immunotherapy drugs not covered in systematic reviews (alemtuzumab, ipilimumab, sipuleucel-T, ofatumumab), high incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was reported for each. Many immunotherapies have not had economic evaluations, and those that have been studied show high ICERs or frank lack of cost-effectiveness. One major hurdle in improving the cost-effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies is to identify predictive biomarkers for selecting appropriate patients as recipients of these expensive therapies. We discuss the implications surrounding the economic factors involved in cancer immunotherapies and suggest that further research on cost and cost-effectiveness of newer cancer vaccines and immunotherapies are warranted as this is a rapidly growing field with many new drugs on the horizon.

  8. Economic evaluation of therapeutic cancer vaccines and immunotherapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Geynisman, Daniel M; Chien, Chun-Ru; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Shen, Chan; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field in oncology. One attractive feature of cancer immunotherapy is the purported combination of minimal toxicity and durable responses. However such treatments are often very expensive. Given the wide-spread concern over rising health care costs, it is important for all stakeholders to be well-informed on the cost and cost-effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. We performed a comprehensive literature review of cost and cost-effectiveness research on therapeutic cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, to better understand the economic impacts of these treatments. We summarized our literature searches into three tables by types of papers: systematic review of economic studies of a specific agent, cost and cost-effectiveness analysis. Our review showed that out of the sixteen immunotherapy agents approved, nine had relevant published economic studies. Five out of the nine studied immunotherapy agents had been covered in systematic reviews. Among those, only one (rituximab for non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was found to be cost-effective. Of the four immunotherapy drugs not covered in systematic reviews (alemtuzumab, ipilimumab, sipuleucel-T, ofatumumab), high incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was reported for each. Many immunotherapies have not had economic evaluations, and those that have been studied show high ICERs or frank lack of cost-effectiveness. One major hurdle in improving the cost-effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies is to identify predictive biomarkers for selecting appropriate patients as recipients of these expensive therapies. We discuss the implications surrounding the economic factors involved in cancer immunotherapies and suggest that further research on cost and cost-effectiveness of newer cancer vaccines and immunotherapies are warranted as this is a rapidly growing field with many new drugs on the horizon. PMID:25483656

  9. [American judge preserves confidentiality in the peer review process].

    PubMed

    Overbeke, A J P M

    2008-07-12

    Pharmaceutical concern Pfizer subpoenaed various medical journals, including JAMA and Annals of Internal Medicine, to hand over confidential documents relating to studies on its cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors celecoxib and valdecoxib. Pfizer wanted this information to help defend 3000 product liability lawsuits over alleged side effects of the 2 drugs. However, a federal judge in Chicago rejected the company's bid, thereby preserving the confidentiality of the peer review process. It is unlikely that subpoenas like this will take place in the Netherlands.

  10. Quality measurement for rhinosinusitis: a review from the Quality Improvement Committee of the American Rhinologic Society.

    PubMed

    Rudmik, Luke; Mattos, Jose; Schneider, John; Manes, Peter R; Stokken, Janalee K; Lee, Jivianne; Higgins, Thomas S; Schlosser, Rodney J; Reh, Douglas D; Setzen, Michael; Soler, Zachary M

    2017-09-01

    Measuring quality outcomes is an important prerequisite to improve quality of care. Rhinosinusitis represents a high value target to improve quality of care because it has a high prevalence of disease, large economic burden, and large practice variation. In this study we review the current state of quality measurement for management of both acute (ARS) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The major national quality metric repositories and clearinghouses were queried. Additional searches included the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery database, PubMed, and Google to attempt to capture any additional quality metrics. Seven quality metrics for ARS and 4 quality metrics for CRS were identified. ARS metrics focused on appropriateness of diagnosis (n = 1), antibiotic prescribing (n = 4), and radiologic imaging (n = 2). CRS quality metrics focused on appropriateness of diagnosis (n = 1), radiologic imaging (n = 1), and measurement of patient quality of life (n = 2). The Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) currently tracks 3 ARS quality metrics and 1 CRS quality metric. There are no outcome-based rhinosinusitis quality metrics and no metrics that assess domains of safety, patient-centeredness, and timeliness of care. The current status of quality measurement for rhinosinusitis has focused primarily on the quality domain of efficiency and process measures for ARS. More work is needed to develop, validate, and track outcome-based quality metrics along with CRS-specific metrics. Although there has been excellent work done to improve quality measurement for rhinosinusitis, there remain major gaps and challenges that need to be considered during the development of future metrics. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. 20 CFR 632.13 - Review of denial of designation as a Native American grantee, or rejection of a Comprehensive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Designation Procedures for Native American Grantees § 632.13 Review of denial of designation as a Native American grantee, or rejection of a Comprehensive Annual Plan. (a) An applicant...

  12. 20 CFR 632.13 - Review of denial of designation as a Native American grantee, or rejection of a Comprehensive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Designation Procedures for Native American Grantees § 632.13 Review of denial of designation as a Native American grantee, or rejection of a Comprehensive Annual Plan. (a) An applicant...

  13. 20 CFR 632.13 - Review of denial of designation as a Native American grantee, or rejection of a Comprehensive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Designation Procedures for Native American Grantees § 632.13 Review of denial of designation as a Native American grantee, or rejection of a Comprehensive Annual Plan. (a) An applicant...

  14. 78 FR 18344 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0130, Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli...

  15. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  16. Cultural Factors relevant to Korean Americans in Health Research: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Keller, Colleen; Sim, Jeongha

    2017-09-13

    To eliminate health disparities in the United States, identifying cultural contexts salient to the target populations in an intervention study is critical; however, little research has been conducted on the identification of cultural contexts among Korean Americans who have significant risk factors for chronic diseases. This systematic review identifies critical cultural contexts central to the literature discussed in health research on Korean Americans. We examined 14 research reports of 801 potentially eligible articles published between 2000 and 2016 and analyzed their contribution to cultural contexts among Korean Americans based on the PEN-3 model. This review highlights how cultural contexts impact health and health behaviors of Korean Americans, and may contribute to health disparities in the United States. The key cultural contexts highlighted in this review include social support/social network, family, gender role expectations, and a holistic view of health and illness. These cultural contexts should be incorporated in designing culturally relevant, effective, and sustainable health interventions for Korean Americans, which will contribute to eliminating health disparities for this ethnic group who experience great obstacles to healthcare access and healthy behaviors.

