Science.gov

Sample records for american foreign policy

  1. Chain Linkage in American Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Hoyt

    1982-01-01

    Describes how American foreign policy is affected by the complexity of global interrelatedness. It is no longer possible for American foreign policy decisions to be made unilaterally. Examples of how international linkages have influenced American relations with the U.S.S.R., the Middle East, China, and other areas are included. (AM)

  2. American Students' Perceptions of American Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Robert N.

    The perception of typical U.S. college students toward the Reagan administration's foreign policy is that it is based on the principle that Communism must be stopped at any cost. Students' beliefs are defined according to their reactions to specific U.S. foreign policy initiatives. Three areas have aroused considerable campus reaction and…

  3. "Bureaucratic Bargaining": An American Foreign Policy Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a simulation which examines the complexities of governmental machinery and the government's decision-making process. As the first in the American Foreign Policy Simulations series, this exercise in negotiation and compromise seeks to explore the potency of official roles in contrast to belief systems in foreign policymaking. (GEA)

  4. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    the baby boomer generation begins to retire, migrants will be increasingly needed to meet economic demands. As a result, the disconnect between labor...Goldstein, Jorge Eduardo Malena, and Gabriela E. Porn , “Chinese Interests in Latin America,” in Latin American Security Challenge: A Collaborative Inquiry

  5. American Foreign Policy. Social Studies: 6416.58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siry, Larry

    This American Studies elective course for 10th 11th, and 12th grade students emphasizes American foreign policy in this century. Specific examples of past policy serve as a basis for analyzing factors involved in policy making. It is hoped that a knowledge of the United States' role in the international arena will lead to a more complete…

  6. The Underpinnings of American Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    rarest occasions the use of military force. United States foreign policy was considered self-centered if not isolationist. While its diplomacy was...Roosevelt responded in Jacksonian and forceful terms. America responded to its loss in pride, honor and blood with acts of war, only redeemed by...communicated a hard truth; “The United States of America has helped underwrite global security for more than six decades with the blood of our citizens and

  7. Alternative American foreign policy for Ukraine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    American policy makers have largely ignored Ukraine in their global policy planning. This lack of consideration shows a neglect of the potential for conflict in Eastern Europe. American foreign policy toward Ukraine, that is rooted in the START and NPT Treaties, is doomed to fail, and will actually sow the seeds of chaos, unless the United States: (1) comes to understand the motivations that drive Ukrainian foreign policy, and (2) facilitate significant positive alterations to the security and economic environment that has developed since the breakup of the Soviet Union. This thesis examines Western security goals and analyzes the current means available to achieve those goals. The contention of this thesis is that present Western policy pursuits will lead to a regenerated authoritarian Russian superpower that will be a threat to the security of Ukraine and Europe. The potentially dangerous consequences of an authoritarian Russia could be avoided by facilitating the development of a strong and stable Ukraine to act as a balance to Russian power in Eastern Europe. United States, Ukraine, Foreign policy, Nuclear arms negotiations, Economic aid, Russia.

  8. Health and foreign policy: an American view.

    PubMed

    Cahill, K M

    1997-10-01

    Health and humanitarian complications of conflicts and disasters are, increasingly, the bases for international intervention. Concerns about widespread starvation, the spread of epidemic diseases, and a whole range of human-rights violations are now central factors in foreign affairs. Emphasising health issues can offer an innovative approach to the resolution of apparently intractable problems. Identifying the common concerns, of even the most bitter enemies, can provide an initial basis for dialogue and lead to diplomatic initiatives. Further, the methodology of public health and the metaphors of medicine provide a needed structure for a new era in post-Cold-War international relations; this would include an emphasis on preventive diplomacy that, the author argues, is as essential for the United States as it is for the United Nations.

  9. An Alternative American Foreign Policy for Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    POLICY FOR UKRAINE by Randall G. Williams June 1993 Thesis Advisor: Roman Laba Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 93-27112...unclassified/unlimited _ same as report - DTIC users Unclassified 22a Name of Responsible Individual 22b Telephone (include Area Code) 22c Office Symboi Roman ...Randall G. Williams Approved by: 12 n? Roman Laba, Thesis Advisor Mikhail Oypkin, Second Reader Thomas C. Bruneau, Chairman, Department of National

  10. Foreign Policy Choices for Americans: A Nonpartisan Guide for Voters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.; And Others

    Eighteen foreign policy topics are presented in this book to provide voters, officeholders, candidates, students, and teachers with background information, facts, and U.S. foreign policies. A fact list, historical background information, current administration policy, and policy alternatives are described for most of these topics. Part 1 discusses…

  11. Foreign Policy Choices for Americans: A Nonpartisan Guide for Voters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.; And Others

    Eighteen foreign policy topics are presented in this book to provide voters, officeholders, candidates, students, and teachers with background information, facts, and U.S. foreign policies. A fact list, historical background information, current administration policy, and policy alternatives are described for most of these topics. Part 1 discusses…

  12. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  13. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  14. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  15. Lessons from History: Defining Moments in the American Presidency and Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2008-01-01

    For much of American history, political leaders have stood by a principle that "politics stops at the water's edge." While political disagreements about domestic policies are seen as inevitable and even healthy, there has been a tradition of trying to avoid partisan disagreements over foreign policy. As a result, intense disagreements…

  16. Lessons from History: Defining Moments in the American Presidency and Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2008-01-01

    For much of American history, political leaders have stood by a principle that "politics stops at the water's edge." While political disagreements about domestic policies are seen as inevitable and even healthy, there has been a tradition of trying to avoid partisan disagreements over foreign policy. As a result, intense disagreements…

  17. Ideals and Reality in Foreign Policy: American Intervention in the Caribbean. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Alfred

    Centering around case studies of American military intervention (1898 to 1933) in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua, this unit invites the student to compare the results of such intervention with the foreign policy goals and ideals the interventions were intended to implement. It confronts him with the dilemma of power in international…

  18. Guide to Manuscripts and Archives and the American Foreign Policy Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaddy, Robert Alan

    This guide describes the holdings in the manuscript collections, the university archives, and the American Foreign Policy Center, all of which are located in Louisiana Tech University's Prescott Memorial Library. The guide is divided into three sections. The first section, "Manuscript Collections," presents descriptions of 197…

  19. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  20. American Foreign Policy for the '80s: A Voter's Guide to the Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Wallace, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to provide voters, officeholders, and candidates with background information on major foreign policy issues so that they can follow the 1980 presidential debates and reach their own informed conclusions. Thirteen major foreign policy topics are covered. The material is written in telegraphic style to get the essential…

  1. American Foreign Policy for the '80s: A Voter's Guide to the Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Wallace, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to provide voters, officeholders, and candidates with background information on major foreign policy issues so that they can follow the 1980 presidential debates and reach their own informed conclusions. Thirteen major foreign policy topics are covered. The material is written in telegraphic style to get the essential…

  2. Political conservatism, rigidity, and dogmatism in American foreign policy officials: the 1966 Mennis data.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles (A. Chirumbolo, 2002; J. T. Jost, J. Glaser, A. W. Kruglanski, & F. Sulloway, 2003a, 2003b; M. Kemmelmeier, 1997). In this article, the author examined whether this finding is true in the political elite, whether the relationship is linear or curvilinear, and whether interest in politics moderates the relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles. He used a 1966 sample of American foreign policy officials (N = 95) to examine the relationship between self-described conservatism and party identification and individual differences in rigidity and dogmatism. Rigidity was related to self-described conservatism, but this relationship was only significant among participants high in political interest, whereas dogmatism was unconditionally related to party identification. All relationships were linear and did not contain a curvilinear component.

  3. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with…

  4. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with…

  5. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  6. A New Foreign Policy Consensus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanson, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the achievements of Reagan's foreign policy. Explores the question: Did Reagan reconstruct a domestic foreign policy consensus? Concludes that no consensus was reached. Analyzes Reagan's political beliefs, including his antinuclear sentiments, and examines relations between Reagan and Congress. (RW)

  7. Hierarchy and Community at Home and Abroad: Evidence of a Common Structure of Domestic and Foreign Policy Beliefs in American Elites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence of a relationship between domestic and foreign policy attitudes among American elites, we have less of an idea about why these sets of attitudes cohere. The answer lies in a better understanding of what we mean when we talk about "left" and "right" or "liberal" and "conservative." Drawing on the literature on…

  8. Hierarchy and Community at Home and Abroad: Evidence of a Common Structure of Domestic and Foreign Policy Beliefs in American Elites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence of a relationship between domestic and foreign policy attitudes among American elites, we have less of an idea about why these sets of attitudes cohere. The answer lies in a better understanding of what we mean when we talk about "left" and "right" or "liberal" and "conservative." Drawing on the literature on…

  9. Race Relations and Foreign Affairs: Observations by a Black American

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Julius S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this brief analysis is to delineate the character of the relationship between the pattern of ethnic stratification in the U.S. and American foreign policy described in this article as reciprocal causality." Racial disturbances directly affect the American image abroad and foreign policy has direct impact upon the American racial…

  10. Post-Cold War American Foreign Policy: What, When, and Why

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    assertiveness. 16 Immanuel Wallerstein agreed with Boot‘s suggestion, but traced a longer American hegemonic decline, going as far back as the 1970s. 17...2007), 89. 17 Immanuel Wallerstein , The Decline of American Power (New York: The New Press, 2003), 213. 18 Andrew J. Bacevich, ―The New American... Wallerstein , Immanuel. The Decline of American Power. New York: The New Press, 2003. 129 White House Press Briefing, May 2, 1994. http

  11. U.S. Foreign Policy Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Claiborne

    1983-01-01

    The three highest priorities for American foreign policy are avoiding nuclear war by working with the Soviet leadership to alter our present collision course, demonstrating our commitment to human rights throughout the world, and ensuring American economic prosperity by strengthening exports and ensuring the stability of the international monetary…

  12. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  13. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  14. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  15. The Durability of Cultural Influences: How American Foreign Policy Reinforced Historical Biases in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    73 William Bollinger, " Villalobos on "Popular Insurrection"." Latin American Perspectives 16, no. 3...Conflict: The Case of Ronald Reagan and El Salvador." International Studies Quarterly 40, no. 1 (Mar. 1996): 23-44. Bollinger, William. " Villalobos on

  16. Adaptation and Foreign Policy Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-01

    ADAPTATION AND FOREIGN POLICY THEORY © AKFSIIM t* «ns white i»i R Hi Stuart J. Thorson Project for Theoretical Politics Department of...Policy Stud^es. Prepared In connection with research supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order Ho.23l* S - 3D20, Contract No. DAHC15...will become more clear as this paper progresses. -2- Flrst, however. It Is Important to briefly outline what sort of " theory " of foreign policy

  17. The Structure of Foreign Policy Attitudes: An Alternate View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittkopf, Eugene R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a social science research project undertaken to determine public opinion with regard to American foreign policy. An additional objective of the project was to compare demographic correlates of foreign policy attitudes. Results based on a Likert approach are discussed. (DB)

  18. Black Consciousness and American Policy in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obatala, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    An account of increased pressure for a change in American foreign policy toward the white racist regimes in South Africa as a result of a rise in awareness and the level of participation by blacks in the political process. (EH)

  19. Population growth and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Flood, P J

    1978-04-01

    Australian foreign policy is examined in light of the population issue and its relationships to its developing Asian neighbors. Rapid population growth has been a 20th-century phenomenon. In the ESCAP region, almost all governments are anxious to reduce growth rates and welcome international assistance for population programs. The motivation of these governments seems to be both political and economic. Asian countries do not share the view expressed at Bucharest by Latin American and African representatives that high population growth rates are not a problem. Results of national family planning programs in 16 developing Asian countries are assessed. Major fertility decline has only occurred so far in the most prosperous of these countries. Future fertility trends are hard to predict. Present inadequate knowledge of the determinants of human fertility and limited knowledge regarding fertility limitation techniques hamper progress in population reduction. Australia has aided these countries in demographic training and data collection. For both economic and humanitarian reasons, this aid should be extended to program implementation.

  20. United States and the New International Economic Order: an analysis of American foreign policy regarding the transfer of technology to the less-developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Asim, Z.M.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this study to demonstrate that the concept of a New International Economic Order is not just a passing phase confined to verbal polemics in the United Nations, but that it is a highly serious effort to alter the existing global economic system of the non-Communist world. It is further maintained that while the New International Economic Order is not wholly what its title suggests, it is, nevertheless, a growing movement being pursued by the less-developed countries in numerous international fora. The role of the United States is the subject of a sharper focus, particularly in regard to its response to the New International Economic Order. A chronological survey of United States policies since the inception of the NIEO, indicates that the American response to Southern demands for a new order has been mostly negative, unimaginative, defensive, and contrary to often enunciated American ideals. The second facet of this study deals specifically with the issues pertaining to the transfer of technology to the LDCs. This phase attempts to show the potential problems and promises that such technology transfers might present. The study concludes with a set of proposals for an affirmative and globally-oriented American foreign policy toward the LDCs' economic agenda as envisioned in the NIEO, and toward their particular needs for American technology.

  1. The heritability of foreign policy preferences.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Skyler J; Dawes, Christopher T

    2012-02-01

    Attitudes towards foreign policy have typically been explained by ideological and demographic factors. We approach this study from a different perspective and ex amine the extent to which foreign policy preferences correspond to genetic variation. Using data from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, we show that a moderate share of individual differences in the degree to which one's foreign policy preferences are hawkish or dovish can be attributed to genetic variation. We also show, based on a bivariate twin model, that foreign policy preferences share a common genetic source of variation with political ideology. This result presents the possibility that ideology may be the causal pathway through which genes affect foreign policy preferences.

  2. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    American energy policy is examined using a format of five primary presentations, each followed by a panel commentary and debate with audience questioning. The five parts are on: challenges (an overview of the global and domestic energy situation, and a discussion of the political process and energy); social implications of energy policies; economic consequences of energy policies; international attitudes toward US oil policies; and social/economic and environmental impacts of alternative energy sources. In the summary, changes in US economy and the impact of the market pricing system are considered.

  3. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  4. Sino-American Relations after Normalization: Toward the Second Decade. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 276.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven M.; Mathews, Jay

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater interest in and more effective understanding of world affairs among American citizens, this six-chapter booklet traces the development toward improved relations between China and the United States. The chapters include: "Toward a New Consensus: 1978-1986"; "Strategic…

  5. Indonesia a US Foreign Policy Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    THESIS XCD INDONESIA , A US FOREIGN POLICY DILEMMA By JAMES N. LOTHROP, JR. Lieutenant Colonel, Ordnance Corpfc LIBRARY JUL IS  lU^RM...ELEMENT (Thesis) INDONESIA , A US FOREIGN POLICY DILEMMA by Lt Col James N. Lothrop, Jr. Ordnance US Army War College Carlisle Barracks...policy ...... 19 3. STRATEGIC VALUE OF INDONESIA . . . . 21 Social aspects . 21 Economic aspects ..... 22 Geographic aspects 26 Military and

  6. USAFRICOM: The Militarization of U.S. Foreign Policy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    do” attitude, coupled with its large resource pool, has catapulted it to the front of Govern- ment agencies in its ability to implement and support...like the other combatant commands—is another prime example of American proconsuls plying foreign policy.28 In ancient Rome , proconsuls were

  7. Lessons for American Apprenticeship from Foreign Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roomkin, Myron; Hansen, Gary B.

    1975-01-01

    Innovations in the industrial apprenticeship programs of foreign countries are related to: cost subsidizations and financing policies, administrative coordination, and increased program flexibility. (Adapted from a 1974 Industrial Relations Research Association conference paper.) (EA)

  8. Education for Foreigners -- and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, C. Peter

    Criticisms of foreign student and international programs at U.S. colleges and universities are reviewed, along with the efforts by higher education institutions to examine their foreign student programs. Bills before the U.S. Congress that would affect these programs are also briefly described. Some criticisms reflect the view that efforts to…

  9. Toward a Better Union: Improving the Effectiveness of Foreign Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Montville, “Foreign Policy According to Freud ,” Foreign Policy no. 45 (Winter) (1981), 155. 325 Chigas, Track Two (Citizen) Diplomacy. 326 See Jeri...Joseph Montville. “Foreign Policy According to Freud .” Foreign Policy no. 45 (Winter) (1981): 145-157. Di, He. The Great Powers in East Asia - 1953-1960

  10. The Criticism of Foreign Policy Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Robert P.

    This survey of the state-of-the-art of research in international relations suggests that principles of sound argumentation can apply to major decisions in foreign policy. An analysis and critique of policy arguments regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis, the China-Korea-Vietnam embroilment, and the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with…

  11. The Criticism of Foreign Policy Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Robert P.

    This survey of the state-of-the-art of research in international relations suggests that principles of sound argumentation can apply to major decisions in foreign policy. An analysis and critique of policy arguments regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis, the China-Korea-Vietnam embroilment, and the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with…

  12. The Public Looks at Foreign Policy: A Report from Five Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Holm, John D.

    The document examines the American public stand on foreign policy and explores the extent of citizen support for six basic foreign policy orientations--anti-Communism, internationalism, democracy, isolationism, interventionism, and self-interest. The extent of public support within these orientations among subgroups in the populace is also…

  13. Essays on Economic Policy and Foreign Policy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Benin, Madagascar, Congo-Brazzaville, Nicaragua , Syria and Libya, while maintaining Soviet dominion in Eastern Europe, Cuba, and...includes Cuba, Vietnam, Angola, South Ysmen, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Libya, Syria, Nicaragua and North Korea. Clearly, this definition covers a wide...selective import of foreign technology, and have avoided hyperinflation . Orientation toward the market, while typical of these relatively successful

  14. Health Policies and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David P., Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on the impact of health policy on black Americans by examining the relation between public policy and the distribution of health needs and effects. The book includes an introduction by David P. Willis and is divided into seven sections. Section I, "Who Are Black Americans?" includes the following…

  15. Health Policies and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David P., Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on the impact of health policy on black Americans by examining the relation between public policy and the distribution of health needs and effects. The book includes an introduction by David P. Willis and is divided into seven sections. Section I, "Who Are Black Americans?" includes the following…

  16. Improving Foreigners' Pronunciation of American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Bertha

    Existing literature on pronunciation instruction in English as a second language is reviewed, revealing that significant attention to the improvement of American English pronunciation among foreign students has been lacking. For the teacher's benefit, an analysis of basic phonetics is presented, laying a foundation for understanding pronunciation…

  17. Does Where You Stand Depend on When You Were Born? The Impact of Generation on Post-Vietnam Foreign Policy Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsti, Ole R.; Rosenau, James N.

    1980-01-01

    Indicates that the most salient differences on foreign policy exist between occupational groups and within generations. Discusses the prospects for early achievement of domestic consensus on issues of international politics and American foreign policy. (Author/RL)

  18. Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Muhammad Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

  19. 22 CFR 40.33 - Foreign policy. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign policy. 40.33 Section 40.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.33 Foreign policy....

  20. 22 CFR 40.33 - Foreign policy. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign policy. 40.33 Section 40.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.33 Foreign policy....

  1. 22 CFR 40.33 - Foreign policy. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign policy. 40.33 Section 40.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.33 Foreign policy....

  2. 22 CFR 40.33 - Foreign policy. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign policy. 40.33 Section 40.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.33 Foreign policy....

  3. 22 CFR 40.33 - Foreign policy. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign policy. 40.33 Section 40.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.33 Foreign policy....

  4. Global Television and Foreign Policy. Headline Series No. 283.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James F.

    This document explores the impact of television coverage on foreign policy decision making and the complexities of a changing media-foreign policy relationship in an era of global television. Government officials believe that television news has a great effect on foreign policy decisions. By contrast, many political scientists contend that…

  5. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section... PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information may... established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy; and...

  6. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section... PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information may... established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy; and...

  7. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section... PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information may... established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy;...

  8. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section... PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information may... established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy;...

  9. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section... PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information may... established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy;...

  10. Foreign and Security Policy Decisionmaking Under Yeltsin,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Yeltsin’s first term, the lack of clear lines of authority and competence in the foreign and security field led to increased rivalry between the...government and presidential bureaucracy, which actively competed with one another in an effort to shape for- eign and security policy. As one Russian...characterized by "bustle, incoherence, in- competence , and as a result, zig-zagging.ŕ The criticism came from a wide spectrum of sources, including

  11. IRANIAN FOREIGN POLICY AFTER THE NUCLEAR DEAL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    Force Base, Alabama. iv Abstract The nuclear agreement between the (P5+1) countries and Iran is a recognition by the international community to...put Iran back as before the 1979 revolution. However, the infinite political complexities that are intertwined today in the whole Middle East will...determining what Iran foreign policy would be after the nuclear deal. The paper will present an argument about the possible actions that Iran can

  12. Advancing women's status: a foreign policy goal.

    PubMed

    Albright, M

    1997-01-01

    US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation.

  13. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  14. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  15. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  16. The Rhetorical Icon: Toward an Iconological Theory of U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlett, Ralph A.

    American foreign policy must operate within the parameters of public opinion, and governmental and non-governmental actors must educate the characteristically alienated citizenry concerning policy issues. Since rational discourse is of limited benefit in the process, advocates instead use verbal representations or metaphor to instill within the…

  17. Foreign science and engineering doctoral attainment at American universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Robert V.

