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Sample records for american heart association

  1. American Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... reconsider sleeping in this weekend? Scientists try first gene editing in the body E-cig flavorings may damage heart muscle cells Pregnancy complication tied to heart failure risk Shakopee ... to make MRIs safer One gene may be why some people are fat Is ...

  2. Improving Children's Heart Health: A Report from the American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidding, Samuel S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed at the 1994 American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference to promote cardiovascular health in children, particularly regarding public health, lifestyle, and behavior. The recommendations cover the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco, providing suggestions for schools,…

  3. The American Heart Association and Heart Health Education in the Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevis, Betty

    1979-01-01

    Several of the American Heart Association's education programs are described. The newest program is Heart Health Education in the Young, designed to stress the importance of early risk factor education. (JMF)

  4. Continuing Education Programs within the American Heart Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lembright, Katherine A.

    1970-01-01

    Because it believes the nurse can and must be a participant in the co-professional health team (doctor, nurse), the American Heart Association has become increasingly concerned with planning and carrying out activities that contribute to the continuing education of nurses. (PT)

  5. Recommended Dietary Pattern to Achieve Adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Linda; Carson, Jo Ann S; Appel, Lawrence J; Burke, Lora E; Economos, Christina; Karmally, Wahida; Lancaster, Kristie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Johnson, Rachel K; Thomas, Randal J; Vos, Miriam; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2016-11-29

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction by providing more specific details for adopting evidence-based diet and lifestyle behaviors to achieve those goals. In addition, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued updated evidence relevant to reducing cardiovascular risk and provided additional recommendations for adopting healthy diet and lifestyle approaches. This scientific statement, intended for healthcare providers, summarizes relevant scientific and translational evidence and offers practical tips, tools, and dietary approaches to help patients/clients adapt these guidelines according to their sociocultural, economic, and taste preferences. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. [The basic life support guidance of American Heart Association (AHA)].

    PubMed

    Higashioka, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Terutake; Maeda, Daigen

    2011-04-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. And ILCOR publishes Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations(CoSTR). The AHA published "American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)" (G2010), that basis on CoSTR 2010 on Oct. 18th, 2010. The switchover to new curriculum based on G2010 on and after Mar. 1st, 2011 is the policy of AHA in their all training courses. The AHA maintains the quality of their training courses by some systems. AHA instructors are trained by some steps of instructor courses and monitoring systems and update their scientific knowledge on resuscitation by e-learning. The authors introduce an outline of basic life support for healthcare providers, the instructor training systems of AHA and summary of basic life support basis on G2010.

  7. Drugs That May Cause or Exacerbate Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert L; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Cheng, Davy; Dow, Tristan J; Ky, Bonnie; Stein, C Michael; Spencer, Anne P; Trupp, Robin J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn

    2016-08-09

    Heart failure is a common, costly, and debilitating syndrome that is associated with a highly complex drug regimen, a large number of comorbidities, and a large and often disparate number of healthcare providers. All of these factors conspire to increase the risk of heart failure exacerbation by direct myocardial toxicity, drug-drug interactions, or both. This scientific statement is designed to serve as a comprehensive and accessible source of drugs that may cause or exacerbate heart failure to assist healthcare providers in improving the quality of care for these patients. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Participation in Heart-Healthy Behaviors: A Secondary Analysis of the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match Data.

    PubMed

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; De Jong, Marla J; Berra, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association created Go Red Heart Match, a free and secure online program that enables women to connect with each other to fight heart disease either personally or as a caregiver for someone with heart disease. Through these connections, participants have an opportunity to develop a personal, private, and supportive relationship with other women; share common experiences; and motivate and encourage each other to follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. The aims of this study were to describe the demographic characteristics of the Go Red Heart Match responders and to determine whether participation in the program prompted participants to engage in heart-healthy behaviors. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a needs assessment survey from the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match was conducted. A total of 117 (35%) of the 334 invited women completed the survey. Most responders were female, married, and college educated. A total of 105 (90%) responders were diagnosed with a type of heart disease or stroke and 77 (73%) responders had undergone treatment. As a result of participating in the program, 75% of the responders reported the following improvements in heart-healthy behaviors: eating a more heart-healthy diet (54%), exercising more frequently (53%), losing weight (47%), and quitting smoking (10%). Responders who had a diagnosis of heart attack (n = 48) were more likely (P = .003) to quit smoking than were those with other diagnoses (n = 69). Notably, 48% of responders reported encouraging someone else in their life to speak to their doctor about their risk for heart disease. Most women who participated in Heart Match reported engaging in new heart-healthy behaviors. The findings support expanding the existing program in a more diverse population as a potentially important way to reach women and encourage cardiovascular disease risk reduction for those with heart disease and stroke.

  9. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-11-21

    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension: Guidelines From the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    Abman, Steven H; Hansmann, Georg; Archer, Stephen L; Ivy, D Dunbar; Adatia, Ian; Chung, Wendy K; Hanna, Brian D; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Raj, J Usha; Cornfield, David; Stenmark, Kurt R; Steinhorn, Robin; Thébaud, Bernard; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Kuehne, Titus; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Friedberg, Mark K; Earing, Michael; Barst, Robyn J; Keller, Roberta L; Kinsella, John P; Mullen, Mary; Deterding, Robin; Kulik, Thomas; Mallory, George; Humpl, Tilman; Wessel, David L

    2015-11-24

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with diverse cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases in neonates, infants, and older children and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. However, current approaches to caring for pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension have been limited by the lack of consensus guidelines from experts in the field. In a joint effort from the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society, a panel of experienced clinicians and clinician-scientists was assembled to review the current literature and to make recommendations on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. This publication presents the results of extensive literature reviews, discussions, and formal scoring of recommendations for the care of children with pulmonary hypertension. © 2015 by the American Heart Association, Inc., and the American Thoracic Society.

  11. American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7: Avoiding Heart Failure and Preserving Cardiac Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Folsom, Aaron R; Shah, Amil M; Lutsey, Pamela L; Roetker, Nicholas S; Alonso, Alvaro; Avery, Christy L; Miedema, Michael D; Konety, Suma; Chang, Patricia P; Solomon, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Many people may underappreciate the role of lifestyle in avoiding heart failure. We estimated whether greater adherence in middle age to American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 guidelines—on smoking, body mass, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose—is associated with lower lifetime risk of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function in old age. We studied the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort of 13,462 adults ages 45-64 years in 1987-1989. From the 1987-1989 risk factor measurements, we created a Life's Simple 7 score (range 0-14, giving 2 points for ideal, 1 point for intermediate, and 0 points for poor components). We identified 2218 incident heart failure events using surveillance of hospital discharge and death codes through 2011. In addition, in 4855 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2011-2013, we performed echocardiography from which we quantified left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. One in four participants (25.5%) developed heart failure through age 85 years. Yet, this lifetime heart failure risk was 14.4% for those with a middle-age Life's Simple 7 score of 10-14 (optimal), 26.8% for a score of 5-9 (average), and 48.6% for a score of 0-4 (inadequate). Among those with no clinical cardiovascular event, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in late life was approximately 40% as common, and diastolic dysfunction was approximately 60% as common, among those with an optimal middle-age Life's Simple 7 score, compared with an inadequate score. Greater achievement of American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime occurrence of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recommended dietary pattern to achieve adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the America...

  13. Poststroke Depression: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; El Husseini, Nada; Hackett, Maree L; Jorge, Ricardo E; Kissela, Brett M; Mitchell, Pamela H; Skolarus, Lesli E; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, Linda S

    2017-02-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is common, affecting approximately one third of stroke survivors at any one time after stroke. Individuals with PSD are at a higher risk for suboptimal recovery, recurrent vascular events, poor quality of life, and mortality. Although PSD is prevalent, uncertainty remains regarding predisposing risk factors and optimal strategies for prevention and treatment. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on the topic of PSD. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. Members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise and reviewed appropriate literature, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, and expert opinion. This multispecialty statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence and gaps in current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, outcomes, management, and prevention of PSD, and provides implications for clinical practice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Management of Cardiac Involvement Associated With Neuromuscular Diseases: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Brian; Mahle, William T; Auerbach, Scott; Clemens, Paula; Domenighetti, Andrea A; Jefferies, John L; Judge, Daniel P; Lal, Ashwin K; Markham, Larry W; Parks, W James; Tsuda, Takeshi; Wang, Paul J; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2017-09-26

    For many neuromuscular diseases (NMDs), cardiac disease represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of cardiac disease in NMDs is made challenging by the broad clinical heterogeneity that exists among many NMDs and by limited knowledge about disease-specific cardiovascular pathogenesis and course-modifying interventions. The overlay of compromise in peripheral muscle function and other organ systems, such as the lungs, also makes the simple application of endorsed adult or pediatric heart failure guidelines to the NMD population problematic. In this statement, we provide background on several NMDs in which there is cardiac involvement, highlighting unique features of NMD-associated myocardial disease that require clinicians to tailor their approach to prevention and treatment of heart failure. Undoubtedly, further investigations are required to best inform future guidelines on NMD-specific cardiovascular health risks, treatments, and outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. American Heart Association's Call to Action for Payment and Delivery System Reform.

    PubMed

    Bufalino, Vincent J; Berkowitz, Scott A; Gardner, Timothy J; Piña, Ileana L; Konig, Madeleine

    2017-08-15

    The healthcare system is undergoing a transition from paying for volume to paying for value. Clinicians, as well as public and private payers, are beginning to implement alternative delivery and payment models, such as the patient-centered medical home, accountable care organizations, and bundled payment arrangements. Implementation of these new models will necessitate delivery system transformation and will actively involve all fields of medical care, in particular medicine and surgery. This call to action, on behalf of the American Heart Association's Expert Panel on Payment and Delivery System Reform, serves to offer support and direction for further involvement by the American Heart Association. In doing so, it (1) provides baseline review and definition of the present models and some of the early results of these delivery models, including outcomes; (2) initiates a conversation within the American Heart Association on the impact of payment and delivery system reform, as well as how the American Heart Association should engage in the interest of patients; (3) issues a call to action to our organization and to cardiovascular and stroke health professionals across the country to become educated about these models so to as to understand their impact on patient care; and (4) asks the government and other funding agencies, including the American Heart Association, to begin supporting and prioritizing meaningful research endeavors to further evaluate these models. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B; Furie, Karen L; Iadecola, Costantino; Smith, Eric E; Waddy, Salina P; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Bae, Hee-Joon; Bauman, Mary Ann; Dichgans, Martin; Duncan, Pamela W; Girgus, Meighan; Howard, Virginia J; Lazar, Ronald M; Seshadri, Sudha; Testai, Fernando D; van Gaal, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Wasiak, Hank; Zerna, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA's Life's Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index <25 kg/m 2 ) and 3 ideal health factors (untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, untreated total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, and fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL). In addition, in relation to maintenance of cognitive health, we recommend following previously published guidance from the AHA/American Stroke Association, Institute of Medicine, and Alzheimer's Association that incorporates control of cardiovascular risks and suggest social engagement and other related strategies. We define optimal brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA's Life's Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to

  19. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous

  20. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Adults and Children With Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Peberdy, Mary Ann; Gluck, Jason A; Ornato, Joseph P; Bermudez, Christian A; Griffin, Russell E; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Kerber, Richard E; Lewis, Eldrin F; Link, Mark S; Miller, Corinne; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Weiss, Robert M; O'Neil, Brian

    2017-06-13

    Cardiac arrest in patients on mechanical support is a new phenomenon brought about by the increased use of this therapy in patients with end-stage heart failure. This American Heart Association scientific statement highlights the recognition and treatment of cardiovascular collapse or cardiopulmonary arrest in an adult or pediatric patient who has a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. Specific, expert consensus recommendations are provided for the role of external chest compressions in such patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. American Heart Association Principles on the Accessibility and Affordability of Drugs and Biologics: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Antman, Elliott M; Creager, Mark A; Houser, Steven R; Warner, John J; Konig, Madeleine

    2017-12-12

    Net US spending on pharmaceuticals reached $309.5 billion in 2015, an 8.5% increase from the year before, and is expected to reach between $370 and $400 billion by 2020. These current and projected levels have raised serious concerns by policy makers, providers, payers, and patient groups that they are unsustainable and threaten the affordability of and accessibility to much-needed therapies for patients. Two trends related to drugs/biologics and generic drugs/biosimilars underlie this overall increase in spending. First, the market entry prices of innovator pharmaceutical products, or brand drugs and biologics, are at levels that some assessments consider unaffordable to the healthcare system. Second, prices for some established generic drugs such as digoxin and captopril have seen sharp and rapid increases. As an evidence-based patient advocacy organization dedicated to improving the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association has a unique role in advocating for treatments, including medicines that are available, affordable, and accessible to patients. This advisory serves to lay out a set of principles that will guide association engagement in pursuit of this goal. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Multi-modality imaging: Bird's-eye view from the 2014 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.

    PubMed

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Einstein, Andrew J; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Lloyd, Steven G; Hage, Fadi G

    2015-04-01

    A large number of studies were presented at the 2014 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. In this review, we will summarize key studies in nuclear cardiology, computed tomography, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. This brief review will be helpful for readers of the Journal who are interested in being updated on the latest research covering these imaging modalities.

  4. The American Heart Association Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Effoe, Valery S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Chen, Haiying; Joseph, Joshua J; Norwood, Arnita F; Bertoni, Alain G

    2017-06-21

    The concept of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association primarily for coronary heart disease and stroke prevention, may apply to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks. Our sample included 2668 adults in the Jackson Heart Study with complete baseline data on 6 of 7 American Heart Association CVH metrics (body mass index, healthy diet, smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity). Incident diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes mellitus drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin ≥6.5%. A summary CVH score from 0 to 6, based on presence/absence of ideal CVH metrics, was derived for each participant. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios. Mean age was 55 years (65% women) with 492 incident diabetes mellitus events over 7.6 years (24.6 cases/1000 person-years). Three quarters of participants had only 1 or 2 ideal CVH metrics; no participant had all 6. After adjustment for demographic factors (age, sex, education, and income) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, each additional ideal CVH metric was associated with a 17% diabetes mellitus risk reduction (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). The association was attenuated with further adjustment for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00). Compared with participants with 1 or no ideal CVH metric, diabetes mellitus risk was 15% and 37% lower in those with 2 and ≥3 ideal CVH metrics, respectively. The AHA concept of ideal CVH is applicable to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks. These associations were largely explained by insulin resistance. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Factors influencing the decline in stroke mortality: a statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T; Roccella, Edward J; Deutsch, Anne F; Fornage, Myriam; George, Mary G; Howard, George; Kissela, Brett M; Kittner, Steven J; Lichtman, Judith H; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Schwamm, Lee H; Smith, Eric E; Towfighi, Amytis

    2014-01-01

    Stroke mortality has been declining since the early 20th century. The reasons for this are not completely understood, although the decline is welcome. As a result of recent striking and more accelerated decreases in stroke mortality, stroke has fallen from the third to the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. This has prompted a detailed assessment of the factors associated with the change in stroke risk and mortality. This statement considers the evidence for factors that have contributed to the decline and how they can be used in the design of future interventions for this major public health burden. Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair and co-chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiological studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on this document and approved the final version. The document underwent extensive American Heart Association internal peer review, Stroke Council leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. The decline in stroke mortality over the past decades represents a major improvement in population health and is observed for both sexes and for all racial/ethnic and age groups. In addition to the overall impact on fewer lives lost to stroke, the major decline in stroke mortality seen among people <65 years of age represents a reduction in years of

  6. Perspectives on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Bach, David S

    2009-05-19

    In 2007, the American Heart Association published a guideline statement dramatically changing its previous position on the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients at risk of infective endocarditis (IE). This year, these views were incorporated in an update of the 2006 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease. The new recommendations represent a dramatic shift with regard to which patients should receive antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of IE and for what procedures. The shift in recommendations is striking in that the recommendations are based not on new data, but on no data. (There are no large, prospective, randomized double-blind trials testing the efficacy of IE prophylaxis.) However, available data suggest that there may be no real risk associated with IE prophylaxis. Even if few cases of IE are successfully prevented using antibiotic prophylaxis, those few cases may represent a favorable risk-benefit ratio. On an individual basis, patients with organic heart valve disease who are trying to delay or avoid surgical intervention have something very real to risk if they develop IE, and a very real benefit if they avoid it. Pending data from prospective randomized trials, a strategy of individual decision-making by informed patients may be best.

  7. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with congenital heart disease: evaluation and management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Marino, Bradley S; Lipkin, Paul H; Newburger, Jane W; Peacock, Georgina; Gerdes, Marsha; Gaynor, J William; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Uzark, Karen; Goldberg, Caren S; Johnson, Walter H; Li, Jennifer; Smith, Sabrina E; Bellinger, David C; Mahle, William T

    2012-08-28

    The goal of this statement was to review the available literature on surveillance, screening, evaluation, and management strategies and put forward a scientific statement that would comprehensively review the literature and create recommendations to optimize neurodevelopmental outcome in the pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD) population. A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association and American Academy of Pediatrics reviewed the available literature addressing developmental disorder and disability and developmental delay in the CHD population, with specific attention given to surveillance, screening, evaluation, and management strategies. MEDLINE and Google Scholar database searches from 1966 to 2011 were performed for English-language articles cross-referencing CHD with pertinent search terms. The reference lists of identified articles were also searched. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of recommendations and levels of evidence for practice guidelines were used. A management algorithm was devised that stratified children with CHD on the basis of established risk factors. For those deemed to be at high risk for developmental disorder or disabilities or for developmental delay, formal, periodic developmental and medical evaluations are recommended. A CHD algorithm for surveillance, screening, evaluation, reevaluation, and management of developmental disorder or disability has been constructed to serve as a supplement to the 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics statement on developmental surveillance and screening. The proposed algorithm is designed to be carried out within the context of the medical home. This scientific statement is meant for medical providers within the medical home who care for patients with CHD. Children with CHD are at increased risk of developmental disorder or disabilities or developmental delay. Periodic developmental surveillance, screening, evaluation, and reevaluation

  8. Enhanced and updated American Heart Association heart-check front-of-package symbol: efforts to help consumers identify healthier food choices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A variety of nutrition symbols and rating systems are in use on the front of food packages. They are intended to help consumers make healthier food choices. One system, the American Heart Association Heart (AHA) Heart-Check Program, has evolved over time to incorporate current science-based recommen...

  9. Evaluation and Management of Right-Sided Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Konstam, Marvin A; Kiernan, Michael S; Bernstein, Daniel; Bozkurt, Biykem; Jacob, Miriam; Kapur, Navin K; Kociol, Robb D; Lewis, Eldrin F; Mehra, Mandeep R; Pagani, Francis D; Raval, Amish N; Ward, Carey

    2018-05-15

    The diverse causes of right-sided heart failure (RHF) include, among others, primary cardiomyopathies with right ventricular (RV) involvement, RV ischemia and infarction, volume loading caused by cardiac lesions associated with congenital heart disease and valvular pathologies, and pressure loading resulting from pulmonic stenosis or pulmonary hypertension from a variety of causes, including left-sided heart disease. Progressive RV dysfunction in these disease states is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this scientific statement is to provide guidance on the assessment and management of RHF. The writing group used systematic literature reviews, published translational and clinical studies, clinical practice guidelines, and expert opinion/statements to summarize existing evidence and to identify areas of inadequacy requiring future research. The panel reviewed the most relevant adult medical literature excluding routine laboratory tests using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science through September 2017. The document is organized and classified according to the American Heart Association to provide specific suggestions, considerations, or reference to contemporary clinical practice recommendations. Chronic RHF is associated with decreased exercise tolerance, poor functional capacity, decreased cardiac output and progressive end-organ damage (caused by a combination of end-organ venous congestion and underperfusion), and cachexia resulting from poor absorption of nutrients, as well as a systemic proinflammatory state. It is the principal cause of death in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Similarly, acute RHF is associated with hemodynamic instability and is the primary cause of death in patients presenting with massive pulmonary embolism, RV myocardial infarction, and postcardiotomy shock associated with cardiac surgery. Functional assessment of the right side of the heart can be hindered by its complex geometry. Multiple

  10. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: New Evidence Since the 2011 American Cardiology of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association Guideline.

    PubMed

    Fraiche, Ariane; Wang, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Since publication of the 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), more recent studies offer greater insights about this condition. With increased recognition of the role of sarcomere protein mutations and myocardial structural abnormalities in the pathophysiology of this disease, new evidence offers potential improvements for the management of patients with HCM. In this review of studies published since 2011, we highlight several studies that may impact diagnostic considerations, risk stratification, and treatment of symptoms in HCM.

  11. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2016, New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Amaki, Makoto; Konagai, Nao; Fujino, Masashi; Kawakami, Shouji; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Takuya; Sugano, Yasuo; Tahara, Yoshio; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2016-12-22

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2016 were held on November 12-16 at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, LA. This 5-day event featured cardiovascular clinical practice covering all aspects of basic, clinical, population, and translational content. One of the hot topics at AHA 2016 was precision medicine. The key presentations and highlights from the AHA Scientific Sessions 2016, including "precision medicine" as one of the hot topics, are herein reported.

  12. Multi-modality Imaging: Bird's eye view from the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Andrew J; Lloyd, Steven G; Chaudhry, Farooq A; AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-04-01

    Multiple novel studies were presented at the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions which was considered a successful conference at many levels. In this review, we will summarize key studies in nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and cardiac computed tomography that were presented at the Sessions. We hope that this bird's eye view will keep readers updated on the newest imaging studies presented at the meeting whether or not they were able to attend the meeting.

  13. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Frank M; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wu, Jason H Y; Appel, Lawrence J; Creager, Mark A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B; Rudel, Lawrence L; Robinson, Jennifer G; Stone, Neil J; Van Horn, Linda V

    2017-07-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year. Preventive treatment that reduces CVD by even a small percentage can substantially reduce, nationally and globally, the number of people who develop CVD and the costs of caring for them. This American Heart Association presidential advisory on dietary fats and CVD reviews and discusses the scientific evidence, including the most recent studies, on the effects of dietary saturated fat intake and its replacement by other types of fats and carbohydrates on CVD. In summary, randomized controlled trials that lowered intake of dietary saturated fat and replaced it with polyunsaturated vegetable oil reduced CVD by ≈30%, similar to the reduction achieved by statin treatment. Prospective observational studies in many populations showed that lower intake of saturated fat coupled with higher intake of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat is associated with lower rates of CVD and of other major causes of death and all-cause mortality. In contrast, replacement of saturated fat with mostly refined carbohydrates and sugars is not associated with lower rates of CVD and did not reduce CVD in clinical trials. Replacement of saturated with unsaturated fats lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a cause of atherosclerosis, linking biological evidence with incidence of CVD in populations and in clinical trials. Taking into consideration the totality of the scientific evidence, satisfying rigorous criteria for causality, we conclude strongly that lowering intake of saturated fat and replacing it with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fats, will lower the incidence of CVD. This recommended shift from saturated to unsaturated fats should occur simultaneously in an overall healthful dietary pattern such as DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) or the Mediterranean diet as emphasized by the 2013 American Heart Association/American College of

  14. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Infants and Children With Cardiac Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Marino, Bradley S; Tabbutt, Sarah; MacLaren, Graeme; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Adatia, Ian; Atkins, Dianne L; Checchia, Paul A; DeCaen, Allan; Fink, Ericka L; Hoffman, George M; Jefferies, John L; Kleinman, Monica; Krawczeski, Catherine D; Licht, Daniel J; Macrae, Duncan; Ravishankar, Chitra; Samson, Ricardo A; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Toms, Rune; Tweddell, James; Laussen, Peter C

    2018-05-29

    Cardiac arrest occurs at a higher rate in children with heart disease than in healthy children. Pediatric basic life support and advanced life support guidelines focus on delivering high-quality resuscitation in children with normal hearts. The complexity and variability in pediatric heart disease pose unique challenges during resuscitation. A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association reviewed the literature addressing resuscitation in children with heart disease. MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched from 1966 to 2015, cross-referencing pediatric heart disease with pertinent resuscitation search terms. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of recommendations and levels of evidence for practice guidelines were used. The recommendations in this statement concur with the critical components of the 2015 American Heart Association pediatric basic life support and pediatric advanced life support guidelines and are meant to serve as a resuscitation supplement. This statement is meant for caregivers of children with heart disease in the prehospital and in-hospital settings. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the high-risk pediatric cardiac population will promote early recognition and treatment of decompensation to prevent cardiac arrest, increase survival from cardiac arrest by providing high-quality resuscitations, and improve outcomes with postresuscitation care. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. February Is American Heart Month | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Camille Rees, Guest Writer February is American Heart Month, and Feb. 7 was designated “National Wear Red Day” by the American Heart Association. The American Heart Association has sponsored the “Go Red for Women” campaign for 10 years. The message: heart disease is the number one killer of women. Did you know that more women die of heart disease than men?  In fact, it is

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of fetal cardiac disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Mary T; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Hornberger, Lisa K; Copel, Joshua A; Sklansky, Mark S; Abuhamad, Alfred; Cuneo, Bettina F; Huhta, James C; Jonas, Richard A; Krishnan, Anita; Lacey, Stephanie; Lee, Wesley; Michelfelder, Erik C; Rempel, Gwen R; Silverman, Norman H; Spray, Thomas L; Strasburger, Janette F; Tworetzky, Wayne; Rychik, Jack

    2014-05-27

    The goal of this statement is to review available literature and to put forth a scientific statement on the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis and management of fetal cardiovascular disease. A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association reviewed the available literature pertaining to topics relevant to fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis of congenital heart disease and arrhythmias, assessment of cardiac function and the cardiovascular system, and available treatment options. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of recommendations and level of evidence for practice guidelines were applied to the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine. Recommendations relating to the specifics of fetal diagnosis, including the timing of referral for study, indications for referral, and experience suggested for performance and interpretation of studies, are presented. The components of a fetal echocardiogram are described in detail, including descriptions of the assessment of cardiac anatomy, cardiac function, and rhythm. Complementary modalities for fetal cardiac assessment are reviewed, including the use of advanced ultrasound techniques, fetal magnetic resonance imaging, and fetal magnetocardiography and electrocardiography for rhythm assessment. Models for parental counseling and a discussion of parental stress and depression assessments are reviewed. Available fetal therapies, including medical management for arrhythmias or heart failure and closed or open intervention for diseases affecting the cardiovascular system such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome, lung masses, and vascular tumors, are highlighted. Catheter-based intervention strategies to prevent the progression of disease in utero are also discussed. Recommendations for delivery planning strategies for fetuses with congenital heart disease including models based on classification of disease severity and delivery room

  17. Assessing Cardiac Metabolism: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Young, Martin E; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Abel, E Dale; Brunengraber, Henri; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Des Rosiers, Christine; Gerszten, Robert; Glatz, Jan F; Griffin, Julian L; Gropler, Robert J; Holzhuetter, Hermann-Georg; Kizer, Jorge R; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Malloy, Craig R; Neubauer, Stefan; Peterson, Linda R; Portman, Michael A; Recchia, Fabio A; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Wang, Thomas J

    2016-05-13

    In a complex system of interrelated reactions, the heart converts chemical energy to mechanical energy. Energy transfer is achieved through coordinated activation of enzymes, ion channels, and contractile elements, as well as structural and membrane proteins. The heart's needs for energy are difficult to overestimate. At a time when the cardiovascular research community is discovering a plethora of new molecular methods to assess cardiac metabolism, the methods remain scattered in the literature. The present statement on "Assessing Cardiac Metabolism" seeks to provide a collective and curated resource on methods and models used to investigate established and emerging aspects of cardiac metabolism. Some of those methods are refinements of classic biochemical tools, whereas most others are recent additions from the powerful tools of molecular biology. The aim of this statement is to be useful to many and to do justice to a dynamic field of great complexity. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Hill, Joseph A; Ardehali, Reza; Clarke, Kimberli Taylor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eckhardt, Lee L; Griendling, Kathy K; Libby, Peter; Roden, Dan M; Sadek, Hesham A; Seidman, Christine E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2017-07-21

    Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention. However, severe financial constraints currently jeopardize these efforts. To chart a path for the future, this report analyzes the challenges and opportunities we face in continuing the battle against cardiovascular disease and highlights the return on societal investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Thompson, B Gregory; Brown, Robert D; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Broderick, Joseph P; Cockroft, Kevin M; Connolly, E Sander; Duckwiler, Gary R; Harris, Catherine C; Howard, Virginia J; Johnston, S Claiborne Clay; Meyers, Philip M; Molyneux, Andrew; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Ringer, Andrew J; Torner, James

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this updated statement is to provide comprehensive and evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Writing group members used systematic literature reviews from January 1977 up to June 2014. They also reviewed contemporary published evidence-based guidelines, personal files, and published expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and when appropriate, formulated recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. The guideline underwent extensive peer review, including review by the Stroke Council Leadership and Stroke Scientific Statement Oversight Committees, before consideration and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the care of patients presenting with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The guidelines address presentation, natural history, epidemiology, risk factors, screening, diagnosis, imaging and outcomes from surgical and endovascular treatment. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Adult Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Monica E; Goldberger, Zachary D; Rea, Thomas; Swor, Robert A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Brennan, Erin E; Terry, Mark; Hemphill, Robin; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Travers, Andrew H

    2018-01-02

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving technique for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Despite advances in resuscitation science, basic life support remains a critical factor in determining outcomes. The American Heart Association recommendations for adult basic life support incorporate the most recently published evidence and serve as the basis for education and training for laypeople and healthcare providers who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Contemporary Management of Cardiogenic Shock: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    van Diepen, Sean; Katz, Jason N; Albert, Nancy M; Henry, Timothy D; Jacobs, Alice K; Kapur, Navin K; Kilic, Ahmet; Menon, Venu; Ohman, E Magnus; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Thiele, Holger; Washam, Jeffrey B; Cohen, Mauricio G

    2017-10-17

    Cardiogenic shock is a high-acuity, potentially complex, and hemodynamically diverse state of end-organ hypoperfusion that is frequently associated with multisystem organ failure. Despite improving survival in recent years, patient morbidity and mortality remain high, and there are few evidence-based therapeutic interventions known to clearly improve patient outcomes. This scientific statement on cardiogenic shock summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock; reviews contemporary best medical, surgical, mechanical circulatory support, and palliative care practices; advocates for the development of regionalized systems of care; and outlines future research priorities. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Role of Biomarkers for the Prevention, Assessment, and Management of Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Chow, Sheryl L; Maisel, Alan S; Anand, Inder; Bozkurt, Biykem; de Boer, Rudolf A; Felker, G Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C; Greenberg, Barry; Januzzi, James L; Kiernan, Michael S; Liu, Peter P; Wang, Thomas J; Yancy, Clyde W; Zile, Michael R