  17. Clinical, Ergonomic, and Economic Outcomes With Multichamber Bags Compared With (Hospital) Pharmacy Compounded Bags and Multibottle Systems: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Jorge Emilio; Berlana, David; Ukleja, Andrew; Boullata, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Multichamber bags (MCBs) may offer potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic advantages compared with (hospital) pharmacy compounded bags (COBs) and multibottle systems (MBSs). A systematic literature review was performed to identify and assess the available evidence regarding advantages of MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Databases, and EconLit were searched for articles reporting clinical, ergonomic, and economic outcomes for MCBs compared with COBs or MBSs. The search was limited to studies conducted in hospitalized patients >2 years of age that were published in English between January 1990 and November 2014. The Population Intervention Comparison Outcomes Study Design (PICOS) framework was used for the analysis. From 1307 unique citations, 74 potentially relevant publications were identified; review of references identified 2 additional publications. Among the 76 publications, 18 published studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were retrospective in design. Ten studies reported clinical outcomes, including 1 prospective randomized trial and multiple retrospective analyses that reported a lower risk of bloodstream infection for MCBs compared with other delivery systems. Sixteen studies reported ergonomic and/or economic outcomes; most reported a potential cost benefit for MCBs, with consistent reports of reduced time and labor compared with other systems. The largest cost benefit was observed in studies evaluating total hospitalization costs. The systematic literature review identified evidence of potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic benefits for MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs; however, methodological factors limited evidence quality. More prospective studies are required to corroborate existing evidence. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. [Human activities and American trypanosomiasis. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Walter, A

    2003-09-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is a parasite of wild mammals of Americas. It has been further transmitted to man through an insect vector belonging to the Reduviidae family. In the context of an ecoepidemiological study of this vector borne anthropozoonosis, a medical anthropological overview tries, by using data from literature, to clarify the different ways human activities play on the disease epidemiological cycle. The everyday human activities support domiciliation of triatomine bugs. But, the human intervention in the natural environment disturbs strongly the ecology of the vectors or hosts and leads to a new structuring of the natural foci of the disease with its displacement toward the human environment. The way society or individuals manage the disease plays also an important role. Some human activities, as building dwelling structures, have been well studied, but some others, such as the real impact of the human modes of production, are less known. A medical anthropology study of the role of human activities on the foci of Chagas disease is still needed.

  19. Economic Evaluations of Pathology Tests, 2010-2015: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Watts, Rory D; Li, Ian W; Geelhoed, Elizabeth A; Sanfilippo, Frank M; St John, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Concerns about pathology testing such as the value provided by new tests and the potential for inappropriate utilization have led to a greater need to assess costs and benefits. Economic evaluations are a formal method of analyzing costs and benefits, yet for pathology tests, questions remain about the scope and quality of the economic evidence. To describe the extent and quality of published evidence provided by economic evaluations of pathology tests from 2010 to 2015. Economic evaluations relating to pathology tests from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. Eight databases were searched for published studies, and details recorded for the country, clinical focus, type of testing, and consideration of sensitivity, specificity, and false test results. The reporting quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist and cost-effectiveness ratios were analyzed for publication bias. We found 356 economic evaluations of pathology tests, most of which regarded developed countries. The most common economic evaluations were cost-utility analyses and the most common clinical focus was infectious diseases. More than half of the studies considered sensitivity and specificity, but few studies considered the impact of false test results. The average Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist score was 17 out of 24. Cost-utility ratios were commonly less than $10,000/quality-adjusted life-year or more than $200,000/quality-adjusted life-year. The number of economic evaluations of pathology tests has increased in recent years, but the rate of increase has plateaued. Furthermore, the quality of studies in the past 5 years was highly variable, and there is some question of publication bias in reporting cost-effectiveness ratios. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. What Guidance are Economists Given on How to Present Economic Evaluations for Policymakers? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shannon M; Wells, George; Coyle, Doug

    2015-09-01

    To systematically review health economic guidelines for information on how to present health economic evaluations and consider implications for nontechnical audiences such as policymakers. Electronic databases and supplementary sources were searched for economic evaluation guidelines. Guidelines were critically appraised. Descriptive characteristics, standard formats, supports for nontechnical audiences, presentation approaches, and common reporting recommendations were extracted. Frequencies were tabulated and trends identified. Thirty-one guidelines were included. Twenty-two guidelines include a standard reporting format with some sample tables and graphs. Common presentation approaches include well-cited tables of data sources, transparent model diagrams and descriptions, disaggregated results, and tabular and graphical displays of sensitivity analyses. Despite most guidelines being funded by policymakers, only five guidelines provided advice on presenting economic evaluations to noneconomists. However, 11 guidelines included a glossary of economic terminology for nontechnical readers. Common concepts that may require further explanation include differences in economic perspectives, appropriateness of time horizons, how economic outcomes such as quality-adjusted life-years relate to their component clinical outcomes, and choice of sensitivity analyses. Health economists have consistent presentation formats and common reporting elements that should be considered when developing user-friendly explanations for general audiences. These overlap with policymakers' informational needs but may not be sufficient for understanding by nontechnical audiences. Developing presentation formats and tools that incorporate viewpoints of both economists and noneconomists will allow for better application of the results of economic evaluations and enhance the transparency and legitimacy of decision-making processes that are informed by economic evaluations. Copyright © 2015

  1. A true picture of eating disorders among African American women: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Indira D

    2003-01-01

    A review of published studies reveals a serious deficit in scope of eating disorders among African American women. While the "Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among African American Women" (Mulholland & Mintz, 2001), and "A Comparison of Black and White Women With Binge Eating Disorder" (Pike, Dohm, Stiegel-Moore, Wilfley, & Fairburn, 2001) offer substantial findings in an area of under representation, the findings of these studies leave many vacancies in the true picture of eating disorders among African American women. Sufficient examination of the relationship of familial roles, cultural influences, and unique stressors to African American women are not prevalent in the available studies and are not evaluated as substantial influences on maladaptive eating regulation responses.