    This dissertation analyzes the nearly 100,000 foreign students who attained science and engineering (S&E) doctorates in the five fields of physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, and social and behavioral sciences at American universities from 1994 to 2005. Two models are presented. In the first model controlling for population, multivariate regression results testing for whether foreign students from higher or lower income nations (181 nations) tended to attain S&E doctorates showed that certain S&E fields tended to be represented by students from higher income nations early in the time period (e.g. 1994 to 1999) but the national income variable explaining foreign S&E doctoral attainment was not statistically significant in four of the fields after the year 2000. Four nations, China, India, South Korea and Taiwan stand out due to their large S&E doctoral student presence at American universities, but virtually all growth in foreign doctoral attainment in four of the S&E fields from 1994 to 2005 came from Chinese students, and this growth was most pronounced after the year 2001. In short, whereas the foreign student populations from South Korea and Taiwan were the outliers in 1994 and as such skewed testing results, they had largely been displaced in 2005 by the increased presence of Chinese students. From the US public policy perspective, to the extent that growth in foreign S&E doctoral attainment is an issue to include its related costs and benefits, the appropriate policy focus should shift more specifically towards the growth in Chinese S&E doctoral attainment. Further, with the exception of China and India, foreign doctoral students from the lowest income nations of the world in all five S&E fields were greatly under represented on American campuses from 1994 to 2005. Testing results from the second model complement the findings in the first model. Whereas the first model tested for the effects of national income on

  18. Globalisation, health and foreign policy: emerging linkages and interests

    PubMed Central

    Owen, John Wyn; Roberts, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of the growing links between the issues of globalisation, health and foreign policy. This article examines the effect this has on health, development and foreign policy communities in the UK and internationally and considers what steps the policy community must take to address the challenges and opportunities of this new relationship. PMID:16053520

  19. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 15, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  20. SURVEY OF PERSONNEL POLICIES IN RELATION TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WELLEMEYER, JOHN F.

    THE PRINCIPLE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AGENCIES THAT OPERATE IN FIELDS REQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES, THE U.S. MILITARY SERVICES AND SOME PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THEIR OPERATING POLICIES THAT RELATE TO PERSONNEL WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS. THE AGENCIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS…

  1. Think tanks and influence on US foreign policy: The people and the ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-26

    the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, has witnessed a community of non-partisan and non-profit public policy research organizations, become a...a community of non-partisan and non-profit public policy research organizations, become a source of increasing influence, often of a partisan nature...Policy Research ) APRC Asia Pacific Research Center CAP Center for American Progress CEIP Carnegie Endowment for International Peace CFR Council on Foreign

  2. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  3. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    PubMed

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy.

  4. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach.

  5. Identifying geoscience knowledge likely to affect foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelmelis, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The earth sciences play an important role in foreign policy and have done so throughout history. Whether it is access to resources, knowledge of weather or other earth system conditions, planning for or responding to disasters, protecting the environment, facilitating transportation and communication, or any of a number of other important topics, the geosciences continue to inform our decision making. The importance of science, technology, and health (STH) is being increasingly recognized in the foreign policy community. The National Research Council (NRC) recommended that the Department of State (State) expand its scientific base to address the importance of STH issues. In part, this consists of increasing the number of scientists within State. Another important aspect is not only identifying the STH issues that are of current concern, but also the issues that will be of importance in the future. A number of studies funded by the U.S. Government have identified some important STH areas of concern at a high level. These provide a basis for more in-depth investigations. However, there are additional phenomena, beyond those identified in the studies, which have foreign policy implications. The scientific findings may be well known to scientists but their foreign policy importance is not always obvious. The scientific and foreign policy communities could improve their dialog to better develop strategies for foreign policy and future scientific research. One way to help facilitate that is to ease identification of scientific issues with potential significance to foreign policy and to clarify uncertainties around those issues. A qualitative method relating the likelihood that the scientific finding has foreign policy importance to the potential level of foreign policy importance has been used to clarify the significance of a variety of scientific findings including Arctic warming, methane hydrates, atmospheric dust, disease, and natural hazards. From a foreign policy

  6. American Accreditors Shouldn't Evaluate Foreign Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The author reports the dispute between Hawaii's Office of Consumer Protection and the American Academy for Liberal Education, as well as the supporter of each side, that raises questions of oversight of American accreditors' work with any foreign college. The Chronicle reported that the AALE accredited the American University for Humanities,…

  7. Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Comparative Public Diplomacy: Pseudo-Education, Fear-Mongering and Insecurities in Canadian-American Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined public diplomacy as a comparative education issue, particularly regarding social-psychological, economic and political fears or personal and national insecurities. This paper discusses American public diplomacy as a mostly Cold War strategy adapted to post-9/11 national security interests, fears and desires. It further…

  8. Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Comparative Public Diplomacy: Pseudo-Education, Fear-Mongering and Insecurities in Canadian-American Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined public diplomacy as a comparative education issue, particularly regarding social-psychological, economic and political fears or personal and national insecurities. This paper discusses American public diplomacy as a mostly Cold War strategy adapted to post-9/11 national security interests, fears and desires. It further…

  9. Containing Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez: United States Foreign Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    Ecuadorian President Rafeal Correa and Bolivian President Evo Morales , offer little tangible support. Notably, the South American countries most able to...the FARC shares common socialist values with Chavez‟ Bolivarian Revolution. Venezuela also supports socialist regimes in Ecuador and Bolivia ...controversial foreign policies. With the exception of the state leaders of Iran, Cuba, Ecuador and Bolivia , Chavez has few supporters. Arguably, Russia

  10. Belief Structure and Foreign Policy: Comparing Dimensions of Elite and Mass Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldendick, Robert, And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the dimensions of elite (political leaders) and mass (general public) opinions towards foreign policy. A factor analysis revealed the elite's five major concerns (internationalism, international organization, Americanism, defense spending, and interventionism) and an overall preference for structured approaches. The masses also…

  11. Children's Sociolinguistic Evaluations of Nice Foreigners and Mean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 5- to 6-year-old monolingual English-speaking American children's sociolinguistic evaluations of others based on their accent (native, foreign) and social actions (nice, mean, neutral). In Experiment 1, children expressed social preferences for native-accented English speakers over foreign-accented speakers, and they…

  12. Children's Sociolinguistic Evaluations of Nice Foreigners and Mean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 5- to 6-year-old monolingual English-speaking American children's sociolinguistic evaluations of others based on their accent (native, foreign) and social actions (nice, mean, neutral). In Experiment 1, children expressed social preferences for native-accented English speakers over foreign-accented speakers, and they…

  13. The Adaptation of Foreign Students on American Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, France J.

    1978-01-01

    Author cites three major issues in educating foreign students: their adaptation to the American educational system; their re-adaptation at home; and the curriculum relevance for their nation's priorities. Author concentrates on adaptation and gives examples of culture conflict foreign students experience. Recommendations for adaptation are…

  14. American Sign Language as a Foreign Language. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sherman; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This digest provides a brief overview of American Sign Language (ASL) and discusses its study as a foreign language in U.S. schools and institutions of higher education. The following questions are addressed: (1) Is ASL a language?; (2) If ASL is used in the United States, how can it be considered a "foreign" language; (3) Are ASL users…

  15. Foreign Language Requirement? Why Not American Sign Language? ERIC Digests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sherman

    A discussion focusing on whether American Sign Language (ASL) should be accepted in fulfillment of university foreign language requirements attempts to dispel misconceptions about the language; and to show that ASL can provide the same benefits as the study of more traditional foreign languages, including the opportunity to communicate in another…

  16. Fundamentals of U.S. Foreign Policy. Public Information Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC. Bureau of Public Affairs.

    Designed to explore the interests and objectives of U.S. foreign policy, this book addresses: (1) national security and arms control; (2) economic programs and trends; (3) human rights efforts; (4) science and technological developments; (5) relationships with various world regions; and (6) the need for an adequate foreign affairs budget. Chapter…

  17. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws, or... inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS... foreign estates and inheritances. ...

  18. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws, or... inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS... foreign estates and inheritances. ...

  19. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws, or... inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS... foreign estates and inheritances. ...

  20. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws, or... inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS... foreign estates and inheritances. ...

  1. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws, or... inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS... foreign estates and inheritances. ...

  2. Immigration policy, foreign agricultural labor, and exit intentions in the United States dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Susanto, D; Rosson, C P; Anderson, D P; Adcock, F J

    2010-04-01

    United States agriculture is dependent on foreign labor. Current US immigration policies have been alleged to disrupt agricultural labor availability, particularly that of hired foreign labor. A national survey of dairy farmers across herd sizes and regions of the United States was conducted and the results were used to estimate the extent to which hired foreign labor dependency will affect exit intentions in dairy farming. This study found that the expected probability of exit from dairy farming increased as the use of hired foreign labor intensified. But the expected probability of exit also decreased rapidly as herd sizes got larger. Given the immigration policy currently in place, farmers expecting labor shortages in the future are expected to experience greater tendency to exit the industry. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  4. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  5. Confessions of an American Foreign Study Enthusiast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, Joe K.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of a foreign language should be required for study abroad to allow students to take best advantage of opportunities offered. Language skills are necessary for students studying abroad in the humanities, sciences, arts and political sciences. (CHK)

  6. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) Policy and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-09

    Relative to the world economic problems, the U.S. took sev- era] steps in an attempt to stabilize the situation. The first step was the Reciprocal...Assistance Act of 1971 For the first time in the history of the Foreign Aid Program, the Senate, in 1971, refused to approve the economic aind...and rejected. The conference was deadlocked for a month over the Senate passed ammendment to the Foreign Assistance Program calling for the

  7. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  8. Foreign Language Immersion Programs and School Policy: Conflicting Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    In this position article, we explore what happens when school district policies regarding desegregation, accountability, and foreign language immersion education collide. Specifically, we contrast 2 immersion programs that experienced distinct outcomes as a result of the conflicting agendas underlying these 3 policies. One program, originally…

  9. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  10. Foreign Language Immersion Programs and School Policy: Conflicting Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    In this position article, we explore what happens when school district policies regarding desegregation, accountability, and foreign language immersion education collide. Specifically, we contrast 2 immersion programs that experienced distinct outcomes as a result of the conflicting agendas underlying these 3 policies. One program, originally…

  11. A Foreign Policy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Albert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Presents 1988 Democratic presidential candidate, Albert Gore, Jr.'s views about the future direction of U.S. foreign policy. Discusses the U.S. role as leader of the Western world and Gore's policies for dealing with allies and the Soviet Union, while maintaining U.S. respect and power. (GEA)

  12. A Foreign Policy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Albert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Presents 1988 Democratic presidential candidate, Albert Gore, Jr.'s views about the future direction of U.S. foreign policy. Discusses the U.S. role as leader of the Western world and Gore's policies for dealing with allies and the Soviet Union, while maintaining U.S. respect and power. (GEA)

  13. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  14. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  15. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  16. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  17. [Surgical policy in gastrointestinal tract foreign bodies].

    PubMed

    Vagner, E A; Subbotin, V M; Davidov, M I; Repin, V N; Titlianova, Z A; Vorontsov, A P

    1999-01-01

    66 patients (45 males and 21 females) who have swallowed 157 foreign bodies (fragments of wire, nails, needles, hafts of spoons, et were treated). If the objects were located in the stomach and the duodenum in the absence of complications endoscopic method of treatment was preferable, with the help of which 31 objects were successfully removed and the terms of treatment were significantly decreased. Conservative treatment (diet rich in fiber and protective substances, barium sulfate administration) resulted in elimination of 58 objects by vias naturals, 53 from which were not more that 8 cm long. Evacuation of the foreign bodies was carried out only during the first 3 weeks after the swallowing. Operative treatment was carried out in 21 patients, in whom 68 foreign bodies were extracted. An urgent operation in the first 6 hours in complications due to foreign bodies (perforation, incarceration, gastrointestinal bleeding) was carried out in 13 patients. An urgent operation in terms from 6 to 24 hours of hospitalization was carried out in 6 patients with large (more that 8 cm) swallowed objects, conglomerates and bunches of foreign bodies. Early removal of these objects prevented development of complications. Elective operation was carried out in failure of conservative treatment as was in 2 patients. No lethality was registered.

  18. Foreign Trained Physicians and American Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Rosemary; Vermeulen, Joan

    The purpose of the study was to bring together available materials on the location, activity, and function of more than 63,000 foreign trained physicians in the United States; to review the political, economic, and organizational factors which have led to the current manpower situation; and to analyze these data in terms of physician manpower,…

  19. The Bush Doctrine: The Foreign Policy of Republican Empire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    be other than they are (means). According to Aristotle , prudence is the virtue most characteristic of the statesman. In foreign affairs, prudence...the main issue—as is the case with foreign policy in general—is prudence, which Aristotle described as deliberating well about those things that can...is the rejection of ‘‘ moral equivalency’’ in international affairs. The Bush Doctrine unapologetically asserts the need for—and the possibility of

  20. To build a bridge: the use of foreign models by domestic critics of U.S. drug policy.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, G M

    1991-01-01

    Domestic critics of American policy concerning illicit drugs have frequently looked abroad for evidence to bolster their agenda. Policies developed elsewhere, specifically heroin maintenance in Britain and harm reduction in Holland, have profoundly affected debate over the American approach to addiction. In each instance, the interest in foreign models was whetted by a perceived social emergency: the heroin epidemic following World War II and the HIV epidemic of the last decade.

  1. Consular Identification Cards: Domestic and Foreign Policy Implications, the Mexican Case, and Related Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    National Government Domestic Social Policy Division K. Larry Storrs Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division...security consular registration” (matrícula consular de alta seguridad , MCAS, in Spanish), first became available in the United States in March 2002.1...obtain a driver’s license. It is also accepted by numerous telephone and utility companies, hospitals , and video stores, among other establishments. Some

  2. Africa Command and the Militarization of U.S. Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-10

    its large resource pool has literally catapulted the military out in front of other government agencies in its ability to implement and support...that USAFRICOM--like the other GCCs--is another prime example of American Proconsuls plying foreign policy.83 In ancient Rome , proconsuls were...Keeping Peace With America’s Military, 70. 84 The Columbia Encyclopedia, “proconsul, in ancient Rome ,” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., (New York

  3. From ’Chicken Kiev’ to Ukrainian Recognition: Domestic Politics in U.S. Foreign Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This thesis uses original research to achieve two goals. First , it is meant to give the first analytical account of U.S. recognition of Ukraine...will have an increasing role in American foreign policy for three reasons. First , they have superior knowledge to elites who are encrusted in Cold War...the ethnic population of the United States is growing. The thesis works on at least five levels. First : the role of nationalism in world politics

  4. Foreign Science and Engineering Doctoral Attainment at American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the nearly 100,000 foreign students who attained science and engineering (S&E) doctorates in the five fields of physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, and social and behavioral sciences at American universities from 1994 to 2005. Two models are presented. In the first model…

  5. Foreign Science and Engineering Doctoral Attainment at American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the nearly 100,000 foreign students who attained science and engineering (S&E) doctorates in the five fields of physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, and social and behavioral sciences at American universities from 1994 to 2005. Two models are presented. In the first model…

  6. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty...security alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  7. Explaining Iran’s Foreign Policy, 1979-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    time when a foreign policy victory was desperately needed. Pressing their advantage, in early 1985 Islamic Jihad abducted Marcel Fontaine , Marcel...kidnappings of Jean -Paul Kaufmann, Michel Seurat, David Jacobsen and Thomas Sutherland, also by Islamic Jihad, and the hijacking of TWA Flight 847.25 The

  8. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  9. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  10. Great Decisions 1990: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    The 1990 Great Decisions program, part of an annual series on foreign policy issues, is intended to create better better public understanding through information and analyses of important international issues. Current information is presented so that participants may be stimulated toward discussion, form opinions and contribute to the policy…

  11. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the…

  12. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the…

  13. Russian Foreign Policy in Historical and Current Context: A Reassessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    accustomed to regular vacations abroad and sushi and coffee bars at home. Historically, Russia’s foreign economic policy has focused on creating favorable...production and consumption , China, the Middle East, Afghanistan, the transition economies of Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

  14. Foreign Policy News in the 1980 Presidential Election Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, James Glen

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent and content of newspaper coverage of foreign policy issues in the 1980 United States presidential campaign. Fifty daily newspapers from every region of the country were selected randomly based on circulation. A list of 757 news events was divided into party and nonparty events, and the party events…

  15. Great Decisions 1989. Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    This briefing book provides the only material needed to participate in the 1989 Great Decisions national non-partisan program of volunteer run discussions on U.S. foreign policy issues for classrooms and community groups. Everyone who participates in the program is invited to fill out the opinion ballots provided in the back of the book; the…

  16. Great Decisions 1989. Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    This briefing book provides the only material needed to participate in the 1989 Great Decisions national non-partisan program of volunteer run discussions on U.S. foreign policy issues for classrooms and community groups. Everyone who participates in the program is invited to fill out the opinion ballots provided in the back of the book; the…

  17. Great Decisions 1990: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    The 1990 Great Decisions program, part of an annual series on foreign policy issues, is intended to create better better public understanding through information and analyses of important international issues. Current information is presented so that participants may be stimulated toward discussion, form opinions and contribute to the policy…

  18. Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    Mustafa Oguz, “Turkey Rolls its Diplomatic Dice ,” Turkish Daily News, August 14, 2008. 15 “Austria Says Turkey’s Position in Nabucco Limited,” Turkish...and the East. Turkey’s almost relentless engagement with some of its neighbors puts it at odds with U.S. foreign policy. The AKP does not share the

  19. Foreign Policy & Morality: Framework for a Moral Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.; Halle, Louis J.

    Two papers and several commentaries discuss a viable moral framework for foreign policy. It is hoped that the thought of some of the world's major thinkers can provide at least the foundations for a more enduring approach to the issues of political morality. The two main papers are by Father Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., president of the…

  20. Centralization and Decentralization in American Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the trend toward centralization in American education policy over the last century through a variety of lenses. The overall picture that emerges is one of a continuous tug-of-war, with national and local policymakers stumbling together toward incrementally more standardized and centralized policies. There is a center of power…

  1. Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-06

    policies. On February 1, 2017, the Trump Administration cited Iran’s continued “malign activities” and repeated ballistic missile tests, and asserted...10 Developments during the Obama Administration ............................................................. 12 The Trump ...JCPOA and the Obama Administration asserted that the threat of a nuclear-armed Iran has receded. The Trump Administration has not contradicted that

  2. Sociology and American Drug Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inciardi, James A.

    1987-01-01

    States that, although sociologists have made contributions to the drug abuse research literature, they have been absent in the formulation of drug policy. Argues that sociologists should take a pragmatic approach, using the tools of their science within the context of existing policy, to reduce drug abuse and thereby limit the need for punitive…

  3. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    PubMed

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT)

  4. 22 CFR 71.9 - Presentation of Americans at foreign courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. 71... Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. The chief of the mission concerned may exercise his discretion in the matter of procuring the presentation of American citizens at the court of the country to which...

  5. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  6. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  7. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  8. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  9. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  10. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  11. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy... defense and foreign policy. We are not required to release records that, as provided by FOIA, are “(a... national defense or foreign policy and (b) are in fact properly classified pursuant to such Executive...

  12. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy... defense and foreign policy. We are not required to release records that, as provided by FOIA, are “(a... national defense or foreign policy and (b) are in fact properly classified pursuant to such Executive...

  13. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy... defense and foreign policy. We are not required to release records that, as provided by FOIA, are “(a... national defense or foreign policy and (b) are in fact properly classified pursuant to such Executive...

  14. The changing geography of Americans graduating from foreign medical schools.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karin; Hagopian, Amy; Veninga, Catherine; Hart, L Gary

    2006-02-01

    To study U.S.-born international medical graduates in order to analyze changes in their numbers and countries of training from the 1960s and before until the early 2000s. This study was conducted from 2003-2004 at the Center for Health Workforce Studies, University of Washington. The analysis was based on data from March 2002 from the American Medical Association (AMA) for active physicians. AMA data were supplemented with data from several other sources. Descriptive statistics were produced on country of birth, country of medical school training, and year of training for all foreign-trained, patient-care physicians whose birth country was known. At least 17,000 of the foreign-trained physicians practicing in the United States are known to have been born in the United States. American physicians have graduated from foreign medical schools in increasing numbers since the 1960s. The number of U.S.-born physicians who graduated from a foreign medical school peaked in the early 1980s, but the phenomenon endures today. However, the countries in which these physicians chose to attend medical schools have changed significantly from the 1950s to the early 2000s. Over time, U.S.-born physicians have become much less likely to train in Europe and much more likely to train in certain Caribbean countries. U.S.-born physicians who graduate from medical schools abroad tend to train in just a handful of countries and attend a limited number of medical schools.

  15. Religious Roots: A Prolegomenon to Moral Judgment in American Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    SUBJECT TERMS Religion, Ethics , Policy, Worldview, Foreign Affairs, Diplomacy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...COUNT: 6397 PAGES: 38 KEY TERMS: Religion, Ethics , Policy, Worldview, Foreign Affairs, Diplomacy CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified All policy is...belief affects everything we do, influencing ethics , values, and interests. Far from being an insulated field of study disconnected from all other

  16. Policy Making for American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roald F.; Layton, Donald H.

    This monograph studies the policy-making process of public schools at the elementary and secondary levels. Variables include legislative bodies and courts at the local, State, and national levels and special interest groups (e.g., labor unions and religious bodies, professional educators, and qualified voters). Public expectations have contributed…

  17. Latin American Policy: A Different Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    21 Accession ForXTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Just if icat 10 Unannotmced l By Dstrbiut oni __ Avaimi~ t .,Codes D Avizt and/or Dizt Spccinl 6 14...the foundation of American policy for the region. Specific policy modifications are proposed. iii .. _. , .:. , , .W . . ,- J . t J.I, . 1...re- tarded by a shortage of investment funds as a result of servic- ing this debt. The recent problems of the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries

  18. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  19. The Two-Headed Eagle: Faces of Russian Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    later, FDR succumbed to his long illness just as World War II neared its end. Vice-President Harry Truman ascended to the US Presidency as a...officially denounced Stalin and his purge mentality at the Twentieth Communist Party Congress in February 1956. 27 Chapter 3 Cold War Foreign Policy...following a period of numerous illnesses , Andropov succeeded him. Ironically, the “cult of personality” scorned by Krushchev shortly after Stalin’s

  20. German Foreign and Security Policy: Trends and Transatlantic Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    established Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) embraced integration into multilateral structures as a crucial step toward fulfilling two of the...Europe and lingering European and German anxiety toward a larger and potentially more powerful Germany, German leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the...energy security goals are playing an increasingly important role in German foreign policy, particularly toward Russia and within the European Union

  1. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  2. 22 CFR 71.9 - Presentation of Americans at foreign courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. 71.9 Section 71.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND ESTATES PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF CITIZENS AND THEIR PROPERTY General Activities §...