    2017-05-30

    Natriuretic peptides have led the way as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for the diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF). More recent evidence suggests that natriuretic peptides along with the next generation of biomarkers may provide added value to medical management, which could potentially lower risk of mortality and readmissions. The purpose of this scientific statement is to summarize the existing literature and to provide guidance for the utility of currently available biomarkers. The writing group used systematic literature reviews, published translational and clinical studies, clinical practice guidelines, and expert opinion/statements to summarize existing evidence and to identify areas of inadequacy requiring future research. The panel reviewed the most relevant adult medical literature excluding routine laboratory tests using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science through December 2016. The document is organized and classified according to the American Heart Association to provide specific suggestions, considerations, or contemporary clinical practice recommendations. A number of biomarkers associated with HF are well recognized, and measuring their concentrations in circulation can be a convenient and noninvasive approach to provide important information about disease severity and helps in the detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and management of HF. These include natriuretic peptides, soluble suppressor of tumorgenicity 2, highly sensitive troponin, galectin-3, midregional proadrenomedullin, cystatin-C, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, and others. There is a need to further evaluate existing and novel markers for guiding therapy and to summarize their data in a standardized format to improve communication among researchers and practitioners. HF is a complex syndrome involving diverse pathways and pathological processes that can manifest in circulation as biomarkers. A number of such biomarkers are now clinically available, and monitoring their

  3. 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Powers, William J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Ackerson, Teri; Adeoye, Opeolu M; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; Becker, Kyra; Biller, José; Brown, Michael; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Hoh, Brian; Jauch, Edward C; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Scott, Phillip A; Sheth, Kevin N; Southerland, Andrew M; Summers, Deborah V; Tirschwell, David L

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke in a single document. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 guidelines and subsequent updates. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained. Members were not allowed to participate in discussions or to vote on topics relevant to their relations with industry. The members of the writing group unanimously approved all recommendations except when relations with industry precluded members voting. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 4 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. These guidelines use the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2015 Class of Recommendations and Levels of Evidence and the new American Heart Association guidelines format. These guidelines detail prehospital care, urgent and emergency evaluation and treatment with intravenous and intra-arterial therapies, and in-hospital management, including secondary prevention measures that are appropriately instituted within the first 2 weeks. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care in both the prehospital and hospital settings. These guidelines are based on the best evidence currently available. In many instances, however, only limited data exist demonstrating the urgent need for continued research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Evidence-Based Policy Making: Assessment of the American Heart Association's Strategic Policy Portfolio: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Goldstein, Larry B; Antman, Elliott M; Arnett, Donna K; Fonarow, Gregg C; Alberts, Mark J; Hayman, Laura L; Khera, Amit; Sallis, James F; Daniels, Stephen R; Sacco, Ralph L; Li, Suhui; Ku, Leighton; Lantz, Paula M; Robinson, Jennifer G; Creager, Mark A; Van Horn, Linda; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Whitsel, Laurie P

    2016-05-03

    American Heart Association (AHA) public policy advocacy strategies are based on its Strategic Impact Goals. The writing group appraised the evidence behind AHA's policies to determine how well they address the association's 2020 cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and cardiovascular disease (CVD) management indicators and identified research needed to fill gaps in policy and support further policy development. The AHA policy research department first identified current AHA policies specific to each CVH metric and CVD management indicator and the evidence underlying each policy. Writing group members then reviewed each policy and the related metrics and indicators. The results of each review were summarized, and topic-specific priorities and overarching themes for future policy research were proposed. There was generally close alignment between current AHA policies and the 2020 CVH metrics and CVD management indicators; however, certain specific policies still lack a robust evidence base. For CVH metrics, the distinction between policies for adults (age ≥20 years) and children (<20 years) was often not considered, although policy approaches may differ importantly by age. Inclusion of all those <20 years of age as a single group also ignores important differences in policy needs for infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. For CVD management indicators, specific quantitative targets analogous to criteria for ideal, intermediate, and poor CVH are lacking but needed to assess progress toward the 2020 goal to reduce deaths from CVDs and stroke. New research in support of current policies needs to focus on the evaluation of their translation and implementation through expanded application of implementation science. Focused basic, clinical, and population research is required to expand and strengthen the evidence base for the development of new policies. Evaluation of the impact of targeted improvements in population health through strengthened surveillance of

  5. Diagnosis and Management of Noncardiac Complications in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Lui, George K; Saidi, Arwa; Bhatt, Ami B; Burchill, Luke J; Deen, Jason F; Earing, Michael G; Gewitz, Michael; Ginns, Jonathan; Kay, Joseph D; Kim, Yuli Y; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Krieger, Eric V; Wu, Fred M; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2017-11-14

    Life expectancy and quality of life for those born with congenital heart disease (CHD) have greatly improved over the past 3 decades. While representing a great advance for these patients, who have been able to move from childhood to successful adult lives in increasing numbers, this development has resulted in an epidemiological shift and a generation of patients who are at risk of developing chronic multisystem disease in adulthood. Noncardiac complications significantly contribute to the morbidity and mortality of adults with CHD. Reduced survival has been documented in patients with CHD with renal dysfunction, restrictive lung disease, anemia, and cirrhosis. Furthermore, as this population ages, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are becoming increasingly prevalent. Disorders of psychosocial and cognitive development are key factors affecting the quality of life of these individuals. It is incumbent on physicians who care for patients with CHD to be mindful of the effects that disease of organs other than the heart may have on the well-being of adults with CHD. Further research is needed to understand how these noncardiac complications may affect the long-term outcome in these patients and what modifiable factors can be targeted for preventive intervention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Forecasting the impact of heart failure in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Paul A; Albert, Nancy M; Allen, Larry A; Bluemke, David A; Butler, Javed; Fonarow, Gregg C; Ikonomidis, John S; Khavjou, Olga; Konstam, Marvin A; Maddox, Thomas M; Nichol, Graham; Pham, Michael; Piña, Ileana L; Trogdon, Justin G

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) is an important contributor to both the burden and cost of national healthcare expenditures, with more older Americans hospitalized for HF than for any other medical condition. With the aging of the population, the impact of HF is expected to increase substantially. We estimated future costs of HF by adapting a methodology developed by the American Heart Association to project the epidemiology and future costs of HF from 2012 to 2030 without double counting the costs attributed to comorbid conditions. The model assumes that HF prevalence will remain constant by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and that rising costs and technological innovation will continue at the same rate. By 2030, >8 million people in the United States (1 in every 33) will have HF. Between 2012 and 2030, real (2010$) total direct medical costs of HF are projected to increase from $21 billion to $53 billion. Total costs, including indirect costs for HF, are estimated to increase from $31 billion in 2012 to $70 billion in 2030. If one assumes all costs of cardiac care for HF patients are attributable to HF (no cost attribution to comorbid conditions), the 2030 projected cost estimates of treating patients with HF will be 3-fold higher ($160 billion in direct costs). The estimated prevalence and cost of care for HF will increase markedly because of aging of the population. Strategies to prevent HF and improve the efficiency of care are needed.

  7. Childhood and Adolescent Adversity and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira F; Koenen, Karestan C; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Chan, Paul S; Clark, Cari J; Danese, Andrea; Faith, Myles S; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Hayman, Laura L; Isasi, Carmen R; Pratt, Charlotte A; Slopen, Natalie; Sumner, Jennifer A; Turer, Aslan; Turer, Christy B; Zachariah, Justin P

    2018-01-30

    Adverse experiences in childhood and adolescence, defined as subjectively perceived threats to the safety or security of the child's bodily integrity, family, or social structures, are known to be associated with cardiometabolic outcomes over the life course into adulthood. This American Heart Association scientific statement reviews the scientific literature on the influence of childhood adversity on cardiometabolic outcomes that constitute the greatest public health burden in the United States, including obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. This statement also conceptually outlines pathways linking adversity to cardiometabolic health, identifies evidence gaps, and provides suggestions for future research to inform practice and policy. We note that, despite a lack of objective agreement on what subjectively qualifies as exposure to childhood adversity and a dearth of prospective studies, substantial evidence documents an association between childhood adversity and cardiometabolic outcomes across the life course. Future studies that focus on mechanisms, resiliency, and vulnerability factors would further strengthen the evidence and provide much-needed information on targets for effective interventions. Given that childhood adversities affect cardiometabolic health and multiple health domains across the life course, interventions that ameliorate these initial upstream exposures may be more appropriate than interventions remediating downstream cardiovascular disease risk factor effects later in life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Vos, Miriam B; Kaar, Jill L; Welsh, Jean A; Van Horn, Linda V; Feig, Daniel I; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Patel, Mahesh J; Cruz Munos, Jessica; Krebs, Nancy F; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2017-05-09

    Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children <2 years of age. Although added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Multi-modality imaging: Bird's eye view from the 2016 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.

    PubMed

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Lloyd, Steven G; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Hage, Fadi G

    2017-06-01

    This review summarizes key imaging studies that were presented in the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2016 related to the fields of nuclear cardiology, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and echocardiography. This bird's eye view will inform readers about multiple studies from these different modalities. We hope that this general overview will be useful for those that did not attend the conference as well as to those that did since it is often difficult to get exposure to many abstracts at large meetings. The review, therefore, aims to help readers stay updated on the newest imaging studies presented at the meeting.

  10. Executive Summary of the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society Joint Guidelines for Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; Archer, Stephen L.; Wilson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although pulmonary hypertension (PH) contributes significantly to poor outcomes in diverse pediatric diseases, approaches toward the care of children with PH have been limited by the lack of consensus guidelines from experts in the field. In a joint effort from the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society, a committee of experienced clinicians was formed to systematically identify, synthesize, and appraise relevant evidence and then to formulate evidence-based recommendations regarding the diagnosis and management of pediatric PH. This brief report is an executive summary of the officially approved guidelines developed by the committee, highlighting a few key recommendations regarding the care of children with PH. Guidelines and the rationale for grading the strength of each recommendation are included in the online supplement. PMID:27689707

  11. The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association vs Hypertension Canada High Blood Pressure Guidelines and Potential Implications.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Rémi; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Vallée, Michel

    2018-05-01

    In this report we examine the differences between the 2017 Hypertension Canada and 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) blood pressure (BP) guidelines regarding the proportions of individuals with a diagnosis of hypertension, BP above thresholds for treatment initiation, and BP below targets using the CARTaGENE cohort. Compared with the 2017 Canadian guidelines, the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines would result in increases of 8.7% in hypertension diagnosis and 3.4% of individuals needing treatment, with 17.2% having a different BP target. In conclusion, implementing the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guidelines in Canada could result in major effects for millions of Canadians. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association preoperative assessment guidelines reduce resource utilization before aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, James B; Karavite, Dean; Russman, Pamela L; Erdem, Nurum; Wise, Chris; Zelenock, Gerald; Wakefield, Thomas; Stanley, James; Eagle, Kim A

    2002-10-01

    Methods used for evaluation of cardiac risk before noncardiac surgery vary widely. We evaluated the effect over time on practice and resource utilization of implementing the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines on Preoperative Risk Assessment. We compared 102 historical control patients who underwent elective abdominal aortic surgery (from January 1993 to December 1994) with 94 consecutive patients after guideline implementation (from July 1995 to December 1996) and 104 patients in a late after guideline implementation (from July 1, 1997, to September 30, 1998). Resource use (testing, revascularization, and costs) and outcomes (perioperative death and myocardial infarction) were examined. Patients with and without clinical markers of risk for perioperative cardiac complications were compared. The use of preoperative stress testing (88% to 47%; P <.00001), cardiac catheterization (24% to 11%; P <.05), and coronary revascularization (25% to 2%; P <.00001) decreased between control and postguideline groups, respectively. These changes persisted in the late postguideline group. Mean preoperative evaluation costs also fell ($1087 versus $171; P <.0001). Outcomes of death (4% versus 3% versus 2%) and myocardial infarction (7% versus 3% versus 5%) were not significantly different between control, postguideline, and late postguideline groups, respectively. Stress test rates were similar for patients at low risk versus high risk in the historical control group (84% versus 91%; P =.29) but lower for patients at low risk after guideline implementation (31% versus 61%; P =.003). Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cardiac risk assessment guidelines appropriately reduced resource use and costs in patients who underwent elective aortic surgery without affecting outcomes. This effect was sustained 2 years after guideline implementation.

  13. [Cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to the recent statement from the American Heart Association/American Diabetes Association].

    PubMed

    Avogaro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    There is a clear epidemiologic association between glycemic control and cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence of a microvascular benefit by lowering glycated hemoglobin <7% while acknowledging lack of proven macrovascular benefits. It is therefore relevant, in all diabetic patients, to control all major cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. These risk factors, easily measurable, account for 90% of acute myocardial infarction. In this review, the update on prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association is discussed and commented.

  14. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  15. Seafood Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Rimm, Eric B; Appel, Lawrence J; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Djoussé, Luc; Engler, Mary B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Siscovick, David S; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2018-05-17

    Since the 2002 American Heart Association scientific statement "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease," evidence from observational and experimental studies and from randomized controlled trials continues to emerge to further substantiate the beneficial effects of seafood long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. A recent American Heart Association science advisory addressed the specific effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events. This American Heart Association science advisory extends that review and offers further support to include n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from seafood consumption. Several potential mechanisms have been investigated, including antiarrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, hematologic, and endothelial, although for most, longer-term dietary trials of seafood are warranted to substantiate the benefit of seafood as a replacement for other important sources of macronutrients. The present science advisory reviews this evidence and makes a suggestion in the context of the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and in consideration of other constituents of seafood and the impact on sustainability. We conclude that 1 to 2 seafood meals per week be included to reduce the risk of congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and sudden cardiac death, especially when seafood replaces the intake of less healthy foods. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. February Is American Heart Month | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Camille Rees, Guest Writer February is American Heart Month, and Feb. 7 was designated “National Wear Red Day” by the American Heart Association. The American Heart Association has sponsored the “Go Red for Women” campaign for 10 years. The message: heart disease is the number one killer of women. Did you know that more women die of heart disease than men?  In fact, it is more deadly than all forms of cancer combined. Over the years, the red dress has become the symbol of the fight against heart disease in women.

  17. Nursing research in heart failure care: a position statement of the american association of heart failure nurses (AAHFN).

    PubMed

    Stamp, Kelly D; Prasun, Marilyn; Lee, Christopher S; Jaarsma, Tiny; Piano, Mariann R; Albert, Nancy M

    Heart Failure (HF) is a public health problem globally affecting approximately 6 million in the United States. A tailored position statement was developed by the American Association of Heart Failure Nurses (AAHFN) and their Research Consortium to assist researchers, funding institutions and policymakers with improving HF clinical advancements and outcomes. A comprehensive review was conducted using multiple search terms in various combinations to describe gaps in HF nursing science. Based on gaps described in the literature, the AAHFN made recommendations for future areas of research in HF. Nursing has made positive contributions through disease management interventions, however, quality, rigorous research is needed to improve the lives of patients and families while advancing nursing science. Advancing HF science is critical to managing and improving patient outcomes while promoting the nursing profession. Based on this review, the AAHFN is putting forth a call to action for research designs that promote validity, sustainability, and funding of future nursing research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 2015 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Focused Update of the 2013 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Regarding Endovascular Treatment: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Powers, William J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Biller, José; Coffey, Christopher S; Hoh, Brian L; Jauch, Edward C; Johnston, Karen C; Johnston, S Claiborne; Khalessi, Alexander A; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Meschia, James F; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a focused update of the current recommendations for the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. When there is overlap, the recommendations made here supersede those of previous guidelines. This focused update analyzes results from 8 randomized, clinical trials of endovascular treatment and other relevant data published since 2013. It is not intended to be a complete literature review from the date of the previous guideline publication but rather to include pivotal new evidence that justifies changes in current recommendations. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Manuscript Oversight Committee. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Recommendations follow the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association methods of classifying the level of certainty of the treatment effect and the class of evidence. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 6 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the selection of patients with acute ischemic stroke for endovascular treatment, for the endovascular procedure, and for systems of care to facilitate endovascular treatment. Certain endovascular procedures have been demonstrated to provide clinical benefit in selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. Systems of care should be organized to facilitate the delivery of this care. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Diagnosis of stable ischemic heart disease: summary of a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American Association for Thoracic Surgery/Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association/Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Fihn, Stephan D; Williams, Sankey; Dallas, Paul; Owens, Douglas K; Shekelle, Paul

    2012-11-20

    The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), American Heart Association (AHA), American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons to help clinicians diagnose known or suspected stable ischemic heart disease. Literature on this topic published before November 2011 was identified by using MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsychINFO, AMED, and SCOPUS. Searches were limited to human studies published in English. This guideline grades the evidence and recommendations according to a translation of the ACCF/AHA grading system into ACP's clinical practice guidelines grading system. This guideline includes 28 recommendations that address the following issues: the initial diagnosis of the patient who might have stable ischemic heart disease, cardiac stress testing to assess the risk for death or myocardial infarction in patients diagnosed with stable ischemic heart disease, and coronary angiography for risk assessment.

  20. Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Measures of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebreab, Samson Y; Riestra, Pia; Khan, Rumana J; Xu, Ruihua; Musani, Solomon K; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Correa, Adolfo; Wilson, James G; Rotimi, Charles N; Davis, Sharon K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether genetic ancestry was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis measures after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, inflammatory marker, socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial factors in a large admixed African American population. Approach and Results Participants were drawn from Jackson Heart Study (JHS). Participant’s percent of European Ancestry (PEA) was estimated based on 1747 genetic markers using HAPMIX. Association of PEA with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and common carotid intima media thickness (cCIMT) were investigated among 2168 participants and with coronary artery calcification (CAC >0) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC >0) among 1139 participants. The associations were evaluated using multivariable regression models. Our results showed a 1 standard deviation increase in PEA was associated with a lower PAD prevalence after adjusting for age and gender [Prevalence ratio (PR) = 0. 90 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.99); p=0.036]. Adjustments for traditional CVD risk factors, SES, and psychosocial factors attenuated this association [PR=0.91 (0.82, 1.00); p=0.046]. There was also a non-linear association between PEA and CAC and AAC. The lowest PEA was associated with a lower CAC [PR=0.75 (0.58, 0.96); p=0.022] and a lower AAC [PR=0. 80 (0.67, 0.96); p=0.016] compared to the reference group (10th–90th percentile) after adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors, inflammatory marker, SES and psychosocial factors. However, we found no significant association between PEA and cCIMT. Conclusions Overall, our findings indicate that genetic ancestry was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, suggesting unmeasured risk factors and/or interactions with genetic factors might contribute to the distribution of subclinical atherosclerosis among African Americans. PMID:25745061

  1. Primary outcomes for resuscitation science studies: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lance B; Aufderheide, Tom P; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Callaway, Clifton W; Lazar, Ronald M; Donnino, Michael W; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Abella, Benjamin S; Adrie, Christophe; Berg, Robert A; Merchant, Raina M; O'Connor, Robert E; Meltzer, David O; Holm, Margo B; Longstreth, William T; Halperin, Henry R

    2011-11-08

    The guidelines presented in this consensus statement are intended to serve researchers, clinicians, reviewers, and regulators in the selection of the most appropriate primary outcome for a clinical trial of cardiac arrest therapies. The American Heart Association guidelines for the treatment of cardiac arrest depend on high-quality clinical trials, which depend on the selection of a meaningful primary outcome. Because this selection process has been the subject of much controversy, a consensus conference was convened with national and international experts, the National Institutes of Health, and the US Food and Drug Administration. The Research Working Group of the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee nominated subject leaders, conference attendees, and writing group members on the basis of their expertise in clinical trials and a diverse perspective of cardiovascular and neurological outcomes (see the online-only Data Supplement). Approval was obtained from the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the American Heart Association Manuscript Oversight Committee. Preconference position papers were circulated for review; the conference was held; and postconference consensus documents were circulated for review and comments were invited from experts, conference attendees, and writing group members. Discussions focused on (1) when after cardiac arrest the measurement time point should occur; (2) what cardiovascular, neurological, and other physiology should be assessed; and (3) the costs associated with various end points. The final document underwent extensive revision and peer review by the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee, the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee, and oversight committees. There was consensus that no single primary outcome is appropriate for all studies of cardiac arrest. The best outcome measure is the pairing of a time point and physiological condition that will best

  2. Home blood pressure monitoring among adults-American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health Consumer Survey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carma; Tong, Xin; Neeley, Eunice; Lane, Rashon; Robb, Karen; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2017-06-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) among hypertensive adults was assessed using the 2012 American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health Consumer Survey. The prevalence of hypertension was 25.5% and 53.8% of those reported HBPM. Approximately 63% of hypertensive adults 65 years and older reported HBPM followed by 51% and 34.6% (35-64 and 18-34 years, respectively; P=.001). Those who had seen a healthcare professional within a year reported HBPM compared with those who had not (54.8% vs 32.8%, P=.047). Those who believed that lowering blood pressure can reduce risk of heart attack and stroke had a higher percentage of HBPM compared with those who did not (55.5% vs 33.1%, P=.01). Age and the belief that lowering blood pressure could reduce cardiovascular disease risk were significant factors associated with HBPM. Half of the adult hypertensive patients reported HBPM and its use was greater among those who reported a positive attitude toward lowering blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. ©Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Psychosocial Factors Are Associated With Blood Pressure Progression Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Cassandra D; Sims, Mario; Higginbotham, John C; Crowther, Martha R; Wyatt, Sharon B; Musani, Solomon K; Payne, Thomas J; Fox, Ervin R; Parton, Jason M

    2016-08-01

    Research that examines the associations of psychosocial factors with incident hypertension among African Americans (AA) is limited. Using Jackson Heart Study (JHS) data, we examined associations of negative affect and stress with incident hypertension and blood pressure (BP) progression among AA. Our sample consisted of 1,656 normotensive participants at baseline (2000-2004) (mean age 47±12; 61% women). We investigated associations of negative affect (cynical distrust, anger-in, anger-out, and depressive symptoms) and stress (perceived stress, weekly stress inventory (WSI)-event, WSI-impact, and major life events) with BP progression (an increase by one BP stage as defined by JNC VII) and incident hypertension by examination 2 (2005-2008). Poisson regression analysis was utilized to examine the prevalence ratios (PRs; 95% confidence interval (CI)) of BP tracking and incident hypertension with psychosocial factors, adjusting for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and hypertension risk factors. Fifty-six percentage of the sample (922 cases) had BP progression from 2005 to 2008. After adjustment for age, sex, and SES, a high anger-out score was associated with a 20% increased risk of BP progression compared to a low anger-out score (PR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.36). High depressive symptoms score was associated with BP progression in the age, sex, and SES-adjusted model (PR 1.14; 95% CI 1.00-1.30). High WSI-event scores were associated with BP progression in the fully adjusted model (PR 1.21; 95% CI 1.04-1.40). We did not observe significant associations with any of the psychosocial measures and incident hypertension. Psychosocial factors were associated with BP progression, with the strongest evidence for number of stressful events that occurred. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation Systems of Care: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James J; Carr, Brendan; Sasson, Comilla; Bobrow, Bentley J; Callaway, Clifton W; Neumar, Robert W; Ferrer, Jose Maria E; Garvey, J Lee; Ornato, Joseph P; Gonzales, Louis; Granger, Christopher B; Kleinman, Monica E; Bjerke, Chris; Nichol, Graham

    2018-05-22

    The American Heart Association previously recommended implementation of cardiac resuscitation systems of care that consist of interconnected community, emergency medical services, and hospital efforts to measure and improve the process of care and outcome for patients with cardiac arrest. In addition, the American Heart Association proposed a national process to develop and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiac resuscitation systems of care. Significant experience has been gained with implementing these systems, and new evidence has accumulated. This update describes recent advances in the science of cardiac resuscitation systems and evidence of their effectiveness, as well as recent progress in dissemination and implementation throughout the United States. Emphasis is placed on evidence published since the original recommendations (ie, including and since 2010). © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Multi-modality imaging: Bird's eye view from the 2017 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.

    PubMed

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Lloyd, Steven G; Hage, Fadi G

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes key imaging studies that were presented in the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2017 related to the fields of nuclear cardiology, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and echocardiography. The aim of this bird's eye view is to inform readers about multiple studies reported at the meeting from these different imaging modalities. While such a review is most useful for those that did not attend the conference, we find that a general overview may also be useful to those that did since it is often difficult to get exposure to many abstracts at large meetings. The review, therefore, aims to help readers stay updated on the newest imaging studies presented at the meeting and will hopefully stimulate new ideas for future research in imaging.

  6. The Learning Healthcare System and Cardiovascular Care: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Thomas M; Albert, Nancy M; Borden, William B; Curtis, Lesley H; Ferguson, T Bruce; Kao, David P; Marcus, Gregory M; Peterson, Eric D; Redberg, Rita; Rumsfeld, John S; Shah, Nilay D; Tcheng, James E

    2017-04-04

    The learning healthcare system uses health information technology and the health data infrastructure to apply scientific evidence at the point of clinical care while simultaneously collecting insights from that care to promote innovation in optimal healthcare delivery and to fuel new scientific discovery. To achieve these goals, the learning healthcare system requires systematic redesign of the current healthcare system, focusing on 4 major domains: science and informatics, patient-clinician partnerships, incentives, and development of a continuous learning culture. This scientific statement provides an overview of how these learning healthcare system domains can be realized in cardiovascular disease care. Current cardiovascular disease care innovations in informatics, data uses, patient engagement, continuous learning culture, and incentives are profiled. In addition, recommendations for next steps for the development of a learning healthcare system in cardiovascular care are presented. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Future translational applications from the contemporary genomics era: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Hall, Jennifer L; Arnett, Donna K; Ashley, Euan A; Delles, Christian; Engler, Mary B; Freeman, Mason W; Johnson, Julie A; Lanfear, David E; Liggett, Stephen B; Lusis, Aldons J; Loscalzo, Joseph; MacRae, Calum A; Musunuru, Kiran; Newby, L Kristin; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Rich, Stephen S; Terzic, Andre

    2015-05-12

    The field of genetics and genomics has advanced considerably with the achievement of recent milestones encompassing the identification of many loci for cardiovascular disease and variable drug responses. Despite this achievement, a gap exists in the understanding and advancement to meaningful translation that directly affects disease prevention and clinical care. The purpose of this scientific statement is to address the gap between genetic discoveries and their practical application to cardiovascular clinical care. In brief, this scientific statement assesses the current timeline for effective translation of basic discoveries to clinical advances, highlighting past successes. Current discoveries in the area of genetics and genomics are covered next, followed by future expectations, tools, and competencies for achieving the goal of improving clinical care. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Rheumatic fever: update on the Jones criteria according to the American Heart Association review - 2015.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Breno Álvares de Faria; Belo, Alinne Rodrigues; Silva, Nilzio Antônio da

    Rheumatic fever is still currently a prevalent disease, especially in developing countries. Triggered by a Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus infection, the disease may affect genetically predisposed patients. Rheumatic carditis is the most important of its clinical manifestations, which can generate incapacitating sequelae of great impact for the individual and for society. Currently, its diagnosis is made based on the Jones criteria, established in 1992 by the American Heart Association. In 2015, the AHA carried out a significant review of these criteria, with new diagnostic parameters and recommendations. In the present study, the authors perform a critical analysis of this new review, emphasizing the most relevant points for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  9. Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Eva; Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J; Moons, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Although different guidelines on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) care advocate for lifetime cardiac follow-up, a critical appraisal of the guideline implementation is lacking. We investigated the implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 guidelines for ACHD follow-up by investigating the type of health care professional, care setting, and frequency of outpatient visits in young adults with CHD. Furthermore, correlates for care in line with the recommendations or untraceability were investigated. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 306 patients with CHD who had a documented outpatient visit at pediatric cardiology before age 18 years. In all, 210 patients (68.6%) were in cardiac follow-up; 20 (6.5%) withdrew from follow-up and 76 (24.9%) were untraceable. Overall, 198 patients were followed up in tertiary care, 1/4 (n = 52) of which were seen at a formalized ACHD care program and 3/4 (n = 146) remained at pediatric cardiology. Of those followed in formalized ACHD and pediatric cardiology care, the recommended frequency was implemented in 94.2% and 89%, respectively (p = 0.412). No predictors for the implementation of the guidelines were identified. Risk factors for becoming untraceable were none or lower number of heart surgeries, health insurance issues, and nonwhite ethnicity. In conclusion, a significant number of adults continue to be cared for by pediatric cardiologists, indicating that transfer to adult-oriented care was not standard practice. Frequency of follow-up for most patients was in line with the ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines. A considerable proportion of young adults were untraceable in the system, which makes them vulnerable for discontinuation of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Hypertension on Cognitive Function: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Iadecola, Costantino; Yaffe, Kristine; Biller, José; Bratzke, Lisa C; Faraci, Frank M; Gorelick, Philip B; Gulati, Martha; Kamel, Hooman; Knopman, David S; Launer, Lenore J; Saczynski, Jane S; Seshadri, Sudha; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina

    2016-12-01

    Age-related dementia, most commonly caused by Alzheimer disease or cerebrovascular factors (vascular dementia), is a major public health threat. Chronic arterial hypertension is a well-established risk factor for both types of dementia, but the link between hypertension and its treatment and cognition remains poorly understood. In this scientific statement, a multidisciplinary team of experts examines the impact of hypertension on cognition to assess the state of the knowledge, to identify gaps, and to provide future directions. Authors with relevant expertise were selected to contribute to this statement in accordance with the American Heart Association conflict-of-interest management policy. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature, and summarized the available data. Hypertension disrupts the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels, leads to ischemic damage of white matter regions critical for cognitive function, and may promote Alzheimer pathology. There is strong evidence of a deleterious influence of midlife hypertension on late-life cognitive function, but the cognitive impact of late-life hypertension is less clear. Observational studies demonstrated a cumulative effect of hypertension on cerebrovascular damage, but evidence from clinical trials that antihypertensive treatment improves cognition is not conclusive. After carefully reviewing the literature, the group concluded that there were insufficient data to make evidence-based recommendations. However, judicious treatment of hypertension, taking into account goals of care and individual characteristics (eg, age and comorbidities), seems justified to safeguard vascular health and, as a consequence, brain health. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Meditation and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Levine, Glenn N; Lange, Richard A; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Davidson, Richard J; Jamerson, Kenneth; Mehta, Puja K; Michos, Erin D; Norris, Keith; Ray, Indranill Basu; Saban, Karen L; Shah, Tina; Stein, Richard; Smith, Sidney C

    2017-09-28

    Despite numerous advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Novel and inexpensive interventions that can contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease are of interest. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of meditation. Meditation instruction and practice is widely accessible and inexpensive and may thus be a potential attractive cost-effective adjunct to more traditional medical therapies. Accordingly, this American Heart Association scientific statement systematically reviewed the data on the potential benefits of meditation on cardiovascular risk. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies demonstrate that meditation can have long-standing effects on the brain, which provide some biological plausibility for beneficial consequences on the physiological basal state and on cardiovascular risk. Studies of the effects of meditation on cardiovascular risk have included those investigating physiological response to stress, smoking cessation, blood pressure reduction, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, endothelial function, inducible myocardial ischemia, and primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Overall, studies of meditation suggest a possible benefit on cardiovascular risk, although the overall quality and, in some cases, quantity of study data are modest. Given the low costs and low risks of this intervention, meditation may be considered as an adjunct to guideline-directed cardiovascular risk reduction by those interested in this lifestyle modification, with the understanding that the benefits of such intervention remain to be better established. Further research on meditation and cardiovascular risk is warranted. Such studies, to the degree possible, should utilize randomized study design, be adequately powered to meet the primary study outcome, strive to achieve low drop-out rates, include long

  12. Health Literacy and Cardiovascular Disease: Fundamental Relevance to Primary and Secondary Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Jared W; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Aronow, Herbert D; Cené, Crystal W; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Havranek, Edward; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Pollak, Amy; Willey, Joshua Z

    2018-06-04

    Health literacy is the degree to which individuals are able to access and process basic health information and services and thereby participate in health-related decisions. Limited health literacy is highly prevalent in the United States and is strongly associated with patient morbidity, mortality, healthcare use, and costs. The objectives of this American Heart Association scientific statement are (1) to summarize the relevance of health literacy to cardiovascular health; (2) to present the adverse associations of health literacy with cardiovascular risk factors, conditions, and treatments; (3) to suggest strategies that address barriers imposed by limited health literacy on the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease; (4) to demonstrate the contributions of health literacy to health disparities, given its association with social determinants of health; and (5) to propose future directions for how health literacy can be integrated into the American Heart Association's mandate to advance cardiovascular treatment and research, thereby improving patient care and public health. Inadequate health literacy is a barrier to the American Heart Association meeting its 2020 Impact Goals, and this statement articulates the rationale to anticipate and address the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with health literacy. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-02-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds. The writing committee found strong evidence that silent cerebrovascular disease is a common problem of aging and that silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are associated with future symptomatic stroke risk independently of other vascular risk factors. In patients with cerebral microbleeds, there was evidence of a modestly increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke but little prospective evidence on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulation. There were no randomized controlled trials targeted specifically to participants with silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke. Primary stroke prevention is indicated in patients with silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, or microbleeds. Adoption of standard terms and definitions for silent cerebrovascular disease, as provided by prior American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statements and by a consensus group, may facilitate diagnosis and communication of findings from radiologists to clinicians. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Association of diabetes and cancer mortality in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Best, Lyle G; García-Esquinas, Esther; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Farley, John H; Welty, Thomas K; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Rhoades, Everett R; Umans, Jason G; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic abnormalities that accompany diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased risk of many cancers. These associations, however, have not been well studied in American Indian populations, which experience a high prevalence of diabetes. The Strong Heart Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study with extensive characterization of diabetes status. Among a total cohort of 4,419 participants who were followed for up to 20 years, 430 cancer deaths were identified. After adjusting for sex, age, education, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index, participants with diabetes at baseline showed an increased risk of gastric (HR 4.09; 95% CI 1.42-11.79), hepatocellular (HR 2.94; 95% CI 1.17-7.40), and prostate cancer mortality (HR 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.94). Further adjustment for arsenic exposure showed a significantly increased risk of all-cause cancer mortality with diabetes (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.58). Insulin resistance among participants without diabetes at baseline was associated with hepatocellular cancer mortality (HR 4.70; 95% CI 1.55-14.26). Diabetes mellitus, and/or insulin resistance among those without diabetes, is a risk factor for gastric, hepatocellular, and prostate cancer in these American Indian communities, although relatively small sample size suggests cautious interpretation. Additional research is needed to evaluate the role of diabetes and obesity on cancer incidence in American Indian communities as well as the importance of diabetes prevention and control in reducing the burden of cancer incidence and mortality in the study population.