  2. A caution to Native American institutional review boards about scientism and censorship.

    PubMed

    Askland, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Native American Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) promote the health and welfare of tribes by reviewing protocols for research studies that focus on their tribes. The benefits of approved protocols should not be overstated lest good studies disappoint because they do not satisfy unachievable expectations. IRBs also should avoid the temptation to censor the outcomes of those studies. Science relies on candor and clarity about results and methods to move forward.

  3. Economic analyses of breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support the development of global strategies against breast cancer, this study reviews available economic evidence on breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods A systematic article search was conducted through electronic scientific databases, and studies were included only if they concerned breast cancer, used original data, and originated from LMICs. Independent assessment of inclusion criteria yielded 24 studies that evaluated different kinds of screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions in various age and risk groups. Studies were synthesized and appraised through the use of a checklist, designed for evaluating economic analyses. Results The majority of these studies were of poor quality, particularly in examining costs. Studies demonstrated the economic attractiveness of breast cancer screening strategies, and of novel treatment and diagnostic interventions. Conclusions This review shows that the evidence base to guide strategies for breast cancer control in LMICs is limited and of poor quality. The limited evidence base suggests that screening strategies may be economically attractive in LMICs – yet there is very little evidence to provide specific recommendations on screening by mammography versus clinical breast examination, the frequency of screening, or the target population. These results demonstrate the need for more economic analyses that are of better quality, cover a comprehensive set of interventions and result in clear policy recommendations. PMID:23566447

  4. Economic evaluation of bone stimulation modalities: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Button, Melissa L; Sprague, Sheila; Gharsaa, Osama; Latouche, Sandra; Bhandari, Mohit

    2009-04-01

    Various bone stimulation modalities are commonly used in treatment of fresh fractures and nonunions; however, the effectiveness and efficiency of these modalities remain uncertain. A systematic review of trials evaluating the clinical and economical outcomes of ultrasounds, electrical stimulation, and extracorporeal sound waves on fracture healing was conducted. We searched four electronic databases for economic evaluations that assessed bone stimulation modalities using ultrasound therapy, electrical stimulation, or extracorporeal shock waves. In addition, we searched the references and related articles of eligible studies, and a content expert was contacted. Information on the clinical and economical outcomes of patients was independently extracted by reviewers. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria; therefore, very limited research was found on the cost associated with treatments and the corresponding outcomes. The data available focus primarily on the efficacy of newly introduced treatment methods for bone growth, but failed to incorporate the costs of implementing such treatments. One economic analysis was identified that assessed different treatment paths using ultrasound. A total cost savings of 24-40% per patient occurred when ultrasound was used for fresh fractures and nonunions (grade C recommendation). The results suggest that the ultrasound is a viable alternative for bone stimulation; however, the impacts of the other modalities are left unknown due to the lack of research available. Methodological limitations leave the overall economic and clinical impact of these modalities uncertain. Large, prospective, randomized controlled trials that include cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to further define the clinical effectiveness and financial burden associated with bone stimulation modalities.

  5. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  6. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Eric J; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie A; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-08-01

    Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, nonpregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, audio-taped and transcribed. Four independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into overarching themes. Contraceptive knowledge was limited, with formal contraceptive education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative, with method effectiveness being judged by the presence of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions, while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible, although compliance is considered a barrier. Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic Impact of Tobacco Price Increases Through Taxation: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Contreary, Kara A; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Hopkins, David P; Chaloupka, Frank J; Forster, Jean L; Grimshaw, Victoria; Holmes, Carissa B; Goetzel, Ron Z; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and around the world. Increasing tobacco price through higher taxes is an effective intervention both to reduce tobacco use in the population and generate government revenues. The goal of this paper is to review evidence on the economic impact of tobacco price increases through taxation with a focus on the likely healthcare cost savings and improvements in employee productivity. The search covered studies published in English from January 2000 to July 2012 and included evaluations of national, state, and local policies to increase the price of any type of tobacco product by raising taxes in high-income countries. Economic review methods developed for The Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to screen and abstract included studies. Economic impact estimates were standardized to summarize the available evidence. Analyses were conducted in 2012. The review included eight modeling studies, with seven providing estimates of the impact on healthcare costs and three providing estimates of the value of productivity gains. Only one study provided an estimate of intervention costs. The economic merit of tobacco product price increases through taxation was determined from the overall body of evidence on per capita annual cost savings from a conservative 20% price increase. The evidence indicates that interventions that raise the unit price of tobacco products through taxes generate substantial healthcare cost savings and can generate additional gains from improved productivity in the workplace. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Systematic review of the economic evidence on home visitation programmes for vulnerable pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Stamuli, Eugena; Richardson, Gerry; Duffy, Steven; Robling, Michael; Hood, Kerry

    2015-09-01

    A systematic review of the economic evidence on home visitation programmes for young or vulnerable pregnant women was undertaken to provide a summary of the existing literature of these interventions. Relevant studies were identified from a number of sources including large databases, free text search on Google Scholar as well as hand-searching of the obtained references. The search yielded a large number of papers, of which 12 were considered appropriate to be included in the review. These were either full or partial economic evaluations: four studies were cost-benefit analyses, three were cost-effectiveness analyses and the remaining were costing studies. The review highlighted the paucity of good quality economic evaluations in the area of home visiting programmes for young or vulnerable pregnant women. Methods varied substantially between the studies spanning from differing data sources (e.g. single randomized trials or meta-analyses) to different perspectives taken, cost items and outcomes included in the analysis. It is difficult to establish a coherent body of economic evidence for these interventions and draw a firm conclusion on their value for money. Home visiting programmes are complex interventions, with impact on the lives of mothers and their children. The funding of such interventions should be based on rigorous effectiveness and economic evidence. There is a need for well-designed economic evaluations which will follow the appropriate methodological guidelines and also take into account the complexity of such interventions. These analyses should preferably consider multiple perspectives and allow for the fact that the majority of the benefits accrue in the long-term future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  10. A systematic review of economic studies on biological agents used to treat Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Derek H; Harrington, Amanda R; Lee, Jeannie K; Lin, Mark; Armstrong, Edward P