  3. Prenatal risk factors among foreign-born Central American women: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, K F

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of empirically established prenatal risk factors for low birthweight (LBW) outcomes among two groups of low-income mothers: foreign-born Central American women and nonimmigrant, non-Hispanic women. Two hundred ninety-six women who were part of a larger study of maternal role sufficiency were included in the present study: 127 Central American women and 169 nonimmigrant, non-Hispanic women who identified themselves as Black (n = 59) or White (n = 110). Data were collected by public health nurses (PHNs) during home visits and by research nurses in prenatal health department clinics. Comparisons were made between the two groups in areas of demographic characteristics, prenatal health behaviors, and prenatal stressful life-events. Foreign-born Central American mothers were found to be less educated, more likely to be living with their partners, less likely to engage in prenatal health risk behaviors, and less likely to identify stressors in their lives. The initiation of prenatal PHN services by the target group was similar to the comparison group. Their rate of LBW deliveries did not reflect the protective effect often attributed to foreign-born Hispanic mothers. Findings are discussed in light of the paradox of LBW and Hispanic heritage. Recommendations for practice, clinical research, and public policy are also addressed.

  4. English in Foreign Language Education Policy in Japan: Toward the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Ikuo; Tanaka, Harumi

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the current and future status of foreign language education in Japan, focusing on the social, economic, and political influences on foreign language education policy. The Japanese government's foreign language education policies from the 19th century through the present are reviewed. (five references) (MDM)

  5. Teaching Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graseck, Susan

    This ERIC Digest discusses issues relating to teaching about U.S. foreign policy in the changing international environment following the end of the Cold War era and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The document treats: (1) the need and rationale for teaching and learning about current foreign policy issues; (2) main themes in foreign policy…

  6. Japanese Elites and Foreign Policy in the Era of Emerging Asian Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Louis J.

    1996-01-01

    Explicates the mercantilist ideology of the Japanese elite and its impact on Japanese trade policy. Offers a textured portrait of the world view of a particular elite: Japan's technocrats. Reveals a nationalist ideology that is not advertised by its adherents, especially to foreign observers such as in the United States. (MJP)

  7. Foreign Policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    economic system; and a brief account of Iran’s foreign policy. The essay is a broad survey of the sections mentioned above. / D N, 1473 EiTiON rf 1NV 65...It is also necessary to examine the political, economic and social systems that have evolved since 1978 under the Khomeini government. Iran, prior to...of considerable economic growth based on oil wealth and many social reforms that would lead one to believe that there existed a nation that was stable

  8. Foreign policy and arms control: The view from China

    SciTech Connect

    Daoyu, Li

    1993-12-01

    The great changes that have taken place in international relations in the past few years have created a new political an economic environment in the world, with both opportunities and challenges to the overall objective of peace and development. While the international community has finally shaken off the Cold War pattern of confrontation between the two military blocs, it is not yet free from the threat of political instability, regional conflict, and even the scourges of war. There is still along way to go in realizing the cardinal goal of complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all types of weapons of mass destruction. We continue to be confronted by so many contrasts between accomplishments and lapses, by gaps between words and deeds, and by double standards. China`s stated primary foreign policy objective is to maintain world peace, promote common progress and create favorable external conditions for China`s development. Guided by the independent foreign policy of peace, China refrains from joining any alliance, and is always opposed to hegemonism and power politics.

  9. [On the formulation of TCM foreign exchange policy after the reform and opening-up].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfang; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine are conducted under the guidance of the policy of the CPC and Chinese government. After the carrying out of the reform and opening-up policy, foreign exchange policy of TCM has experienced the process of growing up from nothing, from less to more, and from coarse to fine, which is closely related to our country's foreign policy, the cause of Chinese medicine development, and urgent need of international communication. In the three decades after the reform and opening-up policy, the formulation of foreign exchange policy of TCM can be divided into three stages: viz., inclusion in the framework of national foreign policy (1978-1985), embodiment in the policy of developing TCM cause (1986-1996), and appearance in the special policy of foreign exchange of Chinese medicine (since 1997). From the development process of these policies, the development of each policy gradually complies with the process of the development of the times, with its contents basically in line with the requirements of the times. The implementation of some policies promotes the foreign exchanges and cooperation of Chinese medicine.

  10. Cognitive Biases and Structural Failures in United States Foreign Policy: Explaining Decision-Making Dissonance in Phase IV Policy and Plans for Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Present, and Future, Third ed. (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997), 235. See also Allison , Essence of Decision, 13. 16 Hans J. Morgenthau, "A...value maximizing.18 Graham Allison posits that states select courses of action where the likelihood of achieving “goals and objectives” for a given...Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999), 4. 18 Graham T. Allison , "Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis" In American Foreign Policy

  11. 77 FR 25400 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY; Application for Manufacturing Authority; North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 109--Watertown, NY; Application for Manufacturing Authority; North American Tapes, LLC; Comment Period on New Evidence The FTZ Board is inviting public comment on new evidence submitted on behalf of North American Tapes, LLC (NAT), in the applicant's rebuttal...

  12. Health imperatives in foreign policy: the case of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon; Phua, Kai-Lit

    2007-03-01

    Malaysia's global, regional and bilateral international health relations are surveyed against the historical backdrop of the country's foreign policy. Malaysia has always participated in multilateral agencies, most notably the World Health Organization, as such agencies are part of the longstanding fabric of "good international citizenship". The threats of infectious diseases to human health and economic activity have caused an intensification and an organizational formalization of Malaysian health diplomacy, both regionally and bilaterally. Such diplomacy has also established a basis for developing a wider set of cooperative relationships that go beyond responding to the threat of pandemics. As Malaysia approaches "developed" status, its health sector is becoming increasingly integrated into the global economy through joint research and development ventures and transnational investment. At the same time, it will have the technological, financial and human resources to play an expanded altruistic role in global and regional health.

  13. Administration knowledge of economic costs of foreign policy export controls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-02

    The Export Administration Act of 1979 requires consultation, as appropriate, with businesses affected by proposed controls and consideration of the controls economic impact. GAO found that although there was minimal formal business consultation, the business community and the Commerce and State Departments did provide decision-makers with the essential economic arguments against the use of export controls. Administration economic analyses usually did not provide estimates of the controls indirect effects, but important limits exist to Commerce's ability to better quantify such economic costs. GAO's review does not support the conclusion that the administration might have acted differently had it been aware of the total economic costs, and it shifts the debate back to the usefulness of such foreign policy controls.

  14. U.S. Foreign Policy: Illusions of Powerlessness and Realities of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    The foreign policy of the United States has not taken into consideration the dynamics of world politics and the kinds of power required to participate in it. Foreign policy makers need a post-Kissinger, post-Brzezinski doctrine that corrects the distorted focus on U.S.-Soviet relations as on our central problem, accepts the inherent linkage…

  15. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy. 5.62 Section 5.62 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.62 Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy. We are not...

  16. U.S. Foreign Policy: Illusions of Powerlessness and Realities of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    The foreign policy of the United States has not taken into consideration the dynamics of world politics and the kinds of power required to participate in it. Foreign policy makers need a post-Kissinger, post-Brzezinski doctrine that corrects the distorted focus on U.S.-Soviet relations as on our central problem, accepts the inherent linkage…

  17. Foreign Language Policy at School Level: FLT and Cultural Studies across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David

    1989-01-01

    Explores aspects of successful foreign language teaching and learning that could be pertinent to the design of school policies; defines the current conception of "communicative competence"; discusses how cultural studies can be related to foreign language instruction; and describes a model policy developed during case studies across various…

  18. Clinton administration forging population-foreign policy links.

    PubMed

    De Sherbinin, A

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Clinton administration has renewed the link between global population and national security issues. These so-called "soft security issues" receive attention from the Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Tim Wirth, and the senior director of the Global Environmental Affairs branch of the National Security Council, Eileen Claussen. Wirth and Claussen draft the US response to soft security issues such as environmental security, refugee and migration movements, political instability, and religious and ethnic conflict as well as the other nonmilitary threats of illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, and international organized crime. Population was first considered a foreign policy concern in the 1960s. By 1965, President Johnson decided that the US would provide family planning supplies and technical assistance to any country which asked for help. The initial justification for assuming a leading role in developing innovative population strategies for less developed countries was a humanitarian desire to forward economic development, the self-interest of maintaining access to resources, and concern that rapid growth produced more communists. Today the US remains concerned about resource access and economic development and is also wary of spill-over environmental effects, economic migration, diminished US trade opportunities, political asylum seekers and refugees, and increasing demand for US peacekeepers. It is also believed that rapid population growth leads to political destabilization. Critics of these views blame the development difficulties of less developed countries on poor governing decisions (inadequate institutions, trade barriers, or indifference). Women's reproductive rights advocates fear that using security as a rationale for population assistance could lead to restrictions on women's rights to choose the number and spacing of births. Despite such objections, the belief that population growth is an underlying problem in imploding

  19. American Indians: Social Justice and Public Policy. Ethnicity and Public Policy Series, Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E., Ed.; Tonnesen, Thomas V., Ed.

    This book discusses legal and social aspects of public policy in American society and their relationship to fulfilling the promise of social justice for American Indians. U.S. public policy is viewed as reflecting the collective sentiments of the electorate. If the American people have the will to bring about change in the socioeconomic conditions…

  20. Confession and Carrying into Execution of Foreign Arbitration Courts' Decisions: Reciprocity and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarina, Salima A.; Nukusheva, Aigul A.; Kalmagambetov, Kassym S.; Kumysbekova, Zhanara T.; Nesterova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of foreign arbitration courts' decisions, ensuring the reciprocity and public policy. The aim of the study is to explore such aspects as reciprocity and public policy of arbitration courts. The result is the view of the public policy, despite its apparent irrelevance in today's Kazakhstan, which is of…

  1. Women in the Department of State: Their Role in American Foreign Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkin, Homer L.

    A history of the employment of women in the Department of State and the Foreign Service is presented. Thirteen chapters consider the status of American women from 1776 to the present; women in the Department and at international conferences, 1800-1940; applicants and employees for overseas employment, 1851-1943; the Foreign Service examinations;…

  2. Foreign Language Study and Afro-Americans: An Annotated Bibliography, 1931-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a reference base for teachers concerned with problems and issues of teaching foreign languages to Afro-American students in the United States. Cites 51 journal articles, unpublished documents, and doctoral dissertations that discuss rationales for foreign language study by Black students and describe teaching strategies and curriculum…

  3. A Comparative Study of Performance on a College Student Newspaper: Foreign Versus American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert Louis; Mufuka, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This study carried out at Lander University attempts to make a qualitative comparison between the contributions to a student newspaper made by foreign students and American students as well as make some analytical assessments as to the focus and world view brought to bear on the writings in the student paper. It shows that foreign students…

  4. A Comparison of Foreign Language Learning Social Environments, Motivation, and Beliefs between Chinese and American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…

  5. The Roles, Employment Status and Time Allocation of Foreign-Born Faculty in American Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    As the demographics of faculty in American higher are fast changing and more foreign-born faculty entering the system, more information about this new group of entrants needs to be scrutinized. This research is aiming to answer some issues related the foreign-born professors overlooked by the mainstream studies about faculty in American…

  6. Combined Policies and Ideologies in an American International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami

    2007-01-01

    Immersed in host countries around the globe, American international schools serve about a quarter of a million Americans. These schools can often be perceived as representatives of U.S. schools in the international setting. This study has a twofold purpose: to introduce students to the philosophy, policies, and practices of American schools…

  7. Combined Policies and Ideologies in an American International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami

    2007-01-01

    Immersed in host countries around the globe, American international schools serve about a quarter of a million Americans. These schools can often be perceived as representatives of U.S. schools in the international setting. This study has a twofold purpose: to introduce students to the philosophy, policies, and practices of American schools…

  8. Friction in US Foreign Policy: Cultural Difficulties with the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    of the current Foreign Language Proficiency Pay ( FLPP ) system, which is inadequate. 90 There is no substitute for leveraging local knowledge and...34Foreign Language Proficiency Pay ( FLPP )," [reference on-line], available from www.military.com/ Resources/ResourceFileView/PayOfficersForeign.htm-5k...Internet, accessed on March 15, 2006. A reform of the FLPP program went into effect April 1, 2000. The primary focus of the reformed FLPP program is to

  9. Work Disability Among Native-born and Foreign-born Americans: On Origins, Health, and Social Safety Nets.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Michal; Kestenbaum, Bert M; Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Mehta, Neil K; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-10-03

    Public debates about both immigration policy and social safety net programs are increasingly contentious. However, little research has explored differences in health within America's diverse population of foreign-born workers, and the effect of these workers on public benefit programs is not well understood. We investigate differences in work disability by nativity and origins and describe the mix of health problems associated with receiving Social Security Disability Insurance benefits. Our analysis draws on two large national data sources-the American Community Survey and comprehensive administrative records from the Social Security Administration-to determine the prevalence and incidence of work disability between 2001 and 2010. In sharp contrast to prior research, we find that foreign-born adults are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to report work disability, to be insured for work disability benefits, and to apply for those benefits. Overall and across origins, the foreign-born also have a lower incidence of disability benefit award. Persons from Africa, Northern Europe, Canada, and parts of Asia have the lowest work disability benefit prevalence rates among the foreign-born; persons from Southern Europe, Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Caribbean have the highest rates.

  10. 77 FR 13383 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 10(a)(2), the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on March 19, 2012, at the Department of State, Washington, DC....

  11. Globalisation and the Political Economy of Singapore's Policy on Foreign Talent and High Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Faced with an aging population, economic restructuring, and cyclical economic change, Singapore's government adopted flow-through policy of bringing in foreign capital, technology, and workers. The challenges of balancing the delicate sociopolitical compact between foreign talent and local skills are increasingly complex. (Contains 32 references.)…

  12. The Conduct of United States Foreign Policy in the Nation's Third Century. Headline Series. No. 231.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Bayless

    This Headline Series, focusing on U.S. foreign policy, is adapted from a series of four lectures by the author delivered at the Claremont University Center in April 1975. Part one discusses the 1973 Mideast oil embargo and the impact of the crisis on future U.S. foreign relations. Especially affected are questions of interdependence, raw…

  13. Where are you from? A validation of the Foreigner Objectification Scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Pituc, Stephanie T; Jung, Kyoung-Rae; Park, Irene J K; Soto, José A; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J

    2013-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos.

  14. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... economic interests into overall foreign policy and on the Department of State's role in advancing American... policy and positions. This Committee includes representatives of American organizations and institutions having an interest in international economic policy, including representatives of American...

  15. 26 CFR 46.4371-2 - Imposition of tax on policies issued by foreign insurers; scope of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-INSURED HEALTH PLANS, AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED FORM Tax on Policies Issued by Foreign Insurers... a nonresident alien individual, a foreign partnership, or a foreign corporation, as insurer (unless... “indemnity bond,” see section 4372(c). (b) Life insurance, sickness, and accident policies, and annuity...

  16. Building the Distributed North American Library Collection for Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzner, Burkhart

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the future of research libraries and changes in international scholarship focuses on the acquisition and distribution of foreign-language and area-studies materials. Experiences at the University of Pittsburgh are highlighted, including planning principles. (LRW)

  17. Borderless STEM Education: A Study of Both American Students and Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komura, Kiriko

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global…

  18. "Are We 'Real' Americans?": Cultural Production of "Forever Foreigners" at a Diversity Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gilbert C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the history of Asian immigrants dates back to the 17th century, their status as authentic Americans is still questioned today. With this in mind, this article looks at how a diversity event at a racially diverse inner-city high school produces the image of Asian Americans as "forever foreigners." Using qualitative tools like observation…

  19. "Are We 'Real' Americans?": Cultural Production of "Forever Foreigners" at a Diversity Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gilbert C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the history of Asian immigrants dates back to the 17th century, their status as authentic Americans is still questioned today. With this in mind, this article looks at how a diversity event at a racially diverse inner-city high school produces the image of Asian Americans as "forever foreigners." Using qualitative tools like observation…

  20. Borderless STEM Education: A Study of Both American Students and Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komura, Kiriko

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global…

  1. Making health an imperative of foreign policy: The value of a human rights approach.

    PubMed

    Bustreo, Flavia; Doebbler, Curtis F J

    2010-06-15

    Health is increasingly seen as relevant to foreign policy; nevertheless, it remains subordinate to other interests. In particular, the interests of security and economics are often presented as more critical than health. This is due to a failure to sufficiently recognize the legal obligations that states have undertaken to ensure the human right to health. This article argues that health should be an imperative of foreign policy, equally valid, and prioritized in resource allocation. We suggest application of the human rights approach with attention to the legal duty of cooperation and the necessity of ensuring broad participation. We suggest that the human rights approach to health can contribute to achieving this result and is compatible with, and beneficial to, other foreign policy concerns. Finally, we conclude that the human rights approach to health requires that health be an imperative in foreign policymaking processes.

  2. BRACEROS, MEXICO, AND FOREIGN TRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    CRITICISM OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICY RESTRICTING USE OF FOREIGN CONTRACT WORKERS ON AMERICAN FARMS IN 1965 EXPRESSES THREE POSSIBILITIES -- (1) A SEVERE DISRUPTION OF DOMESTIC FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION, (2) AN INCREASE OF AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN, PARTICULARLY MEXICAN, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AND (3) A LOSS OF UNITED STATES EXPORT MARKET…

  3. BRACEROS, MEXICO, AND FOREIGN TRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    CRITICISM OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICY RESTRICTING USE OF FOREIGN CONTRACT WORKERS ON AMERICAN FARMS IN 1965 EXPRESSES THREE POSSIBILITIES -- (1) A SEVERE DISRUPTION OF DOMESTIC FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION, (2) AN INCREASE OF AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN, PARTICULARLY MEXICAN, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AND (3) A LOSS OF UNITED STATES EXPORT MARKET…

  4. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  5. Language Policing: Micro-Level Language Policy-in-Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…

  6. Language Policing: Micro-Level Language Policy-in-Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…

  7. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  8. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  9. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    PubMed

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  10. The American Civic Culture and an Inclusivist Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lawrence H.

    The evolution of an inclusivist immigration and naturalization policy in the United States is described. The policy, implicit in the founding myth of the United States as a haven for all, has been challenged repeatedly by ideas of national membership, and is only possible because of the American principles of universal rights. The founding ideals…

  11. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  12. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  13. American Academy of Pediatrics releases new circumcision policy.

    PubMed

    1999-03-22

    On March 1, 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a new policy stating that the benefits of male circumcision are not significant enough to merit its routine use. The policy statement, however, agreed with the notion that parents could take cultural, religious, and ethnic traditions into account when making a decision about male circumcision. The policy also recommended that if parents decide to have their infant sons circumcised, it is essential that analgesia be used.

  14. Influencing public policy to improve the lives of older Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A; Kietzman, Kathryn G; Alkema, Gretchen E; Bragg, Elizabeth J; Hensel, Brian K; Miles, Toni P; Segev, Dorry L; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-12-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging Policy Fellows, the authors outline the formal and informal processes by which public policy is shaped in the U.S. Congress. Many who seek to influence public policy do so by telling legislators what they want. A less obvious path to policy influence is for gerontologists to offer their expertise to legislators and their staff. The authors provide specific recommendations for how gerontologists can establish productive and ongoing relationships with key legislative players. The authors also emphasize the importance of collaboration with advocacy groups and with local and state stakeholders to advance aging-related public policy to improve the lives of older Americans.

  15. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy.

  16. Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Greece and Turkey: Contrast within Coherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    may have been motivated on the Greek side by wariness of the apparent courtship of the Soviet Union being undertaken by Greece’s traditional rival...Ulam, Adam B., The Rivals, Penguin Books, 1971. 11. Couloumbis, T.A., Petropulos, J.A. Psomiades, H.J., Foreign Interference in Greek Politics, Pella

  17. Unlearning American Patriotism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  18. Unlearning American Patriotism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  19. To see and not be seen: Latin American illegal foreign workers in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Roer-strier, D; Olshtain-mann, O

    1999-01-01

    "This article describes the formation and characteristics of the new evolving community of illegal Latin American foreign workers in Jerusalem while adopting the ecological perspective, which examines human development and behaviour in various contexts of their social and cultural environments. We have looked specifically at illegal Latin American foreign workers' reasons for and process of migration, their accommodation and living conditions, allocation of employment, daily cultural and social conditions, education and health issues concerning children and families, perceptions of relations with host culture and perceptions of well-being and future expectations." (EXCERPT)

  20. Nailing health planks into the foreign policy platform: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Labonte, Ronald

    2004-02-16

    Foreign policy, especially trade policy, can have dramatic but rarely considered effects on public health. International human rights covenants oblige governments to scrutinise their foreign policy, including trade policy, for its impact on the progressive realisation of the right to health. Health is both a means and an end of development policy, but government investments in health are inadequate to reduce health disparities within and between nations. Few donor countries provide the agreed target of 0.7% of gross national income for development aid or toward reaching the Millennium Development Goals. The progressive liberalisation requirement of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), if applied to commitments in health care, education, and water and sanitation services, may conflict with the progressive realisation obligation of the right to health. Alternatives to regulating trade in such essential services are proposed in this article.

  1. Looking beyond the national interest: reconstructing the debate on health and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin J

    2004-02-16

    Current international instability has promoted health to the foreign and security policy agenda; however, health is narrowly conceived in terms of promoting the national interest and defending the state, particularly from the risks of infectious disease and bioterrorism. This development involves the risk of global health being co-opted into an international agenda that focuses narrowly on security concerns rather than on broader global health issues. An alternative construction places greater emphasis on shared humanitarian values in a globalised world. This offers a more equal relationship between health and foreign policy and allows a broader range of issues (eg, trade in goods and services affecting health) to be considered in bringing together global health and foreign and security policy.