  15. Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

  16. Vision and creation of the American Heart Association pharmaceutical roundtable outcomes research centers.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric D; Spertus, John A; Cohen, David J; Hlatky, Mark A; Go, Alan S; Vickrey, Barbara G; Saver, Jeffrey L; Hinton, Patricia C

    2009-11-01

    The field of outcomes research seeks to define optimal treatment in practice and to promote the rapid full adoption of efficacious therapies into routine clinical care. The American Heart Association (AHA) formed the AHA Pharmaceutical Roundtable (PRT) Outcomes Research Centers Network to accelerate attainment of these goals. Participating centers were intended to carry out state-of-the-art outcomes research in cardiovascular disease and stroke, to train the next generation of investigators, and to support the formation of a collaborative research network. After a competitive application process, 4 AHA PRT Outcomes Research Centers were selected: Duke Clinical Research Institute; Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute; Stanford University-Kaiser Permanente of Northern California; and University of California, Los Angeles. Each center proposed between 1 and 3 projects organized around a single theme in cardiovascular disease or stroke. Additionally, each center will select and train up to 6 postdoctoral fellows over the next 4 years, and will participate in cross-collaborative activities among the centers. The AHA PRT Outcomes Research Centers Network is designed to further strengthen the field of cardiovascular disease and stroke outcomes research by fostering innovative research, supporting high quality training, and encouraging center-to-center collaborations.

  17. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shufeng; Yeh, Fawn; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-05-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with a wide range of age-related disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Obesity is an important risk factor for CVD and diabetes. The association of LTL with obesity is not well understood. This study for the first time examines the association of LTL with obesity indices including body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio in 3,256 American Indians (14-93 years old, 60% women) participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Association of LTL with each adiposity index was examined using multivariate generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for chronological age, sex, study center, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypertension and diabetes. Results show that obese participants had significantly shorter LTL than non-obese individuals (age-adjusted P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that LTL was significantly and inversely associated with all of the studied obesity parameters. Our results may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities.

  18. Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care: the American experience: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Biller, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Griffith, Patrick; Gorelick, Philip B; Howard, George; Leira, Enrique C; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Peterson, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne; Trimble, Brian; Valderrama, Amy L

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to describe the effect of race and ethnicity on stroke epidemiology, personal beliefs, access to care, response to treatment, and participation in clinical research. In addition, we seek to determine the state of knowledge on the main factors that may explain disparities in stroke care, with the goal of identifying gaps in knowledge to guide future research. The intended audience includes physicians, nurses, other healthcare professionals, and policy makers. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and represent different areas of expertise in relation to racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care. The writing group reviewed the relevant literature, with an emphasis on reports published since 1972. The statement was approved by the writing group; the statement underwent peer review, then was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. There are limitations in the definitions of racial and ethnic categories currently in use. For the purpose of this statement, we used the racial categories defined by the US federal government: white, black or African American, Asian, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander. There are 2 ethnic categories: people of Hispanic/Latino origin or not of Hispanic/Latino origin. There are differences in the distribution of the burden of risk factors, stroke incidence and prevalence, and stroke mortality among different racial and ethnic groups. In addition, there are disparities in stroke care between minority groups compared with whites. These disparities include lack of awareness of stroke symptoms and signs and lack of knowledge about the need for urgent treatment and the causal role of risk factors. There are also differences in attitudes, beliefs, and compliance among minorities compared with whites. Differences in socioeconomic status and insurance coverage

  19. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Appel, Lawrence J; Brands, Michael; Carnethon, Mercedes; Daniels, Stephen; Franch, Harold A; Franklin, Barry; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Harris, William S; Howard, Barbara; Karanja, Njeri; Lefevre, Michael; Rudel, Lawrence; Sacks, Frank; Van Horn, Linda; Winston, Mary; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2006-07-04

    Improving diet and lifestyle is a critical component of the American Heart Association's strategy for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in the general population. This document presents recommendations designed to meet this objective. Specific goals are to consume an overall healthy diet; aim for a healthy body weight; aim for recommended levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; aim for normal blood pressure; aim for a normal blood glucose level; be physically active; and avoid use of and exposure to tobacco products. The recommendations are to balance caloric intake and physical activity to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight; consume a diet rich in vegetables and fruits; choose whole-grain, high-fiber foods; consume fish, especially oily fish, at least twice a week; limit intake of saturated fat to <7% of energy, trans fat to <1% of energy, and cholesterol to <300 mg/day by choosing lean meats and vegetable alternatives, fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1% fat) dairy products and minimize intake of partially hydrogenated fats; minimize intake of beverages and foods with added sugars; choose and prepare foods with little or no salt; if you consume alcohol, do so in moderation; and when you eat food prepared outside of the home, follow these Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations. By adhering to these diet and lifestyle recommendations, Americans can substantially reduce their risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States.

  20. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that <1% of Americans meet the seven health metrics required for achieving ideal cardiovascular health, with the main challenge residing in meeting the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Jauch, Edward C; Saver, Jeffrey L; Adams, Harold P; Bruno, Askiel; Connors, J J Buddy; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Khatri, Pooja; McMullan, Paul W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Scott, Phillip A; Summers, Debbie R; Wang, David Z; Wintermark, Max; Yonas, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Level of Evidence grading algorithm. The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage; through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation. Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.

  2. Forecasting the future of stroke in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B; Higashida, Randall T; Howard, Virginia J; Johnston, S Claiborne; Khavjou, Olga A; Lackland, Daniel T; Lichtman, Judith H; Mohl, Stephanie; Sacco, Ralph L; Saver, Jeffrey L; Trogdon, Justin G

    2013-08-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, cognitive impairment, and death in the United States and accounts for 1.7% of national health expenditures. Because the population is aging and the risk of stroke more than doubles for each successive decade after the age of 55 years, these costs are anticipated to rise dramatically. The objective of this report was to project future annual costs of care for stroke from 2012 to 2030 and discuss potential cost reduction strategies. The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association developed methodology to project the future costs of stroke-related care. Estimates excluded costs associated with other cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, and congestive heart failure). By 2030, 3.88% of the US population>18 years of age is projected to have had a stroke. Between 2012 and 2030, real (2010$) total direct annual stroke-related medical costs are expected to increase from $71.55 billion to $183.13 billion. Real indirect annual costs (attributable to lost productivity) are projected to rise from $33.65 billion to $56.54 billion over the same period. Overall, total annual costs of stroke are projected to increase to $240.67 billion by 2030, an increase of 129%. These projections suggest that the annual costs of stroke will increase substantially over the next 2 decades. Greater emphasis on implementing effective preventive, acute care, and rehabilitative services will have both medical and societal benefits.

  3. Psychosocial Factors Are Associated With Blood Pressure Progression Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Higginbotham, John C.; Crowther, Martha R.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Musani, Solomon K.; Payne, Thomas J.; Fox, Ervin R.; Parton, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research that examines the associations of psychosocial factors with incident hypertension among African Americans (AA) is limited. Using Jackson Heart Study (JHS) data, we examined associations of negative affect and stress with incident hypertension and blood pressure (BP) progression among AA. METHODS Our sample consisted of 1,656 normotensive participants at baseline (2000–2004) (mean age 47±12; 61% women). We investigated associations of negative affect (cynical distrust, anger-in, anger-out, and depressive symptoms) and stress (perceived stress, weekly stress inventory (WSI)-event, WSI-impact, and major life events) with BP progression (an increase by one BP stage as defined by JNC VII) and incident hypertension by examination 2 (2005–2008). Poisson regression analysis was utilized to examine the prevalence ratios (PRs; 95% confidence interval (CI)) of BP tracking and incident hypertension with psychosocial factors, adjusting for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and hypertension risk factors. RESULTS Fifty-six percentage of the sample (922 cases) had BP progression from 2005 to 2008. After adjustment for age, sex, and SES, a high anger-out score was associated with a 20% increased risk of BP progression compared to a low anger-out score (PR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05–1.36). High depressive symptoms score was associated with BP progression in the age, sex, and SES-adjusted model (PR 1.14; 95% CI 1.00–1.30). High WSI-event scores were associated with BP progression in the fully adjusted model (PR 1.21; 95% CI 1.04–1.40). We did not observe significant associations with any of the psychosocial measures and incident hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial factors were associated with BP progression, with the strongest evidence for number of stressful events that occurred. PMID:26964661

  4. Cervical arterial dissections and association with cervical manipulative therapy: a statement for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association.

    PubMed

    Biller, José; Sacco, Ralph L; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Fayad, Pierre; Long, Preston H; Noorollah, Lori D; Panagos, Peter D; Schievink, Wouter I; Schwartz, Neil E; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Thaler, David E; Tirschwell, David L

    2014-10-01

    Cervical artery dissections (CDs) are among the most common causes of stroke in young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this scientific statement is to review the current state of evidence on the diagnosis and management of CDs and their statistical association with cervical manipulative therapy (CMT). In some forms of CMT, a high or low amplitude thrust is applied to the cervical spine by a healthcare professional. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. Members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise and reviewed appropriate literature, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge. Patients with CD may present with unilateral headaches, posterior cervical pain, or cerebral or retinal ischemia (transient ischemic or strokes) attributable mainly to artery-artery embolism, CD cranial nerve palsies, oculosympathetic palsy, or pulsatile tinnitus. Diagnosis of CD depends on a thorough history, physical examination, and targeted ancillary investigations. Although the role of trivial trauma is debatable, mechanical forces can lead to intimal injuries of the vertebral arteries and internal carotid arteries and result in CD. Disability levels vary among CD patients with many having good outcomes, but serious neurological sequelae can occur. No evidence-based guidelines are currently available to endorse best management strategies for CDs. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatments are both used for prevention of local thrombus and secondary embolism. Case-control and other articles have suggested an epidemiologic association between CD, particularly vertebral artery dissection

  5. Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, J Claude; Greenberg, Steven M; Anderson, Craig S; Becker, Kyra; Bendok, Bernard R; Cushman, Mary; Fung, Gordon L; Goldstein, Joshua N; Macdonald, R Loch; Mitchell, Pamela H; Scott, Phillip A; Selim, Magdy H; Woo, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. A formal literature search of PubMed was performed through the end of August 2013. The writing committee met by teleconference to discuss narrative text and recommendations. Recommendations follow the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association methods of classifying the level of certainty of the treatment effect and the class of evidence. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 6 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the care of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Topics focused on diagnosis, management of coagulopathy and blood pressure, prevention and control of secondary brain injury and intracranial pressure, the role of surgery, outcome prediction, rehabilitation, secondary prevention, and future considerations. Results of new phase 3 trials were incorporated. Intracerebral hemorrhage remains a serious condition for which early aggressive care is warranted. These guidelines provide a framework for goal-directed treatment of the patient with intracerebral hemorrhage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Update to Practice Standards for Electrocardiographic Monitoring in Hospital Settings: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Sandau, Kristin E; Funk, Marjorie; Auerbach, Andrew; Barsness, Gregory W; Blum, Kay; Cvach, Maria; Lampert, Rachel; May, Jeanine L; McDaniel, George M; Perez, Marco V; Sendelbach, Sue; Sommargren, Claire E; Wang, Paul J

    2017-11-07

    This scientific statement provides an interprofessional, comprehensive review of evidence and recommendations for indications, duration, and implementation of continuous electro cardiographic monitoring of hospitalized patients. Since the original practice standards were published in 2004, new issues have emerged that need to be addressed: overuse of arrhythmia monitoring among a variety of patient populations, appropriate use of ischemia and QT-interval monitoring among select populations, alarm management, and documentation in electronic health records. Authors were commissioned by the American Heart Association and included experts from general cardiology, electrophysiology (adult and pediatric), and interventional cardiology, as well as a hospitalist and experts in alarm management. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Authors were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature with an emphasis on publications since the prior practice standards, and drafted recommendations on indications and duration for electrocardiographic monitoring in accordance with the American Heart Association Level of Evidence grading algorithm that was in place at the time of commissioning. The comprehensive document is grouped into 5 sections: (1) Overview of Arrhythmia, Ischemia, and QTc Monitoring; (2) Recommendations for Indication and Duration of Electrocardiographic Monitoring presented by patient population; (3) Organizational Aspects: Alarm Management, Education of Staff, and Documentation; (4) Implementation of Practice Standards; and (5) Call for Research. Many of the recommendations are based on limited data, so authors conclude with specific questions for further research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Characteristics, quality of care, and in-hospital outcomes of Asian-American heart failure patients: Findings from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Fonarow, Gregg C; Krim, Selim R; Vivo, Rey P; Cox, Margueritte; Hannan, Edward L; Shaw, Benjamin A; Hernandez, Adrian F; Eapen, Zubin J; Yancy, Clyde W; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2015-01-01

    Because little was previously known about Asian-American patients with heart failure (HF), we compared clinical profiles, quality of care, and outcomes between Asian-American and non-Hispanic white HF patients using data from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) program. We analyzed 153,023 HF patients (149,249 whites, 97.5%; 3774 Asian-Americans, 2.5%) from 356 U.S. centers participating in the GWTG-HF program (2005-2012). Baseline characteristics, quality of care metrics, in-hospital mortality, discharge to home, and length of stay were examined. Relative to white patients, Asian-American HF patients were younger, more likely to be male, uninsured or covered by Medicaid, and recruited in the western region. They had higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and renal insufficiency, but similar ejection fraction. Overall, Asian-American HF patients had comparable quality of care except that they were less likely to receive aldosterone antagonists at discharge (relative risk , 0.88; 95% confidence interval , 0.78-0.99), and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97) even after risk adjustment. Compared with white patients, Asian-American patients had comparable risk adjusted in-hospital mortality (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.91-1.35), length of stay>4 days (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.08), and were more likely to be discharged to home (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11). Despite some differences in clinical profiles, Asian-American patients hospitalized with HF receive very similar quality of care and have comparable health outcomes to their white counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived discrimination is associated with health behaviours among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Gebreab, Samson Y; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-02-01

    Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviours among African-Americans (AA). The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat and sleep were examined among 4925 participants aged 35-84 years after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28 and 1.19, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<0.05 and 0.43, p<0.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: -0.08, p<0.05 and -0.18, p<0.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: -0.08, p<0.05 and -0.24, p<0.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviours among men and women. Health behaviours offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Perceived Discrimination is Associated with Health Behaviors among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study*

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Background Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviors among African Americans (AA). Methods The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime, and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat, and sleep were examined among 4,939 35–84 year old participants after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Results Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95%CI 1.00,1.28 and 1.19, 95%CI 1.05,1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<.05 and 0.43, p<.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: −0.08, p<.05 and −0.18, p<.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: −0.08, p<.05, and −0.24, p<.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Conclusions Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviors among men and women. Health behaviors offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. PMID:26417003

  10. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Suzuki, Cláudio Shigueki; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2013-01-01

    the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  11. Stroke outcomes measures must be appropriately risk adjusted to ensure quality care of patients: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Alberts, Mark J; Broderick, Joseph P; Jauch, Edward C; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Saver, Jeffrey L; Solis, Penelope; Suter, Robert; Schwamm, Lee H

    2014-05-01

    Because stroke is among the leading causes of death, disability, hospitalizations, and healthcare expenditures in the United States, there is interest in reporting outcomes for patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke. The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, as part of its commitment to promote high-quality, evidence-based care for cardiovascular and stroke patients, fully supports the development of properly risk-adjusted outcome measures for stroke. To accurately assess and report hospital-level outcomes, adequate risk adjustment for case mix is essential. During the development of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 30-day stroke mortality and 30-day stroke readmission measures, concerns were expressed that these measures were not adequately designed because they do not include a valid initial stroke severity measure, such as the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. These outcome measures, as currently constructed, may be prone to mischaracterizing the quality of stroke care being delivered by hospitals and may ultimately harm acute ischemic stroke patients. This article details (1) why the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services acute ischemic stroke outcome measures in their present form may not provide adequate risk adjustment, (2) why the measures as currently designed may lead to inaccurate representation of hospital performance and have the potential for serious unintended consequences, (3) what activities the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association has engaged in to highlight these concerns to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and other interested parties, and (4) alternative approaches and opportunities that should be considered for more accurately risk-adjusting 30-day outcomes measures in patients with ischemic stroke.

  12. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  13. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  14. Palliative and end-of-life care in stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Robert G; Arnold, Robert M; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Lewis, Eldrin F; Lutz, Barbara J; McCann, Robert M; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Saposnik, Gustavo; Sheth, Kevin N; Zahuranec, Darin B; Zipfel, Gregory J; Zorowitz, Richard D

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this statement is to delineate basic expectations regarding primary palliative care competencies and skills to be considered, learned, and practiced by providers and healthcare services across hospitals and community settings when caring for patients and families with stroke. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. Members were chosen to reflect the diversity and expertise of professional roles in delivering optimal palliative care. Writing group members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the appropriate literature, and drafted manuscript content and recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association's framework for defining classes and level of evidence and recommendations. The palliative care needs of patients with serious or life-threatening stroke and their families are enormous: complex decision making, aligning treatment with goals, and symptom control. Primary palliative care should be available to all patients with serious or life-threatening stroke and their families throughout the entire course of illness. To optimally deliver primary palliative care, stroke systems of care and provider teams should (1) promote and practice patient- and family-centered care; (2) effectively estimate prognosis; (3) develop appropriate goals of care; (4) be familiar with the evidence for common stroke decisions with end-of-life implications; (5) assess and effectively manage emerging stroke symptoms; (6) possess experience with palliative treatments at the end of life; (7) assist with care coordination, including referral to a palliative care specialist or hospice if necessary; (8) provide the patient and family the opportunity for personal growth and make bereavement resources available if death is anticipated; and (9) actively participate in

  15. Safety of American Heart Association-recommended minimum exercise for desmosomal mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Abhishek C; Te Riele, Anneline S J M; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Bhonsale, Aditya; Tandri, Harikrishna; Judge, Daniel P; Calkins, Hugh; James, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Endurance exercise is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). Exercise recommendations for family members remain undetermined. The purposes of this study were to determine if (1) endurance exercise (Bethesda class C) and exercise intensity (metabolic equivalent hours per year [MET-Hr/year]) increase the likelihood of fulfilling 2010 Task Force Criteria and ventricular arrhythmias/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock (ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation [VT/VF]), and (2) exercise restriction to the American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended minimum for healthy adults is associated with favorable outcomes of at-risk family members. Twenty-eight family members of 10 probands inheriting a PKP2 mutation were interviewed about exercise from age 10. Exercise threshold to maintain overall health was based on the 2007 AHA guidelines of a minimum 390 to 650 MET-Hr/year. After adjustment for age, sex, and family membership, both participation in endurance athletics (odds ratio [OR] 7.4, P = .03) and higher-intensity exercise (OR = 4.2, P = .004) were associated with diagnosis (n = 13). Endurance athletes were also significantly more likely to develop VT/VF (n = 6, P = .02). Family members who restricted exercise at or below the upper bound of the AHA goal (≤650 MET-Hr/year) were significantly less likely to be diagnosed (OR = 0.07, P = .002) and had no VT/VF. At diagnosis and first VT/VF, family members had accumulated 2.8-fold (P = .002) and 3.5-fold (P = .03), respectively, greater MET-Hr exercise than the AHA-recommended minimum. Those who developed VT/VF had performed particularly high-intensity exercise in adolescence compared to unaffected family members (age 10-14: P = .04; age 14-19: P = .02). The results of this study suggest restricting unaffected desmosomal mutation carriers from endurance and high-intensity athletics but potentially not from AHA

  16. Defining Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Leslee J; Blankstein, Ron; Jacobs, Jill E; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Kwong, Raymond Y; Taqueti, Viviany R; Beanlands, Rob S B; Mieres, Jennifer H; Flamm, Scott D; Gerber, Thomas C; Spertus, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the current statement are to refine the definition of quality in cardiovascular imaging and to propose novel methodological approaches to inform the demonstration of quality in imaging in future clinical trials and registries. We propose defining quality in cardiovascular imaging using an analytical framework put forth by the Institute of Medicine whereby quality was defined as testing being safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, equitable, and efficient. The implications of each of these components of quality health care are as essential for cardiovascular imaging as they are for other areas within health care. Our proposed statement may serve as the foundation for integrating these quality indicators into establishing designations of quality laboratory practices and developing standards for value-based payment reform for imaging services. We also include recommendations for future clinical research to fulfill quality aims within cardiovascular imaging, including clinical hypotheses of improving patient outcomes, the importance of health status as an end point, and deferred testing options. Future research should evolve to define novel methods optimized for the role of cardiovascular imaging for detecting disease and guiding treatment and to demonstrate the role of cardiovascular imaging in facilitating healthcare quality. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The new American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines: should children and adults have to share?

    PubMed

    Sherman, Mindy

    2007-06-01

    The latest American Heart Association guidelines for pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were published in December 2005. Changes from the 2000 guidelines were directed toward simplifying CPR. Infants, children, and adults now share the same recommendation for the initial compression:ventilation ratio. This is a significant change for pediatricians trained in the importance of a respiratory etiology of pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. The present review will focus on the rationale behind these guideline changes. The new guidelines for single rescuer CPR include a compression:ventilation ratio of 30: 2 for both adult and pediatric victims. The impetus for this recommendation is based on recent appreciation for the deleterious effects of hyperventilation as well as an attempt to increase bystander delivery of CPR. The physiologic results of hyperventilation are discussed. The new pediatric basic life support guideline changes are underscored. Research representing the spectrum of opinions on the optimal compression:ventilation ratio, including compression-only CPR, is presented. Although based primarily on adult, animal, and computational models, the new compression:ventilation ratio, recommended for both initial pediatric and adult CPR, is a reasonable recommendation. The simplified CPR guidelines released in 2005 will hopefully contribute to improved bystander delivery of CPR and improved outcome.

  18. Management of Pregnancy in Patients With Complex Congenital Heart Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Canobbio, Mary M; Warnes, Carole A; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Connolly, Heidi M; Khanna, Amber; Koos, Brian J; Mital, Seema; Rose, Carl; Silversides, Candice; Stout, Karen

    2017-02-21

    Today, most female children born with congenital heart disease will reach childbearing age. For many women with complex congenital heart disease, carrying a pregnancy carries a moderate to high risk for both the mother and her fetus. Many such women, however, do not have access to adult congenital heart disease tertiary centers with experienced reproductive programs. Therefore, it is important that all practitioners who will be managing these women have current information not only on preconception counseling and diagnostic evaluation to determine maternal and fetal risk but also on how to manage them once they are pregnant and when to refer them to a regional center with expertise in pregnancy management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Quality of Evidence Underlying the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society Guidelines on the Management of Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adam S; Lewis, William R; Field, Michael E; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Page, Richard L; Calkins, Hugh; Steinberg, Benjamin A; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2017-03-01

    The joint American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), and Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) guidelines on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) are used extensively to guide patient care. To describe the evidence base and changes over time in the AHA/ACC/HRS guidelines on AF with respect to the distribution of recommendations across classes of recommendations and levels of evidence. Data from the AHA/ACC/HRS guidelines on AF from 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2014 were abstracted. A total of 437 recommendations were included. The number of recommendations and distribution of classes of recommendation (I, II, and III) and levels of evidence (A, B, and C) were determined for each guideline edition. Changes in recommendation class and level of evidence were analyzed using the 2001 and 2014 guidelines. From 2001 to 2014, the total number of AF recommendations increased from 95 to 113. Numerically, there was a nonsignificant increase in the use of level of evidence B (30.5% to 39.8%; P = .17) and a nonsignificant decrease in the use of level of evidence C (60.0% to 51.3%; P = .21), with limited changes in the use of level A evidence (8.4% to 8.8%; P = .92). In the 2014 guideline document, 10 of 113 (8.8%) recommendations were supported by level of evidence A, whereas 58 of 113 (51.3%) were supported by level of evidence C. Most recommendations were equally split among class I (49/113; 43.4%) and class IIa/IIb (49/113; 43.4%), with the minority (15/113; 13.3%) assigned as class III. Most class I recommendations were supported by level of evidence C (29/49; 59.2%), whereas only 6 of 49 (12.2%) were supported by level of evidence A. No rate control category recommendations were supported by level of evidence A. Some aspects of the quality of evidence underlying AHA/ACC/HRS AF guidelines have improved over time. However, the use of level of evidence A remains low and has not increased since 2001. These findings highlight the need for focused

  20. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Anne M; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-06-13

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150-299 m, 1161 lived 300-999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans.

  1. Regional Systems of Care Demonstration Project: American Heart Association Mission: Lifeline STEMI Systems Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jollis, James G; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Roettig, Mayme L; Berger, Peter B; Corbett, Claire C; Dauerman, Harold L; Fordyce, Christopher B; Fox, Kathleen; Garvey, J Lee; Gregory, Tammy; Henry, Timothy D; Rokos, Ivan C; Sherwood, Matthew W; Suter, Robert E; Wilson, B Hadley; Granger, Christopher B

    2016-08-02

    Up to 50% of patients fail to meet ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) guideline goals recommending a first medical contact-to-device time of <90 minutes for patients directly presenting to percutaneous coronary intervention-capable hospitals and <120 minutes for transferred patients. We sought to increase the proportion of patients treated within guideline goals by organizing coordinated regional reperfusion plans. We established leadership teams, coordinated protocols, and provided regular feedback for 484 hospitals and 1253 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies in 16 regions across the United States. Between July 2012 and December 2013, 23 809 patients presented with acute STEMI (direct to percutaneous coronary intervention hospital: 11 765 EMS transported and 6502 self-transported; 5542 transferred). EMS-transported patients differed from self-transported patients in symptom onset to first medical contact time (median, 47 versus 114 minutes), incidence of cardiac arrest (10% versus 3%), shock on admission (11% versus 3%), and in-hospital mortality (8% versus 3%; P<0.001 for all comparisons). There was a significant increase in the proportion of patients meeting guideline goals of first medical contact-to-device time, including those directly presenting via EMS (50% to 55%; P<0.001) and transferred patients (44%-48%; P=0.002). Despite regional variability, the greatest gains occurred among patients in the 5 most improved regions, increasing from 45% to 57% (direct EMS; P<0.001) and 38% to 50% (transfers; P<0.001). This Mission: Lifeline STEMI Systems Accelerator demonstration project represents the largest national effort to organize regional STEMI care. By focusing on first medical contact-to-device time, coordinated treatment protocols, and regional data collection and reporting, we were able to increase significantly the proportion of patients treated within guideline goals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Examining the Use of a Social Media Campaign to Increase Engagement for the American Heart Association 2017 Resuscitation Science Symposium.