    2013-11-01

    Identifying clinical scenarios that maximize the cost-effectiveness of biological treatments can lead to optimized health care cost-saving and clinical effectiveness from a society's perspective. Published articles between January 1995 and June 2012 were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, ABI/INFORM, Tuft's Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry Database, Cochrane National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Studies of interest included the following: (1) cost studies, (2) economic evaluations, or (3) narrative or systematic reviews related to economic evaluations of biological treatments for moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease (CD). The primary outcomes of interest included costs associated with biological treatments and cost-effectiveness measures, including incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. A threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life year (£60,000/quality-adjusted life year) gained was used for treatment cost-effectiveness. Thirty-eight studies were identified, including 15 economic evaluations and 23 cost studies or reviews of economic evaluations. Economic evaluations found that infliximab and adalimumab were more cost-effective than standard therapy for luminal CD when provided as an induction therapy followed by episodic therapy over 5 or more years. The cost-effectiveness of infliximab and adalimumab versus standard therapy for luminal CD was less certain when used as 1-year maintenance treatment with or without previous induction therapy. Cost studies revealed that infliximab therapy reduced health care resource utilization and cost. Older reviews were inconclusive about the cost-effectiveness of biological treatments used for CD. Current evidence suggests that biological treatments may be cost-effective for CD under certain clinical scenarios. Future studies evaluating all biological treatments are needed to compare their respective benefits and costs.

  11. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Aspects of Diabetes in American Indians/Alaska Natives: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarton, Lisa J.; de Groot, Mary

    2017-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes and associated long-term complications. Behavioral interventions play a vital role in promoting diabetes medical and psychological outcomes, yet the development of interventions for AI/AN communities has been limited. A systematic review was conducted of…

  13. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  14. UCLA Community College Review: The Overlooked Minority: Asian Pacific American Students at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Jonathan W.; Chang, June C.; Wang, Winnie W.

    2005-01-01

    This review examines the impact of Asian Pacific American (APA) students' characteristics and experiences on their academic achievement. The article begins by describing the demographics and diversity of this group, and it explores the challenges posed by APA community college students' background characteristics and influences, the model minority…

  15. Toward an Understanding of Chinese-American Educational Achievement: A Literature Review. Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Sau-Fong

    This literature review addresses the relatively recent perception of Chinese-Americans as superachievers by examining empirical research studies, statistical data, historical accounts, fiction, biographies, autobiographies, and newspaper stories. It is argued that only with a historical perspective can the myths be sorted from the realities about…

  16. Quantifying Globalization in Social Work Research: A 10-Year Review of American Social Work Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Huang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Measured by the prevalence of journal article contributions, geographic coverage, and international collaboration, this literature review found an increasing level of globalization with respect to American social work research and contribution to the social work profession from 2000-2009. Findings suggest changes are needed in global awareness and…

  17. The Role and Impact of Nurses in American Elementary Schools: A Systematic Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineberry, Michelle J.; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    School nurses are tasked with the critical job of keeping students safe and well. Due to competing demands for resources in schools, the impact of school nurses must be demonstrated to secure their jobs. A systematic review of the literature from 1937 to 2013 was conducted to show the efficacy of school nursing activities in American elementary…

  18. Quantifying Globalization in Social Work Research: A 10-Year Review of American Social Work Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Huang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Measured by the prevalence of journal article contributions, geographic coverage, and international collaboration, this literature review found an increasing level of globalization with respect to American social work research and contribution to the social work profession from 2000-2009. Findings suggest changes are needed in global awareness and…

  19. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  20. Review of the South American leafhopper genus Parandanus (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yani; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Webb, Micael D.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The South American leafhopper genus Parandanus Linnavuori & DeLong (Deltocephalinae: Deltocephalini) is reviewed and four of its six species are illustrated and male genital characters are provided. Three new species from Peru, Parandanus longistylus Duan, sp. n., Parandanus nigricephalus Duan, sp. n. and Parandanus paracruciatus Duan, sp. n. are described. A key to species is also provided. PMID:27006622

  1. Review of Current Information Regarding the Phytosanitary Risks of Phytophthora ramorum and North American Conifers

    Treesearch

    Brenda Callan; Shane Sela; Eric Allen

    2008-01-01

    On March 3, 2007 the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) sponsored a ?Risks to Conifers? discussion panel to review the state of scientific knowledge regarding Phytophthora ramorum Werres, De Cock & Man in 't Veld and conifers and the potential for the pathogen to be transported with conifer forest products moving in...

  2. UCLA Community College Review: The Overlooked Minority: Asian Pacific American Students at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Jonathan W.; Chang, June C.; Wang, Winnie W.

    2005-01-01

    This review examines the impact of Asian Pacific American (APA) students' characteristics and experiences on their academic achievement. The article begins by describing the demographics and diversity of this group, and it explores the challenges posed by APA community college students' background characteristics and influences, the model minority…

  3. A review of the regeneration dynamics of North American boreal forest tree species

    Treesearch

    D. F. Greene; John C. Zasada; L. Sirois; D. Kneeshaw; H. Morin; I. Charron; M. J. Simard

    1999-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the biotic parameters that are crucial to an understanding of the recruitment dynamics of North American boreal tree species following natural (fire, budworm infestation, windthrow) or human-induced (clearcut, partial cut) disturbances. The parameters we emphasize are (i) the production of seeds and asexual stems (both of...

  4. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  5. 75 FR 68380 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Time Use Survey,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for continued...; American Time Use Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby announces the... Labor Statistics, Office of Management and Budget, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503, Telephone: 202-395...