  2. Policies and Procedures for Foreign Exchange Agencies. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Donald D.

    The guide details the policy of the Jefferson County (Alabama) Board of Education policy concerning international exchange of students (travel both to and from United States) in elementary and secondary grades. The first section specifies the standards by which the county will evaluate all international exchange agencies concerning structure,…

  3. The saboteurs of Britain's opiate policy: overprescribing physicians or American-style "junkies"?

    PubMed

    Blackwell, J

    1988-05-01

    In the 1950s a new deviant drug user, the American-style "junkie", appeared in the United Kingdom. Previous discussions of this subculture have not raised the issue of how it came to be patterned on a foreign model, rather than evolving as a domestic deviant style. A number of overprescribing physicians who nourished the new subculture by their generous prescribing practices provided the impetus for changes in British drug policy. It is argued that these "overprescribers" were the creation of the new generation of heroin users, as well as their creators.

  4. Cosmopolitanism and foreign policy for health: ethics for and beyond the state.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael

    2013-07-08

    Foreign policy holds great potential to improve the health of a global citizenship. Our contemporary political order is, in part, characterized by sovereign states acting either in opposition or cooperation with other sovereign states. This order is also characterized by transnational efforts to address transnational issues such as those featured so prominently in the area of global health, such as the spread of infectious disease, health worker migration and the movement of health-harming products. These two features of the current order understandably create tension for truly global initiatives. National security has become the dominant ethical frame underlying the health-based foreign policy of many states, despite the transnational nature of many contemporary health challenges. This ethical approach engages global health as a means to achieving national security objectives. Implicit in this ethical frame is the version of humanity that dichotomizes between "us" and "them". What has been left out of this discourse, for the most part, is the role that foreign policy can play in extending the responsibility of states to protect and promote health of the other, for the sake of the other. The principal purpose of this paper is to review arguments for a cosmopolitan ethics of health-based foreign policy. I will argue that health-based foreign policy that is motivated by security interests is lacking both morally and practically to further global health goals. In other words, a cosmopolitan ethic is not only intrinsically superior as a moral ideal, but also has potential to contribute to utilitarian ends. This paper draws on the cosmopolitanism literature to build robust support for foreign policies that contribute to sustainable systems of global health governance.

  5. Cosmopolitanism and foreign policy for health: ethics for and beyond the state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Foreign policy holds great potential to improve the health of a global citizenship. Our contemporary political order is, in part, characterized by sovereign states acting either in opposition or cooperation with other sovereign states. This order is also characterized by transnational efforts to address transnational issues such as those featured so prominently in the area of global health, such as the spread of infectious disease, health worker migration and the movement of health-harming products. These two features of the current order understandably create tension for truly global initiatives. Discussion National security has become the dominant ethical frame underlying the health-based foreign policy of many states, despite the transnational nature of many contemporary health challenges. This ethical approach engages global health as a means to achieving national security objectives. Implicit in this ethical frame is the version of humanity that dichotomizes between “us” and “them”. What has been left out of this discourse, for the most part, is the role that foreign policy can play in extending the responsibility of states to protect and promote health of the other, for the sake of the other. Summary The principal purpose of this paper is to review arguments for a cosmopolitan ethics of health-based foreign policy. I will argue that health-based foreign policy that is motivated by security interests is lacking both morally and practically to further global health goals. In other words, a cosmopolitan ethic is not only intrinsically superior as a moral ideal, but also has potential to contribute to utilitarian ends. This paper draws on the cosmopolitanism literature to build robust support for foreign policies that contribute to sustainable systems of global health governance. PMID:23829176

  6. 48 CFR 25.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.602 Policy. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 25.602 Section...

  7. 48 CFR 25.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.602 Policy. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 25.602 Section...

  8. 48 CFR 25.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.602 Policy. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 25.602 Section...

  9. 48 CFR 25.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.602 Policy. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 25.602 Section...

  10. 48 CFR 25.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Buy American Statute-Construction Materials 25.602 Policy. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 25.602 Section...

  11. The Revista Médica project: medical journals as instruments of German foreign cultural policy towards Latin America, 1920-1938.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    After the First World War, foreign cultural policy became one of the few fields in which Germany could act with relative freedom from the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. In this context the Hamburg doctors Ludolph Brauer, Bernhard Nocht and Peter Mühlens created the Revista Médica de Hamburgo (as of 1928 Revista Médica Germano-Ibero-Americana), a monthly medical journal in Spanish (and occasionally in Portuguese), to increase German influence especially in Latin American countries. The focus of this article is on the protagonists of this project, the Hamburg doctors, the Foreign Office in Berlin, the German pharmaceutical industry, and the publishing houses involved.

  12. Biafra Still Matters: Contested Humanitarian Airlift and American Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    behind the scenes , while remaining neutral (or even pro-federal government) publicly. The ICRC and United Nations were failing to make headway with...Government of Nigeria. The United States decided to remain neutral while later supporting the humanitarian operation. Such shades of gray...affect the theory, practice, and doctrine of humanitarian relief? Since risk to personnel, risk of escalation, and perceptions of neutrality or use

  13. The New World Order: Enduring Currents in American Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Waltz , Kenneth N. " Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory ." Journal of International Affairs, 44, 1, (Spring 1990): 21- 37. Walzer...Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations, 4-5, as cited in Ashley, "Political Realism and Human Interests," 210. 5a Kenneth Waltz , Theory of International...underlining theme of isolationism, that the 40 Kenneth W. Thompson, "Isolationism and Collective Security: The Uses and Limits of Two Theories

  14. The International Criminal Court: Time to Adjust American Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-26

    Nations established the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia ( ICTY ) in 1993, granting it the power to try individuals alleged to have committed...war crimes.18 Despite strong arguments to the contrary, the ICTY established that customary international law allows the court to pierce state...18 Ibid. 19 Ibid. Dusan Tadic, the first person tried by the ICTY , argued that the ICTY had no jurisdiction over his conduct because his actions

  15. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

  16. East Asia’s Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-16

    At the other extreme, Japan, the Philippines, and South Korea have usually allowed their currencies to float freely in foreign exchange ( forex ...China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam allow their currency to adjust in value in forex markets so long as the...There were also reports that Korea sold more dollars for won in early April 2008.7 At the time, some forex analysts claimed that the new South Korean

  17. Bases in the Philippines: A Foreign Policy Paradox

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    vim epressed In this peper are those of the author and do uot necessarily reflect the views of the D.partent of Defersce or any of its agencies. rh...point out that the country’s 1987 constitution calls for the removal of all foreign troops by 1991 unless a treaty or referendum extends their stay...negotiations conducted in September, 1990,. President Aquino set the tone for the meetings by calling for a negotiated, orderly withdrawal. U.S

  18. In defence of New Zealand. Foreign policy choices in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear-free zones, neutrality, and non-alignment are catchwords that have recently earned international publicity for New Zealand's foreign policy. This book addresses the issues underlying world-wide interest in the area. The following topics are covered: the nuclear debate; the ANZUS alliance; the ANZUS debate; nonalignment; neutrality; nuclear free Pacific; and port access and alliance management. The author concludes that, rather than indicating a need for a radically new course, a thorough review of New Zealand's defence and foreign policies may well provide renewed justification for existing alliance structures.

  19. Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

  20. Oil, the state, and power politics: the political economy of Nigeria's foreign policy, 1960-80

    SciTech Connect

    Abubakar, D.

    1986-01-01

    This study deals with the misconception of policy makers about the place of a commodity in the international market, and the potential confusion of economic gains as a political leverage in the realm of foreign policy. Substantively, the study focuses on the orientation of Nigeria's foreign policy over a period of two decades (1960-80) and emphasizes the impact of oil wealth, along with the perception of such sudden wealth by relevant Nigerian decision makers, on the pattern of the country's behavior in the international system. By drawing pertinent insight from interdependence paradigm and decision-making theories, the thesis tests a central hypothesis that differences in the attributes of nation state actors will be related to variations in the foreign policy behavior patterns that the state will exhibit in the international arena. Oil, the thesis argues, has been an important determinant of Nigeria's diplomatic posture in the African sub-system. However, the sharp decline in oil prices affected Nigeria adversely. In terms of her foreign policy, the hitherto activist orientation of the 1970s gradually gave way to a rather low profile posture in the early 1980s.

  1. Borderless STEM education: A study of both American students and foreign students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Kiriko

    This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global competencies. The purpose was to understand how international experiences can be enhanced in order to increase American STEM students' interest in study abroad programs and in earning advanced STEM degrees and to understand how to attract more foreign STEM students to study in the United States. Issues of particular focus were: the impacts of gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality on STEM students' motivation to participate in, and responses to study abroad programs, and the value of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in borderless STEM education. Several different forms of multivariate analyses were performed on data from surveys at seven public and private colleges and universities in the Southern California area. The results indicated that among American students, greater value was placed on social and cultural experiences gained through studying abroad. In contrast, among foreign students greater value was placed on enhancement of their academic and professional development opportunities. American students whose study abroad included research experiences had a greater interest in international research and teaching in the future. Foreign graduate students majoring in computer science, engineering and biology are the most likely to seek opportunities to study and work in the US. Finally, ICTs were valued by American students as platforms for social interactions and by foreign students for facilitating professional networks. The analyses lead to several recommendations, including: STEM faculty should be made aware of the critical importance of their advising and mentoring in motivating students to choose to

  2. [American policy (1986-1989): results and limits].

    PubMed

    Miller, M J

    1990-01-01

    Although the American program to legalize illegal immigrants succeeded in giving legal status to over 3 million foreigners between 1987-88, the experience contributes to understanding of the limitations in a state's ability to control illegal immigration. Some part of the illegal population entitled to legalization failed to apply to 1 of the 110 offices opened for the purpose, but the proportion is debatable because in the US as elsewhere the exact numbers and characteristics of the illegal population are unknown. As elsewhere, political and legislative constraints limited the scope of the program. The duration of the program and the access to it of illegal migrants both might have been increased. The major legalization program began on May 5, 1987. There were 6 specific component programs each with its own terms of eligibility, advantages, expsense, and duration. The principal programs concerned illegal immigrants residing continuously in the US since January 1, 1982, and illegal immigrants working in agriculture. Both groups were expected to pay $185 per applicant to cover expenditures. The program got underway slowly due to financing problems and an unexpected bypassing by most applicants of the voluntary agencies trained to assist them. The relevance of the legalization to family members of applicants residing elsewhere is a serious question. A survey in late 1987 indicated that around 90% of the illegal aliens interviewed were aware of the legalization policy. Lack of information, inability to pay the fee, and erroneous perception of ineligibility were the 3 reasons cited to explain why eligible individuals failed to apply. The obligation of proving continuous presence posed a problem for many and helped explain the large number of last-minute applicants. Data from applications should be a rich source of information on the illegal immigrant population, but to date only a few characteristics have been analyzed in provisional and incomplete form. Some 95.9% of

  3. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Scandinavian Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Swedish and Norwegian immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's…

  4. How to Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Israeli Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Sephardic and Ashkenazi Israeli immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents, by either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's…

  5. Piquing the Interest of African American Students in Foreign Languages: The Case of Spelman College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Anthony G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses growing enrollments in foreign languages at Spelman College, a small language arts college for African American women in Atlanta, Georgia. Attributes the growing enrollments to the willingness of faculty to attend to student needs, interests, and specific black heritage. Suggests strategies for attracting students of color to languages…

  6. An Investigation of Reading Strategies Applied by American Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Thompson, Li-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Minimal research has been conducted in reading Chinese as a second/ foreign language (CSI/CFL). In an effort to further the understanding of the reading process, this study, utilizing think aloud and retelling procedures, focuses on the identification of strategies that American university students applied to read Chinese texts (narrative and…

  7. Familiar Foreign: Hmong American Students Engaging and Resisting America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePouw, Christin

    Focus groups with Hmong American undergraduates examined their educational experiences in La Crosse, Wisconsin. Over 25 years after the first Hmong refugees arrived, cultural difference is still used to explain the status of Hmong communities. Hmong children are said to be excelling in school, though reports do not consider the high numbers of…

  8. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1406, Selections from Soviet Foreign Policy Journals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-09

    Underdevelopment (A. A. Oleynikov; LATINSKAYA AMERIKA, Feb 83) 126 U.S. Food Export Policies Criticized (E. Gryaznov; KHOZYAYSTVO I PRAVO, Jan...cattle and dairy products. Similar examples are numerous, cereals and some other food products were exempt from This foreign economic policy brought...which, in addition to granting them privileges, pro- groupS 0f commodities were consumer goods and food , vided for a net balance. Such terms were to be

  9. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  10. Creating American Jobs Through Foreign Capital Investment Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Larsen, Rick [D-WA-2

    2011-09-20

    09/23/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3245, which became Public Law 112-176 on 9/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Creating American Jobs Through Foreign Capital Investment Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Larsen, Rick [D-WA-2

    2011-09-20

    House - 09/23/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3245, which became Public Law 112-176 on 9/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Creating American Jobs Through Foreign Capital Investment Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Larsen, Rick [D-WA-2

    2011-09-20

    09/23/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3245, which became Public Law 112-176 on 9/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. A Policy of Inclusion: Alternative Foreign Language Curriculum for High-Risk and Learning-Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritikin, Lorin

    As an alternative to waiving foreign language requirements for students with learning disabilities or learning problems, a policy of inclusion in foreign language programs is proposed, based on research suggesting that alternative language teaching methods can be effective with these populations. The rationale for such a policy and the theoretical…

  14. National Opinion Ballot Report, October 1993. Results of National Opinion Survey on U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norpoth, Helmut

    This publication reports on the results of 35,793 high school participants in the Foreign Policy Association's 1993 study and discussion program focusing on opinions about U.S. foreign policy. The topics highlighted in the research include: (1) the U.S. in a New World; (2) the United Nations; (3) Germany's role; (4) China; (5) Trade; (6) Russian…

  15. Mexico’s Central American Policy: Apologies, Motivations, and Principles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-15

    President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz (1964-70) launched in early 1966 the first goodwill tour of the Central American nations ever undertaken by a Mexican...the North" and Mexico’s policies have intensified those concerns throughout the Caribbean Basin. As early as the 1960’s, when Diaz Ordaz laid the...Liberal reformer, Benito Juarez, played politics in Guatemala and later Porfirio Diaz was a "sporadic meddler in Central American affairs." 7

  16. [New directions of patient safety policy in several foreign countries].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu

    2003-01-01

    The importance of safety in healthcare has long been recognized, but actual policies and actions to prevent medical errors and improve patient safety have not been developed comprehensively. Retrospective studies based on medical records provide evidence of the extent of adverse events in healthcare services. The new trends in policies for patient safety differ radically from the previous ones in that they emphasize the necessity of reforming the entire healthcare system to make patient safety the first priority. To achieve this it is necessary to establish an adequate information system to collect and analyze data in a timely fashion and distribute the results to stakeholders to encourage "Safety Culture" in healthcare industries.

  17. On Politics: The Militarization of American Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    power is MIDLIFE , comprised of; Military, Information, Diplomatic, Law Enforcement, Finance and Economic. Some of these are further subdivided...important than ever to have coherent policies and objects using the other three instruments of power. The use of the MIDLIFE acronym would be futile...achieve the desired end-state. The tools and relationships necessary to enable such coordination must be established before a crisis unfolds.21

  18. The Two Koreas. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this seven-chapter report examines the political, economic, and anomalous positions of North and South Korea in the international system. "Traditional Legacies" traces the historical development of the two…

  19. The Two Koreas. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this seven-chapter report examines the political, economic, and anomalous positions of North and South Korea in the international system. "Traditional Legacies" traces the historical development of the two…

  20. Italian Foreign Policy: Trends for the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    bound Jewish American, 43 89 Antonio Cassese, Terrorism, Politics, and the Law: The Achille Lauro...examination of the case, Antonio Cassese points out that despite an initial effort of Reagan and Craxi’s governments to coordinate action against the...Ansaldo, Marco. Top Secret: il caso Ocalan, (Rome, Gamberetti, 2002). Attina, Fulvio. “La Partnership Euro-Mediterranea: Politica e Sicurezza

  1. The Impact of Foreign Policy on Educational Exchange: The Swedish State Scholarship Programme 1938-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Programmes of international educational exchange are not only carried out for educational purposes, but form an important part of modern-day public diplomacy. Through exchange programmes education and research are linked with foreign policy interests, which then in turn should affect the international contacts of universities and research…

  2. The Impact of Foreign Policy on Educational Exchange: The Swedish State Scholarship Programme 1938-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Programmes of international educational exchange are not only carried out for educational purposes, but form an important part of modern-day public diplomacy. Through exchange programmes education and research are linked with foreign policy interests, which then in turn should affect the international contacts of universities and research…

  3. 78 FR 44028 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio... carrier, aeronautical en route and aeronautical fixed radio station licensees. DATES: Effective on August..., July 10, 2013, the following corrections are made: Subpart F--Wireless Radio Services Applications and...

  4. Simulations for the Discipline Specific and Professional Education of Foreign Policy Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, Maryanne; Kingsmill, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly universities aim to provide students with opportunities to graduate with skills ready to perform in the workplace. However, workplace-based opportunities for students enrolled in foreign policy subjects are more limited due to the diplomatic and sensitive political nature of the professional work. Thus there exists a need for higher…

  5. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  6. 17 CFR 250.105 - Disclosure detrimental to the national defense or foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... United States for protection in the interests of national defense or foreign policy. (b) Where a document... such document or information, a statement from an appropriate department or agency of the United States... the Commission pursuant to a determination of an appropriate department or agency of the United...

  7. Simulating the Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loggins, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of the foreign policy decision-making process, as described in this article, can assist an instructor in linking students' abstract understanding of complex political events, circumstances, and decision making to the real-world interplay of the multiple factors involved in decision making. It is this type of active learning that helps…

  8. A Decision for War: The Formulation of English Foreign Policy from September 1754 to July 1755.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    arriva- reglas upor 23 If this had been done, or even less than this, as the result of our meeting about this time twelve month [ago] at Mr. Pelham’s...Translated by J. Lewis May. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1934. Gibbs , G. C. "Parliament and Foreign Policy in the Age of Stanhope and Walpole

  9. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  10. Defusing a Foreign Policy Crisis: Myth and Victimage in Reagan's 1983 Lebanon/Grenada Adress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klope, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates the operation of myth and victimage in President Reagan's Lebanon/Grenada address. Delineates the clustering structure within the speech, suggesting how the arrangement of mythic content accomplished victimage. Argues that Reagan defused his foreign policy by redefining it, thereby making the Lebanon/Grenada situation appear both…

  11. China's Policy of Chinese as a Foreign Language and the Use of Overseas Confucius Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hongqin; Huang, Jianbin

    2010-01-01

    China's economic power is changing attitudes towards Mandarin Chinese worldwide. Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) consequently emerges as a subject for research as well as an educational market. This article investigates the modern evolution of CFL curriculum policy that has led to the current rapid growth of the Confucius Institute (CI) around…

  12. Not just maternalism: marriage and fatherhood in American welfare policy.

    PubMed

    Geva, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The United States' 1996 welfare reforms are often interpreted as a historical break in transitioning from supporting motherhood to commodifiying women's labor. However, this cannot account for welfare reform's emphasis upon heterosexual marriage and fatherhood promotion. The paper traces continuities and shifts in over a century of familial regulation through American welfare policy, specifying the place of marriage promotion within welfare policy. Up until 1996, families were key sites of intervention through which the American welfare state was erected, especially through single women as mothers - not wives. However, as of the 1960s, concern with African American men's "failed" familial commitments turned policymakers toward concern over marriage promotion for women and men. While marriage "disincentives" for aid recipients were lifted in the 1960s, the 1996 reforms structured a new form of nuclear family governance actively promoting marriage rooted in, but distinct from, the previous. Given the historical absence of welfare policies available to poor men, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families' (TANF) marriage promotion policies have positioned poor women as nodes connecting the state to poor men, simultaneously structuring poor women as breadwinners, mothers, and wives. Recent welfare reform has also started to target poor men directly, especially in fatherhood and marriage promotion initiatives. The article highlights how, in addition to workfare policies, marriage promotion is a neoliberal policy shifting risk to the shoulders of the poor, aiming to produce "strong families" for the purposes of social security.

  13. German Foreign and Security Policy: Trends and Transatlantic Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-20

    Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is also said to have expressed concerns about German unification. See Bush speech at the German Embassy, Washington, DC...Members of Congress view Germany as a key U.S. ally, have welcomed German leadership in Europe, and voiced expectations for increased U.S.-German...8 European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) .....................................................................9 European Leadership

  14. East Timor and U.S. Foreign Policy: Making Sausage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    financial institutions (IFIs) and the Indonesian Government (GOI) on a rescue package. Sensing President Soeharto was vulnerable, East Timor activists...pressed harder; but Soeharto staved off any dramatic policy change for the province. My contacts3 tell me Washington decision-making on the political

  15. Should the United States Create an American Foreign Legion?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    their exhaustively researched book, Stiglitz and Bilmes claim the total cost of the war in Iraq to the United States will be approximately three...these jobs, indicates that the current pay scale would likely 28 Joseph E. Stiglitz , Linda J. Bilmes...Eugene B. "The New Condotteri and U.S. Policy: The Privatization of Conflict and Its Implications." Parameters 32 (Winter 2002-03): 104–117. Stiglitz

  16. 22 CFR 1004.1 - General policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General policies. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING OPEN MEETINGS WITHIN THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1004.1 General policies. The Inter-American Foundation (IAF) will, in accordance with...

  17. 22 CFR 1004.1 - General policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true General policies. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING OPEN MEETINGS WITHIN THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1004.1 General policies. The Inter-American Foundation (IAF) will, in accordance with...