    PubMed

    Leary, Marion; McGovern, Shaun; Dainty, Katie N; Doshi, Ankur A; Blewer, Audrey L; Kurz, Michael C; Rittenberger, Jon C; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Reynolds, Joshua C

    2018-04-13

    The Resuscitation Science Symposium (ReSS) is the dedicated international forum for resuscitation science at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions. In an attempt to increase curated content and social media presence during ReSS 2017, the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA) coordinated an inaugural social media campaign. Before ReSS, 8 resuscitation science professionals were recruited from a convenience sample of attendees at ReSS 2017. Each blogger was assigned to either a morning or an afternoon session, responsible for "live tweeting" with the associated hashtags #ReSS17 and #AHA17. Twitter analytics from the 8 bloggers were collected from November 10 to 13, 2017. The primary outcome was Twitter impressions. Secondary outcomes included Twitter engagement and Twitter engagement rate. In total, 8 bloggers (63% male) generated 591 tweets that garnered 261 050 impressions, 8013 engagements, 928 retweets, 1653 likes, 292 hashtag clicks, and a median engagement rate of 2.4%. Total engagement, likes, and hashtag clicks were highest on day 2; total impressions were highest on day 3, and retweets were highest on day 4. Total impressions were highly correlated with the total number of tweets ( r =0.87; P =0.005) and baseline number of Twitter followers for each blogger ( r =0.78; P =0.02). In this inaugural social media campaign for the 2017 American Heart Association ReSS, the degree of online engagement with this content by end users was quite good when evaluated by social media standards. Benchmarks for end-user interactions in the scientific community are undefined and will require further study. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Poststroke Fatigue: Emerging Evidence and Approaches to Management: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Janice L; Becker, Kyra J; Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Saban, Karen L; McNair, Norma; Mead, Gillian E

    2017-07-01

    At least half of all stroke survivors experience fatigue; thus, it is a common cause of concern for patients, caregivers, and clinicians after stroke. This scientific statement provides an international perspective on the emerging evidence surrounding the incidence, prevalence, quality of life, and complex pathogenesis of poststroke fatigue. Evidence for pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for management are reviewed, as well as the effects of poststroke fatigue on both stroke survivors and caregivers. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Recommendations for the management of cerebral and cerebellar infarction with swelling: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Sheth, Kevin N; Carter, Bob S; Greer, David M; Kasner, Scott E; Kimberly, W Taylor; Schwab, Stefan; Smith, Eric E; Tamargo, Rafael J; Wintermark, Max

    2014-04-01

    There are uncertainties surrounding the optimal management of patients with brain swelling after an ischemic stroke. Guidelines are needed on how to manage this major complication, how to provide the best comprehensive neurological and medical care, and how to best inform families facing complex decisions on surgical intervention in deteriorating patients. This scientific statement addresses the early approach to the patient with a swollen ischemic stroke in a cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere. The writing group used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge. The panel reviewed the most relevant articles on adults through computerized searches of the medical literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science through March 2013. The evidence is organized within the context of the American Heart Association framework and is classified according to the joint American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation and supplementary American Heart Association Stroke Council methods of classifying the level of certainty and the class and level of evidence. The document underwent extensive American Heart Association internal peer review. Clinical criteria are available for hemispheric (involving the entire middle cerebral artery territory or more) and cerebellar (involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery or superior cerebellar artery) swelling caused by ischemic infarction. Clinical signs that signify deterioration in swollen supratentorial hemispheric ischemic stroke include new or further impairment of consciousness, cerebral ptosis, and changes in pupillary size. In swollen cerebellar infarction, a decrease in level of consciousness occurs as a result of brainstem compression and therefore may

  5. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen R; Hagberg, Nancy; Isasi, Carmen R; Kelly, Aaron S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pate, Russell R; Pratt, Charlotte; Shay, Christina M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Urbina, Elaine; Van Horn, Linda V; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-09-20

    This document provides a pediatric-focused companion to "Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association's Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond," focused on cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction in adults and children. The principles detailed in the document reflect the American Heart Association's new dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course. The primary focus is on adult cardiovascular health and disease prevention, but critical to achievement of this goal is maintenance of ideal cardiovascular health from birth through childhood to young adulthood and beyond. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and metrics that define cardiovascular health in children for the clinical or research setting, and a balanced and critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the cardiovascular health construct in children and adolescents is provided. Specifically, this document discusses 2 important factors: the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health in all children and the improvement of cardiovascular health metric scores in children currently classified as having poor or intermediate cardiovascular health. Other topics include the current status of cardiovascular health in US children, opportunities for the refinement of health metrics, improvement of health metric scores, and possibilities for promoting ideal cardiovascular health. Importantly, concerns about the suitability of using single thresholds to identify elevated cardiovascular risk throughout the childhood years and the limits of our current knowledge are noted, and suggestions for future directions and research are provided. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: a statement for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E; Decarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C; Schneider, Julie A; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K; Bennett, David A; Chui, Helena C; Higashida, Randall T; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M; Roman, Gustavo C; Sellke, Frank W; Seshadri, Sudha

    2011-09-01

    This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury-not solely stroke-ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed dementia. Dysfunction of the neurovascular

  7. Adoption of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Management Guideline in Cardiology Practices Nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Philip G.; Nambi, Vijay; Bittner, Vera A.; Hira, Ravi S.; Nasir, Khurram; Chan, Paul S.; Maddox, Thomas M.; Oetgen, William J.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Borden, William B.; Spertus, John A.; Petersen, Laura A.; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Management Guideline recommends moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin therapy in eligible patients. Objective To examine adoption of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline in US cardiology practices. Design, Setting, and Participants Among 161 cardiology practices, trends in the use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) were analyzed before (September 1, 2012, to November 1, 2013) and after (February 1, 2014, to April 1, 2015) publication of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline among 4 mutually exclusive risk groups within the ACC Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry. Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate for differences in trend in use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin LLT use in hierarchical logistic regression models. Participants were a population-based sample of 1 105 356 preguideline patients (2 431 192 patient encounters) and 1 116 472 postguideline patients (2 377 219 patient encounters). Approximately 97% of patients had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Exposures Moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin LLT use before and after publication of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures Time trend in the use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin LLT. Results In the study cohort, the mean (SD) age was 69.6 (12.1) years among 1 105 356 patients (40.2% female) before publication of the guideline and 70.0 (11.9) years among 1 116 472 patients (39.8% female) after publication of the guideline. Although there was a trend toward increasing use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statins overall and in the ASCVD cohort, such a trend was already present before publication of the guideline. No significant difference in trend in the use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statins

  8. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Kernan, Walter N; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Black, Henry R; Bravata, Dawn M; Chimowitz, Marc I; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Fang, Margaret C; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L; Heck, Donald V; Johnston, S Claiborne Clay; Kasner, Scott E; Kittner, Steven J; Mitchell, Pamela H; Rich, Michael W; Richardson, DeJuran; Schwamm, Lee H; Wilson, John A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this updated guideline is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of future stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The guideline is addressed to all clinicians who manage secondary prevention for these patients. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for control of risk factors, intervention for vascular obstruction, antithrombotic therapy for cardioembolism, and antiplatelet therapy for noncardioembolic stroke. Recommendations are also provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of specific circumstances, including aortic arch atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, patent foramen ovale, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypercoagulable states, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, sickle cell disease, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pregnancy. Special sections address use of antithrombotic and anticoagulation therapy after an intracranial hemorrhage and implementation of guidelines. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Estimating Longitudinal Risks and Benefits From Cardiovascular Preventive Therapies Among Medicare Patients: The Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool: A Special Report From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Huffman, Mark D; Karmali, Kunal N; Sanghavi, Darshak M; Wright, Janet S; Pelser, Colleen; Gulati, Martha; Masoudi, Frederick A; Goff, David C

    2017-03-28

    The Million Hearts Initiative has a goal of preventing 1 million heart attacks and strokes-the leading causes of mortality-through several public health and healthcare strategies by 2017. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology support the program. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model was developed by Million Hearts and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services as a strategy to assess a value-based payment approach toward reduction in 10-year predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) by implementing cardiovascular preventive strategies to manage the "ABCS" (aspirin therapy in appropriate patients, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). The purpose of this special report is to describe the development and intended use of the Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool. The Million Hearts Tool reinforces and builds on the "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk" by allowing clinicians to estimate baseline and updated 10-year ASCVD risk estimates for primary prevention patients adhering to the appropriate ABCS over time, alone or in combination. The tool provides updated risk estimates based on evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the ABCS therapies. This novel approach to personalized estimation of benefits from risk-reducing therapies in primary prevention may help target therapies to those in whom they will provide the greatest benefit, and serves as the basis for a Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services program designed to evaluate the Million Hearts Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model. Copyright © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc., and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synopsis and Review of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association 2013 ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Guideline.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen F

    2014-01-01

    The "2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines" is a major revision of the 2004 guideline. This article provides a synopsis and review of the guideline focusing on changes in patient care and implementing processes to ensure quality care. The implementation of this guideline provides nursing with a unique opportunity to affect patients and families primarily by recognition of the event and education about lifestyle modification and disease management. Regionalization of emergency systems provides a novel situation for nursing to develop interdepartmental and system protocols.

  11. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of Older Adults: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society: Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-11-01

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults aged 75 and older. Despite the effect of CVD on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, individuals aged 75 and older have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older adults with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older adults typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision-making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, a detailed review was conducted of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA) guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older adults. A pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision-making in older adults with CVD was found, as well as a paucity of data on the effect of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on outcomes that are particularly important to older adults, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older adults representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older adults in the study design. The results of these studies will provide the foundation for

  12. Comparison of QRS Duration and Associated Cardiovascular Events in American Indian Men Versus Women (The Strong Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Deen, Jason F; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Noonan, Carolyn; Best, Lyle G; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Umans, Jason G

    2017-06-01

    Electrocardiographic QRS duration at rest is associated with sudden cardiac death and death from coronary heart disease in the general population. However, its relation to cardiovascular events in American Indians, a population with persistently high cardiovascular disease mortality, is unknown. The relation of QRS duration to incident cardiovascular disease during 17.2 years of follow-up was assessed in 1,851 male and female Strong Heart Study participants aged 45 to 74 years without known cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression with robust standard error estimates was used to determine the association between quintiles of QRS duration and incident cardiovascular disease in gender-stratified analyses, adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, body mass index, current smoking, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and albuminuria. In women only, QRS duration in the highest quintile (≥105 ms) conferred significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease than QRS duration in the lowest quintile (64 to 84 ms) (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4) likely because of higher risks of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1) and myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7). Furthermore, when added to the Strong Heart Study Coronary Heart Disease Risk Calculator, QRS duration significantly improved prediction of future coronary heart disease events in women (Net Reclassification Index 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.47). In conclusion, QRS duration is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in women in the Strong Heart Study cohort and may have value in estimating risk in populations with similar risk profiles and a high lifetime incidence of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 cardiovascular health metrics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenjun; Lee, Hwa; Lee, Angela; Kieu, Chi; Wong, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. There is a strong association between COPD and cardiovascular (CV) disease; however, the relation between COPD and CV health factors is not well defined. We examined the relation between lung function and CV health factors defined by American Heart Association's (AHA) Life's Simple 7 (LS7). We studied 6352 adults aged ≥20 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean FEV1% of predicted across levels of each LS7 metric and population attributable risk was calculated based on COPD prevalence. We also conducted linear regression and logistic regression analyses to determine the association between lung function, COPD and LS7 score. Overall 19.9% of subjects were defined as having COPD. Subjects in the highest categories of the LS7 metrics had the highest mean values of FEV1% of predicted (p < 0.0001 except for total cholesterol). Current smoking and hypertension had a population attributed risk of 21.8% and 21.1% of COPD, respectively. Compared to subjects with 0 ideal health factors, the gender and ethnicity-adjusted odds (95% CI) for COPD were 0.45 (0.22-0.93), 0.22 (0.11-0.43) for those with 4 and 5-7 factors, but adjustment for age attenuated this relation. LS7 score is associated with lung function as well as the odds of COPD that is largely explained by age. Studies are needed to show if promotion of CV health will preserve healthy lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Li...

  15. 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Pediatric Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Dianne L; de Caen, Allan R; Berger, Stuart; Samson, Ricardo A; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Joyner, Benny L; Bigham, Blair L; Niles, Dana E; Duff, Jonathan P; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Meaney, Peter A

    2018-01-02

    This focused update to the American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care follows the Pediatric Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation evidence review. It aligns with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation's continuous evidence review process, and updates are published when the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation completes a literature review based on new science. This update provides the evidence review and treatment recommendation for chest compression-only CPR versus CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths for children <18 years of age. Four large database studies were available for review, including 2 published after the "2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care." Two demonstrated worse 30-day outcomes with chest compression-only CPR for children 1 through 18 years of age, whereas 2 studies documented no difference between chest compression-only CPR and CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths. When the results were analyzed for infants <1 year of age, CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths was better than no CPR but was no different from chest compression-only CPR in 1 study, whereas another study observed no differences among chest compression-only CPR, CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths, and no CPR. CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths should be provided for infants and children in cardiac arrest. If bystanders are unwilling or unable to deliver rescue breaths, we recommend that rescuers provide chest compressions for infants and children. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Guidelines for Adult Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Winstein, Carolee J; Stein, Joel; Arena, Ross; Bates, Barbara; Cherney, Leora R; Cramer, Steven C; Deruyter, Frank; Eng, Janice J; Fisher, Beth; Harvey, Richard L; Lang, Catherine E; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Pugh, Sue; Reeves, Mathew J; Richards, Lorie G; Stiers, William; Zorowitz, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a synopsis of best clinical practices in the rehabilitative care of adults recovering from stroke. Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the AHA's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The panel reviewed relevant articles on adults using computerized searches of the medical literature through 2014. The evidence is organized within the context of the AHA framework and is classified according to the joint AHA/American College of Cardiology and supplementary AHA methods of classifying the level of certainty and the class and level of evidence. The document underwent extensive AHA internal and external peer review, Stroke Council Leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Stroke rehabilitation requires a sustained and coordinated effort from a large team, including the patient and his or her goals, family and friends, other caregivers (eg, personal care attendants), physicians, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, recreation therapists, psychologists, nutritionists, social workers, and others. Communication and coordination among these team members are paramount in maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency of rehabilitation and underlie this entire guideline. Without communication and coordination, isolated efforts to rehabilitate the stroke survivor are unlikely to achieve their full potential. As systems of care evolve in response to healthcare reform efforts, postacute care and rehabilitation are often considered a costly area of care to be trimmed but without recognition of their clinical impact and ability to reduce the risk of downstream medical morbidity resulting from

  17. Care and outcomes of Asian-American acute myocardial infarction patients: findings from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease program.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Ling, Frederick S; Deedwania, Prakash; Hernandez, Adrian F; Fonarow, Gregg C; Cannon, Christopher P; Peterson, Eric D; Peacock, W Frank; Kaltenbach, Lisa A; Laskey, Warren K; Schwamm, Lee H; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2012-01-01

    Asian-Americans represent an important United States minority population, yet there are limited data regarding the clinical care and outcomes of Asian-Americans following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Using data from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) program, we compared use of and trends in evidence-based care AMI processes and outcome in Asian-American versus white patients. We analyzed 107,403 AMI patients (4412 Asian-Americans, 4.1%) from 382 United States centers participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease program between 2003 and 2008. Use of 6 AMI performance measures, composite "defect-free" care (proportion receiving all eligible performance measures), door-to-balloon time, and in-hospital mortality were examined. Trends in care over this time period were explored. Compared with whites, Asian-American AMI patients were significantly older, more likely to be covered by Medicaid and recruited in the west region, and had a higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, and smoking. In-hospital unadjusted mortality was higher among Asian-American patients. Overall, Asian-Americans were comparable with whites regarding the baseline quality of care, except that Asian-Americans were less likely to get smoking cessation counseling (65.6% versus 81.5%). Asian-American AMI patients experienced improvement in the 6 individual measures (P≤0.048), defect-free care (P<0.001), and door-to-balloon time (P<0.001). The improvement rates were similar for both Asian-Americans and whites. Compared with whites, the adjusted in-hospital mortality rate was higher for Asian-Americans (adjusted relative risk: 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.35; P=0.04). Evidence-based care for AMI processes improved significantly over the period of 2003 to 2008 for Asian-American and white patients in the Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease program. Differences in care between

  18. Projected Costs of Informal Caregiving for Cardiovascular Disease: 2015 to 2035: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Khavjou, Olga A; Bakas, Tamilyn; Hunt, Gail; Kirch, Rebecca A; Leib, Alyssa R; Morrison, R Sean; Poehler, Diana C; Roger, Veronique L; Whitsel, Laurie P

    2018-05-08

    In a recent report, the American Heart Association estimated that medical costs and productivity losses of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are expected to grow from $555 billion in 2015 to $1.1 trillion in 2035. Although the burden is significant, the estimate does not include the costs of family, informal, or unpaid caregiving provided to patients with CVD. In this analysis, we estimated projections of costs of informal caregiving attributable to CVD for 2015 to 2035. We used data from the 2014 Health and Retirement Survey to estimate hours of informal caregiving for individuals with CVD by age/sex/race using a zero-inflated binomial model and controlling for sociodemographic factors and health conditions. Costs of informal caregiving were estimated separately for hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and other heart disease. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 16 731 noninstitutionalized adults ≥54 years of age. The value of caregiving hours was monetized by the use of home health aide workers' wages. The per-person costs were multiplied by census population counts to estimate nation-level costs and to be consistent with other American Heart Association analyses of burden of CVD, and the costs were projected from 2015 through 2035, assuming that within each age/sex/racial group, CVD prevalence and caregiving hours remain constant. The costs of informal caregiving for patients with CVD were estimated to be $61 billion in 2015 and are projected to increase to $128 billion in 2035. Costs of informal caregiving of patients with stroke constitute more than half of the total costs of CVD informal caregiving ($31 billion in 2015 and $66 billion in 2035). By age, costs are the highest among those 65 to 79 years of age in 2015 but are expected to be surpassed by costs among those ≥80 years of age by 2035. Costs of informal caregiving for patients with CVD represent an additional 11% of medical and productivity costs

  19. Utility of 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines in HIV-Infected Adults With Carotid Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Binh An P; Weigel, Bernard; Ma, Yifei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Li, Danny; Hur, Sophia; Kalapus, S C; Deeks, Steven; Hsue, Priscilla

    2017-07-01

    Although HIV is associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, it is unknown whether guidelines can identify HIV-infected adults who may benefit from statins. We compared the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2004 Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations in HIV-infected adults and evaluated associations with carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured at baseline and 3 years later in 352 HIV-infected adults without clinical atherosclerotic CVD and not on statins. Plaque was defined as IMT >1.5 mm in any segment. At baseline, the median age was 43 (interquartile range, 39-49), 85% were men, 74% were on antiretroviral medication, and 50% had plaque. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines were more likely to recommend statins compared with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, both overall (26% versus 14%; P <0.001), in those with plaque (32% versus 17%; P =0.0002), and in those without plaque (16% versus 7%; P =0.025). In multivariable analysis, older age, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, pack per year of smoking, and history of opportunistic infection were associated with baseline plaque. Baseline IMT (hazard ratio, 1.18 per 10% increment; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.33; P =0.005) and plaque (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.08; P =0.037) were each associated with all-cause mortality, independent of traditional CVD risk factors. Although the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommended statins to a greater number of HIV-infected adults compared with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, both failed to recommend therapy in the majority of HIV-affected adults with carotid plaque. Baseline carotid atherosclerosis but not atherosclerotic CVD risk scores was an independent predictor of mortality. HIV-specific guidelines that include detection

  20. Joint association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variants with abdominal obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.

  1. Promoting physical activity through the shared use of school recreational spaces: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Young, Deborah R; Spengler, John O; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R; Vincent, Jeffrey M; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-09-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces.

  2. Promoting Physical Activity Through the Shared Use of School Recreational Spaces: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association

    PubMed Central

    Young, Deborah R.; Spengler, John O.; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R.; Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces. PMID:24134355

  3. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Doherty, John U; Kort, Smadar; Mehran, Roxana; Schoenhagen, Paul; Soman, Prem; Dehmer, Greg J; Doherty, John U; Schoenhagen, Paul; Amin, Zahid; Bashore, Thomas M; Boyle, Andrew; Calnon, Dennis A; Carabello, Blase; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Conte, John; Desai, Milind; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Ferrari, Victor A; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Mehrotra, Praveen; Nazarian, Saman; Reece, T Brett; Tamarappoo, Balaji; Tzou, Wendy S; Wong, John B; Doherty, John U; Dehmer, Gregory J; Bailey, Steven R; Bhave, Nicole M; Brown, Alan S; Daugherty, Stacie L; Dean, Larry S; Desai, Milind Y; Duvernoy, Claire S; Gillam, Linda D; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Lindsay, Bruce D; Manning, Warren J; Mehrotra, Praveen; Patel, Manesh R; Sachdeva, Ritu; Wann, L Samuel; Winchester, David E; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2018-04-01

    This document is 1 of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This document addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas the second, companion document addresses this topic with regard to structural heart disease. Although there is clinical overlap, the documents addressing valvular and structural heart disease are published separately, albeit with a common structure. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of valvular and structural heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities. Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. A separate, independent rating panel scored the 92 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will

  4. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Doherty, John U; Kort, Smadar; Mehran, Roxana; Schoenhagen, Paul; Soman, Prem

    2017-12-01

    This document is 1 of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This document addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas the second, companion document addresses this topic with regard to structural heart disease. Although there is clinical overlap, the documents addressing valvular and structural heart disease are published separately, albeit with a common structure. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of valvular and structural heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities.Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines.A separate, independent rating panel scored the 92 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario.The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will

  5. Treatment and Outcome of Hemorrhagic Transformation After Intravenous Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, Shadi; Willey, Joshua Z; Cucchiara, Brett; Goldstein, Joshua N; Gonzales, Nicole R; Khatri, Pooja; Kim, Louis J; Mayer, Stephan A; Sheth, Kevin N; Schwamm, Lee H

    2017-12-01

    Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) is the most feared complication of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Treatment of sICH is based on expert opinion and small case series, with the efficacy of such treatments not well established. This document aims to provide an overview of sICH with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. A literature review was performed for randomized trials, prospective and retrospective studies, opinion papers, case series, and case reports on the definitions, epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of sICH. The document sections were divided among writing group members who performed the literature review, summarized the literature, and provided suggestions on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sICH caused by systemic thrombolysis with alteplase. Several drafts were circulated among writing group members until a consensus was achieved. sICH is an uncommon but severe complication of systemic thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. Prompt diagnosis and early correction of the coagulopathy after alteplase have remained the mainstay of treatment. Further research is required to establish treatments aimed at maintaining integrity of the blood-brain barrier in acute ischemic stroke based on inhibition of the underlying biochemical processes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors in African Americans: biosocial associations in the Jackson Heart study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cheryl R; Ommerborn, Mark J; Hickson, DeMarc A; Grooms, Kya N; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A; Albert, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) among African Americans. Study participants were non-diabetic African Americans (n = 3,909) in the baseline examination (2000-2004) of the Jackson Heart Study. We measured eight risk factors: the metabolic syndrome, its five components, insulin resistance and cardiovascular inflammation. We assessed neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with US Census 2000 data. We assessed perceived neighborhood safety, health behaviors and SES via survey. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations with a random intercept model for neighborhood effects. After adjustment for health behaviors and SES, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with the metabolic syndrome in women (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Lack of perceived safety was associated with elevated glucose (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03, 1.80) and waist circumference (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) among women, and with elevated glucose (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66) and insulin resistance (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.46) among men. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived safety should be considered as targets for intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risks among African Americans.

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Neighborhood Safety and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Americans: Biosocial Associations in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Cheryl R.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Grooms, Kya N.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Albert, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) among African Americans. Methods Study participants were non-diabetic African Americans (n = 3,909) in the baseline examination (2000–2004) of the Jackson Heart Study. We measured eight risk factors: the metabolic syndrome, its five components, insulin resistance and cardiovascular inflammation. We assessed neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with US Census 2000 data. We assessed perceived neighborhood safety, health behaviors and SES via survey. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations with a random intercept model for neighborhood effects. Results After adjustment for health behaviors and SES, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with the metabolic syndrome in women (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Lack of perceived safety was associated with elevated glucose (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03, 1.80) and waist circumference (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) among women, and with elevated glucose (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66) and insulin resistance (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.46) among men. Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived safety should be considered as targets for intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risks among African Americans. PMID:23691005

  8. Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer: Where These Entities Intersect: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Watson, Karol E; Barac, Ana; Beckie, Theresa M; Bittner, Vera; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Dent, Susan; Kondapalli, Lavanya; Ky, Bonnie; Okwuosa, Tochukwu; Piña, Ileana L; Volgman, Annabelle Santos

    2018-02-20

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in women, yet many people perceive breast cancer to be the number one threat to women's health. CVD and breast cancer have several overlapping risk factors, such as obesity and smoking. Additionally, current breast cancer treatments can have a negative impact on cardiovascular health (eg, left ventricular dysfunction, accelerated CVD), and for women with pre-existing CVD, this might influence cancer treatment decisions by both the patient and the provider. Improvements in early detection and treatment of breast cancer have led to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors who are at risk of long-term cardiac complications from cancer treatments. For older women, CVD poses a greater mortality threat than breast cancer itself. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on CVD and breast cancer. This document will provide a comprehensive overview of the prevalence of these diseases, shared risk factors, the cardiotoxic effects of therapy, and the prevention and treatment of CVD in breast cancer patients. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Resuscitation Education Science: Educational Strategies to Improve Outcomes From Cardiac Arrest: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Adam; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Mancini, Mary Beth; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Sinz, Elizabeth H; Merchant, Raina M; Donoghue, Aaron; Duff, Jonathan P; Eppich, Walter; Auerbach, Marc; Bigham, Blair L; Blewer, Audrey L; Chan, Paul S; Bhanji, Farhan

    2018-06-21

    The formula for survival in resuscitation describes educational efficiency and local implementation as key determinants in survival after cardiac arrest. Current educational offerings in the form of standardized online and face-to-face courses are falling short, with providers demonstrating a decay of skills over time. This translates to suboptimal clinical care and poor survival outcomes from cardiac arrest. In many institutions, guidelines taught in courses are not thoughtfully implemented in the clinical environment. A current synthesis of the evidence supporting best educational and knowledge translation strategies in resuscitation is lacking. In this American Heart Association scientific statement, we provide a review of the literature describing key elements of educational efficiency and local implementation, including mastery learning and deliberate practice, spaced practice, contextual learning, feedback and debriefing, assessment, innovative educational strategies, faculty development, and knowledge translation and implementation. For each topic, we provide suggestions for improving provider performance that may ultimately optimize patient outcomes from cardiac arrest. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Indications for the Performance of Intracranial Endovascular Neurointerventional Procedures: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Eskey, Clifford J; Meyers, Philip M; Nguyen, Thanh N; Ansari, Sameer A; Jayaraman, Mahesh; McDougall, Cameron G; DeMarco, J Kevin; Gray, William A; Hess, David C; Higashida, Randall T; Pandey, Dilip K; Peña, Constantino; Schumacher, Hermann C

    2018-05-22

    Intracranial endovascular interventions provide effective and minimally invasive treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This area of expertise has continued to gain both wider application and greater depth as new and better techniques are developed and as landmark clinical studies are performed to guide their use. Some of the greatest advances since the last American Heart Association scientific statement on this topic have been made in the treatment of ischemic stroke from large intracranial vessel occlusion, with more effective devices and large randomized clinical trials showing striking therapeutic benefit. The treatment of cerebral aneurysms has also seen substantial evolution, increasing the number of aneurysms that can be treated successfully with minimally invasive therapy. Endovascular therapies for such other diseases as arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, venous thrombosis, and neoplasms continue to improve. The purpose of the present document is to review current information on the efficacy and safety of procedures used for intracranial endovascular interventional treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and to summarize key aspects of best practice. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Current State of the Science: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sharonne N; Kim, Esther S H; Saw, Jacqueline; Adlam, David; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Economy, Katherine E; Ganesh, Santhi K; Gulati, Rajiv; Lindsay, Mark E; Mieres, Jennifer H; Naderi, Sahar; Shah, Svati; Thaler, David E; Tweet, Marysia S; Wood, Malissa J

    2018-05-08

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has emerged as an important cause of acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death, particularly among young women and individuals with few conventional atherosclerotic risk factors. Patient-initiated research has spurred increased awareness of SCAD, and improved diagnostic capabilities and findings from large case series have led to changes in approaches to initial and long-term management and increasing evidence that SCAD not only is more common than previously believed but also must be evaluated and treated differently from atherosclerotic myocardial infarction. High rates of recurrent SCAD; its association with female sex, pregnancy, and physical and emotional stress triggers; and concurrent systemic arteriopathies, particularly fibromuscular dysplasia, highlight the differences in clinical characteristics of SCAD compared with atherosclerotic disease. Recent insights into the causes of, clinical course of, treatment options for, outcomes of, and associated conditions of SCAD and the many persistent knowledge gaps are presented. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. 76 FR 6303 - American Heart Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Vol. 76 Thursday, No. 23 February 3, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8625--American Heart..., 2011 American Heart Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Heart... in the United States is living with some form of cardiovascular disease, American Heart Month...

  13. Implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guideline Including Data From the Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ziaeian, Boback; Dinkler, John; Watson, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The management of blood cholesterol through use of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in at-risk patients is a pillar of medical therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The recent 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on managing blood cholesterol provides an important framework for the effective implementation of risk-reduction strategies. The guideline identifies four cohorts of patients with proven benefits from statin therapy and streamlines the dosing and monitoring recommendations based on evidence from published, randomized controlled trials. Primary care physicians and cardiologists play key roles in identifying populations at elevated ASCVD risk. In providing a practical management overview of the current blood cholesterol guideline, we facilitate more informed discussions on treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients. PMID:26198559

  14. Clinical trials update from the American Heart Association: REPAIR-AMI, ASTAMI, JELIS, MEGA, REVIVE-II, SURVIVE, and PROACTIVE.

    PubMed

    Cleland, John G F; Freemantle, Nick; Coletta, Alison P; Clark, Andrew L

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information and a commentary on trials presented at the American Heart Association meeting held in November 2005, relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure. All reports should be considered as preliminary data, as analyses may change in the final publication. In REPAIR-AMI an improvement in ejection fraction was observed in post-MI patients following infusion of bone marrow stem cells. However, the ASTAMI study showed no benefit of stem cell implantation in a similar patient cohort. The JELIS study reported a reduction in major coronary events in patients receiving statins plus fish oil compared to statins alone. MEGA showed that low dose statins in a low risk population reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events. Two studies of levosimendan in acute heart failure gave conflicting results, in the REVIVE-II study levosimendan was reported to have a superior effect on the composite primary outcome compared to placebo, however, in SURVIVE despite a trend to early benefit with levosimendan, there was no difference in effect on long-term outcome versus dobutamine. The PROACTIVE study showed encouraging results for the use of pioglitazone in post-myocardial infarction patients with concomitant type 2 diabetes.