  6. A Review of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Northern American Indian/Alaska Native Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Terese Lipinski

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on psychological and educational assessment of American Indian and Alaska Native children, including the background psychological factors of biological deprivation, motivation, attitudes toward self, and traditional nonformal education. Discusses brain hemispheres, visuospatial skills, otitis media, fetal alcohol syndrome,…

  7. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  8. Dialogue and the Transmission of Culture: The Spindlers and the Making of American Anthropology. Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the contributions of G. Spindler and L. Spindler to anthropology in "The American Cultural Dialogue and Its Transmission" (Falmer Press, 1990), "Interpretive Ethnography and Education: At Home and Abroad" (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1987), and "Education and Cultural Process: Anthropological Approaches" (Waveland…

  9. Anti-D'Souza: The End of Racism and the Asian American [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashad, Vijay

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Dinesh D'Souza's "The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society" (1995), exploring his neoconservative ideology in the context of concepts of the underclass and what it means to be Asian American or an immigrant. D'Souza perpetuates the Model Minority thesis, which is itself a form of inferential racism. (SLD)

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Aspects of Diabetes in American Indians/Alaska Natives: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarton, Lisa J.; de Groot, Mary

    2017-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes and associated long-term complications. Behavioral interventions play a vital role in promoting diabetes medical and psychological outcomes, yet the development of interventions for AI/AN communities has been limited. A systematic review was conducted of…

  11. A Review of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Northern American Indian/Alaska Native Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Terese Lipinski

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on psychological and educational assessment of American Indian and Alaska Native children, including the background psychological factors of biological deprivation, motivation, attitudes toward self, and traditional nonformal education. Discusses brain hemispheres, visuospatial skills, otitis media, fetal alcohol syndrome,…

  12. Asian American Students At Risk: A Literature Review. Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Sau-Fong

    This literature review assesses the state-of-the-art in research on Asian American students in public schools who are at risk of academic failure. Risk factors examined are language background, ability, history of schooling, timing and reasons for coming to the United States, emotional trauma and vulnerability, ethnic group affiliation, identity,…

  13. Mexican-American and Mexican National Farm Workers: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.

    This paper is concerned with the scholarly treatment accorded to Mexican American and Mexican National farm workers by historical, legal, social work, and social science journals. Only those articles published after the arbitrary date of 1960 are reviewed due to space and time limitations. Works published since then are briefly summarized and…

  14. The Role and Impact of Nurses in American Elementary Schools: A Systematic Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineberry, Michelle J.; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    School nurses are tasked with the critical job of keeping students safe and well. Due to competing demands for resources in schools, the impact of school nurses must be demonstrated to secure their jobs. A systematic review of the literature from 1937 to 2013 was conducted to show the efficacy of school nursing activities in American elementary…

  15. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  16. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Administration's final determination of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico...

  17. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the final remand determination made by the United States International Trade Commission, in the matter of...

  18. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  19. Economic analyses of venous thromboembolism prevention strategies in hospitalized patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite evidence-based guidelines for venous thromboembolism prevention, substantial variability is found in practice. Many economic evaluations of new drugs for thromboembolism prevention do not occur prospectively with efficacy studies and are sponsored by the manufacturers, raising the possibility of bias. We performed a systematic review of economic analyses of venous thromboembolism prevention in hospitalized patients to inform clinicians and policy makers about cost-effectiveness and the potential influence of sponsorship. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Databases, ACP Journal Club, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, from 1946 to September 2011. We extracted data on study characteristics, quality, costs, and efficacy. Results From 5,180 identified studies, 39 met eligibility and quality criteria. Each addressed pharmacologic prevention: low-molecular-weight heparins versus placebo (five), unfractionated heparin (12), warfarin (eight), one or another agents (five); fondaparinux versus enoxaparin (11); and rivaroxaban and dabigatran versus enoxaparin (two). Low-molecular-weight heparins were most economically attractive among most medical and surgical patients, whereas fondaparinux was favored for orthopedic patients. Fondaparinux was associated with increased bleeding events. Newer agents rivaroxaban and dabigatran may offer additional value. Of all economic evaluations, 64% were supported by manufacturers of a "new" agent. The new agent had a favorable outcome in 38 (97.4%) of 39 evaluations [95% confidence interval [CI] (86.5 to 99.9)]. Among studies supported by a pharmaceutical company, the sponsored medication was economically attractive in 24 (96.0%) of 25 [95% CI, 80.0 to 99.9)]. We could not detect a consistent bias in outcome based on sponsorship; however, only a minority of studies were unsponsored. Conclusion Low-molecular-weight heparins and fondaparinux are the most economically attractive drugs for venous

  20. A systematic review of the economic evidence for interventions for family carers of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Heslin, Margaret; Forster, Anne; Healey, Andy; Patel, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the economic evidence for interventions aimed at family carers of stroke patients. Data sources: Searches (limited to those published in English since 1990) were performed in key databases along with hand searches of relevant papers. Review methods: Papers were restricted to studies including any economic data (broadly defined) for any intervention targeting carers explicitly or explicitly referring to a carer element, beyond involving carers in the care or intervention for patients (i.e. more than just carers being invited to observe an intervention targeted at the patient). Two reviewers independently screened full papers and extracted data using guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (cohort studies), the Delphi list (randomised controlled trials) and guidelines on economic quality from the British Medical Journal. Data were reviewed descriptively as meta analyses were inappropriate due to non-comparability of studies. Results: Ten papers were included in the review. These were heterogeneous in their design, intervention and economic analyses making comparison difficult. Only three of the ten papers included economic evaluations. All three reported that the intervention was less costly and had better or equivalent outcomes than the control comparator although two of these were based on the same intervention using the same dataset. Conclusion: There is some limited evidence that interventions for family carers of stroke patients are effective and cost effective. However, due to variation in the types of interventions examined, little can be concluded regarding implications for clinical practice. PMID:25758943

  1. Can economic evaluation in telemedicine be trusted? A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bergmo, Trine S