  18. 22 CFR 1004.1 - General policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General policies. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING OPEN MEETINGS WITHIN THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1004.1 General policies. The Inter-American Foundation (IAF) will, in accordance with...

  19. 22 CFR 1004.1 - General policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true General policies. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING OPEN MEETINGS WITHIN THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1004.1 General policies. The Inter-American Foundation (IAF) will, in accordance with...

  20. 22 CFR 1004.1 - General policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true General policies. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING OPEN MEETINGS WITHIN THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1004.1 General policies. The Inter-American Foundation (IAF) will, in accordance with...

  1. Policy solutions to address the foreign-educated and foreign-born health care workforce in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Auerbach, David I; Muench, Ulrike; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-11-01

    Foreign-educated and foreign-born health workers constitute a sizable and important portion of the US health care workforce. We review the distribution of these workers and their countries of origin, and we summarize the literature concerning their contributions to US health care. We also report on these workers' experiences in the United States and the impact their migration has on their home countries. Finally, we present policy strategies to increase the benefits of health care worker migration to the United States while mitigating its negative effects on the workers' home countries. These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers.

  2. Hybrid Power: Mobility Air Forces and Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    over, the leaflet shows the Afghan tearing open the packet. The word " Halal " is at the upper right of the reverse side to show that the food was...aid of that country through food distribution, water purification technology and medical aid. Since time is of the essence, a large USAF strategic... food , shelter, and sanitation. The American tsunami relief effort was called Operation UNIFIED ASSISTANCE. By the time the operation was declared

  3. The United States and Tunisia: A Foreign Policy Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    olive oil , wheat and wine--all cultivated in the low and moist coastal areas. 24 6, IV The French colonization experience still affects Tunisia’s...same years, exceptionally good weather In Tunisia contributed to record levels of citrus and olive oil production. A 1974 increase in world phosphate...the Western European market for many of Tunisia’s food products, especially olive oil , was reduced as a result of EEC policies. Since 1975, Tunisia

  4. Problems and policies regarding the socio-economic integration of returnees and foreign workers in Greece.

    PubMed

    Glytsos, N P

    1995-01-01

    "The integration of repatriating Greek migrants, ethnic Greeks and foreign workers has individual and macroeconomic aspects, both of which must be addressed within a dynamic perspective.... This article analyses the problems involved, and the policies and programmes adopted (or the lack of policies), for the integration of incoming workers to the Greek economy. Wherever possible, the suitability and effectiveness of measures taken are evaluated against the experience gained.... It may be concluded from this analysis that policies adopted for the integration of various migrant groups to Greece (i.e. Greek migrant returnees, ethnic-Greek foreigners and illegal migrants) lack a central aim, orientation and strategy, as well as a long-term perspective." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  5. Exploratory Strategic Evaluation of Policies for Aging Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles; And Others

    This report analyzes federal policies and program for aging Americans in view of emerging socio-economic issues to determine if the present federal strategy has future viability. A conceptual framework and methodology were developed to evaluate federal programs in terms of individual needs. Based on this strategic evaluation, alternative…

  6. Federal Legislative Policy of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Legislation Committee.

    The American Library Association's policy on federal legislation is based on its objectives of promoting and improving library service and librarianship. Representing those who use libraries as well as those who operate them, the Association is a source of information on libraries and information services for those concerned with formulating and…

  7. Federal Policies and Programs for American Indians. Staff Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskrat, Joseph; And Others

    The document presents Federal government policies and programs for American Indians, and the history of the Federal government-Indian relationship. Topics discussed are: (1) land management and industrial development; (2) employment programs; (3) education; (4) welfare programs; (5) other Federal programs (housing, transportation, and public…

  8. Federal Language Policy and American Indian Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, T. L.

    In the past 25 years, American Indian education has undergone tremendous changes in both content (curriculum and pedagogy) and context (institutional framework). Centered on the issue of control, changes at both levels have resulted from a dynamic interplay between federal language policy and local initiatives. The federal Bilingual Education Act…

  9. Five Asian and Pacific American Perspectives on Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This is a compilation of five brief commentaries on Federal educational policy as it relates to Asian and Pacific Americans. In the first, former Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink stresses the importance of organized political action in overcoming problems related to discrimination and economic and educational disadvantages. In the second paper,…

  10. [Latin-American public policy regarding social determinants of health].

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries' public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries' databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization's concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework.

  11. 'Cold reality in the land of fire': The interrelations of Azerbaijan's natural gas export and foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marosvari, Csaba

    Azerbaijan, a landlocked post-Soviet country since its independence has been trying to utilize its energy resources in its foreign policy. With production-sharing agreements with Western oil companies beginning with the 1994 signing of the "Contract of the Century" and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline Azerbaijan successfully opened up its energy sector for foreign investment and used pipelines to stabilize its economy and underpin its foreign policy. The discovery of the Shah Deniz gas field opened up new opportunities for Baku to buttress its foreign policy goals with the export of natural gas. In this Master's thesis I will evaluate and show the importance and significance of natural gas export in Azerbaijani foreign policy.

  12. Great Decisions '82: Impartial Background and Analysis of Eight of the Most Important Foreign Policy Issues Facing the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L.; And Others

    This study and discussion guide covers eight major U.S. foreign policy issues. It is designed to help high school and college level students and adults understand the complexities of foreign policy issues and to articulate their own informed opinions. Sponsored nationally by the nonpartisan Foreign Policy Association and now in its 28th year, the…

  13. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  14. Perinatal outcomes among foreign-born and US-born Chinese Americans, 1995-2000.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Keith, Louis G; Kirby, Russell S

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines nativity differences in adverse perinatal outcomes of Chinese-American mothers. Singleton live births to US-resident Chinese women (150,620 foreign-born, 15,040 US-born) and a random sample of 150,620 non-Hispanic White mothers were selected from 1995 to 2000 national linked birth/infant death certificate files. Associations between maternal nativity status and adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regressions. Compared to US-born Chinese mothers, foreign-born Chinese mothers were less likely to be unmarried, teen mothers, have a non-Hispanic White or other race partner, be rural residents, and more likely to be less educated, or utilize prenatal care inadequately. Controlling for these factors, foreign-born Chinese-American mothers had significantly lower risks for low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational age, whereas risks for infant mortality, neonatal mortality, and post-neonatal mortality did not differ significantly from those of infants of US-born Chinese mothers. Chinese Americans exhibited clear nativity differentials for adverse birth outcomes.

  15. American drivers in Europe: different signing policy may cause safety problems at uncontrolled intersections.

    PubMed

    Summala, H

    1998-03-01

    European signing policy favours uncontrolled intersections--a trend which is in marked contrast to the U.S.A. policy. European drivers must constantly keep in mind the general rule of priority at cross-roads which requires one to yield to a vehicle coming from the right, if not otherwise indicated. For a European driver, an uncontrolled junction means an obligation to yield to vehicles on the right while for U.S. drivers, adapted to the U.S.A. system with more frequent signing, an intersection unsigned from his direction suggests priority for him, particularly in an urban area. To demonstrate a safety problem which follows, three American subjects, visiting professors without previous experience of driving in Europe, were asked to drive a 1.8 km route six times with an instrumented car in the downtown area of Helsinki. All of them first showed unsafe driving practices at uncontrolled intersections with restricted visibility in comparison to a local control group, but changed their strategy, both in terms of speed control and visual search, after they had been informed of the European rule of crossroad priority. In spite of the same general rule at blind intersections in a similar urban environment, a different signing policy may cause safety problems for American drivers in Europe, and translate into more accidents at non-priority intersections. Varying rules and practices in different jurisdictions call for further efforts in presenting vital information to foreign motorists and striving towards worldwide uniform traffic control.

  16. Policy Implications of Trends for Asian American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #2: Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Asian American students, who comprise almost 5% of public school students in the U.S., are a very diverse group. In the aggregate, Asian Americans often have the highest achievement on state tests among major racial/ethnic subgroups. But this overall high performance can sometimes lead educators and policymakers to overlook the needs of…

  17. One Nation...Indivisible? Ethnic Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    group’s efforts is the decision-maker possessing the power to influence events. Jürgen Habermas described the differences in public and quasi-public...Huntington, "The Erosion of American National Interests," Foreign Affairs, 76, no. 5 (September/October 1997): 40. 4 Jürgen Habermas , "On the...Concept of Public Opinion," in The Habermas Reader, ed. William Outhwaite (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996), 37. 26 Chapter 6 Conclusion Will a

  18. American Sign Language as a Foreign Language in U.S. High Schools: State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2008-01-01

    The last 2 decades witnessed a growth in American Sign Language (ASL) as a foreign language in U.S. secondary schools. This overview of the current state of ASL as a foreign language in the schools consists of a history and a survey. The information on history was drawn from a study conducted by Rosen (2006). This history is followed by a national…

  19. Mexican-American Disciplinary Practices and Attitudes toward Child Maltreatment: A Comparison of Foreign- and Native-Born Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buriel, Raymond; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines disciplinary practices and child-maltreatment attitudes in foreign- and native-born Mexican-American mothers. Subjects responded to accounts of child misconduct and mistreatment. Foreign-born mothers more likely than natives to use spanking and verbal reasoning. Spanking not preferred by either group. Child-mistreatment-response…

  20. Section 504 and the American with Disabilities Act: Accommodating the Learning Disabled Student in the Foreign Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Francis X., III

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and various state laws on the foreign language requirements of Virginia college and university programs. Foreign language instructors and departments need to be aware of their responsibilities in accommodating learning-disabled…

  1. 75 FR 81708 - Notice of Decision To Issue Buy American Waivers for Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Detection Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... (FOD) Detection Equipment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice of... manufacturers of Foreign Object Debris (FOD) detection equipment that it was considering issuing waivers to Buy American requirements of 49 USC 50101 to foreign manufacturers of FOD detection equipment (Federal Register...

  2. Mexican-American Disciplinary Practices and Attitudes toward Child Maltreatment: A Comparison of Foreign- and Native-Born Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buriel, Raymond; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines disciplinary practices and child-maltreatment attitudes in foreign- and native-born Mexican-American mothers. Subjects responded to accounts of child misconduct and mistreatment. Foreign-born mothers more likely than natives to use spanking and verbal reasoning. Spanking not preferred by either group. Child-mistreatment-response…

  3. Background Issues Concerning Soviet Foreign Policy and Syrian Initiatives in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    85 II2 I. i , I- K)V - ’V.W- RV ~ ~ w ’ LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Religious Composition of Syria’s Population , 1985...66 II. Arab Population Figures . . . . . . . . . . . 7 III. Israeli/Jewish Population Figures . . . . . a. 68 IV. Rank Order of...anxious to re-establish the detente era. Detente has singularly been the most effective Soviet foreign policy concept since Stalin’s era and has produced

  4. U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Africa: Commitment or Empty Rhetoric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Africa: Commitment or Empty Rhetoric by Lieutenant Colonel Jacqueline E. Cumbo United ...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS U.S. Army War College Carlisle Barracks Carlisle, PA17013-5050 8. PERFORMING...with corruption. The United States has maintained a strategy of engagement in Africa since the end of the Cold War. Each change in the United

  5. The guests who stayed--the debate on 'foreigners policy' in the German Federal Republic.

    PubMed

    Castles, S

    1985-01-01

    The recruitment of "guest workers" between 1956 and 1973 by West German employers has given rise to new ethnic minorities. The Federal Republic of Germany (GFR) claims that it is not a country of immigration--a controversy that reflects the basic dilemma over policies towards foreign residents, who now comprise about 7% of the total population. The shift from temporary labor migration to long-term settlement has been accompanied by structural changes in the foreign resident population. The logic of the migratory process is inescapable: virtually all migrations, whether organized or spontaneous, start with movements of young adult workers. When recruitment stated in the late 1950s state migration policies were concerned only with short-term fulfillment of capital's labor requirements. The state established a system of institutionalized discrimination, through which temporary guest workers could be recruited, controlled, and sent away, as the interests of capital dictated. This policy was impracticable because many firms found that rotation led to problems of labor fluctuation and high training costs. The trend toward restrictive policies on migration continued in the early 1980s; rising unemployment and urban problems led to widespread hostility towards foreigners. 3 key issues need resolving quickly: 1) the granting of security of residence status, so that migrant families have a clear basis for planning their own future, 2) the extending of political rights to foreign residents, and 3) the issue of citizenship. Like other West European countries, the GFR has become a multiethnic society through the postwar labor migrations. The early reform of legal structures to give migrants more rights is a precondition for social peace, and for achieving the benefits which multiculturalism can offer to all members of society.

  6. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  7. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  8. African-American attitudes towards United States immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Diamond, J

    1998-01-01

    In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed.

  9. The relationship between physical aggression, foreign policy and moral choices: Phenotypic and genetic findings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Rose; Hatemi, Peter K

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that both leaders and other individuals vary in dispositional levels of physical aggression, which are genetically influenced. Yet the importance of individual differences in aggression for attitudes toward foreign policy or context-laden moral choices, such as sacrificing the lives of some for the greater good of many, has yet to be fully explored. Given the global importance of such decisions, we undertook this exploration in a sample of 586 Australians, including 250 complete twin pairs. We found that individuals who scored higher on Buss-Perry's physical aggression scale were more likely to support aggressive foreign policy interventions and displayed a more utilitarian moral calculus than those who scored lower on this scale. Furthermore, we found that the majority of variance in physical aggression lay in genetic factors for men, whereas the majority of the variance was in environmental factors for women. The source of covariation between aggression and political choices also differed between the sexes. A combination of genetic and environmental factors accounted for most of the cross-trait correlations among males, whereas common and unique environmental factors accounted for most of the cross-trait correlations among females. We consider the implications of our results for understanding how trait measures of aggression are associated with foreign policy and moral choices, providing evidence for why and how individuals differ in responding to complex social dilemmas. Aggr. Behav. 43:37-46, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analysis of the Status Quo and Suggested Policy Adjustments for Sino-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiqiong, Qin

    2009-01-01

    Statistics and analysis indicate that there are many problems to be resolved over the issue of Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools. These include national policy failing to catch up with development, Chinese and foreign partners disagreeing on the objectives of their cosponsored programs, cooperation being geographically unbalanced,…

  11. "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Elementary Schools: Negotiating Teacher Roles and Identities within a New Language Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horii, Sachiko Yokoi

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a new language education policy called "Gaikokugo Katsudou" [Foreign Language Activities] was issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology (MEXT) in Japan. Effective 2011, foreign language education became mandatory in all Japanese public elementary schools for the first time. With this dramatic…

  12. "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Elementary Schools: Negotiating Teacher Roles and Identities within a New Language Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horii, Sachiko Yokoi

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a new language education policy called "Gaikokugo Katsudou" [Foreign Language Activities] was issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology (MEXT) in Japan. Effective 2011, foreign language education became mandatory in all Japanese public elementary schools for the first time. With this dramatic…

  13. Evidence-Based Policy Making: Assessment of the American Heart Association's Strategic Policy Portfolio: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Goldstein, Larry B; Antman, Elliott M; Arnett, Donna K; Fonarow, Gregg C; Alberts, Mark J; Hayman, Laura L; Khera, Amit; Sallis, James F; Daniels, Stephen R; Sacco, Ralph L; Li, Suhui; Ku, Leighton; Lantz, Paula M; Robinson, Jennifer G; Creager, Mark A; Van Horn, Linda; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Whitsel, Laurie P

    2016-05-03

    American Heart Association (AHA) public policy advocacy strategies are based on its Strategic Impact Goals. The writing group appraised the evidence behind AHA's policies to determine how well they address the association's 2020 cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and cardiovascular disease (CVD) management indicators and identified research needed to fill gaps in policy and support further policy development. The AHA policy research department first identified current AHA policies specific to each CVH metric and CVD management indicator and the evidence underlying each policy. Writing group members then reviewed each policy and the related metrics and indicators. The results of each review were summarized, and topic-specific priorities and overarching themes for future policy research were proposed. There was generally close alignment between current AHA policies and the 2020 CVH metrics and CVD management indicators; however, certain specific policies still lack a robust evidence base. For CVH metrics, the distinction between policies for adults (age ≥20 years) and children (<20 years) was often not considered, although policy approaches may differ importantly by age. Inclusion of all those <20 years of age as a single group also ignores important differences in policy needs for infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. For CVD management indicators, specific quantitative targets analogous to criteria for ideal, intermediate, and poor CVH are lacking but needed to assess progress toward the 2020 goal to reduce deaths from CVDs and stroke. New research in support of current policies needs to focus on the evaluation of their translation and implementation through expanded application of implementation science. Focused basic, clinical, and population research is required to expand and strengthen the evidence base for the development of new policies. Evaluation of the impact of targeted improvements in population health through strengthened surveillance of

  14. US Interagency Regional Foreign Policy Implementation: A Survey of Current Practice and an Analysis of Options for Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Survey of Current Practice and an Analysis of Options for Improvement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 US Interagency Regional Foreign Policy Implementation A Survey of Current...foreign policy implemen- tation : a survey of current practice and an analysis of options for improvement / Robert S. Pope, Colonel, USAF. pages cm

  15. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada's membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  16. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  17. The Realization of the Speech Act of Refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morkus, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  18. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  19. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  20. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This unit provides secondary students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first chapter examines the economic and military concerns that…

  1. Governmental and Institutional Policies on Foreign Students: An Overview and Bibliography. Special Studies in Comparative Education, Number Sixteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulat, Y. G-M.; And Others

    This document analyzes, compares, and evaluates foreign student policies of governments and higher education institutions throughout the Western world and it also provides an extensive bibliography of materials on this topic. After a brief introductory chapter providing definitions and delineating categories of policy issues, the following topics…

  2. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This unit provides secondary students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first chapter examines the economic and military concerns that…

  3. 26 CFR 46.4371-2 - Imposition of tax on policies issued by foreign insurers; scope of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURERS AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED FORM Tax on Policies Issued by Foreign Insurers § 46.4371-2... indemnity, fidelity, or surety bond is made, continued, or renewed, if issued: (1) By a nonresident alien... section 4372(c). (b) Life insurance, sickness, and accident policies, and annuity contracts. Unless the...

  4. 26 CFR 46.4371-2 - Imposition of tax on policies issued by foreign insurers; scope of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURERS AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED FORM Tax on Policies Issued by Foreign Insurers § 46.4371-2... indemnity, fidelity, or surety bond is made, continued, or renewed, if issued: (1) By a nonresident alien... section 4372(c). (b) Life insurance, sickness, and accident policies, and annuity contracts. Unless the...

  5. Greek National Security Concerns and the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Consensus or Divergence?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), Frontex , Security, Defense, Foreign Policy, Turkey, Albania, FYROM, Immigration. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...58  2.  Frontex ................................................................................... 61  V.  CONCLUSIONS...the other half originating mainly from Albania. Monitoring the illegal border crossing in the EU, Frontex , the EU’s agency for external border

  6. Radiology and the Health Policy Agenda for the American People.

    PubMed

    MacEwan, D W

    1987-05-01

    Eleven radiologists appointed by the major radiological societies participated for the past 5 years in the development of the Health Policy Agenda for the American People. The Agenda is an action plan to address a wide variety of serious problems in medicine. The first phase involved establishment of 159 principles, broad value statements that were the foundation of the project. Phase 2 involved the development of policy proposals on 38 urgent issues for action in medical science; education; health resources; delivery mechanisms; evaluation, assessment, and control; and payment for services. These proposals are summarized in this report. The activities and recommendations of representatives for the field of radiology are described. The Agenda has been released, and an implementation phase has begun. It will likely be of great importance to the practice of radiology over the next decade. Important issues can be addressed by acting with the coalitions that are being formed from among the more than 150 participating organizations.

  7. A spacefaring nation - Perspectives on American space history and policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Martin J. (Editor); Fries, Sylvia D. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on perspectives on American space history and policy discusses decision-making, space science and scientific communities, postwar aeronautical research in the federal laboratory, and civilian and military remote sensing and reconnaissance. Attention is given to the interpenetration of science, technology, and politics; space 'sociology'; and space technology and planetary science from 1950 to 1985. Other topics addressed include the aeronautics infrastructure as it applies to aeronautics history, the Lewis Research Center and its transition to space, the relationship between NASA and the users of earth resources data, and methodology for researching a classified system for space reconnaissance.

  8. Crossing Shadows: Polish Sovereignty, Post-Communist Foreign Policy and European Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    initially imported 120 bd. 12 11bid., 43. 12 2 Atef Gawad, "How the Gulf Was Won: Oil and Islam in Soviet Foreign Policy," Amean-ab Affairs 22 ( Fall ... fall of East European communists and the new complexion of the Gorbachev doctrine apparently left the pioneering Poles with less than what could be...passed a law making it legal to storm the Bastille , yet it feU." 14 5 4. An Autonomous Military Doctrine Yet another step in the movement away from

  9. Sourcebook on Central American Refugee Policy: A Bibliography with Subject and Country Index. Special Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Margo, Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography on Central American refugee policy is the outgrowth of a year-long research seminar on the topic at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs of the University of Texas at Austin during 1983-1984. That seminar was concerned with several aspects of Central American refugee policy, including policies of the various Central…

  10. Health care access and utilization among US-born and foreign-born Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiali; Mack, Dominic; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Parker, Katrina

    2012-10-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate inequality in health and health care, disparities in health care access and utilization persist in the United States. The purpose of this study was to compare the access to care and use of health care services of US-born and foreign-born Asian Americans. We used aggregated data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 2003 to 2005, including 2,500 participants who identified themselves as Asian. Associations between country of birth and reported access and utilization of care in the previous 12 months were examined. After controlling for covariates, being foreign-born was negatively related to indicators of access to care, including health insurance (OR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.18-0.48), routine care access (OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.36-0.75), and sick care access [OR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.47-0.96)]. Being foreign-born was also negatively related to all indicators of health care utilization (office visit: OR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.41-0.81; seen/talked to a general doctor: OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.52-0.90; seen/talked to a specialist: OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.28-0.63) but ER visit (OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.59-1.20). There are substantial differences by country of birth in health care access and utilization among Asian Americans. Our findings emphasize the need for developing culturally sensitive health services and intervention programs for Asian communities.