  15. Forecasting the future of cardiovascular disease in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Paul A; Trogdon, Justin G; Khavjou, Olga A; Butler, Javed; Dracup, Kathleen; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew; Hong, Yuling; Johnston, S Claiborne; Khera, Amit; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Nelson, Sue A; Nichol, Graham; Orenstein, Diane; Wilson, Peter W F; Woo, Y Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and is responsible for 17% of national health expenditures. As the population ages, these costs are expected to increase substantially. To prepare for future cardiovascular care needs, the American Heart Association developed methodology to project future costs of care for hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and all other CVD from 2010 to 2030. This methodology avoided double counting of costs for patients with multiple cardiovascular conditions. By 2030, 40.5% of the US population is projected to have some form of CVD. Between 2010 and 2030, real (2008$) total direct medical costs of CVD are projected to triple, from $273 billion to $818 billion. Real indirect costs (due to lost productivity) for all CVD are estimated to increase from $172 billion in 2010 to $276 billion in 2030, an increase of 61%. These findings indicate CVD prevalence and costs are projected to increase substantially. Effective prevention strategies are needed if we are to limit the growing burden of CVD.

  16. Diastolic wall strain is associated with incident heart failure in African Americans: Insights from the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takeki; Hall, Michael E; Wang, Wanmei; Winniford, Michael D; Shah, Amil M; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Butler, Kenneth R; Mosley, Thomas H

    2018-05-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) myocardial stiffness may be associated with impaired LV hemodynamics and incident heart failure (HF). However, an indicator that estimates LV myocardial stiffness easily and non-invasively is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diastolic wall strain (DWS), an echocardiographic estimator of LV myocardial stiffness, is associated with incident HF in a middle-aged community-based cohort of African Americans. We investigated associations between DWS and incident HF among 1528 African Americans (mean age 58.5 years, 66% women) with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF ≥50%) and without a history of cardiovascular disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Participants with the smallest DWS quintile (more LV myocardial stiffness) had a higher LV mass index, higher relative wall thickness, and lower arterial compliance than those in the larger four DWS quintiles (p<0.01 for all). Over a mean follow-up of 15.6 years, there were 251 incident HF events (incidence rate: 10.9 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for traditional risk factors and incident coronary artery disease, both continuous and categorical DWS were independently associated with incident HF (HR 1.21, 95%CI 1.04-1.41 for 0.1 decrease in continuous DWS, p=0.014, HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.05-1.87 for the smallest DWS quintile vs other combined quintiles, p=0.022). DWS was independently associated with an increased risk of incident HF in a community-based cohort of African Americans. DWS could be used as a qualitative estimator of LV myocardial stiffness. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of lipoprotein particle measures for assessing coronary heart disease risk post-American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Brian T; Guan, Weihua; Remaley, Alan T; Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Heckbert, Susan R; McClelland, Robyn L; Greenland, Philip; Michos, Erin D; Tsai, Michael Y

    2015-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association have issued guidelines indicating that the contribution of apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) to cardiovascular risk assessment remains uncertain. The present analysis evaluates whether lipoprotein particle measures convey risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 4679 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine associations between lipids or lipoproteins and primary CHD events. After adjustment for nonlipid variables, lipoprotein particle levels in fourth quartiles were found to convey significantly greater risk of incident CHD when compared to first quartile levels (hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]): ApoB (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.25-2.69), ApoB/ApoA-I (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32-2.76), total low-density lipoprotein-particles (LDL-P; HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.21-2.58), and the LDL-P/HDL-P (high-density lipoprotein-P) ratio (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.54-3.37). Associations between lipoprotein particle measures and CHD were attenuated after adjustment for standard lipid panel variables. Using the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology risk calculator as a baseline model for CHD risk assessment, significant net reclassification improvement scores were found for ApoB/ApoA-I (0.18; P=0.007) and LDL-P/high-density lipoprotein-P (0.15; P<0.001). C-statistics revealed no significant increase in CHD event discrimination for any lipoprotein measure. Lipoprotein particle measures ApoB/ApoA-I and LDL-P/high-density lipoprotein-P marginally improved net reclassification improvement scores, but null findings for corresponding c-statistic are not supportive of lipoprotein testing. The attenuated associations of lipoprotein particle measures with CHD after the adjustment for lipids indicate that their measurement does not detect risk that is unaccounted for by the standard lipid panel. However, the possibility that lipoprotein measures may

  18. Meal Timing and Frequency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Ard, Jamy; Baskin, Monica L; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Johnson, Heather M; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Varady, Krista

    2017-02-28

    Eating patterns are increasingly varied. Typical breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals are difficult to distinguish because skipping meals and snacking have become more prevalent. Such eating styles can have various effects on cardiometabolic health markers, namely obesity, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. In this statement, we review the cardiometabolic health effects of specific eating patterns: skipping breakfast, intermittent fasting, meal frequency (number of daily eating occasions), and timing of eating occasions. Furthermore, we propose definitions for meals, snacks, and eating occasions for use in research. Finally, data suggest that irregular eating patterns appear less favorable for achieving a healthy cardiometabolic profile. Intentional eating with mindful attention to the timing and frequency of eating occasions could lead to healthier lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk factor management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Merging Electronic Health Record Data and Genomics for Cardiovascular Research: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jennifer L; Ryan, John J; Bray, Bruce E; Brown, Candice; Lanfear, David; Newby, L Kristin; Relling, Mary V; Risch, Neil J; Roden, Dan M; Shaw, Stanley Y; Tcheng, James E; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Wang, Thomas N; Weintraub, William S

    2016-04-01

    The process of scientific discovery is rapidly evolving. The funding climate has influenced a favorable shift in scientific discovery toward the use of existing resources such as the electronic health record. The electronic health record enables long-term outlooks on human health and disease, in conjunction with multidimensional phenotypes that include laboratory data, images, vital signs, and other clinical information. Initial work has confirmed the utility of the electronic health record for understanding mechanisms and patterns of variability in disease susceptibility, disease evolution, and drug responses. The addition of biobanks and genomic data to the information contained in the electronic health record has been demonstrated. The purpose of this statement is to discuss the current challenges in and the potential for merging electronic health record data and genomics for cardiovascular research. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. OHS Wraps Up American Heart Month | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    With February coming to a close, Occupational Health Services (OHS) has wrapped up American Heart Month, a four-week-long series of events that raised awareness about heart disease and promoted heart-healthy habits.

  1. American Heart Association Response to the 2015 Institute of Medicine Report on Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival.

    PubMed

    Neumar, Robert W; Eigel, Brian; Callaway, Clifton W; Estes, N A Mark; Jollis, James G; Kleinman, Monica E; Morrison, Laurie J; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Rea, Thomas D; Sendelbach, Sue

    2015-09-15

    The American Heart Association (AHA) commends the recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act (2015). The AHA recognizes the unique opportunity created by the report to meaningfully advance the objectives of improving outcomes for sudden cardiac arrest. For decades, the AHA has focused on the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease though robust support of basic, translational, clinical, and population research. The AHA also has developed a rigorous process using the best available evidence to develop scientific, advisory, and guideline documents. These core activities of development and dissemination of scientific evidence have served as the foundation for a broad range of advocacy initiatives and programs that serve as a foundation for advancing the AHA and IOM goal of improving cardiac arrest outcomes. In response to the call to action in the IOM report, the AHA is announcing 4 new commitments to increase cardiac arrest survival: (1) The AHA will provide up to $5 million in funding over 5 years to incentivize resuscitation data interoperability; (2) the AHA will actively pursue philanthropic support for local and regional implementation opportunities to increase cardiac arrest survival by improving out-of-hospital and in-hospital systems of care; (3) the AHA will actively pursue philanthropic support to launch an AHA resuscitation research network; and (4) the AHA will cosponsor a National Cardiac Arrest Summit to facilitate the creation of a national cardiac arrest collaborative that will unify the field and identify common goals to improve survival. In addition to the AHA's historic and ongoing commitment to improving cardiac arrest care and outcomes, these new initiatives are responsive to each of the IOM recommendations and demonstrate the AHA's leadership in the field. However, successful implementation of the IOM recommendations will require a timely

  2. Systems of care for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: a report From the American Heart Association's Mission: Lifeline.

    PubMed

    Jollis, James G; Granger, Christopher B; Henry, Timothy D; Antman, Elliott M; Berger, Peter B; Moyer, Peter H; Pratt, Franklin D; Rokos, Ivan C; Acuña, Anna R; Roettig, Mayme Lou; Jacobs, Alice K

    2012-07-01

    National guidelines call for participation in systems to rapidly diagnose and treat ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In order to characterize currently implemented STEMI reperfusion systems and identify practices common to system organization, the American Heart Association surveyed existing systems throughout the United States. A STEMI system was defined as an integrated group of separate entities focused on reperfusion therapy for STEMI within a geographic region that included at least 1 hospital that performs percutaneous coronary intervention and at least 1 emergency medical service agency. Systems meeting this definition were invited to participate in a survey of 42 questions based on expert panel opinion and knowledge of existing systems. Data were collected through the American Heart Association Mission: Lifeline website. Between April 2008 and January 2010, 381 unique systems involving 899 percutaneous coronary intervention hospitals in 47 states responded to the survey, of which 255 systems (67%) involved urban regions. The predominant funding sources for STEMI systems were percutaneous coronary intervention hospitals (n = 320, 84%) and /or cardiology practices (n = 88, 23%). Predominant system characteristics identified by the survey included: STEMI patient acceptance at percutaneous coronary intervention hospital regardless of bed availability (N = 346, 97%); single phone call activation of catheterization laboratory (N = 335, 92%); emergency department physician activation of laboratory without cardiology consultation (N = 318, 87%); data registry participation (N = 311, 84%); and prehospital activation of the laboratory through emergency department notification without cardiology notification (N = 297, 78%). The most common barriers to system implementation were hospital (n = 139, 37%) and cardiology group competition (n = 81, 21%) and emergency medical services transport and finances (n = 99, 26%). This survey broadly describes the

  3. The power of play: Innovations in Getting Active Summit 2011: a science panel proceedings report from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra A; Chamberlin, Barbara; Medina, Ernie; Franklin, Barry A; Sanner, Brigid McHugh; Vafiadis, Dorothea K

    2011-05-31

    To examine the influence active-play video gaming (also referred to as exergaming, exertainment, and active gaming) might have on improving health-related skills, enhancing self-esteem and self-efficacy, promoting social support, and ultimately motivating positive changes in health behaviors, the American Heart Association convened The Power of Play: Innovations in Getting Active Summit. The summit, as well as a follow-up science panel, was hosted by the American Heart Association and Nintendo of America. The science panel discussed the current state of research on active-play video gaming and its potential to serve as a gateway experience that might motivate players to increase the amount and intensity of physical activity in their daily lives. The panel identified the need for continued research on the gateway concept and on other behavioral health outcomes that could result from active-play video games and considered how these games could potentially affect disparate populations. The summit represented an exciting first step in convening healthcare providers, behavioral researchers, and professionals from the active-play video game industry to discuss the potential health benefits of active-play video games. Research is needed to improve understanding of processes of behavior change with active games. Future games and technologies may be designed with the goal to optimize physical activity participation, increase energy expenditure, and effectively address the abilities and interests of diverse and targeted populations. The summit helped the participants gain an understanding of what is known, identified gaps in current research, and supported a dialogue for continued collaboration.

  4. 75 FR 6085 - American Heart Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... American Heart Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Heart disease is... backgrounds and ethnicities, in all regions of our country. Although heart disease is one of our Nation's most costly and widespread health problems, it is among the most preventable. During American Heart Month, we...

  5. Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation and Concordance With the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society Guidelines: Findings From ORBIT-AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation).

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adam S; Kim, Sunghee; Fonarow, Gregg C; Thomas, Laine E; Reiffel, James A; Allen, Larry A; Freeman, James V; Naccarelli, Gerald; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Go, Alan S; Kowey, Peter R; Ansell, Jack E; Gersh, Bernard J; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2017-11-01

    It is unclear how frequently patients with atrial fibrillation receive guideline-concordant (GC) care and whether guideline concordance is associated with improved outcomes. Using data from ORBIT-AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation), we determined how frequently patients received care that was concordant with 11 recommendations from the 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society atrial fibrillation guidelines pertaining to antithrombotic therapy, rate control, and antiarrhythmic medications. We also analyzed the association between GC care and clinical outcomes at both the patient level and center level. A total of 9570 patients were included. The median age was 75 years (interquartile range, 67-82), and the median CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score was 4 (interquartile range, 3-5). A total of 5977 patients (62.5%) received care that was concordant with all guideline recommendations for which they were eligible. Rates of GC care were higher in patients treated by providers with greater specialization in arrhythmias (60.0%, 62.4%, and 67.0% for primary care physicians, cardiologists, and electrophysiologists, respectively; P <0.001). During a median of 30 months of follow-up, patients treated with GC care had a higher risk of bleeding hospitalization (hazard ratio=1.21; P =0.021) but a similar risk of death, stroke, major bleeding, and all-cause hospitalization. Over a third of patients with atrial fibrillation in this large outpatient registry received care that differed in some respect from guideline recommendations. There was no apparent association between GC care and improved risk-adjusted outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. State-of-the-art acute phase management of Kawasaki disease after 2017 scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ching; Lin, Ming-Tai; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2018-03-30

    Kawasaki disease (KD) has become the most common form of pediatric systemic vasculitis. Although patients with KD received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, coronary arterial lesions (CALs) still occurred in 5%-10% of these patients during the acute stage. CALs may persist and even progress to stenosis or obstruction. Therefore, CALs following KD are currently the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in children. The etiology of CALs remains unknown despite more than four decades of research. Two unsolved problems are IVIG unresponsiveness and the diagnosis of incomplete KD. The two subgroups of KD patients with these problems have a high risk of CAL. In April 2017, the American Heart Association (AHA) updated the guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of KD. Compared with the previous KD guidelines published in 2004, the new guidelines provide solutions to the aforementioned two problems and emphasize risk stratification by using coronary artery Z score systems, as well as coronary severity-based management and long-term follow-up. Therefore, in this study, we merged the AHA Scientific Statement in 2017 with recent findings for Taiwanese KD patients to provide potential future care directions for Taiwanese patients with KD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Utility of Nontraditional Risk Markers in Individuals Ineligible for Statin Therapy According to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Joseph; Polonsky, Tamar S; Young, Rebekah; McClelland, Robyn L; Delaney, Joseph C; Dawood, Farah; Blaha, Michael J; Miedema, Michael D; Sibley, Christopher T; Carr, J Jeffrey; Burke, Gregory L; Goff, David C; Psaty, Bruce M; Greenland, Philip; Herrington, David M

    2015-09-08

    In the general population, the majority of cardiovascular events occur in people at the low to moderate end of population risk distribution. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends consideration of statin therapy for adults with an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk ≥7.5% based on traditional risk factors. Whether use of nontraditional risk markers can improve risk assessment in those below this threshold for statin therapy is unclear. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population sample free of clinical CVD at baseline, we calibrated the Pooled Cohort Equations (cPCE). ASCVD was defined as myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or fatal or nonfatal stroke. Adults with an initial cPCE <7.5% and elevated levels of additional risk markers (abnormal test) whose new calculated risk was ≥7.5% were considered statin eligible: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥160 mg/dL; family history of ASCVD; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/dL; coronary artery calcium score ≥300 Agatston units or ≥75th percentile for age, sex, and ethnicity; and ankle-brachial index <0.9. We compared the absolute and relative ASCVD risks among those with versus without elevated posttest estimated risk. We calculated the number needed to screen to identify 1 person with abnormal test for each risk marker, defined as the number of participants with baseline cPCE risk <7.5% divided by the number with an abnormal test reclassified as statin eligible. Of 5185 participants not taking statins with complete data (age, 45-84 years), 4185 had a cPCE risk <7.5%. During 10 years of follow-up, 57% of the ASCVD events (183 of 320) occurred among adults with a cPCE risk <7.5%. When people with diabetes mellitus were excluded, the coronary artery calcium criterion reclassified 6.8% upward, with an event rate of 13.3%, absolute

  8. Association of Cardiometabolic Genes with Arsenic Metabolism Biomarkers in American Indian Communities: The Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS).

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Franceschini, Nora; Voruganti, V Saroja; Gribble, Matthew O; Haack, Karin; Laston, Sandra; Umans, Jason G; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; North, Kari E; Lee, Elisa; Yracheta, Joseph; Best, Lyle G; MacCluer, Jean W; Kent, Jack; Cole, Shelley A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is subject to inter-individual variability, which is explained partly by genetic determinants. We investigated the association of genetic variants with arsenic species and principal components of arsenic species in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). We examined variants previously associated with cardiometabolic traits (~ 200,000 from Illumina Cardio MetaboChip) or arsenic metabolism and toxicity (670) among 2,428 American Indian participants in the SHFS. Urine arsenic species were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), and percent arsenic species [iAs, monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA), divided by their sum × 100] were logit transformed. We created two orthogonal principal components that summarized iAs, MMA, and DMA and were also phenotypes for genetic analyses. Linear regression was performed for each phenotype, dependent on allele dosage of the variant. Models accounted for familial relatedness and were adjusted for age, sex, total arsenic levels, and population stratification. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were stratified by study site and were meta-analyzed. Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple testing. Variants at 10q24 were statistically significant for all percent arsenic species and principal components of arsenic species. The index SNP for iAs%, MMA%, and DMA% (rs12768205) and for the principal components (rs3740394, rs3740393) were located near AS3MT, whose gene product catalyzes methylation of iAs to MMA and DMA. Among the candidate arsenic variant associations, functional SNPs in AS3MT and 10q24 were most significant (p < 9.33 × 10-5). This hypothesis-driven association study supports the role of common variants in arsenic metabolism, particularly AS3MT and 10q24. Citation: Balakrishnan P, Vaidya D, Franceschini N, Voruganti VS, Gribble MO, Haack K, Laston S, Umans JG, Francesconi

  9. Association of Cardiometabolic Genes with Arsenic Metabolism Biomarkers in American Indian Communities: The Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS)

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Franceschini, Nora; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Gribble, Matthew O.; Haack, Karin; Laston, Sandra; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; North, Kari E.; Lee, Elisa; Yracheta, Joseph; Best, Lyle G.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Kent, Jack; Cole, Shelley A.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is subject to inter-individual variability, which is explained partly by genetic determinants. Objectives: We investigated the association of genetic variants with arsenic species and principal components of arsenic species in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Methods: We examined variants previously associated with cardiometabolic traits (~ 200,000 from Illumina Cardio MetaboChip) or arsenic metabolism and toxicity (670) among 2,428 American Indian participants in the SHFS. Urine arsenic species were measured by high performance liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), and percent arsenic species [iAs, monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA), divided by their sum × 100] were logit transformed. We created two orthogonal principal components that summarized iAs, MMA, and DMA and were also phenotypes for genetic analyses. Linear regression was performed for each phenotype, dependent on allele dosage of the variant. Models accounted for familial relatedness and were adjusted for age, sex, total arsenic levels, and population stratification. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were stratified by study site and were meta-analyzed. Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple testing. Results: Variants at 10q24 were statistically significant for all percent arsenic species and principal components of arsenic species. The index SNP for iAs%, MMA%, and DMA% (rs12768205) and for the principal components (rs3740394, rs3740393) were located near AS3MT, whose gene product catalyzes methylation of iAs to MMA and DMA. Among the candidate arsenic variant associations, functional SNPs in AS3MT and 10q24 were most significant (p < 9.33 × 10–5). Conclusions: This hypothesis-driven association study supports the role of common variants in arsenic metabolism, particularly AS3MT and 10q24. Citation: Balakrishnan P, Vaidya D, Franceschini N, Voruganti

  10. Stress and Achievement of Cardiovascular Health Metrics: The American Heart Association Life's Simple 7 in Blacks of the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Brewer, LaPrincess C; Redmond, Nicole; Slusser, Joshua P; Scott, Christopher G; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Djousse, Luc; Patten, Christi A; Roger, Veronique L; Sims, Mario

    2018-06-05

    Ideal cardiovascular health metrics (defined by the American Heart Association Life's Simple 7 [LS7]) are suboptimal among blacks, which results in high risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of multiple stressors with LS7 components among blacks. Using a community-based cohort of blacks (N=4383), we examined associations of chronic stress, minor stressors, major life events, and a cumulative stress score with LS7 components (smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose) and an LS7 composite score. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the odds of achieving intermediate/ideal levels of cardiovascular health adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and biomedical factors. The LS7 components with the lowest percentages of intermediate/ideal cardiovascular health levels were diet (39%), body mass index (47%), and physical activity (51%). Higher chronic, minor, and cumulative stress scores were associated with decreased odds (odds ratio [OR]) of achieving intermediate/ideal levels for smoking (OR [95% confidence interval], 0.80 [0.73-0.88], 0.84 [0.75-0.94], and 0.81 [0.74-0.90], respectively). Participants with more major life events had decreased odds of achieving intermediate/ideal levels for smoking (OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.92) and fasting plasma glucose (OR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.98). Those with higher scores for minor stressors and major life events were less likely to achieve intermediate or ideal LS7 composite scores (OR [95% confidence interval], 0.89 [0.81-0.97] and 0.91 [0.84-0.98], respectively). Blacks with higher levels of multiple stress measures are less likely to achieve intermediate or ideal levels of overall cardiovascular health (LS7 composite score), specific behaviors (smoking), and biological factors (fasting plasma glucose). © 2018 The Authors and Mayo Clinic. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  11. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  12. Scientific Rationale for the Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Intravenous Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Demaerschalk, Bart M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Adeoye, Opeolu M; Demchuk, Andrew M; Fugate, Jennifer E; Grotta, James C; Khalessi, Alexander A; Levy, Elad I; Palesch, Yuko Y; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Saposnik, Gustavo; Saver, Jeffrey L; Smith, Eric E

    2016-02-01

    To critically review and evaluate the science behind individual eligibility criteria (indication/inclusion and contraindications/exclusion criteria) for intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (alteplase) treatment in acute ischemic stroke. This will allow us to better inform stroke providers of quantitative and qualitative risks associated with alteplase administration under selected commonly and uncommonly encountered clinical circumstances and to identify future research priorities concerning these eligibility criteria, which could potentially expand the safe and judicious use of alteplase and improve outcomes after stroke. Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge and, when appropriate, formulated recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on and approved the final version of this document. The document underwent extensive American Heart Association internal peer review, Stroke Council Leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. After a review of the current literature, it was clearly evident that the levels of evidence supporting individual exclusion criteria for intravenous alteplase vary widely. Several exclusionary criteria have already undergone

  13. Atrial Fibrillation Burden: Moving Beyond Atrial Fibrillation as a Binary Entity: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin Y; Chung, Mina K; Allen, Larry A; Ezekowitz, Michael; Furie, Karen L; McCabe, Pamela; Noseworthy, Peter A; Perez, Marco V; Turakhia, Mintu P

    2018-05-15

    of the significance of changes in AF burden over time. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The role of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stage B heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Bertram

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on the potential role of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in patients with stage B heart failure (HF) due to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and/or visceral obesity with the metabolic syndrome. It briefly discusses the role of MRAs in patients with left ventricular dilatation due to nonischemic or ischemic cardiomyopathy and in those with a prior myocardial infarction but without left ventricular dilatation or evidence of HF. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Golden, Sherita Hill; Anderson, Cheryl; Bray, George A; Burke, Lora E; de Boer, Ian H; Deedwania, Prakash; Eckel, Robert H; Ershow, Abby G; Fradkin, Judith; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Nelson, Robert G; Patel, Mahesh J; Pignone, Michael; Quinn, Laurie; Schauer, Philip R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Vafiadis, Dorothea K

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk factor control as primary prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has changed substantially in the past few years. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review the current literature and key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure and blood glucose control, cholesterol management, aspirin therapy, and lifestyle modification. We present a synthesis of the recent literature, new guidelines, and clinical targets, including screening for kidney and subclinical cardiovascular disease for the contemporary management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Disease Modeling and Precision Medicine: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Musunuru, Kiran; Sheikh, Farah; Gupta, Rajat M; Houser, Steven R; Maher, Kevin O; Milan, David J; Terzic, Andre; Wu, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    treat ischemic heart disease or heart failure. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Potential Impact and Study Considerations of Metabolomics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Susan; Shah, Svati H; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Fiehn, Oliver; Fitzgerald, Robert L; Gerszten, Robert E; Illig, Thomas; Rhee, Eugene P; Srinivas, Pothur R; Wang, Thomas J; Jain, Mohit

    2017-04-01

    Through the measure of thousands of small-molecule metabolites in diverse biological systems, metabolomics now offers the potential for new insights into the factors that contribute to complex human diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Targeted metabolomics methods have already identified new molecular markers and metabolomic signatures of cardiovascular disease risk (including branched-chain amino acids, select unsaturated lipid species, and trimethylamine- N -oxide), thus in effect linking diverse exposures such as those from dietary intake and the microbiota with cardiometabolic traits. As technologies for metabolomics continue to evolve, the depth and breadth of small-molecule metabolite profiling in complex systems continue to advance rapidly, along with prospects for ongoing discovery. Current challenges facing the field of metabolomics include scaling throughput and technical capacity for metabolomics approaches, bioinformatic and chemoinformatic tools for handling large-scale metabolomics data, methods for elucidating the biochemical structure and function of novel metabolites, and strategies for determining the true clinical relevance of metabolites observed in association with cardiovascular disease outcomes. Progress made in addressing these challenges will allow metabolomics the potential to substantially affect diagnostics and therapeutics in cardiovascular medicine. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Prevention of premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery stents: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, American College of Surgeons, and American Dental Association, with representation from the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Grines, Cindy L; Bonow, Robert O; Casey, Donald E; Gardner, Timothy J; Lockhart, Peter B; Moliterno, David J; O'Gara, Patrick; Whitlow, Patrick

    2007-02-15

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine has been shown to reduce cardiac events after coronary stenting. However, many patients and healthcare providers prematurely discontinue dual antiplatelet therapy, which greatly increases the risk of stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and death. This advisory stresses the importance of 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after placement of a drug-eluting stent and educating the patient and healthcare providers about hazards of premature discontinuation. It also recommends postponing elective surgery for 1 year, and if surgery cannot be deferred, considering the continuation of aspirin during the perioperative period in high-risk patients with drug-eluting stents. (c) 2007 the American Heart Association, Inc., the American College of Cardiology Foundation, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, the American College of Surgeons, and the American Dental Association

  20. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide diagnostic algorithm versus American Heart Association algorithm for Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Audrey; Meloche-Dumas, Léamarie; Desjardins, Laurent; Turgeon, Jean; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Autmizguine, Julie; Spigelblatt, Linda; Fournier, Anne; Dahdah, Nagib

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) can be challenging in the absence of a confirmatory test or pathognomonic finding, especially when clinical criteria are incomplete. We recently proposed serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as an adjunctive diagnostic test. We retrospectively tested a new algorithm to help KD diagnosis based on NT-proBNP, coronary artery dilation (CAD) at onset, and abnormal serum albumin or C-reactive protein (CRP). The goal was to assess the performance of the algorithm and compare its performance with that of the 2004 American Heart Association (AHA)/American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) algorithm. The algorithm was tested on 124 KD patients with NT-proBNP measured on admission at the present institutions between 2007 and 2013. Age at diagnosis was 3.4 ± 3.0 years, with a median of five diagnostic criteria; and 55 of the 124 patients (44%) had incomplete KD. CA complications occurred in 64 (52%), with aneurysm in 14 (11%). Using this algorithm, 120/124 (97%) were to be treated, based on high NT-proBNP alone for 79 (64%); on onset CAD for 14 (11%); and on high CRP or low albumin for 27 (22%). Using the AHA/AAP algorithm, 22/47 (47%) of the eligible patients with incomplete KD would not have been referred for treatment, compared with 3/55 (5%) with the NT-proBNP algorithm (P < 0.001). This NT-proBNP-based algorithm is efficient to identify and treat patients with KD, including those with incomplete KD. This study paves the way for a prospective validation trial of the algorithm. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Transformative Impact of Proteomics on Cardiovascular Health and Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Merry L; Mayr, Manuel; Gomes, Aldrin V; Delles, Christian; Arrell, D Kent; Murphy, Anne M; Lange, Richard A; Costello, Catherine E; Jin, Yu-Fang; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Sam, Flora; Terzic, Andre; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Srinivas, Pothur R

    2015-09-01

    The year 2014 marked the 20th anniversary of the coining of the term proteomics. The purpose of this scientific statement is to summarize advances over this period that have catalyzed our capacity to address the experimental, translational, and clinical implications of proteomics as applied to cardiovascular health and disease and to evaluate the current status of the field. Key successes that have energized the field are delineated; opportunities for proteomics to drive basic science research, facilitate clinical translation, and establish diagnostic and therapeutic healthcare algorithms are discussed; and challenges that remain to be solved before proteomic technologies can be readily translated from scientific discoveries to meaningful advances in cardiovascular care are addressed. Proteomics is the result of disruptive technologies, namely, mass spectrometry and database searching, which drove protein analysis from 1 protein at a time to protein mixture analyses that enable large-scale analysis of proteins and facilitate paradigm shifts in biological concepts that address important clinical questions. Over the past 20 years, the field of proteomics has matured, yet it is still developing rapidly. The scope of this statement will extend beyond the reaches of a typical review article and offer guidance on the use of next-generation proteomics for future scientific discovery in the basic research laboratory and clinical settings. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Cardiovascular Nursing Science Priorities: A Statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing.

    PubMed

    Piano, Mariann R; Artinian, Nancy T; DeVon, Holli A; Pressler, Susan T; Hickey, Kathleen T; Chyun, Deborah A

    2018-04-26

    The American Heart Association's (AHA) Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing (CVSN) plays a critical role in advancing the mission of the AHA in the discovery of new scientific knowledge. The aim was to identify priority research topics that would promote and improve cardiovascular (CV) health, provide direction for the education of future nurse scientists, and serve as a resource and catalyst for federal and organizational funding priorities. A Qualtrics survey, which included 3 questions about priorities for CVSN nurse researchers, was sent to the CVSN Leadership Committee and all CVSN Fellows of the AHA (n = 208). Responses to the questions were reviewed for word repetitions, patterns, and concepts and were then organized into thematic areas. The thematic areas were reviewed within small groups at the November (2016) in-person CVSN leadership meeting. Seventy-three surveys were completed. Five thematic areas were identified and included (1) developing and testing interventions, (2) assessment and monitoring, (3) precision CV nursing care, (4) translational and implementation science, and (5) big data. Topic areas noted were stroke, research methods, prevention of stroke and CV disease, self-management, and care and health disparities. Five thematic areas and 24 topic areas were identified as priorities for CV nursing research. These findings can provide a guide for CV nurse scientists and for federal and foundational funders to use in developing funding initiatives. We believe additional research and discovery in these thematic areas will help reduce the rising global burden of CV disease.