    2009-01-01

    Background Telemedicine has been advocated as an effective means to provide health care services over a distance. Systematic information on costs and consequences has been called for to support decision-making in this field. This paper provides a review of the quality, validity and generalisability of economic evaluations in telemedicine. Methods A systematic literature search in all relevant databases was conducted and forms the basis for addressing these issues. Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals and written in English in the period from 1990 to 2007 were analysed. The literature search identified 33 economic evaluations where both costs (resource use) and outcomes (non-resource consequences) were measured. Results This review shows that economic evaluations in telemedicine are highly diverse in terms of both the study context and the methods applied. The articles covered several medical specialities ranging from cardiology and dermatology to psychiatry. The studies analysed telemedicine in home care, and in primary and secondary care settings using a variety of different technologies including videoconferencing, still-images and monitoring (store-and-forward telemedicine). Most studies used multiple outcome measures and analysed the effects using disaggregated cost-consequence frameworks. Objectives, study design, and choice of comparators were mostly well reported. The majority of the studies lacked information on perspective and costing method, few used general statistics and sensitivity analysis to assess validity, and even fewer used marginal analysis. Conclusion As this paper demonstrates, the majority of the economic evaluations reviewed were not in accordance with standard evaluation techniques. Further research is needed to explore the reasons for this and to address how economic evaluation in telemedicine best can take advantage of local constraints and at the same time produce valid and generalisable results. PMID:19852828

  2. A review on economic emission dispatch problems using quantum computational intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Fahad Parvez; Vasant, Pandian; Kallimani, Vish; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2016-11-01

    Economic emission dispatch (EED) problems are one of the most crucial problems in power systems. Growing energy demand, limitation of natural resources and global warming make this topic into the center of discussion and research. This paper reviews the use of Quantum Computational Intelligence (QCI) in solving Economic Emission Dispatch problems. QCI techniques like Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO) algorithm are discussed here. This paper will encourage the researcher to use more QCI based algorithm to get better optimal result for solving EED problems.

  3. Systematic review of humanistic and economic burden of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Kunal; Thakur, Deepika; Sharma, Sheetal; Punekar, Yogesh Suresh

    2015-05-01

    An understanding of the humanistic and economic burden of individuals with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is required to inform payers and healthcare professionals about the disease burden. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and present humanistic [health-related quality of life (HRQoL)] and economic burdens of symptomatic COPD. A comprehensive search of online databases (reimbursement or claims databases/other databases), abstracts from conference proceedings, published literature, clinical trials, medical records, health ministries, financial reports, registries, and other sources was conducted. Adult patients of any race or gender with symptomatic COPD were included. Humanistic and economic burdens included studies evaluating HRQoL and cost and resource use, respectively, associated with symptomatic COPD. Thirty-two studies reporting humanistic burden and 74 economic studies were identified. Symptomatic COPD led to impairment in the health state of patients, as assessed by HRQoL instruments. It was also associated with high economic burden across all countries. The overall, direct, and indirect costs per patient increased with an increase in symptoms, dyspnoea severity, and duration of disease. Across countries, the annual societal costs associated with symptomatic COPD were higher among patients with comorbidities. Symptomatic COPD is associated with a substantial economic burden. The HRQoL of patients with symptomatic COPD is, in general, low and influenced by dyspnoea.

  4. A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Health Economic Studies Conducted for Hereditary Haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, Barbara; Neil, Amanda; Sanderson, Kristy; Si, Lei; Yee, Kwang Chien; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) is a common genetic condition amongst people of northern European heritage. HH is associated with increased iron absorption leading to parenchymal organ damage and multiple arthropathies. Early diagnosis and treatment prevents complications. Population screening may increase early diagnosis, but no programmes have been introduced internationally: a paucity of health economic data is often cited as a barrier. To conduct a systematic review of all health economic studies in HH. Studies were identified through electronic searching of economic/biomedical databases. Any study on HH with original economic component was included. Study quality was formally assessed. Health economic data were extracted and analysed through narrative synthesis. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported on costs or cost effectiveness of screening programmes. Whilst most concluded screening was cost effective compared with no screening, methodological flaws limit the quality of these findings. Assumptions regarding clinical penetrance, effectiveness of screening, health-state utility values (HSUVs), exclusion of early symptomatology (such as fatigue, lethargy and multiple arthropathies) and quantification of costs associated with HH were identified as key limitations. Treatment studies concluded therapeutic venepuncture was the most cost-effective intervention. There is a paucity of high-quality health economic studies relating to HH. The development of a comprehensive HH cost-effectiveness model utilising HSUVs is required to determine whether screening is worthwhile.

  5. Sexonomics: a commentary and review of selected sexually transmitted disease studies in the economics literature.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight selected studies in the economics literature that address sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related topics that are typically not examined in the STD literature. Two databases (EconLit and Web of Science) were searched to locate STD-related articles in the economics journals. Relevant articles were also identified in other ways, such as informal discussions with colleagues familiar with the literature. To maintain a focus on unique STD-related topics, studies with topics common in the STD literature (e.g., cost-effectiveness, transmission modeling) were excluded. Selected STD-related studies in the economics literature were grouped into the following 8 topics: impact of abortion laws and policies on sexual health outcomes; same-sex marriage and syphilis rates; alcohol policy and STD rates; welfare laws and STD rates; discounting the future; HIV disclosure laws; the impact of tolerance for gays on HIV incidence; and economic versus epidemiologic models of HIV dynamics. A general theme of STD-related studies in the economics literature is that laws and policies that increased the "cost" of risky sex tended to reduce the demand for risky sex, and therefore reduce the incidence of STDs. Economic research can contribute in novel ways to our understanding of influences on risky sexual behavior at the individual level and STD incidence at the population level. Economists and STD experts could mutually benefit from increased collaboration.

  6. Economic evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Kow, Chia Siang; Ghori, Muhammad Usman; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-10-01

    Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.

  7. Integrative review of spirituality in African American breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lynette M; Hendricks, Constance Smith

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an integrative review of the literature on spirituality in AA breast cancer survivors, isolates key spiritual themes, and recommends future research. Inclusion criteria are 1994 to 2004 research studies that included AA breast cancer survivors 18 years old and older. Content analysis was used to isolate spiritual themes and spiritual domains/dimensions. Seven studies resulted that used qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. Themes identified were spirituality provided the strength to cope; the need to care for others and receive care; beliefs that God is the healer and in control; God assists in decision-making; and closeness to God. Spiritual domains were beliefs, functions, and social support. Future research should explore the domains/dimensions and meanings of spirituality experienced by diverse groups ofAA breast cancer survivors. Culturally appropriate, evidence-based nursing care should include spiritually based interventions that acknowledge the significance of God.