  11. Contextual and conceptual content analysis in the study of foreign policy decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Schlagheck, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation focuses upon two related questions in the study of foreign policy decision making at the individual level: (1) How does a decision maker define the situation he/she confronts. and, (2) How can the research reliably establish that definition. The problem of context and how a decision maker defines it is shown to be a common thread running throughout the foreign policy literature, brought together in a manageable form by the operational code. The operational code is used to guide the application of a new, contextual and conceptual content analysis program in a case study of Henry A. Kissinger's definition of the situations he faced in the Vietnam and arms control negotiations. Kissinger's verbal behavior is examined, including his academic writing; speeches and interviews he gave while in office; his memoirs; and, addresses he has made since leaving public service. The content analysis program (Minnesota Contextural Content Analysis, MCCA) analyzes an individual's understanding of context based on her/his choice of language, and scores verbal behavior in four context categories: pragmatic (rational), analytical, emotional, and traditional. Results of the content analysis of Kissinger's definition of the Vietnam War and arms control talks are analyzed in terms of COPDAB events data to determine whether Kissinger's verbal behavior was events dependent; results are also evaluated in terms of other psycho-biographical and operational studies of Kissinger, as well.

  12. American Geriatrics Society Policy Priorities for New Administration and 115th Congress.

    PubMed

    Lundebjerg, Nancy E; Hollmann, Peter; Malone, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    This paper is a statement of the American Geriatrics Society's (AGS) core policy priorities and the Society's positions on federal programs and policies that support older Americans as articulated to the new administration. Among the AGS priorities discussed in this paper are health reform, Medicare, and Medicaid. The AGS is committed to leveraging its expertise to inform regulatory and legislative policy proposals. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Foreign Policy Dimensions of Argentina and Brazill: Emerging Middle Powers Marching to their Own Drum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    economic and social development of their region, rather than the United States’ original concept of the alliance as a means to combat communist...which emphasized social and economic aid. Latin American countries sought to increase 85* 4ii - .. ** -’ V .*°-. * 5*’*- . : l ’ , ", " ’i -I ’" I...leader to serve as President, who can easily be deposed if the need arises. Formation of social and economic policy relies heavily upon the Presidents

  14. Proficiency, Policy, and Professionalism in Foreign Language Education. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Columbus, Ohio, April 9-11, 1987). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckbichler, Diane W., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers from a conference on language proficiency, policy, and language teacher professionalism include: "Proficiency in Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Sally Sieloff Magnan); "Teaching Foreign Languages: Policy and the Federal Role" (Paul Simon); "Proficiency in the 'Real World' of the Professional…

  15. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    PubMed

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-29

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  16. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  17. Policy Driven, Policy Relevant: Why the American Meteorological Society Established the Summer Policy Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    The AMS Summer Policy Colloquium is an annual event. Established last year, with some initial help from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the Colloquium brings a maximum of 50 participants to Washington, DC for a ten-day immersion in policy studies in early June. Most participants are mid-level federal and corporate research managers or junior faculty and are sponsored by their host institutions on the basis of their scientific ability and leadership potential. In addition, the AMS runs a competitive nationwide search to identify and fund (perhaps 10-15) graduate students of exceptional promise. Participants receive extensive study materials prior to their arrival. They visit Capitol Hill and executive branch offices, and work though case studies and group exercises. They encounter and engage in dialog a number of speakers, including federal policy officials, Congressional staffers, media experts, and policy researchers. Subsequently, Colloquium alumni are provided with opportunities for continued, multi-year, collaboration as a group. This talk reviews the motivations and purposes for this investment.

  18. The Hidden Side of Zero Tolerance Policies: The African American Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Several papers have documented the disproportionate representation of African Americans in school discipline and incarceration settings as a result of zero tolerance policies. In 2009, a federal study of the Chicago Public School system found African American boys represented 23 percent of the school age population, 44 percent of students who were suspended, and 61 percent of students who were expelled within the 2007 school year. Twenty years after the implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988, studies show African Americans comprised a startling 74 percent of those incarcerated for drug offenses despite being only 15 percent of America’s drug users. Despite overwhelming evidence that suggests African Americans are adversely affected by zero tolerance policies, African American perceptions of zero tolerance policies remain relatively hidden in the literature. The current review seeks to explore a seemingly bidirectional process that involves how zero tolerance impacts African Americans and how African Americans perceive zero tolerance policies. PMID:25893006

  19. 10 CFR 1050.201 - Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... foreign gifts or decorations. (a) The Constitution of the United States, Article I, section 9, clause 8... any * * * foreign State.” In the Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act the Congress consented to...

  20. 10 CFR 1050.201 - Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... foreign gifts or decorations. (a) The Constitution of the United States, Article I, section 9, clause 8... any * * * foreign State.” In the Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act the Congress consented to...

  1. 10 CFR 1050.201 - Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... foreign gifts or decorations. (a) The Constitution of the United States, Article I, section 9, clause 8... any * * * foreign State.” In the Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act the Congress consented to...

  2. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  3. Building Schools for American Kids Abroad: How to Prepare to Design and Build in a Foreign Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carington, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed American School in Aberdeen, Scotland, serves the children of U.S. oil company employees and other Scottish and foreign children. Describes the program manager's role, explains how to select the architect and contractor, and offers advice on what to remember when building abroad. (MLF)

  4. The Foreign Born with Science and Engineering Degrees: 2010. American Community Survey Briefs. ACSBR/10-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambino, Christine; Gryn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This brief will discuss patterns of science and engineering educational attainment within the foreign-born population living in the United States, using data from the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS). The analysis is restricted to the population aged 25 and older, and the results are presented on science and engineering degree attainment by…

  5. Soviet Foreign Policy in Guinea and Somalia, Implications for American Policy Toward Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    colonial administration which introduced a variety of coffee susceptible to destructive disease which between 1958 and 1964 reduced the number of coffee...popular Sekou Toure cast in the role of Castro. Guinea, it was postulated, was to be the heart of a Soviet master plan to Sovietize Africa. There is...34enough for a whole year." (When the Soviets were expelled from Somalia in late 1977, as in Guinea previously, they stopped providing oil to Somalia. Saudia

  6. The dialog between health and foreign policy in Brazilian cooperation in human milk banks.

    PubMed

    Pittas, Tiago Mocellin; Dri, Clarissa Franzoi

    2017-07-01

    Mother's milk is the primary source of nourishment in early infancy. When this source is unavailable, secondary sources may be used, such as human milk banks. The first milk bank in Brazil was created in 1943, and they have been used ever since. A national model was developed through a number of phases, culminating in the Brazilian Network of Human Milk Banks. This gave rise to a number of international cooperation projects, with the Brazilian model particularly relevant for developing nations. The main objective of this analysis is to understand what drives Brazil to promote milk banks internationally. To do this we tried to understand the relationship between health and foreign policy, expressed here as soft power, as here the two areas dialog with one another. The results include gains in both areas and the affirmation of health as a central goal of the national interest cluster of the case.

  7. The Persian Gulf Balance of Power and United States Foreign Policy Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    FOREIGN POLICY RESPONSE(U) AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLL MAXWELL RFD AL C R ALLEN APR 60 ACSC-9B-00BS I UNC.RSSIFIED F/G 5/4 NI. )U TM’.rio im % L12...thanks Lieutenant Colonel Thomas M. Henneman for the advice, patience, and guidance provided as the advisor to this project. His painstaking and...FILE .~MIDDLE EAST MIDDLE EAST z NV1ISI)4Vd z UU. 4z C - F- L m c FR’! TUR’Um v’)~som M1 VC’ ZI 7777 71W. 7,~A llr vuX " A ’%~v U - W7b x IV I 0.011

  8. Black Americans and Public Policy: Perspectives of the National Urban League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Urban League, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of six commentaries represents the National Urban League's perspective on public policies needed to promote the interests of black Americans. Each commentary focuses on the present condition of blacks, details the impact of recent policy intiatives, and delineate's the League's proposals for improvement. "Black Americans and…

  9. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670... National Red Cross on military reservations, of buildings suitable for the storage of supplies for the aid...

  10. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670... National Red Cross on military reservations, of buildings suitable for the storage of supplies for the aid...

  11. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670... National Red Cross on military reservations, of buildings suitable for the storage of supplies for the aid...

  12. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670... National Red Cross on military reservations, of buildings suitable for the storage of supplies for the aid...

  13. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670... National Red Cross on military reservations, of buildings suitable for the storage of supplies for the aid...

  14. An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action Policies for Asian Americans in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action Policies for Asian Americans in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…

  16. The Educational Policy Strategy on Foreign Citizens Coming to the Russian Federation, as a Factor of Their Socio-Cultural Adaptation and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolzhikova, Anzhela V.; Moseikina, Marina N.; Vladimirsky, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fact that starting from January 1, 2015 the complex exam is introduced for the first time in the Russian Federation for the foreign citizens, who apply for obtaining the employment and residence permits, this article reveals the educational policy strategy on this category of foreigners. This policy is considered within the…

  17. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the…

  18. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the…

  19. Desegregation--Its Inequities and Paradoxes: Toward an Equitable and Just Educational Policy for Afro-Americans. Educational Policy for Afro-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Robert G.

    This paper examines the major social science contributions to racial balance as a policy alternative to the unequal educational opportunity suffered by Afro-Americans. It is argued that, although the policy is considered by advocates and the courts to be a remedy for discrimination, it is in fact a continuation of white dominance, or racism. It is…

  20. Understanding how domestic health policy is integrated into foreign policy in South Africa: a case for accelerating access to antiretroviral medicines

    PubMed Central

    Modisenyane, Simon Moeketsi; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Fineberg, Harvey

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: South Africa, as an emerging middle-income country, is becoming increasingly influential in global health diplomacy (GHD). However, little empirical research has been conducted to inform arguments for the integration of domestic health into foreign policy by state and non-state actors. This study seeks to address this knowledge gap. It takes the form of an empirical case study which analyses how South Africa integrates domestic health into its foreign policy, using the lens of access to antiretroviral (ARV) medicines. Objective: To explore state and non-state actors’ perceptions regarding how domestic health policy is integrated into foreign policy. The ultimate goal of this study was to achieve better insights into the health and foreign policy processes at the national level. Methods: Employing qualitative approaches, we examined changes in the South African and global AIDS policy environment. Purposive sampling was used to select key informants, a sample of state and non-state actors who participated in in-depth interviews. Secondary data were collected through a systematic literature review of documents retrieved from five electronic databases, including review of key policy documents. Qualitative data were analysed for content. This content was coded, and the codes were collated into tentative categories and sub-categories using Atlas.ti v.7 software. Results: The findings of this work illustrate the interplay among social, political, economic and institutional conditions in determining the success of this integration process. Our study shows that a series of national and external developments, stakeholders, and advocacy efforts and collaboration created these integrative processes. South Africa’s domestic HIV/AIDS constituencies, in partnership with the global advocacy movement, catalysed the mobilization of support for universal access to ARV treatment nationally and globally, and the promotion of access to healthcare as a human

  1. The "New York Times" and Foreign Policy: Press Coverage and U.S.-India Relations, 1973-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaprasad, Jyotika; Riffe, Daniel

    A study was conducted to determine whether the "New York Times" news coverage given India between 1973 and 1980 was consistent with trends in United States foreign policy toward India during those years. The period under study was characterized by four alternating periods of tense and relaxed relations between India and the United…

  2. Reassessing the Bureaucratic Dimension of Foreign Policy Making: A Case Study of the Cuban Sugar Quota Decision, 1954-56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, N. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    In the analysis of foreign economic policy issues, the bureaucratic politics model is the most useful for understanding how final decisions are made. Four other models--presidential politics, organizational process, congressional behavior, and interest group activity--are also examined to assess the importance of nonbureaucratic factors in the…

  3. Has the United States’ Manifest Destiny Run Its Course? U.S. Foreign Policy Juxtaposed Against Fourth Generation Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    charmed or talked out of existence.22 This idea became the underlying motive for the foreign policies from the late 1940s through the mid-1990s. It was...actors in the interest of the United States and her partners. The attacks on U.S soil on September 11, 2001 sparked a decade long conflict. The U.S

  4. Fallacies Affecting Policy and Practice in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in State Primary Schools in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of the worldwide trend to introduce English as a foreign language (EFL) into primary schools at ever younger ages. This trend has gained momentum in recent years, affecting millions of children in countries throughout Asia. A policy decision of this kind has far-reaching implications but it is often made without…

  5. A Citizen's Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: Election '88. Nonpartisan Briefs on 18 Key Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    In order to make informed voting decisions citizens need background information on complex foreign policy issues facing the United States. This guide presents current issues and provides information to help citizens cast a thoughtful vote. The guide is divided into six main headings: Leadership; Security; Economic and Social Issues; Critical…

  6. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  7. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  8. 49 CFR 27.19 - Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... comply with all applicable requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 (42 U.S.C... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act... General § 27.19 Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy. (a...

  9. 49 CFR 27.19 - Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... comply with all applicable requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 (42 U.S.C... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act... General § 27.19 Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy. (a...

  10. 49 CFR 27.19 - Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... comply with all applicable requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 (42 U.S.C... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act... General § 27.19 Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy. (a...

  11. Policy and Performance in American Higher Education: An Examination of Cases across State Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard, Jr.; Martinez, Mario

    2009-01-01

    "Policy and Performance in American Higher Education" presents a new approach to understanding how public policy influences institutional performance, with practical insight for those charged with crafting and implementing higher education policy. Public institutions of higher learning are called upon by state governments to provide…

  12. Policy and Performance in American Higher Education: An Examination of Cases across State Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard, Jr.; Martinez, Mario

    2009-01-01

    "Policy and Performance in American Higher Education" presents a new approach to understanding how public policy influences institutional performance, with practical insight for those charged with crafting and implementing higher education policy. Public institutions of higher learning are called upon by state governments to provide…

  13. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  14. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  15. Perspectives of South American physicians hosting foreign rotators in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Medicine (EM) is increasingly becoming an international field. The number of fellowships in International EM in the USA is growing along with opportunities to complete international health electives (IHEs) during residency training. The impact on host institutions, however, has not been adequately investigated. The objective of this study is to assess the experience of several South American hospitals hosting foreign EM residents completing IHEs. Methods Anonymous, semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with physicians working in Emergency Departments in three hospitals in Lima, Peru and one hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. All participants reported previously working with EM foreign rotators. Interviews were analyzed qualitatively and coded for common themes. Results Three department chairs, six residents, and 15 attending physicians were interviewed (total = 24). After qualitative analysis of interviews, two broad theme categories emerged: Benefits and Challenges. Most commonly reported benefits were knowledge sharing about emergency medical systems (78%), medical knowledge transfer (58%), and long-term relationship formation (42%). Top challenges included rotator Spanish language proficiency (70%) lack of reciprocity (58%), and level of training and rotation length (25%). Spanish proficiency related directly to how involved rotators became in patient care (e.g., taking a history, participating in rounds) but was not completely prohibitive, as a majority of physicians interviewed felt comfortable speaking in English. Lack of reciprocity refers to the difficulty of sending host physicians abroad as well as failed attempts at building long-lasting relationships with foreign institutions. Lastly, 25% preferred rotators to stay for at least 1 month and rotate in the last year of EM residency. This latter preference increased knowledge transfer from rotator to host. Conclusions Our research identified benefits and challenges

  16. Perspectives of South American physicians hosting foreign rotators in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Steve; Adler, David H; Inboriboon, Pholaphat Charles; Alvarado, Hermenegildo; Acosta, Raul; Godoy-Monzon, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Emergency Medicine (EM) is increasingly becoming an international field. The number of fellowships in International EM in the USA is growing along with opportunities to complete international health electives (IHEs) during residency training. The impact on host institutions, however, has not been adequately investigated. The objective of this study is to assess the experience of several South American hospitals hosting foreign EM residents completing IHEs. Anonymous, semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with physicians working in Emergency Departments in three hospitals in Lima, Peru and one hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. All participants reported previously working with EM foreign rotators. Interviews were analyzed qualitatively and coded for common themes. Three department chairs, six residents, and 15 attending physicians were interviewed (total = 24). After qualitative analysis of interviews, two broad theme categories emerged: Benefits and Challenges. Most commonly reported benefits were knowledge sharing about emergency medical systems (78%), medical knowledge transfer (58%), and long-term relationship formation (42%). Top challenges included rotator Spanish language proficiency (70%) lack of reciprocity (58%), and level of training and rotation length (25%). Spanish proficiency related directly to how involved rotators became in patient care (e.g., taking a history, participating in rounds) but was not completely prohibitive, as a majority of physicians interviewed felt comfortable speaking in English. Lack of reciprocity refers to the difficulty of sending host physicians abroad as well as failed attempts at building long-lasting relationships with foreign institutions. Lastly, 25% preferred rotators to stay for at least 1 month and rotate in the last year of EM residency. This latter preference increased knowledge transfer from rotator to host. Our research identified benefits and challenges of IHEs in Emergency Medicine from the

  17. 78 FR 41314 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... ownership and control with the controlling foreign parent of the licensee's controlling U.S. parent, under... require any new, foreign-organized companies to be under 100 percent common ownership and control with a... 100 percent common ownership and control with the approved foreign investor. (See Sec. 1.994(d), Note...

  18. 77 FR 50628 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Commission uses for assessing foreign ownership of the controlling U.S.-organized parents of common carrier...), greater than 25 percent foreign ownership in the controlling U.S.-organized parent of a common carrier... agencies the opportunity to review proposed foreign ownership in the controlling U.S.-organized parents...

  19. 48 CFR 636.104-70 - Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 636.104-70 Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended. (a) Policy. Section 11 of the Foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign Service Buildings..., alteration, or repair of buildings or grounds abroad exceeding $5 million to: (1) American-owned firms; or...

  20. 48 CFR 636.104-70 - Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 636.104-70 Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended. (a) Policy. Section 11 of the Foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign Service Buildings..., alteration, or repair of buildings or grounds abroad exceeding $5 million to: (1) American-owned firms; or...

  1. 48 CFR 636.104-70 - Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 636.104-70 Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended. (a) Policy. Section 11 of the Foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign Service Buildings..., alteration, or repair of buildings or grounds abroad exceeding $5 million to: (1) American-owned firms; or...

  2. 48 CFR 636.104-70 - Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 636.104-70 Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended. (a) Policy. Section 11 of the Foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign Service Buildings..., alteration, or repair of buildings or grounds abroad exceeding $5 million to: (1) American-owned firms; or...

  3. 48 CFR 636.104-70 - Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 636.104-70 Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended. (a) Policy. Section 11 of the Foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign Service Buildings..., alteration, or repair of buildings or grounds abroad exceeding $5 million to: (1) American-owned firms; or...

  4. American Social Welfare Policy and Social Justice for Appalachia's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, John G.

    This paper examines social welfare policy and its impacts on Appalachian children. The discussion is based on a notion that a just society meets basic needs of all its members. Current social policy: (1) does not include a comprehensive family policy; (2) depends on state and local contributions which are limited in rural Appalachia; (3) has…

  5. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  6. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  7. Differences in the cancer burden among foreign-born and US-born Arab Americans living in metropolitan Detroit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fatima; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Gomez, Scarlett L; Schwartz, Kendra

    2013-11-01

    Migrant studies often provide clues for cancer etiology. We estimated the cancer burden among Arab Americans (ArA) by immigrant status in the metropolitan Detroit area, home to one of the highest concentrations of ArA in USA. A validated name algorithm was used to identify ArA cancer cases diagnosed 1990-2009 in the Detroit SEER database. Recorded birthplace was supplemented with imputation of nativity using birthdate and social security number. Age-adjusted, gender-specific proportional incidence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated comparing all ArA, foreign-born ArA, and US-born ArA, to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Foreign-born ArA males had higher proportions of multiple myeloma, leukemia, kidney, liver, stomach, and bladder cancer than NHW, while bladder cancer and leukemia were higher among US-born ArA males. For ArA women, gall bladder and thyroid cancers were proportionally higher among both foreign- and US-born compared with NHW. Stomach cancer was proportionally higher only among foreign-born women. Cancer proportional incidence patterns among ArA show some similarity to other migrant groups, with higher proportional incidences of stomach and liver cancers among foreign-born than US-born. Other patterns, such as tobacco-related cancers among ArA men and gall bladder and thyroid cancers among ArA women, will require more investigation of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.

  8. American College of Preventive Medicine Practice Policy Statement. Screening for elevated blood lead levels in children.

    PubMed

    Lane, W G; Kemper, A R

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Based on a review of the current literature and recommendations, the American College of Preventive Medicine presents a practice policy statement on screening for elevated blood lead levels in children.