  3. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count! Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interdisciplinary Models for Research and Clinical Endeavors in Genomic Medicine: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Musunuru, Kiran; Arora, Pankaj; Cooke, John P; Ferguson, Jane F; Hershberger, Ray E; Hickey, Kathleen T; Lee, Jin-Moo; Lima, João A C; Loscalzo, Joseph; Pereira, Naveen L; Russell, Mark W; Shah, Svati H; Sheikh, Farah; Wang, Thomas J; MacRae, Calum A

    2018-06-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project has unleashed a wealth of human genomics information, but it remains unclear how best to implement this information for the benefit of patients. The standard approach of biomedical research, with researchers pursuing advances in knowledge in the laboratory and, separately, clinicians translating research findings into the clinic as much as decades later, will need to give way to new interdisciplinary models for research in genomic medicine. These models should include scientists and clinicians actively working as teams to study patients and populations recruited in clinical settings and communities to make genomics discoveries-through the combined efforts of data scientists, clinical researchers, epidemiologists, and basic scientists-and to rapidly apply these discoveries in the clinic for the prediction, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The highly publicized US Precision Medicine Initiative, also known as All of Us, is a large-scale program funded by the US National Institutes of Health that will energize these efforts, but several ongoing studies such as the UK Biobank Initiative; the Million Veteran Program; the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network; the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health; and the DiscovEHR collaboration are already providing exemplary models of this kind of interdisciplinary work. In this statement, we outline the opportunities and challenges in broadly implementing new interdisciplinary models in academic medical centers and community settings and bringing the promise of genomics to fruition. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans123

    PubMed Central

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations (AHA-DLR) is associated with bone health. Design: We previously developed a unique diet and lifestyle score (American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Score; AHA-DLS) to assess adherence to the AHA-DLR. In a cross-sectional study of 933 Puerto Ricans aged 47–79 y, we modified the AHA-DLS to test associations with bone health. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: For every 5-unit increase in the modified AHA-DLS, BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) was associated with a 0.005–0.008-g/cm2 (P < 0.05) higher value. No component of the AHA-DLR alone was responsible for the observed positive associations. For every 5-unit increase in the modified AHA-DLS, the odds for osteoporosis or osteopenia at the trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) were lower by 14% (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92), 17% (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92), and 9% (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99), respectively. Conclusions: Dietary guidelines for CVD risk reduction may also benefit bone health in this Hispanic cohort. Synchronizing dietary guidelines for these 2 common diseases may provide a simplified public health message. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01231958. PMID:24047918

  6. Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Baddour, Larry M; Wilson, Walter R; Bayer, Arnold S; Fowler, Vance G; Tleyjeh, Imad M; Rybak, Michael J; Barsic, Bruno; Lockhart, Peter B; Gewitz, Michael H; Levison, Matthew E; Bolger, Ann F; Steckelberg, James M; Baltimore, Robert S; Fink, Anne M; O'Gara, Patrick; Taubert, Kathryn A

    2015-10-13

    Infective endocarditis is a potentially lethal disease that has undergone major changes in both host and pathogen. The epidemiology of infective endocarditis has become more complex with today's myriad healthcare-associated factors that predispose to infection. Moreover, changes in pathogen prevalence, in particular a more common staphylococcal origin, have affected outcomes, which have not improved despite medical and surgical advances. This statement updates the 2005 iteration, both of which were developed by the American Heart Association under the auspices of the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease of the Young. It includes an evidence-based system for diagnostic and treatment recommendations used by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association for treatment recommendations. Infective endocarditis is a complex disease, and patients with this disease generally require management by a team of physicians and allied health providers with a variety of areas of expertise. The recommendations provided in this document are intended to assist in the management of this uncommon but potentially deadly infection. The clinical variability and complexity in infective endocarditis, however, dictate that these recommendations be used to support and not supplant decisions in individual patient management. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. A taxonomy for disease management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Harlan M; Currie, Peter M; Riegel, Barbara; Phillips, Christopher O; Peterson, Eric D; Smith, Renee; Yancy, Clyde W; Faxon, David P

    2006-09-26

    Disease management has shown great promise as a means of reorganizing chronic care and optimizing patient outcomes. Nevertheless, disease management programs are widely heterogeneous and lack a shared definition of disease management, which limits our ability to compare and evaluate different programs. To address this problem, the American Heart Association's Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group developed a system of classification that can be used both to categorize and compare disease management programs and to inform efforts to identify specific factors associated with effectiveness. The AHA Writing Group began with a conceptual model of disease management and its components and subsequently validated this model over a wide range of disease management programs. A systematic MEDLINE search was performed on the terms heart failure, diabetes, and depression, together with disease management, case management, and care management. The search encompassed articles published in English between 1987 and 2005. We then selected studies that incorporated (1) interventions designed to improve outcomes and/or reduce medical resource utilization in patients with heart failure, diabetes, or depression and (2) clearly defined protocols with at least 2 prespecified components traditionally associated with disease management. We analyzed the study protocols and used qualitative research methods to develop a disease management taxonomy with our conceptual model as the organizing framework. The final taxonomy includes the following 8 domains: (1) Patient population is characterized by risk status, demographic profile, and level of comorbidity. (2) Intervention recipient describes the primary targets of disease management intervention and includes patients and caregivers, physicians and allied healthcare providers, and healthcare delivery systems. (3) Intervention content delineates individual components, such as patient education, medication management, peer support, or some

  8. Revision of the Jones Criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Gewitz, Michael H; Baltimore, Robert S; Tani, Lloyd Y; Sable, Craig A; Shulman, Stanford T; Carapetis, Jonathan; Remenyi, Bo; Taubert, Kathryn A; Bolger, Ann F; Beerman, Lee; Mayosi, Bongani M; Beaton, Andrea; Pandian, Natesa G; Kaplan, Edward L

    2015-05-19

    Acute rheumatic fever remains a serious healthcare concern for the majority of the world's population despite its decline in incidence in Europe and North America. The goal of this statement was to review the historic Jones criteria used to diagnose acute rheumatic fever in the context of the current epidemiology of the disease and to update those criteria to also take into account recent evidence supporting the use of Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of carditis as a major manifestation of acute rheumatic fever. To achieve this goal, the American Heart Association's Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and its Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee organized a writing group to comprehensively review and evaluate the impact of population-specific differences in acute rheumatic fever presentation and changes in presentation that can result from the now worldwide availability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In addition, a methodological assessment of the numerous published studies that support the use of Doppler echocardiography as a means to diagnose cardiac involvement in acute rheumatic fever, even when overt clinical findings are not apparent, was undertaken to determine the evidence basis for defining subclinical carditis and including it as a major criterion of the Jones criteria. This effort has resulted in the first substantial revision to the Jones criteria by the American Heart Association since 1992 and the first application of the Classification of Recommendations and Levels of Evidence categories developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association to the Jones criteria. This revision of the Jones criteria now brings them into closer alignment with other international guidelines for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever by defining high-risk populations, recognizing variability in clinical presentation in these high-risk populations, and including Doppler echocardiography as a tool

  9. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Siscovick, David S; Barringer, Thomas A; Fretts, Amanda M; Wu, Jason H Y; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Costello, Rebecca B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Jacobson, Terry A; Engler, Mary B; Alger, Heather M; Appel, Lawrence J; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-04-11

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease. In this scientific advisory, we take a clinical approach and focus on common indications for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements related to the prevention of clinical cardiovascular events. We limited the scope of our review to large RCTs of supplementation with major clinical cardiovascular disease end points; meta-analyses were considered secondarily. We discuss the features of available RCTs and provide the rationale for our recommendations. We then use existing American Heart Association criteria to assess the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence. On the basis of our review of the cumulative evidence from RCTs designed to assess the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events, we update prior recommendations for patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, and we offer recommendations, when data are available, for patients with other clinical indications, including patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes and those with high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Prevalence, associated factors and heritabilities of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rumana J; Gebreab, Samson Y; Sims, Mario; Riestra, Pia; Xu, Ruihua; Davis, Sharon K

    2015-11-01

    Both environmental and genetic factors play important roles in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies about its associated factors and genetic contribution in African Americans (AA) are sparse. Our aim was to report the prevalence, associated factors and heritability estimates of MetS and its components in AA men and women. Data of this cross-sectional study come from a large community-based Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We analysed a total of 5227 participants, of whom 1636 from 281 families were part of a family study subset of JHS. Participants were classified as having MetS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to isolate independently associated factors of MetS (n=5227). Heritability was estimated from the family study subset using variance component methods (n=1636). About 27% of men and 40% of women had MetS. For men, associated factors with having MetS were older age, lower physical activity, higher body mass index, and higher homocysteine and adiponectin levels (p<0.05 for all). For women, in addition to all these, lower education, current smoking and higher stress were also significant (p<0.05 for all). After adjusting for covariates, the heritability of MetS was 32% (p<0.001). Heritability ranged from 14 to 45% among its individual components. Relatively higher heritability was estimated for waist circumference (45%), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (43%) and triglycerides (42%). Heritability of systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP and fasting blood glucose was 16%, 15% and 14%, respectively. Stress and low education were associated with having MetS in AA women, but not in men. Higher heritability estimates for lipids and waist circumference support the hypothesis of lipid metabolism playing a central role in the development of MetS and encourage additional efforts to identify the underlying susceptibility genes for this syndrome in AA. Published by the BMJ

  11. Prevalence, associated factors and heritabilities of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rumana J; Gebreab, Samson Y; Sims, Mario; Riestra, Pia; Xu, Ruihua; Davis, Sharon K

    2015-01-01

    Objective Both environmental and genetic factors play important roles in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies about its associated factors and genetic contribution in African Americans (AA) are sparse. Our aim was to report the prevalence, associated factors and heritability estimates of MetS and its components in AA men and women. Participants and setting Data of this cross-sectional study come from a large community-based Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We analysed a total of 5227 participants, of whom 1636 from 281 families were part of a family study subset of JHS. Methods Participants were classified as having MetS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to isolate independently associated factors of MetS (n=5227). Heritability was estimated from the family study subset using variance component methods (n=1636). Results About 27% of men and 40% of women had MetS. For men, associated factors with having MetS were older age, lower physical activity, higher body mass index, and higher homocysteine and adiponectin levels (p<0.05 for all). For women, in addition to all these, lower education, current smoking and higher stress were also significant (p<0.05 for all). After adjusting for covariates, the heritability of MetS was 32% (p<0.001). Heritability ranged from 14 to 45% among its individual components. Relatively higher heritability was estimated for waist circumference (45%), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (43%) and triglycerides (42%). Heritability of systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP and fasting blood glucose was 16%, 15% and 14%, respectively. Conclusions Stress and low education were associated with having MetS in AA women, but not in men. Higher heritability estimates for lipids and waist circumference support the hypothesis of lipid metabolism playing a central role in the development of MetS and encourage additional efforts to identify the underlying

  12. Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study, 1999-2001.

    PubMed

    Din-Dzietham, Rebecca; Nembhard, Wendy N; Collins, Rakale; Davis, Sharon K

    2004-02-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between stress related to job strain and hypertension. However little data exist on stress from racism and race-based discrimination at work (RBDW). The objective of this study was to investigate whether blood pressure (BP) outcomes are positively associated with stressful racism towards African-Americans from non-African-Americans as well as RBDW from other African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study was a population-based study which included 356 African-American men and women, aged >/=21 years, residing in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia during 1999-2001. Perceived stress was self-reported by 197 participants for racism from non-African-Americans and 95 for RBDW from other African-Americans. Sitting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP were taken at a clinic visit and was the average of the last two of three BP measures. Hypertension was self-reported as physician-diagnosed high BP on 2 or more visits. Logistic and least-squares linear regression models were fit accordingly and separately for each type of stress, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and coping abilities. The likelihood of hypertension significantly increased with higher levels of perceived stress following racism from non-African-Americans, but not from RBDW from other African-Americans; adjusted odd ratios (95% CI) were 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) and 1.2 (0.8, 1.5) per unit increment of stress. The adjusted magnitude of SBP and DBP increase between low and very high level of stress, conversely, was greater when RBDW originated from African-Americans than racism from non-African-Americans. Stressful racism and RBDW encounters are associated with increased SBP and DBP and increased likelihood of hypertension in African-Americans. Future studies with a larger sample size are warranted to further explore these findings for mechanistic understanding and occupational policy consideration regarding stress risk reduction.

  13. Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Golden, Sherita Hill; Anderson, Cheryl; Bray, George A; Burke, Lora E; de Boer, Ian H; Deedwania, Prakash; Eckel, Robert H; Ershow, Abby G; Fradkin, Judith; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Nelson, Robert G; Patel, Mahesh J; Pignone, Michael; Quinn, Laurie; Schauer, Philip R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Vafiadis, Dorothea K

    2015-08-25

    Cardiovascular disease risk factor control as primary prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has changed substantially in the past few years. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review the current literature and key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure and blood glucose control, cholesterol management, aspirin therapy, and lifestyle modification. We present a synthesis of the recent literature, new guidelines, and clinical targets, including screening for kidney and subclinical cardiovascular disease for the contemporary management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Surgery for Aortic Dilatation in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valves: A Statement of Clarification From the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hiratzka, Loren F; Creager, Mark A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Svensson, Lars G; Nishimura, Rick A; Bonow, Robert O; Guyton, Robert A; Sundt, Thoralf M; Halperin, Jonathan L; Levine, Glenn N; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Albert, Nancy M; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Birtcher, Kim K; Bozkurt, Biykem; Brindis, Ralph G; Cigarroa, Joaquin E; Curtis, Lesley H; Fleisher, Lee A; Gentile, Federico; Gidding, Samuel; Hlatky, Mark A; Ikonomidis, John; Joglar, José; Kovacs, Richard J; Ohman, E Magnus; Pressler, Susan J; Sellke, Frank W; Shen, Win-Kuang; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2016-02-16

    Two guidelines from the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Heart Association (AHA), and collaborating societies address the risk of aortic dissection in patients with bicuspid aortic valves and severe aortic enlargement: the "2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease" (Circulation. 2010;121:e266-e369) and the "2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease" (Circulation. 2014;129:e521-e643). However, the 2 guidelines differ with regard to the recommended threshold of aortic root or ascending aortic dilatation that would justify surgical intervention in patients with bicuspid aortic valves. The ACC and AHA therefore convened a subcommittee representing members of the 2 guideline writing committees to review the evidence, reach consensus, and draft a statement of clarification for both guidelines. This statement of clarification uses the ACC/AHA revised structure for delineating the Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence to provide recommendations that replace those contained in Section 9.2.2.1 of the thoracic aortic disease guideline and Section 5.1.3 of the valvular heart disease guideline. © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Surgery for aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid aortic valves: A statement of clarification from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hiratzka, Loren F; Creager, Mark A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Svensson, Lars G; Nishimura, Rick A; Bonow, Robert O; Guyton, Robert A; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2016-04-01

    Two guidelines from the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Heart Association (AHA), and collaborating societies address the risk of aortic dissection in patients with bicuspid aortic valves and severe aortic enlargement: The "2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease" (J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:e27-130) and the "2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease" (J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:e57-185). However, the 2 guidelines differ with regard to the recommended threshold of aortic root or ascending aortic dilatation that would justify surgical intervention in patients with bicuspid aortic valves. The ACC and AHA therefore convened a subcommittee representing members of the 2 guideline writing committees to review the evidence, reach consensus, and draft a statement of clarification for both guidelines. This statement of clarification uses the ACC/AHA revised structure for delineating the Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence to provide recommendations that replace those contained in Section 9.2.2.1 of the thoracic aortic disease guideline and Section 5.1.3 of the valvular heart disease guideline. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgery for Aortic Dilatation in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valves: A Statement of Clarification From the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hiratzka, Loren F; Creager, Mark A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Svensson, Lars G; Nishimura, Rick A; Bonow, Robert O; Guyton, Robert A; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2016-02-16

    Two guidelines from the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Heart Association (AHA), and collaborating societies address the risk of aortic dissection in patients with bicuspid aortic valves and severe aortic enlargement: the "2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease" (J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:e27-130) and the "2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease" (J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;63:e57-185). However, the 2 guidelines differ with regard to the recommended threshold of aortic root or ascending aortic dilatation that would justify surgical intervention in patients with bicuspid aortic valves. The ACC and AHA therefore convened a subcommittee representing members of the 2 guideline writing committees to review the evidence, reach consensus, and draft a statement of clarification for both guidelines. This statement of clarification uses the ACC/AHA revised structure for delineating the Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence to provide recommendations that replace those contained in Section 9.2.2.1 of the thoracic aortic disease guideline and Section 5.1.3 of the valvular heart disease guideline. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients with acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and recommendations: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Judith H; Froelicher, Erika S; Blumenthal, James A; Carney, Robert M; Doering, Lynn V; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Freedland, Kenneth E; Jaffe, Allan S; Leifheit-Limson, Erica C; Sheps, David S; Vaccarino, Viola; Wulsin, Lawson

    2014-03-25

    Although prospective studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses have documented an association between depression and increased morbidity and mortality in a variety of cardiac populations, depression has not yet achieved formal recognition as a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome by the American Heart Association and other health organizations. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review available evidence and recommend whether depression should be elevated to the status of a risk factor for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Writing group members were approved by the American Heart Association's Scientific Statement and Manuscript Oversight Committees. A systematic literature review on depression and adverse medical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome was conducted that included all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and composite outcomes for mortality and nonfatal events. The review assessed the strength, consistency, independence, and generalizability of the published studies. A total of 53 individual studies (32 reported on associations with all-cause mortality, 12 on cardiac mortality, and 22 on composite outcomes) and 4 meta-analyses met inclusion criteria. There was heterogeneity across studies in terms of the demographic composition of study samples, definition and measurement of depression, length of follow-up, and covariates included in the multivariable models. Despite limitations in some individual studies, our review identified generally consistent associations between depression and adverse outcomes. Despite the heterogeneity of published studies included in this review, the preponderance of evidence supports the recommendation that the American Heart Association should elevate depression to the status of a risk factor for adverse medical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  18. The Obesity and Heart Failure Epidemics Among African Americans: Insights From the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Greiner, Melissa A; Bertoni, Alain G; Eapen, Zubin J; O'Brien, Emily C; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Mentz, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Higher rates of obesity and heart failure have been observed in African Americans, but associations with mortality are not well-described. We examined intermediate and long-term clinical implications of obesity in African Americans and associations between obesity and all-cause mortality, heart failure, and heart failure hospitalization. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a community sample of 5292 African Americans participating in the Jackson Heart Study between September 2000 and January 2013. The main outcomes were associations between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality at 9 years and heart failure hospitalization at 7 years using Cox proportional hazards models and interval development of heart failure (median 8 years' follow-up) using a modified Poisson model. At baseline, 1406 (27%) participants were obese and 1416 (27%) were morbidly obese. With increasing BMI, the cumulative incidence of mortality decreased (P= .007), whereas heart failure increased (P < .001). Heart failure hospitalization was more common among morbidly obese participants (9.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6-11.7) than among normal-weight patients (6.3%; 95% CI 4.7-8.4). After risk adjustment, BMI was not associated with mortality. Each 1-point increase in BMI was associated with a 5% increase in the risk of heart failure (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.03-1.06; P < .001) and the risk of heart failure hospitalization for BMI greater than 32 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.03-1.07; P < .001). Obesity and morbid obesity were common in a community sample of African Americans, and both were associated with increased heart failure and heart failure hospitalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Aldosterone Synthase Polymorphism (CYP11B2 -344T>C) and Genetic Ancestry with Atrial Fibrillation and Serum Aldosterone in African Americans with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bress, Adam; Han, Jin; Patel, Shitalben R.; Desai, Ankit A.; Mansour, Ibrahim; Groo, Vicki; Progar, Kristin; Shah, Ebony; Stamos, Thomas D.; Wing, Coady; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Kittles, Rick; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which aldosterone synthase genotype (CYP11B2) and genetic ancestry correlate with atrial fibrillation (AF) and serum aldosterone in African Americans with heart failure. Clinical data, echocardiographic measurements, and a genetic sample for determination of CYP11B2 -344T>C (rs1799998) genotype and genetic ancestry were collected from 194 self-reported African Americans with chronic, ambulatory heart failure. Genetic ancestry was determined using 105 autosomal ancestry informative markers. In a sub-set of patients (n = 126), serum was also collected for determination of circulating aldosterone. The CYP11B2 −344C allele frequency was 18% among the study population, and 19% of patients had AF. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the CYP11B2 −344CC genotype was a significant independent predictor of AF (OR 12.7, 95% CI 1.60–98.4, p = 0.0150, empirical p = 0.011) while holding multiple clinical factors, left atrial size, and percent European ancestry constant. Serum aldosterone was significantly higher among patients with AF (p = 0.036), whereas increased West African ancestry was inversely correlated with serum aldosterone (r = −0.19, p = 0.037). The CYP11B2 −344CC genotype was also overrepresented among patients with extreme aldosterone elevation (≥90th percentile, p = 0.0145). In this cohort of African Americans with chronic ambulatory heart failure, the CYP11B2 −344T>C genotype was a significant independent predictor of AF while holding clinical, echocardiographic predictors, and genetic ancestry constant. In addition, increased West African ancestry was associated with decreased serum aldosterone levels, potentially providing an explanation for the lower risk for AF observed among African Americans. PMID:23936266

  20. The 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care: an overview of the changes to pediatric basic and advanced life support.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Chacko, Jisha; Sallee, Donna

    2011-06-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has a strong commitment to implementing scientific research-based interventions for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. This article presents the 2010 AHA major guideline changes to pediatric basic life support (BLS) and pediatric advanced life support (PALS) and the rationale for the changes. The following topics are covered in this article: (1) current understanding of cardiac arrest in the pediatric population, (2) major changes in pediatric BLS, and (3) major changes in PALS. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Associations of Fast Food Restaurant Availability With Dietary Intake and Weight Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000–2004

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Smith, Adam E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Gore, Larry D.; Zhang, Lei; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. Methods. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ±12.6 years, 63.3% women). We estimated FFR availability using circular buffers with differing radii centered at each participant's geocoded residential location. Results. We observed no consistent associations between FFR availability and BMI or waist circumference. Greater FFR availability was associated with higher energy intake among men and women younger than 55 years, even after adjustment for individual socioeconomic status. For each standard deviation increase in 5-mile FFR availability, the energy intake increased by 138 kilocalories (confidence interval [CI] = 70.53, 204.75) for men and 58 kilocalories (CI = 8.55, 105.97) for women. We observed similar associations for the 2-mile FFR availability, especially in men. FFR availability was also unexpectedly positively associated with total fiber intake. Conclusions. FFR availability may contribute to greater energy intake in younger African Americans who are also more likely to consume fast food. PMID:21551382

  2. Self-Care for the Prevention and Management of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Barbara; Moser, Debra K; Buck, Harleah G; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Dunbar, Sandra B; Lee, Christopher S; Lennie, Terry A; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Mitchell, Judith E; Treat-Jacobson, Diane J; Webber, David E

    2017-08-31

    Self-care is defined as a naturalistic decision-making process addressing both the prevention and management of chronic illness, with core elements of self-care maintenance, self-care monitoring, and self-care management. In this scientific statement, we describe the importance of self-care in the American Heart Association mission and vision of building healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The evidence supporting specific self-care behaviors such as diet and exercise, barriers to self-care, and the effectiveness of self-care in improving outcomes is reviewed, as is the evidence supporting various individual, family-based, and community-based approaches to improving self-care. Although there are many nuances to the relationships between self-care and outcomes, there is strong evidence that self-care is effective in achieving the goals of the treatment plan and cannot be ignored. As such, greater emphasis should be placed on self-care in evidence-based guidelines. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management of Kawasaki Disease: A Scientific Statement for Health Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W; Rowley, Anne H; Newburger, Jane W; Burns, Jane C; Bolger, Anne F; Gewitz, Michael; Baker, Annette L; Jackson, Mary Anne; Takahashi, Masato; Shah, Pinak B; Kobayashi, Tohru; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Saji, Tsutomu T; Pahl, Elfriede

    2017-04-25

    Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood that leads to coronary artery aneurysms in ≈25% of untreated cases. It has been reported worldwide and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries. To revise the previous American Heart Association guidelines, a multidisciplinary writing group of experts was convened to review and appraise available evidence and practice-based opinion, as well as to provide updated recommendations for diagnosis, treatment of the acute illness, and long-term management. Although the cause remains unknown, discussion sections highlight new insights into the epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, pathology, natural history, and long-term outcomes. Prompt diagnosis is essential, and an updated algorithm defines supplemental information to be used to assist the diagnosis when classic clinical criteria are incomplete. Although intravenous immune globulin is the mainstay of initial treatment, the role for additional primary therapy in selected patients is discussed. Approximately 10% to 20% of patients do not respond to initial intravenous immune globulin, and recommendations for additional therapies are provided. Careful initial management of evolving coronary artery abnormalities is essential, necessitating an increased frequency of assessments and escalation of thromboprophylaxis. Risk stratification for long-term management is based primarily on maximal coronary artery luminal dimensions, normalized as Z scores, and is calibrated to both past and current involvement. Patients with aneurysms require life-long and uninterrupted cardiology follow-up. These recommendations provide updated and best evidence-based guidance to healthcare providers who diagnose and manage Kawasaki disease, but clinical decision making should be individualized to specific patient circumstances. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The Social Patterning of Sleep in African Americans: Associations of Socioeconomic Position and Neighborhood Characteristics with Sleep in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dayna A.; Lisabeth, Lynda; Hickson, DeMarc; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated cross-sectional associations of individual-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and neighborhood characteristics (social cohesion, violence, problems, disadvantage) with sleep duration and sleep quality in 5,301 African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. Methods: All measures were self-reported. Sleep duration was assessed as hours of sleep; sleep quality was reported as poor (1) to excellent (5). SEP was measured by categorized years of education and income. Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were fit to examine the associations of SEP and neighborhood characteristics (modeled dichotomously and tertiles) with sleep duration (short vs. normal, long vs. normal) and continuous sleep duration and quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Results: The mean sleep duration was 6.4 ± 1.5 hours, 54% had a short (≤ 6 h) sleep duration, 5% reported long (≥ 9 h) sleep duration, and 24% reported fair to poor sleep quality. Lower education was associated with greater odds of long sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42, 3.38) and poorer sleep quality (β = −0.17, 95% CI = −0.27, −0.07) compared to higher education after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Findings were similar for income. High neighborhood violence was associated with shorter sleep duration (−9.82 minutes, 95% CI = −16.98, −2.66) and poorer sleep quality (β = −0.11, 95% CI = −0.20, 0.00) after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Results were similar for neighborhood problems. In secondary analyses adjusted for depressive symptoms in a subset of participants, most associations were attenuated and only associations of low SEP with higher odds of long sleep and higher neighborhood violence with poorer sleep quality remained statistically significant. Conclusions: Social and environmental characteristics are associated with sleep duration and quality in African Americans

  5. American Dental Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seal of Acceptance Health Policy Institute ADA Scientific Research Dental Practice Parameters Dental Standards ... Publications ADA News JADA (The Journal of the American Dental Association) ADA Catalog ADA ...

  6. Occupational Health Services Shows Its Support for American Heart Month | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has recognized February as American Heart Month since President Lyndon B. Johnson’s 1964 proclamation made it an annual occurrence. Throughout the month, Occupational Health Services did its part to help educate NCI and Frederick National Lab employees about the dangers of heart disease.

  7. The Social Patterning of Sleep in African Americans: Associations of Socioeconomic Position and Neighborhood Characteristics with Sleep in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dayna A; Lisabeth, Lynda; Hickson, DeMarc; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-09-01

    We investigated cross-sectional associations of individual-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and neighborhood characteristics (social cohesion, violence, problems, disadvantage) with sleep duration and sleep quality in 5,301 African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. All measures were self-reported. Sleep duration was assessed as hours of sleep; sleep quality was reported as poor (1) to excellent (5). SEP was measured by categorized years of education and income. Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were fit to examine the associations of SEP and neighborhood characteristics (modeled dichotomously and tertiles) with sleep duration (short vs. normal, long vs. normal) and continuous sleep duration and quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. The mean sleep duration was 6.4 ± 1.5 hours, 54% had a short (≤ 6 h) sleep duration, 5% reported long (≥ 9 h) sleep duration, and 24% reported fair to poor sleep quality. Lower education was associated with greater odds of long sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42, 3.38) and poorer sleep quality (β = -0.17, 95% CI = -0.27, -0.07) compared to higher education after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Findings were similar for income. High neighborhood violence was associated with shorter sleep duration (-9.82 minutes, 95% CI = -16.98, -2.66) and poorer sleep quality (β = -0.11, 95% CI = -0.20, 0.00) after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Results were similar for neighborhood problems. In secondary analyses adjusted for depressive symptoms in a subset of participants, most associations were attenuated and only associations of low SEP with higher odds of long sleep and higher neighborhood violence with poorer sleep quality remained statistically significant. Social and environmental characteristics are associated with sleep duration and quality in African Americans. Depressive symptoms may explain at least part of this association.

  8. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Tumor Association Names Leslie M. Stokes Interim Chief Executive Officer and Begins Search for Permanent CEO September 7, ... American Brain Tumor Association Names Kelly Sitkin as Chief Advancement Officer Read More ABTA Live ABTA Facebook Follow @theabta ...