  8. 76 FR 16044 - Agency Information Collection (VAAR Clause 852.236.89, Buy American Act) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VAAR Clause 852.236.89, Buy American Act) Under OMB Review AGENCY...: Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulation (VAAR) Clause 852.236-89, Buy American Act. OMB Control Number: 2900-0622. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Abstract: The...

  9. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    PubMed

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  10. A systematic review of economic evaluations of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation is used for effective resource allocation in health sector. Accumulated knowledge about economic evaluation of health programs in Bangladesh is not currently available. While a number of economic evaluation studies have been performed in Bangladesh, no systematic investigation of the studies has been done to our knowledge. The aim of this current study is to systematically review the published articles in peer-reviewed journals on economic evaluation of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh. Methods Literature searches was carried out during November-December 2008 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface. The first specific interest was mapping the articles considering the areas of exploration by economic evaluation and the second interest was to scrutiny the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality of economic evaluation of all articles has been scrutinized against the checklist developed by Evers Silvia and associates. Result Of 1784 potential articles 12 were accepted for inclusion. Ten studies described the competing alternatives clearly and only two articles stated the perspective of their articles clearly. All studies included direct cost, incurred by the providers. Only one study included the cost of community donated resources and volunteer costs. Two studies calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). Six of the studies applied some sort of sensitivity analysis. Two of the studies discussed financial affordability of expected implementers and four studies discussed the issue of generalizability for application in different context. Conclusion Very few economic evaluation studies in Bangladesh are found in different areas of health and health-related interventions, which does not provide a strong basis of knowledge in the area. The

  11. United States and the New International Economic Order: an analysis of American foreign policy regarding the transfer of technology to the less-developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Asim, Z.M.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this study to demonstrate that the concept of a New International Economic Order is not just a passing phase confined to verbal polemics in the United Nations, but that it is a highly serious effort to alter the existing global economic system of the non-Communist world. It is further maintained that while the New International Economic Order is not wholly what its title suggests, it is, nevertheless, a growing movement being pursued by the less-developed countries in numerous international fora. The role of the United States is the subject of a sharper focus, particularly in regard to its response to the New International Economic Order. A chronological survey of United States policies since the inception of the NIEO, indicates that the American response to Southern demands for a new order has been mostly negative, unimaginative, defensive, and contrary to often enunciated American ideals. The second facet of this study deals specifically with the issues pertaining to the transfer of technology to the LDCs. This phase attempts to show the potential problems and promises that such technology transfers might present. The study concludes with a set of proposals for an affirmative and globally-oriented American foreign policy toward the LDCs' economic agenda as envisioned in the NIEO, and toward their particular needs for American technology.

  12. Increasing Coverage of Appropriate Vaccinations: A Community Guide Systematic Economic Review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Hopkins, David P; Murphy Morgan, Jennifer; Pitan, Adesola A; Clymer, John M

    2016-06-01

    Population-level coverage for immunization against many vaccine-preventable diseases remains below optimal rates in the U.S. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended several interventions to increase vaccination coverage based on systematic reviews of the evaluation literature. The present study provides the economic results from those reviews. A systematic review was conducted (search period, January 1980 through February 2012) to identify economic evaluations of 12 interventions recommended by the Task Force. Evidence was drawn from included studies; estimates were constructed for the population reach of each strategy, cost of implementation, and cost per additional vaccinated person because of the intervention. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Reminder systems, whether for clients or providers, were among the lowest-cost strategies to implement and the most cost effective in terms of additional people vaccinated. Strategies involving home visits and combination strategies in community settings were both costly and less cost effective. Strategies based in settings such as schools and MCOs that reached the target population achieved additional vaccinations in the middle range of cost effectiveness. The interventions recommended by the Task Force differed in reach, cost, and cost effectiveness. This systematic review presents the economic information for 12 effective strategies to increase vaccination coverage that can guide implementers in their choice of interventions to fit their local needs, available resources, and budget. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Validity and Reliability of a Dietary Stages of Change Measure Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Mauriello, Leanne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the construct validity and 2-month test-retest reliability of a staging measure for assessing readiness to consume five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Subjects African-American adolescents (N = 390) aged 11 to 14 years. Measures Self-report measures of stage of change and fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis Correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used to examine, cross-sectionally, whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by stage of change (validity assessment). Correlation analysis and Cohen's kappa (κ) were used to assess the degree of association and level of agreement between stages longitudinally (test-retest reliability assessment). Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was moderately correlated with stage of change (r ≥ .54, p = .000). Consistent with the transtheoretical model, youths’ consumption increased from earlier to later stages (p = .000). Forty-six percent of youths were in the same stage at both measurements. The correlation between stages was .26, and Cohen's κ was .20 (p = .000). Conclusions Despite preliminary evidence of construct validity, the low test-retest reliability found suggests that further research and testing are needed to improve the stability of the measure. PMID:22747321

  14. Modelling the economics of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention: a literature review of methods.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Preston, L; Squires, H; Chilcott, J; Brennan, A

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to review modelling methods for type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention cost-effectiveness studies. The review was conducted to inform the design of a policy analysis model capable of assisting resource allocation decisions across a spectrum of prevention strategies. We identified recent systematic reviews of economic evaluations in diabetes prevention and management of obesity. We extracted studies from two existing systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the prevention of diabetes. We extracted studies evaluating interventions in a non-diabetic population with type 2 diabetes as a modelled outcome, from two systematic reviews of obesity intervention economic evaluations. Databases were searched for studies published between 2008 and 2013. For each study, we reviewed details of the model type, structure, and methods for predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our review identified 46 articles and found variation in modelling approaches for cost-effectiveness evaluations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the variables used to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes suggested that impaired glucose regulation, and body mass index were used as the primary risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A minority of cost-effectiveness models for diabetes prevention accounted for the multivariate impacts of interventions on risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-eight cost-effectiveness models included cardiovascular events in addition to type 2 diabetes. Few cost-effectiveness models have flexibility to evaluate different intervention types. We conclude that to compare a range of prevention interventions it is necessary to incorporate multiple risk factors for diabetes, diabetes-related complications and obesity-related co-morbidity outcomes.