  9. Advancing Democratic Principles: A European Examines a Neglected American Asset. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseler, Stephen

    According to this essay by a visiting scholar from Great Britain, there will always be a debate in democratic societies, about the proper role of morality in fashioning and articulating foreign policy. This ambivalence has been reflected in the uneven approach to the problem exhibited by successive United States administrations. There are two…

  10. Attitudes towards drug policies in Latin America: Results from a Latin-American Survey.

    PubMed

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Vargas, Salvador; Oyanedel, Juan C; Torres, Francisca; Vergara, Eduardo; Hough, Mike

    2017-03-01

    In recent years Latin American countries have increasingly rejected the traditional prohibitionist paradigm of drug policy, reflecting its failure to reduce either consumption or trafficking. The extent to which these policy trends currently command pubic support is unclear, however. This article goes some way to filling this gap, providing a snapshot of public attitudes towards drug policies in nine Latin American countries. The 2014 Annual Survey of the Observatory of Drug Policies and Public Opinion, which has representative population samples, was used to measure public opinion. Country comparisons are made using descriptive and inferential statistics. Countries fall into three groups: Peru, Bolivia and El Salvador are the most conservative countries on drug policy and perceptions of risks of cannabis use; they also score lowest on Human Development Index. On the other hand, the public in Chile and Uruguay are more likely to support drug policy reform. The remaining four countries (Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Peru) tend to occupy the middle ground between these extremes. In addition, cannabis legalization is explained by its recreational use, being this the main meaning attached to cannabis policy among Latin American citizens. There is a significant heterogeneity in attitudes towards drug policies in Latin American countries, which suggests that people are questioning the policies that set the norm in Latin America without achieving any consensus regarding future measures for each country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Federal Policy in Building Research Infrastructure Among Emerging Minorities: The Asian American Experience

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ro, Marguerite; Tseng, Winston; Islam, Nadia Shilpi; Rey, Mariano J.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem Considerable progress in Asian American health research has occurred over the last two decades. However, greater and sustained federal support is needed for reducing health disparities in Asian American communities. Purpose of the Article This paper reviews federal policies that support infrastructure to conduct minority health research and highlights one model for strengthening research capacity and infrastructure in Asian American communities. Key Points Research center infrastructures can play a significant role in addressing pipeline/workforce challenges, fostering campus–community research collaborations, engaging communities in health, disseminating evidence-based strategies and health information, and policy development. Conclusion Research centers provide the capacity needed for academic institutions and communities to work together synergistically in achieving the goal to reduce health disparities in the Asian American community. Policies that support the development of concentrated and targeted research for Asian Americans must continue so that these centers will reach their full potential. PMID:22643792

  12. Human genomics: challenges for African Americans and policy implications for direct social work practice.

    PubMed

    Walton, Louise M

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in the scientific study of the human genome may benefit African Americans through increased knowledge of the causes and cures for diseases that disproportionately affect them. Other potential benefits are far reaching and include legal and socioeconomic importance for the African American community. Although these benefits have tremendous appeal, advancements in genomic science pose significant social issues for African Americans. Disparities in access, insensitive and discriminatory programming, a lack of appreciation of environmental factors, and misuse of genetic databases are among the challenges for African Americans. This article identifies the major benefits and challenges of human genomics cited in literature from various disciplines and discusses policy implications for direct social work practice. The author explains the importance of social work involvement in shaping genetic policies and outlines traditional roles social workers may play in establishing ethnic-sensitive public policies and agency practices to protect the interests of African Americans who interface with the rapidly expanding field of human genomics.

  13. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  14. The influence of foreign vs. North American emissions on surface ozone in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidmiller, D. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Bergmann, D.; Cuvelier, C.; Dentener, F. J.; Duncan, B. N.; Folberth, G.; Gauss, M.; Gong, S.; Hess, P.; Jonson, J. E.; Keating, T.; Lupu, A.; Marmer, E.; Park, R.; Schultz, M. G.; Shindell, D. T.; Szopa, S.; Vivanco, M. G.; Wild, O.; Zuber, A.

    2009-07-01

    As part of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP; http:// www.htap.org) project, we analyze results from 15 global and 1 hemispheric chemical transport models and compare these to Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) observations in the United States (US) for 2001. Using the policy-relevant maximum daily 8-h average ozone (MDA8 O3) statistic, the multi-model ensemble represents the observations well (mean r2=0.57, ensemble bias = +4.1 ppbv for all US regions and all seasons) despite a wide range in the individual model results. Correlations are strongest in the northeastern US during spring and fall (r2=0.68); and weakest in the midwestern US in summer (r2=0.46). However, large positive mean biases exist during summer for all eastern US regions, ranging from 10-20 ppbv, and a smaller negative bias is present in the western US during spring (~3 ppbv). In nearly all other regions and seasons, the biases of the model ensemble simulations are ≤5 ppbv. Sensitivity simulations in which anthropogenic O3-precursor emissions (NOx + NMVOC + CO + aerosols) were decreased by 20% in four source regions: East Asia (EA), South Asia (SA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA) show that the greatest response of MDA8 O3 to the summed foreign emissions reductions occurs during spring in the West (0.9 ppbv reduction due to 20% emissions reductions from EA + SA + EU). East Asia is the largest contributor to MDA8 O3 at all ranges of the O3 distribution for most regions (typically ~0.45 ppbv) followed closely by Europe. The exception is in the northeastern US where emissions reductions in EU had a slightly greater influence than EA emissions, particularly in the middle of the MDA8 O3 distribution (response of ~0.35 ppbv between 35-55 ppbv). EA and EU influences are both far greater (about 4x) than that from SA in all regions and seasons. In all regions and seasons O3-precursor emissions reductions of 20% in the NA

  15. The influence of foreign vs. North American emissions on surface ozone in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidmiller, D. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Bergmann, D.; Cuvelier, C.; Dentener, F. J.; Duncan, B. N.; Folberth, G.; Gauss, M.; Gong, S.; Hess, P.; Jonson, J. E.; Keating, T.; Lupu, A.; Marmer, E.; Park, R.; Schultz, M. G.; Shindell, D. T.; Szopa, S.; Vivanco, M. G.; Wild, O.; Zuber, A.

    2009-03-01

    As part of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP; http://www.htap.org/) project, we analyze results from 16 global and hemispheric chemical transport models and compare these to Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) observations in the United States (US) for 2001. Using the policy-relevant maximum daily 8-h ozone (MDA8 O3) statistic, the multi-model ensemble represents the observations well (mean r2=0.57, ensemble bias=+4.1 ppbv for all regions and all seasons) despite a wide range in the individual model results. Correlations are strongest in the NorthEastern US during spring and fall (r2=0.68); and weakest in the Midwestern US in summer (r2=0.46). However, large positive mean biases exist during summer for all Eastern US regions, ranging from 10-20 ppbv, and a smaller negative bias is present in the Western US during spring (~3 ppbv). In most all other regions and seasons, the biases of the model ensemble simulations are ≤5 ppbv. Sensitivity simulations in which anthropogenic O3-precursor emissions (NOx+NMVOC+CO+aerosols) were decreased by 20% in each of four source regions: East Asia (EA), South Asia (SA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA) show that the greatest response of MDA8 O3 to the summed foreign emissions reductions occurs during spring in the West (0.9 ppbv reduction due to 20% reductions from EA+SA+EU). East Asia is the largest contributor to MDA8 O3 at all ranges of the O3 distribution for most regions (typically ~0.45 ppbv). The exception is in the NorthEastern US where European emissions reductions had the greatest impact on MDA8 O3, particularly in the middle of the MDA8 O3 distribution (response of ~0.35 ppbv between 35-55 ppbv). In all regions and seasons, however, O3-precursor emissions reductions of 20% in the NA source region decrease MDA8 O3 the most - by a factor of 2 to nearly 10 relative to foreign emissions reductions. The O3 response to anthropogenic NA emissions is

  16. Crime and American Culture. Ethics and Public Policy Essay #43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    The great waves of foreign immigration, the onset of rapid industrialization, the emergence of an urban working class--all features of the post Civil War United States that might have contributed to rising crime rates--did not. Ted Robert Gurr suggests that a growth of the "civilizing process" occurred in which people turned away from violence and…

  17. Jobs and Wages for Young Americans: Is Recovery Coming? Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carew, Diana G.

    2014-01-01

    Four telling facts about jobs and wages for young Americans, as explained in this policy brief, suggest a labor market recovery is coming, although it will be gradual and uneven by educational attainment. Young Americans with a postsecondary degree are more likely to be employed, but the nature of their employment suggests they are taking…

  18. The Rhetoric of Prejudice and Public Policy Regarding the American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Margaret E.

    This paper presents a review of written information concerning the American Indian that reveals stereotypes, prejudicial statements, and misrepresentation. While manifest destiny was the policy of the government during the late 1800s, social prejudice was used to develop a perception of the American Indians that justified removing them from their…

  19. Asian-Americans Give U. of California an Unexpected Fight over Admissions Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Largely because of their high aspirations for their children, many Chinese immigrants are acutely aware of the University of California's new undergraduate-admissions policy. With the new policy, the Board of Regents hopes to widen the applicant pool and give campuses more flexibility in selecting students. Asian-Americans bitterly oppose it,…

  20. Placing Immigrants at Risk: The Impact of Our Laws and Policies on American Families. Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.

    This report focuses on "at risk" immigrants in the United States. This first report in a series of four details the impact of American immigration laws and policies on U.S. families. This series does not seek to advance specific policies or reforms. It intends merely to relate the stories of newcomers in the confidence that they will speak…

  1. Leadership in Legislation and Public Policy Development: The Case of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the federal legislative and information policy leadership roles of the American Library Association (ALA). Highlights include the ALA legislative policy structure today, lobbying in the public interest, resources for successful lobbying, effective lobbying techniques, lobbies and organizational theory, ALA lobbying style, and the White…

  2. Library Services to Mexican Americans: Policies, Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urzua, Roberto, Ed.; And Others

    Much has happened in the field to alter the nature of library services to the Mexican American. The newest areas of library services available to Mexican Americans are at the public school and at the university level. This paper brings together some new concepts, trends, and feelings in the areas of library services in general, and in public,…

  3. On the Dominant Status of American Educational Market for Foreign Students since 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The article first probes into some reasons for the formation and the rise of the world educational market for foreign students. Then the article focuses on several important ensuring the absolutely dominant status of the U.S. educational market for foreign students in the world since 1980s and finally concludes that it is the U.S. world-leading…

  4. Certifying Teachers of Modern Foreign Languages for American Public Schools--1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Douglas C.

    This survey of state certification practices and requirements for modern foreign languages reports on standard credit and hour requirements for elementary, secondary, supervisory, and coordinator certification. It also discusses the "approved program" option, proficiency testing, foreign language in the elementary school (FLES), reciprocal…

  5. Meeting the Needs of Foreign Language Teaching Assistants: Professional Development in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Katie

    2014-01-01

    In our post-9/11 globalized society, the bifurcated governance structure that has traditionally dominated foreign language (FL) departments is no longer desirable. According to the 2007 Modern Language Association (MLA) report entitled "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World," these departments need to…

  6. Meeting the Needs of Foreign Language Teaching Assistants: Professional Development in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Katie

    2014-01-01

    In our post-9/11 globalized society, the bifurcated governance structure that has traditionally dominated foreign language (FL) departments is no longer desirable. According to the 2007 Modern Language Association (MLA) report entitled "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World," these departments need to…

  7. Language Policy and Planning: Challenges for Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Rainer Enrique; Álvarez López, Elisa; Carvalhal, Tatiana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Latin America as a context for language policy and planning (LPP) decisions in the academic field. Then it gives a brief overview of the language policy challenges faced by universities to cope with neoliberal internationalisation. A conceptualisation of the domain as a…

  8. American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimring, Franklin E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

  9. Language Policy and Planning: Challenges for Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Rainer Enrique; Álvarez López, Elisa; Carvalhal, Tatiana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Latin America as a context for language policy and planning (LPP) decisions in the academic field. Then it gives a brief overview of the language policy challenges faced by universities to cope with neoliberal internationalisation. A conceptualisation of the domain as a…

  10. Strategies for Working with Asian Americans in Mental Health: Community Members' Policy Perspectives and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer

    2017-01-04

    This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.

  11. The American Foreign Exchange Option in Time-Dependent One-Dimensional Diffusion Model for Exchange Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Rehman, Nasir Shashiashvili, Malkhaz

    2009-06-15

    The classical Garman-Kohlhagen model for the currency exchange assumes that the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates are constant and the exchange rate follows a log-normal diffusion process.In this paper we consider the general case, when exchange rate evolves according to arbitrary one-dimensional diffusion process with local volatility that is the function of time and the current exchange rate and where the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates may be arbitrary continuous functions of time. First non-trivial problem we encounter in time-dependent case is the continuity in time argument of the value function of the American put option and the regularity properties of the optimal exercise boundary. We establish these properties based on systematic use of the monotonicity in volatility for the value functions of the American as well as European options with convex payoffs together with the Dynamic Programming Principle and we obtain certain type of comparison result for the value functions and corresponding exercise boundaries for the American puts with different strikes, maturities and volatilities.Starting from the latter fact that the optimal exercise boundary curve is left continuous with right-hand limits we give a mathematically rigorous and transparent derivation of the significant early exercise premium representation for the value function of the American foreign exchange put option as the sum of the European put option value function and the early exercise premium.The proof essentially relies on the particular property of the stochastic integral with respect to arbitrary continuous semimartingale over the predictable subsets of its zeros. We derive from the latter the nonlinear integral equation for the optimal exercise boundary which can be studied by numerical methods.

  12. Foreign Language Teaching Policies and European Unity: The Dutch National Action Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Els, Theo. J. M.; van Hest, Erna W. C. M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes and reviews the Dutch National Action Programme (NAP) on Foreign Languages, instituted in anticipation of the demands of the 1992 Single European Market. The increasing demand for foreign languages is confirmed, some shortcomings of the current program regarding French and German language learning are identified, and recommendations for…

  13. Polish Foreign Policy Under a Non-Communist Government: Prospects and Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Geremek, La Vanguardia , July 5, 1989 (translated in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report, East Europe [FBIS-EEU], No. 137, July 19...Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski has also stressed the far-off nature of Polish neutrality. See the interview with Skubiszewski in La Vanguardia

  14. Do foreign exchange and equity markets co-move in Latin American region? Detrended cross-correlation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Usman; Yu, Yugang; Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the relationship between foreign exchange markets and stock markets through time varying co-movements. In this sense, we analyzed the time series monthly of Latin American countries for the period from 1991 to 2015. Furthermore, we apply Granger causality to verify the direction of causality between foreign exchange and stock market and detrended cross-correlation approach (ρDCCA) for any co-movements at different time scales. Our empirical results suggest a positive cross correlation between exchange rate and stock price for all Latin American countries. The findings reveal two clear patterns of correlation. First, Brazil and Argentina have positive correlation in both short and long time frames. Second, the remaining countries are negatively correlated in shorter time scale, gradually moving to positive. This paper contributes to the field in three ways. First, we verified the co-movements of exchange rate and stock prices that were rarely discussed in previous empirical studies. Second, ρDCCA coefficient is a robust and powerful methodology to measure the cross correlation when dealing with non stationarity of time series. Third, most of the studies employed one or two time scales using co-integration and vector autoregressive approaches. Not much is known about the co-movements at varying time scales between foreign exchange and stock markets. ρDCCA coefficient facilitates the understanding of its explanatory depth.

  15. Creating Official Language Policy from Local Practice: The Example of the Native American Languages Act 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the development of landmark federal language policy in the United States: the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992 (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of United States American Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the…

  16. Creating Official Language Policy from Local Practice: The Example of the Native American Languages Act 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the development of landmark federal language policy in the United States: the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992 (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of United States American Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the…

  17. 22 CFR 1003.4 - Inter-American Foundation system of records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Inter-American Foundation system of records requirements. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL... policies and practices of the Inter-American Foundation regarding storage, retrievability, access...

  18. 22 CFR 1003.4 - Inter-American Foundation system of records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Inter-American Foundation system of records requirements. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL... policies and practices of the Inter-American Foundation regarding storage, retrievability, access...

  19. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  20. Racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and foreign-born Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Koenen, Karestan

    2011-09-01

    We investigated associations among racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and immigrant Black Americans. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of employed working-class Black Americans (193 US-born, 275 foreign-born). Both US-born and foreign-born Black participants had high levels of exposure to poverty (51% and 57%, respectively) and racial discrimination (76% and 60%) and reported high levels of severe psychological distress (14% and 16% had a Kessler 6 [K6] score of 13 or greater); 17% and 7% reported fair or poor health. After controlling for relevant covariates, their risk parameters for racial discrimination (high vs no exposure) were 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 5.6) and 3.3 (95% CI = 2.1, 4.5), respectively, for continuous K6 score; corresponding odds ratios for severe psychological distress were 6.9 (95% CI = 1.4, 35.7) and 6.8 (95% CI = 2.5, 18.3). No associations existed between racial discrimination and self-reported health, suggesting that an underlying propensity to report adversity does not account for our psychological distress findings. Our results attest to the salience of racial discrimination, nativity, and socioeconomic position in understanding the experiences and psychological health of Black Americans.

  1. 77 FR 55183 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ....4, 746.7, and 746.9); Certain entities in Russia (Sec. 744.10); Individual terrorists and terrorist....e., those countries not targeted by sanctions), including the views of foreign purchasers or...

  2. Friction in U.S. Foreign Policy: Cultural Difficulties with the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    linguist availability for contingencies—without the bureaucratic and limited nature of the current Foreign Language Proficiency Pay ( FLPP ) system...1455hrs EST. 86 McFarland, 131-133. 87 Ibid. 88 Ibid. 89 Cooper, 48. 90 Military.com, “Foreign Language Proficiency Pay ( FLPP ),” [reference on-line... FLPP program went into effect April 1, 2000. The primary focus of the reformed FLPP program is to act as an incentive for military members in career

  3. Labour crunch, foreign workers and policy responses: the experience of Japan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, R A

    1996-01-01

    "Japan has experienced labour shortages since the late 1960s....The present study is an attempt to analyse the Japanese government's response to circumvent labour shortages. It focuses on two aspects: perception of Japanese society towards the increasing presence of foreign workers in Japan and associated problems; and measures taken by the government to overcome labour crunch. These aspects are examined within the [framework of an] increasing flow of foreigners to Japan during the past decades." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  4. Ethics in American Health 1: Ethical Approaches to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  5. Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy.

  6. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  7. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This teacher's resource book is designed to accompany a unit that provides high school students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first…

  8. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  9. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  10. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This teacher's resource book is designed to accompany a unit that provides high school students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first…

  11. Native American Students: Affordability and Access. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Native American students in Washington attend more than 40 postsecondary institutions and participate in college at a rate greater than their proportional presence in the population. They are just as likely to apply for and receive financial aid as other groups, a little less likely to borrow to attend college, and experience a greater gap than…

  12. A History and Foundation of American Indian Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juneau, Stan

    The educational system in Montana is not working for its American Indian students. Dropout rates continue to be extremely high, standardized tests scores are mostly below the state benchmark, curriculum and instruction are not oriented toward promoting Indian culture and history, and the local Board of Trustee system still does not promote…

  13. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco." The…

  14. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco." The…

  15. American medical policy and the "crisis" of the welfare state: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Marmor, T R

    1986-01-01

    Health policy debates rarely include broad review of cross-national experiences with related social policies. This article addresses the connection between medical policy concerns and the development of welfare states in the advanced industrial democracies following the oil crisis of 1973-74. After examining the evidence about what actually occurred during the "crisis" years of the welfare state, the article relates the debates about the welfare state's crisis to American concerns about medical care in the 1980s. The distinctive American response to the fiscal strains of stagflation-more severe cuts in social spending than necessary based on the country's economic strength, threats of bankruptcy to produce small adjustments to large programs, and inability to address the problems of medical care as anything other than budgetary strain--is linked to American dissensus about the purposes of the welfare state.

  16. Hepatitis B vaccination for healthcare personnel in American Samoa: pre-implementation survey for policy decision.

    PubMed

    Ly, K N; Roberts, H; Williams, R E; Masunu-Faleafaga, Y; Drobeniuc, J; Kamili, S; Teshale, E H

    2014-12-01

    American Samoa does not have a hepatitis B vaccination policy for healthcare personnel (HCP). Consequently, hepatitis B has remained a health threat to HCP. In this study, we performed a cross-sectional study and examined demographic and risk information and hepatitis B vaccination, testing, and serostatus in hospital employees in American Samoa. Of 604 hospital employees, 231 (38·2%) participated, and of these, 158 (68·4%) were HCP. Of HCP participants, 1·9% had chronic hepatitis B infection, 36·1% were susceptible, and 60·8% were immune. Nearly half of HCP participants reported history of needlestick injury. Overall, participants' knowledge of their hepatitis B infection and vaccination status was low. These data support the adoption of a hepatitis B vaccination policy for HCP by American Samoa, as currently recommended by the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adherence to the policy could be monitored as a way to measure protection.

  17. Workforce Development Policy: Unrealized Potential for Americans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.; Bruyere, Susanne M.; Karpur, Arun; Nazarov, Zafar; VanLooy, Sara; Reiter, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities have lower rates of workforce participation and lower earnings than their nondisabled peers. This article traces the history of the U.S. workforce development policy framework, including the Workforce Investment Act of 1998; the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; and the impact of the Ticket to Work and Work…

  18. Essay: American Physics, Policy, and Politics: An Uneasy Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Neal

    2008-12-01

    This essay deals with the unique influence that physics and physicists have had on U. S. federal policy since World War II. I identify some “lessons learned” from the last six decades and speculate about the future of U. S. physics and physicists as advisors to future presidents.

  19. American physics, policy, and politics: an uneasy relationship.

    PubMed

    Lane, Neal

    2008-12-31

    This essay deals with the unique influence that physics and physicists have had on U.S. federal policy since World War II. I identify some "lessons learned" from the last six decades and speculate about the future of U.S. physics and physicists as advisors to future presidents.

  20. Workforce Development Policy: Unrealized Potential for Americans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.; Bruyere, Susanne M.; Karpur, Arun; Nazarov, Zafar; VanLooy, Sara; Reiter, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities have lower rates of workforce participation and lower earnings than their nondisabled peers. This article traces the history of the U.S. workforce development policy framework, including the Workforce Investment Act of 1998; the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; and the impact of the Ticket to Work and Work…

  1. [From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].

    PubMed

    Maletta, H

    1988-12-01

    The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling

  2. Smoke-free policies among Asian-American women: comparisons by education status.

    PubMed

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S

    2009-08-01

    California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.

  3. Smoke-Free Policies Among Asian-American Women: Comparisons by Education Status

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S.

    2009-01-01

    Background California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. Methods The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (≤ high school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Results Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. Conclusions The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments. PMID:19591754

  4. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements.