  9. Nutrigenomics, the Microbiome, and Gene-Environment Interactions: New Directions in Cardiovascular Disease Research, Prevention, and Treatment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jane F; Allayee, Hooman; Gerszten, Robert E; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Ordovás, José M; Rimm, Eric B; Wang, Thomas J; Bennett, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and are strongly linked to both genetic and nutritional factors. The field of nutrigenomics encompasses multiple approaches aimed at understanding the effects of diet on health or disease development, including nutrigenetic studies investigating the relationship between genetic variants and diet in modulating cardiometabolic risk, as well as the effects of dietary components on multiple "omic" measures, including transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, epigenetic modifications, and the microbiome. Here, we describe the current state of the field of nutrigenomics with respect to cardiometabolic disease research and outline a direction for the integration of multiple omics techniques in future nutrigenomic studies aimed at understanding mechanisms and developing new therapeutic options for cardiometabolic disease treatment and prevention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Effects of Inadequate Sleep on Blood Pressure and Endothelial Inflammation in Women: Findings From the American Heart Association Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Brooke; Makarem, Nour; Shah, Riddhi; Emin, Memet; Wei, Ying; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Jelic, Sanja

    2018-06-09

    Insufficient sleep increases blood pressure. However, the effects of milder, highly prevalent but frequently neglected sleep disturbances, including poor sleep quality and insomnia, on vascular health in women are unclear. We investigated whether poor sleep patterns are associated with blood pressure and endothelial inflammation in a diverse sample of women. Women who participated in the ongoing American Heart Association Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network were studied (n=323, 57% minority, mean age=39±17 years, range=20-79 years). Sleep duration, sleep quality, and time to sleep onset were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (score ≥5=poor sleep quality). Risk for obstructive sleep apnea was evaluated using the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index. In a subset of women who participated in the basic study (n=26), sleep duration was assessed objectively using actigraphy, and endothelial inflammation was assessed directly in harvested endothelial cells by measuring nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B. Vascular reactivity was measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (n=26). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by trained personnel (n=323). Multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate associations between sleep patterns and blood pressure, nuclear factor kappa B, and flow-mediated dilation. Mean sleep duration was 6.8±1.3 hours/night in the population study and 7.5±1.1 hour/night in the basic study. In the population study sample, 50% had poor sleep quality versus 23% in the basic study, and 37% had some level of insomnia versus 15% in the basic study. Systolic blood pressure was associated directly with poor sleep quality, and diastolic blood pressure was of borderline significance with obstructive sleep apnea risk after adjusting for confounders ( P =0.04 and P =0.08, respectively). Poor sleep quality was associated with endothelial

  11. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-10-01

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes and stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing SIHD and acute coronary syndromes individually. This document presents the AUC for SIHD.Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice. These scenarios included information on symptom status; risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing; coronary disease burden; and, in some scenarios, fractional flow reserve testing, presence or absence of diabetes, and SYNTAX score. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt were affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization.A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range of 4 to 6 indicate that

  12. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Is Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Effoe, Valery S; Correa, Adolfo; Chen, Haiying; Lacy, Mary E; Bertoni, Alain G

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on the association between hs-CRP and incident type 2 diabetes among African Americans have been inconclusive. We examined the association between hs-CRP and incident diabetes in a large African American cohort (Jackson Heart Study). hs-CRP was measured in 3,340 participants. Incident diabetes was defined by fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or A1C ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) at follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes, adjusting for age, sex, education, diabetes family history, alcohol, HDL, triglycerides, hypertension status, hypertension medications, physical activity, BMI, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMAIR), and waist circumference. Participants (63% women) were aged 53.3 ± 12.5 years. During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 17.4% developed diabetes (23.1/1,000 person-years, 95% CI 21.3-25.1). After adjustment, the HR (hs-CRP third vs. first tertile) was 1.64 (95% CI 1.26-2.13). In separate models, further adjustment for BMI and waist circumference attenuated this association (HR 1.28 [95% CI 0.97-1.69] and 1.35 [95% CI 1.03-1.78, P < 0.05 for trend], respectively). Upon adding HOMAIR in the models, the association was no longer significant. In adjusted HOMAIR-stratified analysis, the hs-CRP-diabetes association appeared stronger in participants with HOMAIR <3.0 compared with HOMAIR ≥3.0 (P < 0.0001 for interaction). The association was also stronger among nonobese participants, although not significant when adjusted for HOMAIR. Low-grade inflammation, as measured by hs-CRP level, may have an important role in the development of diabetes among African Americans with a lesser degree of insulin resistance. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. The association of endothelial function and tone by digital arterial tonometry with MRI left ventricular mass in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Avnish; Benjamin, Emelia J; Musani, Solomon K; Hamburg, Naomi M; Tsao, Connie W; Saraswat, Arti; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Mitchell, Gary F; Fox, Ervin R

    2017-05-01

    Peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction assessed by digital peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) has been associated with risk for adverse cardiovascular events. We examined the relations of peripheral microvascular dysfunction and left ventricular mass in a community-based cohort of African Americans. We examined participants of the Jackson Heart Study who had PAT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging evaluations between 2007 and 2013. Consistent with pertinent literature, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was adjusted for body size by indexing to height 2.7 . Pearson's correlation and general linear regression analyses were used to relate reactive hyperemia index, baseline pulse amplitude (BPA), and augmentation index (markers of microvascular vasodilator function, baseline vascular pulsatility, and relative wave reflection, respectively) to LVMI after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 440 participants (mean age 59 ± 10 years, 60% women) were included. Age- and sex-adjusted Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that natural log transformed LVMI was negatively correlated with reactive hyperemia index (coefficient: -0.114; P = .02) and positively correlated with BPA (coefficient: 0.272; P < .001). In multivariable analyses, higher log e LVMI was associated with higher BPA (β: 0.210; P = .03) after accounting for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, ratio of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, and history of cardiovascular disease. In a community-based sample of African Americans, higher baseline pulsatility measured by PAT was associated with higher LVMI by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines on the prescription of high-intensity statins in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome or stroke.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Michael; Al Danaf, Jad; Panakos, Andrew; Ragupathi, Loheetha; Duffy, Danielle; Whellan, David

    2016-11-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol management guidelines represented a paradigm shift from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, replacing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets with a risk assessment model to guide statin therapy. Our objectives are to compare provider prescription of high-intensity statin therapy in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) before and after the publication of the 2013 cholesterol guidelines, determine potential predictors of high-intensity statin utilization, and identify targets for improvement in cardiovascular risk reduction among these high-risk populations. A single-center retrospective cohort study of 695 patients discharged with a diagnosis of ACS or CVA in the 6months before (n=359) and after (n=336) the release of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines. Patient characteristics were compared using analysis of variance and χ 2 tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess clinical predictors of provider utilization of high-intensity statins. After the 2013 cholesterol guidelines, the rate of prescribing high-intensity statins was greater for statin-naïve patients compared with those already on statin therapy (odds ratio [OR]0.51, P=.02). Prescription of high-intensity statins was higher for patients with ACS compared with CVA (OR 8.4, P<.001-pre-2013 guidelines; OR 4.5, P<.001-post-2013 guidelines). Prescription of high-intensity statins steadily improved over the study period, significantly among patients with CVA (P<.001). Physicians were more likely to prescribe high-intensity statins in statin-naïve patients as compared with intensifying existing statin therapy, and their prescription pattern was lower after CVA vs ACS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between individual and combined components of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mendy, Vincent L; Azevedo, Mario J; Sarpong, Daniel F; Rosas, Sylvia E; Ekundayo, Olugbemiga T; Sung, Jung Hye; Bhuiyan, Azad R; Jenkins, Brenda C; Addison, Clifton

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 26.3 million people in the United States have chronic kidney disease and many more are at risk of developing the condition. The association between specific metabolic syndrome components and chronic kidney disease in African American individuals is uncertain. Baseline data from 4,933 participants of the Jackson Heart Study were analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds and 95% confidence intervals of chronic kidney disease associated with individual components, metabolic syndrome, the number of components, and specific combinations of metabolic syndrome components. Metabolic syndrome was common with a prevalence of 42.0%. Chronic kidney disease was present in 19.4% of participants. The prevalence of metabolic components was high: elevated blood pressure (71.8%), abdominal obesity (65.8%), low fasting high density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3%), elevated fasting glucose (32.2%) and elevated triglycerides (16.2%). Elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with increased odds of chronic kidney disease. Participants with metabolic syndrome had a 2.22-fold (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.22; 95% CI, 1.78-2.78) increase in the odds of chronic kidney disease compared to participants without metabolic syndrome. The combination of elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, and abdominal obesity was associated with the highest odds for chronic kidney disease (AOR 25.11; 95% CI, 6.94-90.90). Metabolic syndrome as well as individual or combinations of metabolic syndrome components are independently associated with chronic kidney disease in African American adults.

  16. A validation study of the 2003 American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology and 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association risk stratification and treatment algorithms for sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Constantinos; Tome-Esteban, Maite; Lambiase, Pier D; Pantazis, Antonios; Dickie, Shaughan; McKenna, William J; Elliott, Perry M

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common mode of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but identification of patients who are at a high risk of SCD is challenging as current risk stratification guidelines have never been formally validated. The objective of this study was to assess the power of the 2003 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and 2011 ACC Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA) SCD risk stratification algorithms to distinguish high risk patients who might be eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) from low risk individuals. We studied 1606 consecutively evaluated HCM patients in an observational, retrospective cohort study. Five risk factors (RF) for SCD were assessed: non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, severe left ventricular hypertrophy, family history of SCD, unexplained syncope and abnormal blood pressure response to exercise. During a follow-up period of 11 712 patient years (median 6.6 years), SCD/appropriate ICD shock occurred in 20 (3%) of 660 patients without RF (annual rate 0.45%), 31 (4.8%) of 636 patients with 1 RF (annual rate 0.65%), 27 (10.8%) of 249 patients with 2 RF (annual rate 1.3%), 7 (13.7%) of 51 patients with 3 RF (annual rate 1.9%) and 4 (40%) of 10 patients with ≥4 RF (annual rate 5.0%). The risk of SCD increased with multiple RF (2 RF: HR 2.87, p≤0.001; 3 RF: HR 4.32, p=0.001; ≥4 RF: HR 11.37, p<0.0001), but not with a single RF (HR 1.43 p=0.21). The area under time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (representing the probability of correctly identifying a patient at risk of SCD on the basis of RF profile) was 0.63 at 1 year and 0.64 at 5 years for the 2003 ACC/ESC algorithm and 0.61 at 1 year and 0.63 at 5 years for the 2011 ACCF/AHA algorithm. The risk of SCD increases with the aggregation of RF. The 2003 ACC/ESC and 2011 ACCF/AHA guidelines distinguish high from low risk individuals with limited power.

  17. American Osteopathic Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... personality and desires. TAKE THE QUIZ Focus on Leadership Jan. 25-26 in Austin: Gather with leaders ... Medicine The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association Leadership and Policy 2017-18 AOA Leadership Search AOA ...

  18. American Association of Suicidology

    MedlinePlus

    ... My AAS | Shopping Cart AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SUICIDOLOGY Suicide Prevention is Everyone's Business AAS is a charitable, nonprofit ... AAS Staff Board of Directors Contact Us National Suicide Prevention Week Profile Pictures National Suicide Prevention Week Activities ...

  19. Association of the Joint Effect of Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer in African American Women: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Liu, Jiankang; Fortune, Melody; Robinson, Kiana; White, Monique; Sarpong, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US and in Mississippi. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women, and the underlying pathophysiology remains unknown, especially among African American (AA) women. The study purpose was to examine the joint effect of menopause status (MS) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the association with cancers, particularly BC using data from the Jackson Heart Study. The analytic sample consisted of 3202 women between 35 and 84 years of which 73.7% and 22.6% were postmenopausal and on HRT, respectively. There were a total of 190 prevalent cancer cases (5.9%) in the sample with 22.6% breast cancer cases. Menopause (p < 0.0001), but not HRT (p = 0.6402), was independently associated with cancer. Similar results were obtained for BC. BC, cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, prevalent cardiovascular disease, physical activity and certain dietary practices were all significantly associated with the joint effect of menopause and HRT in the unadjusted analyses. The family history of cancer was the only covariate that was significantly associated with cancer in the age-adjusted models. In examining the association of cancer and the joint effect of menopause and HRT, AA women who were menopausal and were not on HRT had a 1.97 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.38) times odds of having cancer compared to pre-menopausal women after adjusting for age; which was attenuated after further adjusting for family history of cancer. Given that the cancer and BC cases were small and key significant associations were attenuated after adjusting for the above mentioned covariates, these findings warrant further investigation in studies with larger sample sizes of cancer (and BC) cases. PMID:21776241

  20. Prevalence of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association statin eligibility groups, statin use, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control in US adults using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nathan D; Young, Daphnee; Zhao, Yanglu; Nguyen, Huy; Caballes, Jared; Khan, Irfan; Sanchez, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Management Guideline identifies 4 statin-eligible groups: (1) known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) aged ≥21 years, (2) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 190 mg/dL (4.9 mmol/L) aged ≥21 years, (3) diabetes mellitus aged 40 to 75 years with LDL-C 70 to 189 mg/dL (1.8-4.9 mmol/L), or (4) ≥7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk aged 40 to 75 years with LDL-C 70 to 189 mg/dL (1.8-4.9 mmol/L). We examined the number of statin-eligible US adults, statin use, LDL-C goal attainment, and adherence to lifestyle management. We identified subjects from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 in the 4 statin-eligible groups, proportion on statin, proportion at recommended LDL-C levels using National Lipid Association goals (<70 mg/dL [1.8 mmol/L] for very high risk and <100 mg/dL [2.6 mmol/L] for others), and adherence to lifestyle measures. Of 5206 adults (representing 219 million), 1677 adults representing 62.6 million adults fit into 1 of the 4 statin-eligible groups. Statin use was 63.7% for the ASCVD, 61.4% for the LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL (4.9 mmol/L), 43.2% for the diabetes mellitus, and 27.2% for the 10-year risk ≥7.5% groups. Of those on statins with LDL-C measured, 79.7%, 98.0%, 42.3%, and 46.8% were not at LDL-C goal. Adherence to recommended <6% calories from saturated fat ranged from 3.3% to 6.4% and ≥40 minutes of physical activity ≥3 times a week from 54.7% to 65.1% across statin-eligible groups. Many US adults eligible to receive statins based on American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines are not taking statins, and LDL-C levels still remain suboptimal. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in infective endocarditis hospitalisations at United States children's hospitals from 2003 to 2014: impact of the 2007 American Heart Association antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bates, Katherine E; Hall, Matthew; Shah, Samir S; Hill, Kevin D; Pasquali, Sara K

    2017-05-01

    National organisations in several countries have recently released more restrictive guidelines for infective endocarditis prophylaxis, including the American Heart Association 2007 guidelines. Initial studies demonstrated no change in infective endocarditis rates over time; however, a recent United Kingdom study suggested an increase; current paediatric trends are unknown. Children (5 years of age. Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate rates over time indexed to total hospitalisations. A total of 841 cases were identified. The median age was 13 years (interquartile range 9-15 years). In the pre-guideline period, there was a slight increase in the rate of infective endocarditis by 0.13 cases/10,000 hospitalisations per semi-annual period. In the post-guideline period, the rate of infective endocarditis increased by 0.12 cases/10,000 hospitalisations per semi-annual period. There was no significant difference in the rate of change in the pre- versus post-guidelines period (p=0.895). Secondary analyses in children >5 years of age with CHD and in children hospitalised with any type of infective endocarditis at any age revealed similar results. We found no significant change in infective endocarditis hospitalisation rates associated with revised prophylaxis guidelines over 11 years across 29 United States children's hospitals.

  2. Acquisition, Analysis, and Sharing of Data in 2015 and Beyond: A Survey of the Landscape: A Conference Report From the American Heart Association Data Summit 2015.

    PubMed

    Antman, Elliott M; Benjamin, Emelia J; Harrington, Robert A; Houser, Steven R; Peterson, Eric D; Bauman, Mary Ann; Brown, Nancy; Bufalino, Vincent; Califf, Robert M; Creager, Mark A; Daugherty, Alan; Demets, David L; Dennis, Bernard P; Ebadollahi, Shahram; Jessup, Mariell; Lauer, Michael S; Lo, Bernard; MacRae, Calum A; McConnell, Michael V; McCray, Alexa T; Mello, Michelle M; Mueller, Eric; Newburger, Jane W; Okun, Sally; Packer, Milton; Philippakis, Anthony; Ping, Peipei; Prasoon, Prad; Roger, Véronique L; Singer, Steve; Temple, Robert; Turner, Melanie B; Vigilante, Kevin; Warner, John; Wayte, Patrick

    2015-11-05

    A 1.5-day interactive forum was convened to discuss critical issues in the acquisition, analysis, and sharing of data in the field of cardiovascular and stroke science. The discussion will serve as the foundation for the American Heart Association's (AHA's) near-term and future strategies in the Big Data area. The concepts evolving from this forum may also inform other fields of medicine and science. A total of 47 participants representing stakeholders from 7 domains (patients, basic scientists, clinical investigators, population researchers, clinicians and healthcare system administrators, industry, and regulatory authorities) participated in the conference. Presentation topics included updates on data as viewed from conventional medical and nonmedical sources, building and using Big Data repositories, articulation of the goals of data sharing, and principles of responsible data sharing. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted to examine what each of the 7 stakeholder domains wants from Big Data under ideal circumstances and the possible roles that the AHA might play in meeting their needs. Important areas that are high priorities for further study regarding Big Data include a description of the methodology of how to acquire and analyze findings, validation of the veracity of discoveries from such research, and integration into investigative and clinical care aspects of future cardiovascular and stroke medicine. Potential roles that the AHA might consider include facilitating a standards discussion (eg, tools, methodology, and appropriate data use), providing education (eg, healthcare providers, patients, investigators), and helping build an interoperable digital ecosystem in cardiovascular and stroke science. There was a consensus across stakeholder domains that Big Data holds great promise for revolutionizing the way cardiovascular and stroke research is conducted and clinical care is delivered; however, there is a clear need for the creation of a vision of

  3. Medical Nutrition Education, Training, and Competencies to Advance Guideline-Based Diet Counseling by Physicians: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Aspry, Karen E; Van Horn, Linda; Carson, Jo Ann S; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kushner, Robert F; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Devries, Stephen; Freeman, Andrew M; Crawford, Allison; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2018-06-05

    Growing scientific evidence of the benefits of heart-healthy dietary patterns and of the massive public health and economic burdens attributed to obesity and poor diet quality have triggered national calls to increase diet counseling in outpatients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or risk factors. However, despite evidence that physicians are willing to undertake this task and are viewed as credible sources of diet information, they engage patients in diet counseling at less than desirable rates and cite insufficient knowledge and training as barriers. These data align with evidence of large and persistent gaps in medical nutrition education and training in the United States. Now, major reforms in undergraduate and graduate medical education designed to incorporate advances in the science of learning and to better prepare physicians for 21st century healthcare delivery are providing a new impetus and novel ways to expand medical nutrition education and training. This science advisory reviews gaps in undergraduate and graduate medical education in nutrition in the United States, summarizes reforms that support and facilitate more robust nutrition education and training, and outlines new opportunities for accomplishing this goal via multidimensional curricula, pedagogies, technologies, and competency-based assessments. Real-world examples of efforts to improve undergraduate and graduate medical education in nutrition by integrating formal learning with practical, experiential, inquiry-driven, interprofessional, and population health management activities are provided. The authors conclude that enhancing physician education and training in nutrition, as well as increasing collaborative nutrition care delivery by 21st century health systems, will reduce the health and economic burdens from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to a degree not previously realized. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) position paper on arrhythmia management and device therapies in endocrine disorders, endorsed by Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS).

    PubMed

    Gorenek, Bulent; Boriani, Giuseppe; Dan, Gheorge-Andrei; Fauchier, Laurent; Fenelon, Guilherme; Huang, He; Kudaiberdieva, Gulmira; Lip, Gregory Y H; Mahajan, Rajiv; Potpara, Tatjana; Ramirez, Juan David; Vos, Marc A; Marin, Francisco

    2018-03-16

    Endocrine disorders are associated with various tachyarrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and bradyarrhythmias. Along with underlying arrhythmia substrate, electrolyte disturbances, glucose, and hormone levels, accompanying endocrine disorders contribute to development of arrhythmia. Arrhythmias may be life-threatening, facilitate cardiogenic shock development and increase mortality. The knowledge on the incidence of tachy- and bradyarrhythmias, clinical and prognostic significance as well as their management is limited; it is represented in observational studies and mostly in case reports on management of challenging cases. It should be also emphasized, that the topic is not covered in detail in current guidelines. Therefore, cardiologists and multidisciplinary teams participating in care of such patients do need the evidence-based, or in case of limited evidence expert-opinion based recommendations, how to treat arrhythmias using contemporary approaches, prevent their complications and recurrence in patients with endocrine disorders. In recognizing this close relationship between endocrine disorders and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) convened a Task Force, with representation from Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLAECE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence and publishing a joint consensus document on endocrine disorders and cardiac arrhythmias, and providing up-to-date consensus recommendations for use in clinical practice.

  5. Depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health by the American Heart Association's definition in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.

    PubMed

    Kronish, Ian M; Carson, April P; Davidson, Karina W; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M

    2012-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with increased incident and recurrent cardiovascular events. In 2010, the American Heart Association published the Life's Simple 7, a metric for assessing cardiovascular health as measured by 4 health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet) and 3 biological measures (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose). The association between depressive symptoms and the Life's Simple 7 has not yet been explored. Data from 20,093 participants ≥45 years of age who enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007 and who had complete data available on Life's Simple 7 components were used for these analyses. The prevalence of ideal, intermediate, and poor health on each Life's Simple 7 component and total Life's Simple 7 scores were compared between participants with and without depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 4-item Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale. Participants with depressive symptoms were more likely to have poor levels on each of the Life's Simple 7 components other than cholesterol [adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI): smoking 1.41 (1.29-1.55); physical activity 1.38 (1.31-1.46); body mass index 1.09 (1.04-1.15); diet 1.08 (1.06-1.10); blood pressure 1.11 (1.02-1.21); glucose 1.24 (1.09-1.41)]. There was a graded association between increasing depressive symptoms and lower total Life's Simple 7 score. Depressive symptoms are associated with worse cardiovascular health on the overall Life's Simple 7 and on individual components representing both health behaviors and biological factors.

  6. The American Heart Association Life's Simple 7 and Incident Cognitive Impairment: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Evan L.; Gillett, Sarah R.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Judd, Suzanne E.; McClure, Leslie A.; Howard, Virginia J.; Cushman, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Life's Simple 7 is a new metric based on modifiable health behaviors and factors that the American Heart Association uses to promote improvements to cardiovascular health (CVH). We hypothesized that better Life's Simple 7 scores are associated with lower incidence of cognitive impairment. Methods and Results For this prospective cohort study, we included REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) participants aged 45+ who had normal global cognitive status at baseline and no history of stroke (N=17 761). We calculated baseline Life's Simple 7 score (range, 0 to 14) based on smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. We identified incident cognitive impairment using a 3‐test measure of verbal learning, memory, and fluency obtained a mean of 4 years after baseline. Relative to the lowest tertile of Life's Simple 7 score (0 to 6 points), odds ratios of incident cognitive impairment were 0.65 (0.52, 0.81) in the middle tertile (7 to 8 points) and 0.63 (0.51, 0.79) in the highest tertile (9 to 14 points). The association was similar in blacks and whites, as well as outside and within the Southeastern stroke belt region of the United States. Conclusions Compared with low CVH, intermediate and high CVH were both associated with substantially lower incidence of cognitive impairment. We did not observe a dose‐response pattern; people with intermediate and high levels of CVH had similar incidence of cognitive impairment. This suggests that even when high CVH is not achieved, intermediate levels of CVH are preferable to low CVH. PMID:24919926

  7. Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Griendling, Kathy K; Touyz, Rhian M; Zweier, Jay L; Dikalov, Sergey; Chilian, William; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Harrison, David G; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-08-19

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: [corrected] improving cardiac resuscitation outcomes both inside and outside the hospital: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Peter A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Mancini, Mary E; Christenson, Jim; de Caen, Allan R; Bhanji, Farhan; Abella, Benjamin S; Kleinman, Monica E; Edelson, Dana P; Berg, Robert A; Aufderheide, Tom P; Menon, Venu; Leary, Marion

    2013-07-23

    The "2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" increased the focus on methods to ensure that high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is performed in all resuscitation attempts. There are 5 critical components of high-quality CPR: minimize interruptions in chest compressions, provide compressions of adequate rate and depth, avoid leaning between compressions, and avoid excessive ventilation. Although it is clear that high-quality CPR is the primary component in influencing survival from cardiac arrest, there is considerable variation in monitoring, implementation, and quality improvement. As such, CPR quality varies widely between systems and locations. Victims often do not receive high-quality CPR because of provider ambiguity in prioritization of resuscitative efforts during an arrest. This ambiguity also impedes the development of optimal systems of care to increase survival from cardiac arrest. This consensus statement addresses the following key areas of CPR quality for the trained rescuer: metrics of CPR performance; monitoring, feedback, and integration of the patient's response to CPR; team-level logistics to ensure performance of high-quality CPR; and continuous quality improvement on provider, team, and systems levels. Clear definitions of metrics and methods to consistently deliver and improve the quality of CPR will narrow the gap between resuscitation science and the victims, both in and out of the hospital, and lay the foundation for further improvements in the future.

  9. Evidence for Therapeutic Patient Education Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Patient Self-Management: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Barnason, Susan; White-Williams, Connie; Rossi, Laura P; Centeno, Mae; Crabbe, Deborah L; Lee, Kyoung Suk; McCabe, Nancy; Nauser, Julie; Schulz, Paula; Stamp, Kelly; Wood, Kathryn

    2017-06-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease as a chronic illness increasingly requires patients to assume more responsibility for their self-management. Patient education is believed to be an essential component of cardiovascular care; however, there is limited evidence about specific therapeutic patient education approaches used and the impact on patient self-management outcomes. An integrative review of the literature was conducted to critically analyze published research studies of therapeutic patient education for self-management in selected cardiovascular conditions. There was variability in methodological approaches across settings and disease conditions. The most effective interventions were tailored to individual patient needs, used multiple components to improve self-management outcomes, and often used multidisciplinary approaches. This synthesis of evidence expands the base of knowledge related to the development of patient self-management skills and provides direction for more rigorous research. Recommendations are provided to guide the implementation of therapeutic patient education in clinical practice and the design of comprehensive self-management interventions to improve outcomes for cardiovascular patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Implications of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Guidelines on Statin Underutilization for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus Among Several US Networks of Community Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Akhabue, Ehimare; Rittner, Sarah S; Carroll, Joseph E; Crawford, Phillip M; Dant, Lydia; Laws, Reesa; Leo, Michael C; Puro, Jon; Persell, Stephen D

    2017-07-03

    Little is known about statin underutilization among diabetes mellitus patients cared for in community health centers, which tend to serve socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Implications of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on preexisting gaps in statin treatment in this population are unclear. We included 32 440 adults (45% male, 63% nonwhite, 29% uninsured/Medicaid) aged 40 to 75 years with diabetes mellitus who received care within 16 community health center groups in 11 states in the Community Health Applied Research Network during 2013. Statin prescribing was analyzed as a function of concordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel 2001 and ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines. More patients' treatments were concordant with the ACC/AHA (52.8%) versus the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (36.2%) guideline. Female sex was associated with lower concordance for both (odds ratio [OR] 0.90, CI 0.85-0.94; and OR 0.84, CI 0.80-0.88, respectively). Being insured, an Asian/Pacific Islander, or primarily Spanish speaking were associated with greater concordance for both guidelines: 35.5% (11 526/32 440) were concordant with neither guideline, the majority (79.7%) having no statin prescribed; 28.2% (9168/32 440) were concordant with ACC/AHA but not the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. 8.7% of these patients had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >160 mg/dL despite having a moderate- or high-intensity statin prescribed. And 11.6% (3772/32 440) were concordant with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel but not with ACC/AHA. Most of these patients had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 70 and 99 mg/dL with no or a low-intensity statin prescribed. Opportunities exist to improve cholesterol management in diabetes mellitus patients in community health centers. Addressing care gaps could improve

  11. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-08

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Guide to the assessment of physical activity: Clinical and research applications: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott J; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Ekelund, Ulf; Freedson, Patty S; Gary, Rebecca A; Richardson, Caroline R; Smith, Derek T; Swartz, Ann M

    2013-11-12

    The deleterious health consequences of physical inactivity are vast, and they are of paramount clinical and research importance. Risk identification, benchmarks, efficacy, and evaluation of physical activity behavior change initiatives for clinicians and researchers all require a clear understanding of how to assess physical activity. In the present report, we have provided a clear rationale for the importance of assessing physical activity levels, and we have documented key concepts in understanding the different dimensions, domains, and terminology associated with physical activity measurement. The assessment methods presented allow for a greater understanding of the vast number of options available to clinicians and researchers when trying to assess physical activity levels in their patients or participants. The primary outcome desired is the main determining factor in the choice of physical activity assessment method. In combination with issues of feasibility/practicality, the availability of resources, and administration considerations, the desired outcome guides the choice of an appropriate assessment tool. The decision matrix, along with the accompanying tables, provides a mechanism for this selection that takes all of these factors into account. Clearly, the assessment method adopted and implemented will vary depending on circumstances, because there is no single best instrument appropriate for every situation. In summary, physical activity assessment should be considered a vital health measure that is tracked regularly over time. All other major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking) are assessed routinely. Physical activity status should also be assessed regularly. Multiple physical activity assessment methods provide reasonably accurate outcome measures, with choices dependent on setting-specific resources and constraints. The present scientific statement provides a guide to

  13. Cardiovascular Consequences of Childhood Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Prevailing Evidence, Burden, and Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Raghuveer, Geetha; White, David A; Hayman, Laura L; Woo, Jessica G; Villafane, Juan; Celermajer, David; Ward, Kenneth D; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Zachariah, Justin

    2016-10-18

    vulnerable population. This statement reviews relevant data from epidemiological studies, laboratory-based experiments, and controlled behavioral trials concerning SHS and cardiovascular disease risk in children. Information on the effects of SHS exposure on the cardiovascular system in animal and pediatric studies, including vascular disruption and platelet activation, oxidation and inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, increased vascular stiffness, changes in vascular structure, and autonomic dysfunction, is examined. The epidemiological, observational, and experimental evidence accumulated to date demonstrates the detrimental cardiovascular consequences of SHS exposure in children. Increased awareness of the adverse, lifetime cardiovascular consequences of childhood SHS may facilitate the development of innovative individual, family-centered, and community health interventions to reduce and ideally eliminate SHS exposure in the vulnerable pediatric population. This evidence calls for a robust public health policy that embraces zero tolerance of childhood SHS exposure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Initiation Patterns of Statins in the 2 Years After Release of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Management Guideline in a Large US Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Olufade, Temitope; Zhou, Siting; Anzalone, Deborah; Kern, David M; Tunceli, Ozgur; Cziraky, Mark J; Willey, Vincent J

    2017-05-04

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in statin utilization patterns in patients newly initiated on therapy in the 2 years following the release of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol management guideline in a large US health plan population. This retrospective, observational study used administrative medical and pharmacy claims data to identify patients newly initiated on statin therapy over 4 quarters prior to and 8 quarters following the release of the guideline (average N/quarter=3596). Patients were divided into the 4 statin benefit groups (SBGs) based on risk factors and laboratory lipid levels as defined in the guideline: SBG1 (with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]; N=1046/quarter), SBG2 (without ASCVD, with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dL; N=454/quarter), SBG3 (without ASCVD, aged 40-75 years, with diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 70-189 mg/dL; N=1391/quarter), SBG4 (no ASCVD or diabetes mellitus, age 40-75 years, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 70-189 mg/dL, estimated 10-year ASCVD risk of ≥7.5%; N=705/quarter). Demographic variables, statin utilization patterns, lipid levels, and comorbidities were analyzed for pre- and postguideline periods. Postguideline, gradually increased high-intensity statin initiation occurred in SBG1, SBG2, and in SBG3 patients with 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. Moderate- to high-intensity statin initiation gradually increased among SBG4 patients. Recommended-intensity statin choice changed to a greater degree among patients treated by specialty care physicians. Regarding sex, target-intensity statin initiation was lower in women in all groups before and after guideline release. Prescriber implementation of the guideline recommendations has gradually increased, with the most marked change in the increased initiation of high-intensity statins in patients with ASCVD and in those treated by a specialist