  15. The Role of Information Provision in Economic Evaluations of Newborn Bloodspot Screening: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stuart J; Jones, Cheryl; Payne, Katherine; Dharni, Nimarta; Ulph, Fiona

    2015-12-01

    The extent to which economic evaluations have included the healthcare resource and outcome-related implications of information provision in national newborn bloodspot screening programmes (NBSPs) is not currently known. To identify if, and how, information provision has been incorporated into published economic evaluations of NBSPs. A systematic review of economic evaluations of NBSPs (up to November 2014) was conducted. Three electronic databases were searched (Ovid: Medline, Embase, CINAHL) using an electronic search strategy combining a published economic search filter with terms related to national NBSPs and screening-related technologies. These electronic searches were supplemented by searching the NHS Economic Evaluations Database (NHS EED) and hand-searching identified study reference lists. The results were tabulated and summarised as part of a narrative synthesis. A total of 27 economic evaluations [screening-related technologies (n = 11) and NBSPs (n = 16)] were identified. The majority of economic evaluations did not quantify the impact of information provision in terms of healthcare costs or outcomes. Five studies did include an estimate of the time cost associated with information provision. Four studies included a value to reflect the disutility associated with parental anxiety caused by false-positive results, which was used as a proxy for the impact of imperfect information. A limited evidence base currently quantifies the impact of information provision on the healthcare costs and impact on the users of NBSPs; the parents of newborns. We suggest that economic evaluations of expanded NBSPs need to take account of information provision otherwise the impact on healthcare costs and the outcomes for newborns and their parents may be underestimated.

  16. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  17. An examination of gender differences in the American Fisheries Society peer-review process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Grace; Frantz, Cynthia M; Kocovsky, Patrick; DeVries, Dennis R.; Cooke, Steven J.; Claussen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of gender differences in outcomes throughout the peer review process of American Fisheries Society (AFS) journals. For each manuscript submitted to four AFS journals between January 2003 and December 2010, we collated information regarding the gender and nationality of authors, gender of associate editor, gender of reviewers, reviewer recommendations, associate editor's decision, and publication status of the manuscript. We used hierarchical linear modeling to test for differences in manuscript decision outcomes associated with author, reviewer, and associate editor gender. Gender differences were present at some but not every stage of the review process and were not equal among the four journals. Although there was a small gender difference in decision outcomes, we found no evidence of bias in editors’ and reviewers’ recommendations. Our results support the conclusion that the current single-blind review system does not result in bias against female authors within AFS journals.

  18. Randomized controlled trial lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda S; Choi, JiWon; Won, Gloria Y; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-10-01

    Asian Americans are the fastest-growing race in the United States. However, they are largely underrepresented in health research, particularly in lifestyle interventions. A systematic review was conducted to analyze the characteristics and quality of lifestyle intervention literature promoting changes in physical activity (PA), diet, and/or weight management targeting Asian Americans. A systematic electronic database search identified randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), involving lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans, published from 1995 to 2013 conducted in the US. Data extraction was conducted from August through December 2013. Seven RCTs met the review criteria. Cross-study comparisons were difficult due to diversity in: RCT intervention designs, cultural appropriateness, outcome measures, sample size, and race/ethnic groups. Overall, risk of bias and cultural appropriateness scores were moderate to low. Five out of seven RCTs showed significant between group differences for PA, diet, and weight. In general, sample sizes were small or lacked sufficient power to fully analyze intervention efficacy. Evidence of the efficacy for lifestyle interventions among Asian Americans was mixed. Recommendations include: more rigorous RCT designs, more objective measures, larger Asian American sample sizes, culturally appropriate interventions, individual tailoring, maintenance phase with support, and providing education and modeling of lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial Lifestyle Interventions for Asian Americans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Won, Gloria Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Asian Americans are the fastest-growing race in the United States. However, they are largely underrepresented in health research, particularly lifestyle interventions. A systematic review was conducted to analyze the characteristics and quality of lifestyle intervention literature promoting changes in physical activity (PA), diet, and/or weight management targeting Asian Americans. Method A systematic electronic database search identified randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), involving lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans, published from 1995 to 2013 conducted in the U.S. Data extraction was conducted from August through December 2013. Results Seven RCTs met the review criteria. Cross-study comparisons were difficult due to diversity in: RCT intervention designs, cultural appropriateness, outcome measures, sample size, and race/ethnic groups. Overall, risk of bias and cultural appropriateness scores were moderate to low. Five out of seven RCTs showed significant between group differences for PA, diet, and weight. In general, sample sizes were small or lacked sufficient power to fully analyze intervention efficacy. Conclusion Evidence of the efficacy for lifestyle interventions among Asian Americans was mixed. Recommendations include: more rigorous RCT designs, more objective measures, larger Asian American sample sizes, culturally appropriate interventions, individual tailoring, maintenance phase with support, and providing education and modeling of lifestyle behaviors. PMID:25086326

  20. Adherence to Pediatric Asthma Treatment in Economically Disadvantaged African-American Children and Adolescents: An Application of Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drotar, Dennis; McNally, Kelly; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The primary aims of the study were to: (a) describe the trajectories of adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication for a year in economically disadvantaged, African-American youth with asthma based on growth curve modeling; and (b) test the relationship of treatment adherence to symptom control, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization. Methods This prospective study measured adherence to daily ICS treatment using electronic monitoring in 92 children and adolescents with moderate to severe asthma for 9–12 months and assessed clinical outcomes, including asthma-related symptoms, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization. Results Youth showed a decrement in treatment adherence to less than half of prescribed corticosteroid treatment over the course of the study, which related to increased healthcare utilization (p < .04), but not to asthma symptoms or albuterol use. Conclusion Economically disadvantaged youth with asthma demonstrate high rates of chronic nonadherence that warrant identification and intervention to reduce asthma-related healthcare utilization. PMID:19710251