  5. Accent, perpetual foreigner stereotype, and perceived discrimination as indirect links between English proficiency and depressive symptoms in Chinese American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The current study uses García Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444 adolescents (239 girls and 205 boys, with a mean age of 13.0 years for Wave 1 and 17.0 years for Wave 2) and their parents living in major metropolitan areas of Northern California were collected. The structural equation modeling analyses indicate that self-reported low levels of English proficiency among Chinese American adolescents in middle school are related to these same students later reporting that they speak English with an accent in high school, which in turn relates significantly to their perceiving that they have been stereotyped as perpetual foreigners. For girls, a perpetual foreigner stereotype relates to perceptions of chronic daily discrimination, increasing the risk of depressive symptoms. For boys, the path is different: A perpetual foreigner stereotype is apparently related to discriminatory victimization experiences, which increase the risk of depressive symptoms.

  6. Accent, Perpetual Foreigner Stereotype, and Perceived Discrimination as Indirect Links between English Proficiency and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The current study uses Garcia Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) Racial Triangulation Theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444 adolescents (239 girls and 205 boys, with a mean age of 13.0 for Wave 1 and 17.0 for Wave 2) and their parents living in major metropolitan areas of Northern California were collected. The structural equation modeling analyses indicate that self-reported low levels of English proficiency among Chinese American adolescents in middle school are related to these same students later reporting that they speak English with an accent in high school, which in turn relates significantly to their perceiving that they have been stereotyped as perpetual foreigners. For girls, a perpetual foreigner stereotype relates to perceptions of chronic daily discrimination, increasing the risk of depressive symptoms. For boys, the path is different: a perpetual foreigner stereotype is apparently related to discriminatory victimization experiences, which increase the risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:21244164

  7. U.S. Foreign Policy and the Military Instrument of National Power: Important Questions and a Model for Developing Military Engagement Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    September 26, 2007). 8 policy was influenced not only by a Social Gospel21, but by influential theologians and one in particular named Reinhold...Service College Fellows. The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy ...or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND THE MILITARY INSTRUMENT OF

  8. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health.

  9. U.S. Mental Health Policy: Addressing the Neglect of Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.; Yee, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Although Asian Americans are proportionally the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States, federal mental health policies have neglected their special needs. U.S. federal mental health policy has shifted in the past 50 years from an emphasis on increasing accessibility to treatment to improving the quality of care and focusing on the brain as the basis of mental illness. However, the mental health needs of Asian Americans have been a relatively low priority. Myths about Asian Americans that have led to the general neglect of their mental health needs are that they: (a) are a small group; (b) are a successful group and do not experience problems; and (c) do not experience mental health disparities. Nevertheless, Asian Americans are a significant proportion of the population which experiences acculturative stress and discrimination that are often associated with psychopathology. However, Asian Americans who experience psychopathology are less likely than other groups to use mental health services. Political efforts must be made to get Asian Americans into positions of leadership and power in which they can make decisions about mental health policy priorities. PMID:24490000

  10. Recycled Bricks: Exploring Opportunities to Reintegrate Returning American Foreign Fighters Using Existing Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing...TERMS foreign fighter, reintegration, street gang, military service member, life-cycle, social identity theory, joining a group, activity in group...30 III. SOCIAL IDENTITY AND GROUP VIOLENCE ............................................33 A. SOCIAL IDENTITY

  11. 76 FR 43259 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... the production process. The application indicates that the savings from FTZ procedures would help...) with textile backing material for the U.S. market and export. The manufacturing process under FTZ... uses production inputs purchased from domestic and foreign sources. The sole material inputs...

  12. Optimizing Health Care for Foreign Students in the United States and American Students Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. Health Association, Evanston, IL.

    This workbook is organized around 15 guidelines for improving health care for foreign students in the United States and U.S. students abroad. Each guideline is described in a chapter followed by self-assessment questions enabling the evaluation of the adequacy of campus health programs. Each chapter concludes with an invitation to outline goals…

  13. Equity Traps Redux: Inequitable Access to Foreign Language Courses for African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoener, Herbert Joseph, III; McKenzie, Kathryn Bell

    2016-01-01

    Although much of the current educational research literature on achievement gaps has focused on core curricular areas in public schools, few have focused on racially identifiable gaps in non-core areas such as high school foreign languages. These achievement, and thus advancement, gaps often result in the under-representation of students of color…

  14. The Foreign Teaching Assistant in the American University: A Course in Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Marion R.; DeSousa, Michael A.

    A course was developed to provide foreign student teaching assistants (TAs) with improved classroom presentational skills. Class size was kept small and classes were offered once each week for two hours to give students sufficient opportunities to practice speaking. Relying heavily on student oral presentations, the teachers assigned progressively…

  15. Optimizing Health Care for Foreign Students in the United States and American Students Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. Health Association, Evanston, IL.

    This workbook is organized around 15 guidelines for improving health care for foreign students in the United States and U.S. students abroad. Each guideline is described in a chapter followed by self-assessment questions enabling the evaluation of the adequacy of campus health programs. Each chapter concludes with an invitation to outline goals…

  16. More than Words: Americans Should Make Foreign Language Study Integral to Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Uses the shock felt by much of the U.S. population at the September 11th terrorist attacks and personal experience learning Italian to assert the importance of studying foreign languages as a way to better understand other cultures. (EV)

  17. North American Free Trade Agreement: Mexico`s petroleum sector (Part I and Part II). Joint Hearings before the Subcommittees on International Economic Policy and Trade and Western Hemisphere Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, March 26 and May 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Joint hearings were held on the The North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA): Mexico`s Petroleum Sector. The purpose of this session was to receive a report from the General Accounting Office. The report Mexican Oil: Issues Affecting the Potential U.S. Trade and Development was requested by the Congress to aid in deciding if Oil should be included in the NAFTA. The report included: (1) recent trends in Mexican oil production and exports and the primary factors affecting Mexico`s ability to meet current production and export goals, (2) the views of U.S. oil-producing and oil service contracting companies regarding principal barriers to and potential benefits of U.S. trade with and investment in Mexico`s petroleum sector and the response of Mexican officials to those views, and (3) U.S. government efforts to assist Mexico`s petroleum sector. Prepared statements of government and industry officials were included in the record of the proceedings.

  18. Global Change and Africa: Implications for U.S. Policy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathy, Comp.; And Others

    The Stanley Foundation annually assembles a panel of experts from the public and private sectors to assess specific foreign policy issues and to recommend future directions. The round-table discussion summarized in this report focused on the future of Africa and the changing global context of U.S. policy toward Africa. While the Cold War has…

  19. Foreign offshore worker injuries in foreign waters: why a United States forum

    SciTech Connect

    Sutterfield, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    When foreigners are injured or killed in offshore oil operations in foreign jurisdictional waters, US laws do not always apply as they would if the plaintiffs are American or resident aliens. The courts must first consider whether the Jones Act, Death on the High Seas Act, general maritime law, or a combination of laws applies and whether the court should assume jurisdiction or use the doctrine of forum non conveniens. Cases involving foreign offshore workers are used to illustrate the factors involved in each application and to consider the foreign-policy implication when foreign nationals assume that American laws and morality accompany multinational business. Congress has yet to resolve the issues, although a bill was proposed in 1980. 75 references. (DCK)

  20. Soviet Foreign Policy in East Asia and the Pacific Under Gorbachev

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    making Soviet diplomatic <~I.~ 4 performance susceptible to a test against commitments made. + q Two years later in Krasnoyarsk , Gorbachev...34The "Fortress’ Opens", Newsweek, 17 October Gorbachev, Mikhail. speech given at Krasnoyarsk , USSR, 16 September 1988, Foreign Broadcast Information

  1. Policy Direction and Development Trends for Sino-Foreign Partnership Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the background and substance of the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools." It specifies both the contributions and limitations of the regulations for the sound development of such schools. At a time when international cooperation in running schools is…

  2. 76 FR 65472 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... ``effective competitive opportunities'' (ECO) test, adopted in the 1995 Foreign Carrier Entry Order, as part... exceed 25 percent, the Commission requires the petitioner to submit an ECO showing for the relevant..., alternatively, that non-WTO Member investment is from countries that satisfy the ECO test. The Commission would...

  3. Spanish Only for Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES): Competing Discourses in Local Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko; Catlett, Shawna

    2008-01-01

    Teaching Spanish has become increasingly popular in the United States due to demographic shifts. This study focuses on a Spanish-only initiative for an existing Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program proposed by a southeastern public school district's school board. It analyzes discourses underlying the policymakers' rationales…

  4. The Role of the Department of State in the Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    traveled in Western Europe, Morocco, India and Pakistan. In addition to her degree programs, she has studied at the Sorbonne and the Ecole des Etudes...of the geog1"aphic buz-eaus. At present, the Foreign Service regards the idea. of greater Civil Service input into pol icy as heret icai , and the

  5. From Politics to Policy: Rethinking the Relationship between Language Centres and Modern Foreign Language Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlaska, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    One of the key recommendations of the Worton Review of Modern Foreign Languages provision in higher education in England (2009) is more effective collaboration between language centres and language departments. This paper presents a fully integrated model of such collaboration and develops recommendations for language centres and language…

  6. Spanish Only for Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES): Competing Discourses in Local Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko; Catlett, Shawna

    2008-01-01

    Teaching Spanish has become increasingly popular in the United States due to demographic shifts. This study focuses on a Spanish-only initiative for an existing Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program proposed by a southeastern public school district's school board. It analyzes discourses underlying the policymakers' rationales…

  7. The "Languages Review" in England: Foreign Language Planning in the Absence of an Overarching Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Looked at from a certain distance, the "Languages Review" (Dearing & King, 2007) was seen by some in the foreign language (FL) education community, when it first came out, as a major disappointment because the authors had decided not to opt for the one measure that would reverse the falling numbers of students studying a foreign…

  8. U. S. Naval Strategy and Foreign Policy in China, 1945-1950.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-05

    Amethyst to protect the Crown’s interests. In their answer to a century of foreign domination of the waterways of China, communist gunners riddled the... Amethyst and seriously mauled the British cruiser London, and two other ships sent to the rescue. Only after heroic efforts were the British ships able to

  9. 78 FR 75563 - Commission Policies and Procedures Under the Communications Act, Foreign Investment in Broadcast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... restrictions were originally conceived to address homeland security interests during wartime. They were... number of applications in the broadcast sector and therefore has not had the opportunity to develop its... additional national security concerns because they implicate content. See, e.g., Foreign Ownership NPRM, 26...

  10. Am I My Brother's Keeper? African American Men's Health Within the Context of Equity and Policy.

    PubMed

    Enyia, Okechuku Kelechi; Watkins, Yashika J; Williams, Quintin

    2016-01-01

    African American men's health has at times been regarded as irrelevant to the health and well-being of the communities where they are born, grow, live, work, and age. The uniqueness of being male and of African descent calls for a critical examination and deeper understanding of the psycho-socio-historical context in which African American men have lived. There is a critical need for scholarship that better contextualizes African American Male Theory and cultural humility in terms of public health. Furthermore, the focus of much of the social determinants of health and health equity policy literature has been on advocacy, but few researchers have examined why health-related public policies have not been adopted and implemented from a political and theoretical policy analysis perspective. The purpose of this article will be to examine African American men's health within the context of social determinants of health status, health behavior, and health inequalities-elucidating policy implications for system change and providing recommendations from the vantage point of health equity.

  11. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  12. The Negro in the Supermarket Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Gordon F.; Fletcher, F. Marion

    The supermarket industry is important in the study of racial employment policies of American industry for several reasons: the ubiquitous nature of the industry, its size, the relatively low skill employment requirements, the high percentage of part-time jobs available, and the comparatively attractive employment patterns. The latter include…

  13. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  14. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  15. Association of American Universities Policy Recommendations for President-Elect Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this document, the Association of American Universities offers a series of research and technology policy recommendations that would help our nation to continue its global pre-eminence in science and high technology, improve the quality of life and national security of our citizens, and speed our nation's economic recovery. After policy…

  16. Shaping the Future of American Youth: Youth Policy in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne, Ed.

    This volume contains 14 essays and commentaries on youth development penned by educators, policymakers, and leaders of youth development organizations. The papers, written to commemorate 10 years of American Youth Policy Forum's service, were originally presented at a forum in Washington, D.C., in January 2003. Following are the papers: "Genesis…

  17. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  18. The Future of Education Policy: An Asian-Pacific/North American Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) 1994 National Forum and Annual Meeting was used as an opportunity to host a special Asian/Pacific/North American Dialogue conference on education policy. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss how educational practice and innovation in the Asia-Pacific nations could inform education reform and…

  19. The Negro in the Supermarket Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Gordon F.; Fletcher, F. Marion

    The supermarket industry is important in the study of racial employment policies of American industry for several reasons: the ubiquitous nature of the industry, its size, the relatively low skill employment requirements, the high percentage of part-time jobs available, and the comparatively attractive employment patterns. The latter include…

  20. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  1. Editorial: Conflict of interest policy for Editors of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrity in the publication process requires impartiality at all levels of review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) adheres to the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writin...

  2. How Paradigms Create Politics: The Transformation of American Educational Policy, 1980-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Jal

    2013-01-01

    American educational policy was rapidly transformed between 1980 and 2001. Accountability was introduced into a sphere that had long been loosely coupled, both major political parties reevaluated longstanding positions, and significant institutional control over the schooling shifted to the federal government for the first time in the nation's…

  3. Do Asian Americans Benefit from Race-Blind College Admissions Policies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, OiYan A.

    2017-01-01

    Opponents of affirmative action in the Fisher Supreme Court case claim that race-conscious admissions policies discriminate against Asian American applicants and impose a "higher bar" in college admissions than for other students. In their amicus brief supporting the plaintiff in the Fisher case, 80-20 states that, "Asian American…

  4. Future of the American Family: A Comparative Analysis of Public Policy Research Definitions of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Catherine

    This paper presents a review of commonly used family models which illustrate the wide range of differences in definition of the American family. Its purpose is to help assure that national family policy is based on a definition of family made in the broadest possible context. The major part of the paper discusses five commonly used models. The…

  5. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  6. The Political University: Policy, Politics, and Presidential Leadership in the American Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    The problems and prospects of American research universities are discussed in light of such issues as shifting federal policies, resource constraints, increased partnerships with business and industry, and the changing needs and perceptions of the larger society. The book captures the collective experiences of 12 former university presidents who…

  7. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  8. Federalism and the determinants of environmental policy in the American states

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s the American states experienced a resurgence in the field of environmental policy. Innovation increased as state legislatures reacted to growing environmental problems. This study addresses the determinants of state policy in three areas: air pollution control, water pollution control, and hazardous waste policy. The findings are analyzed in the context of federalism, as the ongoing debate over the proper role of the federal and state governments is discussed in terms of environmental policy. The study utilizes bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine four sets of variables: pollution severity conditions, political conditions, economic conditions, and social conditions. A pollution severity hypothesis, which states that increased levels of pollution within a state will lead to more stringent policy, is tested. Pollution severity can interact with other types of variables, and its influence on state policy is likely to be mitigated by other forces. The findings of the analysis suggest the need to study specific types of environmental policy, in order to develop a full understanding of state pollution control efforts on the whole. Differences are found between the determinants of spending and regulatory policy. Factors impacting state policy include pollution severity, ideology, political culture, and age. Importantly, economic factors were found to have almost no impact on state environmental policy. The findings of the study suggest that the use of federal funds as a tool to correct state differences may be misguided since economic conditions rarely affect policy creation. Further research, however, should continue to address this issue, since conditions in the states are constantly shifting. Other important areas of future research should include additional state policy types, party elites, and political variables in general, since the debate over federalism and environmental policy will likely become more salient in the 1990s.

  9. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement--child fatality review.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    Injury remains the leading cause of pediatric mortality and requires public health approaches to reduce preventable deaths. Child fatality review teams, first established to review suspicious child deaths involving abuse or neglect, have expanded toward a public health model of prevention of child fatality through systematic review of child deaths from birth through adolescence. Approximately half of all states report reviewing child deaths from all causes, and the process of fatality review has identified effective local and state prevention strategies for reducing child deaths. This expanded approach can be a powerful tool in understanding the epidemiology and preventability of child death locally, regionally, and nationally; improving accuracy of vital statistics data; and identifying public health and legislative strategies for reducing preventable child fatalities. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the development of federal and state legislation to enhance the child fatality review process and recommends that pediatricians become involved in local and state child death reviews.

  10. Third World Radical Regimes: U.S. Policy under Carter and Reagan. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 272.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Anthony

    One in a series of booklets on world issues, this document evaluates United States policy toward the nations of Nicaragua, Afghanistan, Vietnam, South Africa, Libya, and Iran. Chapter one reviews United States relations with six radical regimes during the administrations of presidents Carter and Reagan and offers a number of lessons about the…

  11. Third World Radical Regimes: U.S. Policy under Carter and Reagan. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 272.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Anthony

    One in a series of booklets on world issues, this document evaluates United States policy toward the nations of Nicaragua, Afghanistan, Vietnam, South Africa, Libya, and Iran. Chapter one reviews United States relations with six radical regimes during the administrations of presidents Carter and Reagan and offers a number of lessons about the…

  12. Foreign Policy and Defense Attitudes in West Europe: Trends and Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Europe." POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 98 (Summer 1983): 179-196. Safran, William. THE FRENCH POLICY. New York: Longman, 1979. 118 Sartori , Giovani ...mechanism by which public opinion is linked to policy is understood within democratic theory to be the political party. Sartori (1976) asserts that what

  13. Characteristics of US-Born Versus Foreign-Born Americans of African Descent With Chronic Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed A; Kim, W Ray; Li, Ruosha; Smith, Coleman I; Fried, Michael W; Sterling, Richard K; Ghany, Marc G; Wahed, Abdus S; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia M; Roberts, Lewis R; Lok, Anna S F

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is more common in African Americans than in white Americans. We compared the epidemiologic, clinical, and virological characteristics of US-born African Americans (USAAs) to those of foreign-born African Americans (FBAAs) with chronic hepatitis B. The adult cohort study of the Hepatitis B Research Network enrolls patients with HBV infection from 21 clinical sites in the United States and Canada. A total of 237 (15%) of the adult participants with chronic HBV infection that were enrolled from January 20, 2011, to October 2, 2013, were of African descent, including 57 USAAs and 180 FBAAs (76%). Compared with FBAAs, USAAs were older and more likely to have acquired HBV through sexual exposure, to be HBeAg-positive, to have higher HBV DNA levels, and to be infected with HBV genotype A2. FBAAs from West Africa were more likely to have elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (72% vs. 50%; P < 0.01) and higher HBV DNA levels (median, 3.2 log10 IU/mL vs. 2.8 log10 IU/mL; P = 0.03) compared with East African FBAAs. The predominant HBV genotype among West African FBAAs was E (67%), whereas genotypes A (78%) and D (16%) were common in East African FBAAs. Significant differences were found between USAAs and FBAAs, highlighting the need for tailored strategies for prevention and management of chronic HBV infection for African Americans. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Leadership From the Centre: A New Foreign and Security Policy for Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    this period, a new Germany confident enough to declare leadership from the centre assumed de facto leadership in the European Union. The dichotomy of...enough to declare leadership from the centre assumed de facto leadership in the European Union. The dichotomy of Germany’s past and ambitions in foreign...this disaster. The collective memories of the Holocaust and the Nazi atrocities during the war do play heavily in the aftermath following the

  15. China’s Foreign Policy: What Does It Mean for U.S. Global Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    Shinzo Abe , on October 8, 2006. The trip to the PRC was Prime Minister Abe’s first foreign visit as Prime Minister. In April 2007, PRC Premier Wen...Emma Chanlett-Avery. routinely protested former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s annual visits to the Yasukuni Shrine , where war criminals are...also enshrined. After Koizumi first visited the shrine in 2001, China used the issue to justify its refusal to engage in bilateral summitry, except

  16. To Megali Idea - Dead or Alive? The Domestic Determinants of Greek Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    external stimuli, however, is understanding not only how they view personalities and events foreign to themselves, but also how they view themselves. In...Orthodoxy, chose this moment of expanding influence to begin a personal crusade to improve the religious life of the Greek people. He founded a school...which is the recovery of our rights of personal freedom, of property, and of hon- or... Motivated by such principles of natural rights and desirous of

  17. Parsimony or Policy? Congress’ Attempt to Merge the Foreign Affairs Agencies in 1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    preservrng an adequate foreign assrstance budget would also work in favor of preserving USAID as an organizatron I2 It seemed to be the right ...Senate.23 After an attempt at cloture failed on August 1, Senate MaJority Leader Robert Dole pulled the bill, womed that other more pressing...reversed hunself, clearly womed about the impact thus move would have on Middle East peace.29 At this pomt, it appeared the issue should have lost rts

  18. The future of Indian Health Services for native Americans in the United States: an analysis of policy options and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Henley, Tiffany; Boshier, Maureen

    2016-10-01

    The passage of the Affordable Care Act in the United States has opened a policy window for the establishment of an independent Medicaid agency for the Navajo Nation. This article explores several policy options to improve health care services for Native Americans. Although there is a lack of scholarly research on the impact of healthcare reform and the effectiveness of current health care programs for American Indians, policymakers should utilize evidence-based research to inform policy decisions.

  19. How American Educational Policy and Practices Impact the Language and Culture of an American Pacific Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freese, Anne Reilley

    The impact of the western educational model and the use of English on the language and traditional behaviors of young people in American Samoa was studied. Results from a 1973 study were compared with results collected in 1987 using the same instrument to measure changes in language and culture-related behaviors. A survey of nearly 190 American…

  20. Soviet Foreign Policy in the Middle East: Internal and External Determinants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Soviet policies, the’limits of Soviet ability to control a client state, and the difficulties Moscow mght encounter in subsequent client...Leonid Brezhnev, was the primary proponent of Soviet detente policy with the United States. The views expressed by Pravda during this period stress the...generals and adhirals may express their own particular views - does not correspond with the actualit of the tight Party-military control that is exercised