  15. ACCF/SCAI/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2012 appropriate use criteria for diagnostic catheterization: American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions American Association for Thoracic Surgery American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Heart Failure Society of America Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Bailey, Steven R; Bonow, Robert O; Chambers, Charles E; Chan, Paul S; Dehmer, Gregory J; Kirtane, Ajay J; Wann, L Samuel; Ward, R Parker; Douglas, Pamela S; Patel, Manesh R; Bailey, Steven R; Altus, Philip; Barnard, Denise D; Blankenship, James C; Casey, Donald E; Dean, Larry S; Fazel, Reza; Gilchrist, Ian C; Kavinsky, Clifford J; Lakoski, Susan G; Le, D Elizabeth; Lesser, John R; Levine, Glenn N; Mehran, Roxana; Russo, Andrea M; Sorrentino, Matthew J; Williams, Mathew R; Wong, John B; Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Shaw, Leslee; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation, in collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where diagnostic catheterization is frequently considered. The indications (clinical scenarios) were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of noninvasive imaging appropriate use criteria. The 166 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9, to designate appropriate use (median 7 to 9), uncertain use (median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). Diagnostic catheterization may include several different procedure components. The indications developed focused primarily on 2 aspects of diagnostic catheterization. Many indications focused on the performance of coronary angiography for the detection of coronary artery disease with other procedure components (e.g., hemodynamic measurements, ventriculography) at the discretion of the operator. The majority of the remaining indications focused on hemodynamic measurements to evaluate valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and other conditions, with the use of coronary angiography at the discretion of the operator. Seventy-five indications were rated as appropriate, 49 were rated as uncertain, and 42 were rated as inappropriate. The appropriate use criteria for diagnostic catheterization have the potential to impact physician decision making, healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore, recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Status of cardiovascular disease and stroke in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos J; Allison, Matthew; Daviglus, Martha L; Isasi, Carmen R; Keller, Colleen; Leira, Enrique C; Palaniappan, Latha; Piña, Ileana L; Ramirez, Sarah M; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Sims, Mario

    2014-08-12

    This American Heart Association (AHA) scientific statement provides a comprehensive overview of current evidence on the burden cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Hispanics in the United States. Hispanics are the largest minority ethnic group in the United States, and their health is vital to the public health of the nation and to achieving the AHA's 2020 goals. This statement describes the CVD epidemiology and related personal beliefs and the social and health issues of US Hispanics, and it identifies potential prevention and treatment opportunities. The intended audience for this statement includes healthcare professionals, researchers, and policy makers. Writing group members were nominated by the AHA's Manuscript Oversight Committee and represent a broad range of expertise in relation to Hispanic individuals and CVD. The writers used a general framework outlined by the committee chair to produce a comprehensive literature review that summarizes existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and formulate recommendations. Only English-language studies were reviewed, with PubMed/MEDLINE as our primary resource, as well as the Cochrane Library Reviews, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Census data as secondary resources. Inductive methods and descriptive studies that focused on CVD outcomes incidence, prevalence, treatment response, and risks were included. Because of the wide scope of these topics, members of the writing committee were responsible for drafting individual sections selected by the chair of the writing committee, and the group chair assembled the complete statement. The conclusions of this statement are the views of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the AHA. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the initial drafts and approved the final version of this document. The manuscript underwent extensive AHA internal peer review before consideration and approval by the

  17. Methodological Standards for Meta-Analyses and Qualitative Systematic Reviews of Cardiac Prevention and Treatment Studies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Rao, Goutham; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Boyd, Jack; D'Amico, Frank; Durant, Nefertiti H; Hlatky, Mark A; Howard, George; Kirley, Katherine; Masi, Christopher; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Solomonides, Anthony E; West, Colin P; Wessel, Jennifer

    2017-09-05

    Meta-analyses are becoming increasingly popular, especially in the fields of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. They are often considered to be a reliable source of evidence for making healthcare decisions. Unfortunately, problems among meta-analyses such as the misapplication and misinterpretation of statistical methods and tests are long-standing and widespread. The purposes of this statement are to review key steps in the development of a meta-analysis and to provide recommendations that will be useful for carrying out meta-analyses and for readers and journal editors, who must interpret the findings and gauge methodological quality. To make the statement practical and accessible, detailed descriptions of statistical methods have been omitted. Based on a survey of cardiovascular meta-analyses, published literature on methodology, expert consultation, and consensus among the writing group, key recommendations are provided. Recommendations reinforce several current practices, including protocol registration; comprehensive search strategies; methods for data extraction and abstraction; methods for identifying, measuring, and dealing with heterogeneity; and statistical methods for pooling results. Other practices should be discontinued, including the use of levels of evidence and evidence hierarchies to gauge the value and impact of different study designs (including meta-analyses) and the use of structured tools to assess the quality of studies to be included in a meta-analysis. We also recommend choosing a pooling model for conventional meta-analyses (fixed effect or random effects) on the basis of clinical and methodological similarities among studies to be included, rather than the results of a test for statistical heterogeneity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. AHA Scientific Statement Population Approaches to Improve Diet, Physical Activity, and Smoking Habits A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R.; Franch, Harold A.; Jacobs, David R.; Kraus, William E.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Krummel, Debra A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and Results For this American Heart Association Scientific Statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) media and education campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. Conclusions This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other

  19. Assessment of American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Among Employees of a Large Healthcare Organization: The Baptist Health South Florida Employee Study.

    PubMed

    Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Younus, Adnan; Rouseff, Maribeth; Spatz, Erica S; Das, Sankalp; Parris, Don; Aneni, Ehimen; Holzwarth, Leah; Guzman, Henry; Tran, Thinh; Roberson, Lara; Ali, Shozab S; Agatston, Arthur; Maziak, Wasim; Feldman, Theodore; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare organizations and their employees are critical role models for healthy living in their communities. The American Heart Association (AHA) 2020 impact goal provides a national framework that can be used to track the success of employee wellness programs with a focus on improving cardiovascular (CV) health. This study aimed to assess the CV health of the employees of Baptist Health South Florida (BHSF), a large nonprofit healthcare organization. HRAs and wellness examinations can be used to measure the cardiovascular health status of an employee population. The AHA's 7 CV health metrics (diet, physical activity, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and blood glucose) categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor were estimated among employees of BHSF participating voluntarily in an annual health risk assessment (HRA) and wellness fair. Age and gender differences were analyzed using χ(2) test. The sample consisted of 9364 employees who participated in the 2014 annual HRA and wellness fair (mean age [standard deviation], 43 [12] years, 74% women). Sixty (1%) individuals met the AHA's definition of ideal CV health. Women were more likely than men to meet the ideal criteria for more than 5 CV health metrics. The proportion of participants meeting the ideal criteria for more than 5 CV health metrics decreased with age. A combination of HRAs and wellness examinations can provide useful insights into the cardiovascular health status of an employee population. Future tracking of the CV health metrics will provide critical feedback on the impact of system wide wellness efforts as well as identifying proactive programs to assist in making substantial progress toward the AHA 2020 Impact Goal. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Plant-based, no-added-fat or American Heart Association diets: impact on cardiovascular risk in obese children with hypercholesterolemia and their parents.

    PubMed

    Macknin, Michael; Kong, Tammie; Weier, Adam; Worley, Sarah; Tang, Anne S; Alkhouri, Naim; Golubic, Mladen

    2015-04-01

    To perform a randomized trial to determine whether there is cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction from a plant-based (PB), no-added-fat diet and the American Heart Association (AHA) diet in children. A 4-week (April 20, 2013 to May 18, 2013), prospective randomized trial was undertaken in a large, Midwestern hospital system's predominantly middle class outpatient pediatric practices. Thirty children (9-18 years of age) parent pairs with a last recorded child body mass index >95th percentile and child cholesterol >169 mg/dL were randomized to PB or AHA with weekly 2-hour classes of nutrition education. Children on PB had 9 and children on AHA had 4 statistically significant (P < .05) beneficial changes from baseline (mean decreases): body mass index z-score(PB) (-0.14), systolic blood pressure(PB) (-6.43 mm Hg), total cholesterol(PB) (-22.5 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein(PB) (-13.14 mg/dL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(PB) (-2.09 mg/L), insulin(PB) (-5.42 uU/mL), myeloperoxidase(PB/AHA) (-75.34/69.23 pmol/L), mid-arm circumference(PB/AHA) (-2.02/-1.55 cm), weight(PB/AHA) (-3.05/-1.14 kg), and waist circumference(AHA) (-2.96 cm). Adults on PB and AHA had 7 and 2, respectively, statistically significant (P < .05) beneficial changes. The significant change favoring AHA was a 1% difference in children's waist circumference. Difficulty shopping for food for the PB was the only statistically significant acceptability barrier. PB and the AHA in both children and adults demonstrated potentially beneficial changes from baseline in risk factors for CVD. Future larger, long-term randomized trials with easily accessible PB foods will further define the role of the PB in preventing CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/EACTS/HVS/SCA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for the Treatment of Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Heart Valve Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert O; Brown, Alan S; Gillam, Linda D; Kapadia, Samir R; Kavinsky, Clifford J; Lindman, Brian R; Mack, Michael J; Thourani, Vinod H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Bonow, Robert O; Lindman, Brian R; Beaver, Thomas M; Bradley, Steven M; Carabello, Blase A; Desai, Milind Y; George, Isaac; Green, Philip; Holmes, David R; Johnston, Douglas; Leipsic, Jonathon; Mick, Stephanie L; Passeri, Jonathan J; Piana, Robert N; Reichek, Nathaniel; Ruiz, Carlos E; Taub, Cynthia C; Thomas, James D; Turi, Zoltan G; Doherty, John U; Dehmer, Gregory J; Bailey, Steven R; Bhave, Nicole M; Brown, Alan S; Daugherty, Stacie L; Dean, Larry S; Desai, Milind Y; Duvernoy, Claire S; Gillam, Linda D; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Lindsay, Bruce D; Manning, Warren J; Mehrotra, Praveen; Patel, Manesh R; Sachdeva, Ritu; Wann, L Samuel; Winchester, David E; Allen, Joseph M

    2018-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology collaborated with the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Heart Valve Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons to develop and evaluate Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This is the first AUC to address the topic of AS and its treatment options, including surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). A number of common patient scenarios experienced in daily practice were developed along with assumptions and definitions for those scenarios, which were all created using guidelines, clinical trial data, and expert opinion in the field of AS. The 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines(1) and its 2017 focused update paper (2) were used as the primary guiding references in developing these indications. The writing group identified 95 clinical scenarios based on patient symptoms and clinical presentation, and up to 6 potential treatment options for those patients. A separate, independent rating panel was asked to score each indication from 1 to 9, with 1-3 categorized as "Rarely Appropriate," 4-6 as "May Be Appropriate," and 7-9 as "Appropriate." After considering factors such as symptom status, left ventricular (LV) function, surgical risk, and the presence of concomitant coronary or other valve disease, the rating panel determined that either SAVR or TAVR is Appropriate in most patients with symptomatic AS at intermediate or high surgical risk; however, situations

  2. Clinical trials update: highlights of the scientific sessions of the American Heart Association year 2000: Val HeFT, COPERNICUS, MERIT, CIBIS-II, BEST, AMIOVIRT, V-MAC, BREATHE, HEAT, MIRACL, FLORIDA, VIVA and the first human cardiac skeletal muscle myoblast transfer for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Thackray, S D; Witte, K K; Khand, A; Dunn, A; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G

    2001-01-01

    This article continues a series of reports summarising recent research developments pertinent to the topic of heart failure. This is a summary of presentations made at scientific sessions of the American Heart Association in November 2000. Clinical studies of particular interest to people caring for patients with heart failure include Val-HeFT, AMIOVIRT and V-MAC. New data from beta-blockers trials are reviewed, highlights from some important developments in post-infarction care, including MIRACL and FLORIDA, discussed and results of some early studies of gene therapy reported.

  3. ACCF/AHA methodology for the development of quality measures for cardiovascular technology: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert O; Douglas, Pamela S; Buxton, Alfred E; Cohen, David J; Curtis, Jeptha P; Delong, Elizabeth; Drozda, Joseph P; Ferguson, T Bruce; Heidenreich, Paul A; Hendel, Robert C; Masoudi, Frederick A; Peterson, Eric D; Taylor, Allen J

    2011-09-27

    Consistent with the growing national focus on healthcare quality, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have taken a leadership role over the past decade in developing measures of the quality of cardiovascular care by convening a joint ACCF/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures. The Task Force is charged with identifying the clinical topics appropriate for the development of performance measures and with assembling writing committees composed of clinical and methodological experts in collaboration with appropriate subspecialty societies. The Task Force has also created methodology documents that offer guidance in the development of process, outcome, composite, and efficiency measures. Cardiovascular performance measures using existing ACCF/AHA methodology are based on Class I or Class III guidelines recommendations, usually with Level A evidence. These performance measures, based on evidence-based ACCF/AHA guidelines, remain the most rigorous quality measures for both internal quality improvement and public reporting. However, many of the tools for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease involve advanced technologies, such as cardiac imaging, for which there are often no underlying guideline documents. Because these technologies affect the quality of cardiovascular care and also have the potential to contribute to cardiovascular health expenditures, there is a need for more critical assessment of the use of technology, including the development of quality and performance measures in areas in which guideline recommendations are absent. The evaluation of quality in the use of cardiovascular technologies requires consideration of multiple parameters that differ from other healthcare processes. The present document describes methodology for development of 2 new classes of quality measures in these situations, appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures. Appropriate use measures are based on

  4. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-04-01

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable ischemic heart disease were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and in an effort to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing ACS and stable ischemic heart disease individually. This document presents the AUC for ACS. Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, presence of clinical instability or ongoing ischemic symptoms, prior reperfusion therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, fractional flow reserve testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization. A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range (4 to 6

  5. Comparison of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Alame, Aya J; Karatasakis, Aris; Karacsonyi, Judit; Danek, Barbara A; Resendes, Erica; Martinez Parachini, Jose R; Kalsaria, Pratik; Roesle, Michele; Rangan, Bavana V; Sorajja, Paul; Jneid, Hani; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2017-06-01

    The American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Heart Association (AHA), and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) have been developing guidelines to assist clinicians in making evidence-based decisions. The current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) that were updated in 2014 and 2015, respectively, were compared to assess the number of recommendations on the basis of class of recommendation and level of evidence (LOE), the sources cited, and the content. The total number of recommendations in the ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines was 182 and 147, respectively. The recommendation class distribution of the ACC/AHA guidelines was 61.0% class I (compared with 61.9% in the ESC guidelines, P=0.865), 29.7% class II (compared with 32.0% in the ESC guidelines, P=0.653), and 9.3% class III (compared with 6.1% in the ESC guidelines, P=0.282). The LOE distribution among ACC/AHA guidelines was 15.9% LOE A (compared with 27.9% in the ESC guidelines, P=0.008), 50.0% LOE B (compared with 33.3% in the ESC guidelines, P=0.002), and 34.1% LOE C (compared with 38.8% in the ESC guidelines, P=0.377). The ACC/AHA guidelines cited 827 publications and the ESC guidelines cited 551 publications, 124 of which were shared by both sets of guidelines. The guidelines' approaches to NSTE-ACS were consistent, with minor differences in diagnostic and medical therapy recommendations. Overall, the ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines contain a comparable number of recommendations and provide similar guidance for the management of patients with NSTE-ACS.

  6. Plant-Based No Added Fat or American Heart Association Diets, Impact on Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Hypercholesterolemic Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Macknin, Michael; Kong, Tammie; Weier, Adam; Worley, Sarah; Tang, Anne S.; Alkhouri, Naim; Golubic, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a randomized trial to determine if there is cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction from a plant-based no added fat diet (PB) and the American Heart Association Diet (AHA) in children. Study design Four-week (4/20/2013-5/18/2013) prospective randomized trial in a large Midwestern hospital system’s predominantly middle class outpatient pediatric practices. Thirty children (9–18 years old) parent pairs with a last recorded child BMI >95th percentile and child cholesterol >169 mg/dL were randomized to PB or AHA with weekly 2-hour classes of nutrition education. Results Children on PB had nine and children on AHA had four statistically significant (P<0.05) beneficial changes from baseline (mean decreases): BMI Z-scorePB (−0.14), systolic blood pressurePB (−6.43 mm Hg), total cholesterolPB (−22.5 mg/dL), low density lipoproteinPB (−13.14 mg/dL), hsCRPPB (−2.09 mg/L), insulinPB (−5.42uU/ml), myeloperoxidasePB/AHA (−75.34/69.23 pmol/L), mid-arm circumferencePB/AHA (−2.02/−1.55 cm), weightPB/AHA (−3.05/ −1.14kg) and waist circumferenceAHA (−2.96 cm). Adults on PB and AHA had seven and two respectively statistically significant (P<0.05) beneficial changes. The significant change favoring AHA was a 1% difference in children’s waist circumference. Difficulty shopping for food for the PB was the only statistically significant acceptability barrier. Conclusions PB and the AHA in both children and adults demonstrated potentially beneficial changes from baseline in risk factors for CVD. Future larger, long-term randomized trials with easily accessible PB foods will further define the role of the PB in preventing CVD. PMID:25684089

  7. Elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure predicts heart failure admissions in African Americans: Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Gaurav; Jankowich, Matthew; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2014-07-01

    Although elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) is associated with heart failure (HF), whether PASP measurement can help predict future HF admissions is not known, especially in African Americans who are at increased risk for HF. We hypothesized that elevated PASP is associated with increased risk of HF admission and improves HF prediction in African American population. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the Jackson Heart Study cohort (n=3125; 32.2% men) with baseline echocardiography-derived PASP and follow-up for HF admissions. Hazard ratio for HF admission was estimated using Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for variables in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community (ARIC) HF prediction model. During a median follow-up of 3.46 years, 3.42% of the cohort was admitted for HF. Subjects with HF had a higher PASP (35.6±11.4 versus 27.6±6.9 mm Hg; P<0.001). The hazard of HF admission increased with higher baseline PASP (adjusted hazard ratio per 10 mm Hg increase in PASP: 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-2.48; adjusted hazard ratio for highest [≥33 mm Hg] versus lowest quartile [<24 mm Hg] of PASP: 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-5.06) and remained significant irrespective of history of HF or preserved/reduced ejection fraction. Addition of PASP to the ARIC model resulted in a significant improvement in model discrimination (area under the curve=0.82 before versus 0.84 after; P=0.03) and improved net reclassification index (11-15%) using PASP as a continuous or dichotomous (cutoff=33 mm Hg) variable. Elevated PASP predicts HF admissions in African Americans and may aid in early identification of at-risk subjects for aggressive risk factor modification. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2013 multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Grace; Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Rosenbaum, Lisa; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M; Brindis, Ralph G; Kramer, Christopher M; Shaw, Leslee J; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Dean, Larry S; Fazel, Reza; Hundley, W Gregory; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Kligfield, Paul; Lockwood, Richard; Marine, Joseph Edward; McCully, Robert Benjamin; Messer, Joseph V; O'Gara, Patrick T; Shemin, Richard J; Wann, L Samuel; Wong, John B; Patel, Manesh R; Kramer, Christopher M; Bailey, Steven R; Brown, Alan S; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Lindsay, Bruce D; Min, James K; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Wann, L Samuel; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2014-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical presentations for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) to consider use of stress testing and anatomic diagnostic procedures. This document reflects an updating of the prior Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) published for radionuclide imaging (RNI), stress echocardiography (Echo), calcium scoring, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and invasive coronary angiography for SIHD. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine the AUC on a frequent basis. A major innovation in this document is the rating of tests side by side for the same indication. The side-by-side rating removes any concerns about differences in indication or interpretation stemming from prior use of separate documents for each test. However, the ratings were explicitly not competitive rankings due to the limited availability of comparative evidence, patient variability, and range of capabilities available in any given local setting. The indications for this review are limited to the detection and risk assessment of SIHD and were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Eighty clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate rating panel on a scale of 1-9, to designate Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate use following a modified Delphi process following the recently updated AUC development methodology. The use of some modalities of testing in the initial evaluation of patients with symptoms representing ischemic equivalents, newly diagnosed heart failure, arrhythmias, and syncope was generally found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate, except in cases where low pre-test probability or low risk limited the benefit of most testing except exercise electrocardiogram (ECG

  9. ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2013 multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Rosenbaum, Lisa; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M

    2014-02-04

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical presentations for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) to consider use of stress testing and anatomic diagnostic procedures. This document reflects an updating of the prior Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) published for radionuclide imaging (RNI), stress echocardiography (Echo), calcium scoring, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and invasive coronary angiography for SIHD. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine the AUC on a frequent basis. A major innovation in this document is the rating of tests side by side for the same indication. The side-by-side rating removes any concerns about differences in indication or interpretation stemming from prior use of separate documents for each test. However, the ratings were explicitly not competitive rankings due to the limited availability of comparative evidence, patient variability, and range of capabilities available in any given local setting. The indications for this review are limited to the detection and risk assessment of SIHD and were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Eighty clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate rating panel on a scale of 1 to 9, to designate Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate use following a modified Delphi process following the recently updated AUC development methodology. The use of some modalities of testing in the initial evaluation of patients with symptoms representing ischemic equivalents, newly diagnosed heart failure, arrhythmias, and syncope was generally found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate, except in cases where low pre-test probability or low risk limited the benefit of most testing except exercise electrocardiogram

  10. Self-reported heart disease among Arab and Chaldean American women residing in southeast Michigan.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhouri, Monty; Dallo, Florence; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of heart disease among Arab and Chaldean American women and examines the association between Arab and Chaldean ethnicity and heart disease among a sample of women. This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women aged > or = 18 years who completed a survey that was distributed at churches, mosques, and small businesses in southeast Michigans. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and self-reported heart disease before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. A sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women 18 years of age and older. The overall prevalence of heart disease was 5.1%. Estimates were higher for Arabs (7.1%), lower for Chaldeans (6.6%), and lowest among African Americans (1.8%). In the unadjusted model, Chaldeans and Arabs were four times more likely to have heart disease than were African Americans. However, in the fully adjusted model, the association between Chaldean or Arab ethnicity and heart disease was no longer statistically significant. Arab or Chaldean ethnicity was not significantly associated with self-reported heart disease among women, which suggests that other factors account for this relationship. Future studies should collect more detailed socioeconomic status, acculturation, and health behavior information.

  11. 2015 SCAI/ACC/HFSA/STS Clinical Expert Consensus Statement on the Use of Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices in Cardiovascular Care (Endorsed by the American Heart Association, the Cardiological Society of India, and Sociedad Latino Americana de Cardiologia Intervencion; Affirmation of Value by the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology-Association Canadienne de Cardiologie d'intervention).

    PubMed

    Rihal, Charanjit S; Naidu, Srihari S; Givertz, Michael M; Szeto, Wilson Y; Burke, James A; Kapur, Navin K; Kern, Morton; Garratt, Kirk N; Goldstein, James A; Dimas, Vivian; Tu, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Although historically the intra-aortic balloon pump has been the only mechanical circulatory support device available to clinicians, a number of new devices have become commercially available and have entered clinical practice. These include axial flow pumps, such as Impella(®); left atrial to femoral artery bypass pumps, specifically the TandemHeart; and new devices for institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These devices differ significantly in their hemodynamic effects, insertion, monitoring, and clinical applicability. This document reviews the physiologic impact on the circulation of these devices and their use in specific clinical situations. These situations include patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and acute decompensated heart failure. Specialized uses for right-sided support and in pediatric populations are discussed and the clinical utility of mechanical circulatory support devices is reviewed, as are the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. ACC/AHA Special Report: Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategies: A Summary of Systematic Reviews by the NHLBI Implementation Science Work Group: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wiley V; Pearson, Thomas A; Bennett, Glen C; Cushman, William C; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gorman, Paul N; Handler, Joel; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kushner, Robert F; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Stevens, Victor J; Wells, Barbara L; Castillo, Graciela; Heil, Susan K R; Stephens, Jennifer; Vann, Julie C Jacobson

    2017-02-28

    reviews), reminders (3 of 4 reviews), and provider incentives (1 of 1 review) were generally effective for cost reduction. Educational outreach visits (1 of 1 review) and provider incentives (1 of 1 review) were also generally effective for cost-effectiveness outcomes. Barriers to clinician adoption or adherence to guidelines included time constraints (8 reviews/overviews); limited staffing resources (2 overviews); timing (5 reviews/overviews); clinician skepticism (5 reviews/overviews); clinician knowledge of guidelines (4 reviews/overviews); and higher age of the clinician (1 overview). Facilitating factors included guideline characteristics such as format, resources, and end-user involvement (6 reviews/overviews); involving stakeholders (5 reviews/overviews); leadership support (5 reviews/overviews); scope of implementation (5 reviews/overviews); organizational culture such as multidisciplinary teams and low-baseline adherence (9 reviews/overviews); and electronic guidelines systems (3 reviews). The strategies of audit and feedback and educational outreach visits were generally effective in improving both process of care and clinical outcomes. Reminders and provider incentives showed mixed effectiveness, or were generally ineffective. No general conclusion could be reached about cost effectiveness, because of limitations in the evidence. Important gaps exist in the evidence on effectiveness of implementation interventions, especially regarding clinical outcomes, cost effectiveness and contextual issues affecting successful implementation. © 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Ideal Cardiovascular Health, Cardiovascular Remodeling, and Heart Failure in African-Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Spahillari, Aferdita; Talegawkar, Sameera; Correa, Adolfo; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Lima, Joao; Freedman, Jane E.; Das, Saumya; Kociol, Robb; de Ferranti, Sarah; Mohebali, Donya; Mwasongwe, Stanford; Tucker, Katherine L.; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Shah, Ravi V.

    2017-01-01

    Background The lifetime risk of heart failure is higher in the African-American population than in other racial groups in the United States. Methods and Results We measured the Life’s Simple 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics in 4195 African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study (2000–2004). We evaluated the association of Simple 7 metrics with incident HF and left ventricular (LV) structure and function by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR; n=1188). Mean age at baseline was 54.4 years (65% women). Relative to 0–2 Simple 7 factors, African-Americans with 3 factors had 47% lower incident HF risk (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39–0.73, P<0.0001); those with ≥ 4 factors had 61% lower HF risk (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24–0.64, P=0.0002). Higher blood pressure (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.28–4.20, P=0.005), physical inactivity (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.07–2.55, P=0.02), smoking (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.43–2.91, P<0.0001) and impaired glucose control (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.34–2.29, P<0.0001) were associated with incident HF. The age-/sex-adjusted population attributable risk for these Simple 7 metrics combined was 37.1%. Achievement of ideal blood pressure, ideal body mass index, ideal glucose control, and non-smoking was associated with less likelihood of adverse cardiac remodeling by CMR. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors in mid-life (specifically elevated blood pressure, physical inactivity, smoking and poor glucose control) are associated with incident HF in African Americans, and represent targets for intensified HF prevention. PMID:28209767

  14. Pacing as a Treatment for Reflex-Mediated (Vasovagal, Situational, or Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity) Syncope: A Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

    PubMed

    Varosy, Paul D; Chen, Lin Y; Miller, Amy L; Noseworthy, Peter A; Slotwiner, David J; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope. MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest. Of 3,188 citations reviewed, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, including a total of 676 patients. These included 9 randomized trials and 1 observational study. Of the 10 studies, 4 addressed patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and the remaining 6 addressed vasovagal syncope. Among the 6 open-label (unblinded) studies, we found that pacing was associated with a 70% reduction in recurrent syncope (relative risk [RR]: 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.60). When the 2 analyzable studies with double-blinded methodology were considered separately, there was no clear benefit (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.25-2.1), but confidence intervals were wide. The strongest evidence was from the randomized, double-blinded ISSUE-3 (Third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology) trial, which demonstrated a benefit of pacing among patients with recurrent syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. There are limited data with substantive evidence of outcome ascertainment bias, and only 2 studies with a double-blinded study design have been conducted. The evidence does not support the use of pacing for reflex-mediated syncope beyond patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association

  15. Pacing as a treatment for reflex-mediated (vasovagal, situational, or carotid sinus hypersensitivity) syncope: A systematic review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

    PubMed

    Varosy, Paul D; Chen, Lin Y; Miller, Amy L; Noseworthy, Peter A; Slotwiner, David J; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope. MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest. Of 3,188 citations reviewed, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, including a total of 676 patients. These included 9 randomized trials and 1 observational study. Of the 10 studies, 4 addressed patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and the remaining 6 addressed vasovagal syncope. Among the 6 open-label (unblinded) studies, we found that pacing was associated with a 70% reduction in recurrent syncope (relative risk [RR]: 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.60). When the 2 analyzable studies with double-blinded methodology were considered separately, there was no clear benefit (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.25-2.1), but confidence intervals were wide. The strongest evidence was from the randomized, double-blinded ISSUE-3 (Third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology) trial, which demonstrated a benefit of pacing among patients with recurrent syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. There are limited data with substantive evidence of outcome ascertainment bias, and only 2 studies with a double-blinded study design have been conducted. The evidence does not support the use of pacing for reflex-mediated syncope beyond patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association

  16. Pacing as a Treatment for Reflex-Mediated (Vasovagal, Situational, or Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity) Syncope: A Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

    PubMed

    Varosy, Paul D; Chen, Lin Y; Miller, Amy L; Noseworthy, Peter A; Slotwiner, David J; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope. MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest. Of 3188 citations reviewed, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, including a total of 676 patients. These included 9 randomized trials and 1 observational study. Of the 10 studies, 4 addressed patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and the remaining 6 addressed vasovagal syncope. Among the 6 open-label (unblinded) studies, we found that pacing was associated with a 70% reduction in recurrent syncope (relative risk [RR]: 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.60). When the 2 analyzable studies with double-blinded methodology were considered separately, there was no clear benefit (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.25-2.1), but confidence intervals were wide. The strongest evidence was from the randomized, double-blinded ISSUE-3 (Third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology) trial, which demonstrated a benefit of pacing among patients with recurrent syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. There are limited data with substantive evidence of outcome ascertainment bias, and only 2 studies with a double-blinded study design have been conducted. The evidence does not support the use of pacing for reflex-mediated syncope beyond patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. © 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation, the American Heart Association

  17. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... website This content was last reviewed July 2015. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • ...

  18. Parenting Behaviors, Parent Heart Rate Variability, and Their Associations with Adolescent Heart Rate Variability.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rebecca A; Scott, Brandon G; Weems, Carl F

    2017-05-01

    Adolescence is a potentially important time in the development of emotion regulation and parenting behaviors may play a role. We examined associations among parenting behaviors, parent resting heart rate variability, adolescent resting heart rate variability and parenting behaviors as moderators of the association between parent and adolescent resting heart rate variability. Ninety-seven youth (11-17 years; 49.5 % female; 34 % African American, 37.1 % Euro-American, 22.6 % other/mixed ethnic background, and 7.2 % Hispanic) and their parents (n = 81) completed a physiological assessment and questionnaires assessing parenting behaviors. Inconsistent discipline and corporal punishment were negatively associated with adolescent resting heart rate variability, while positive parenting and parental involvement were positively associated. Inconsistent discipline and parental involvement moderated the relationship between parent and adolescent resting heart rate variability. The findings provide evidence for a role of parenting behaviors in shaping the development of adolescent resting heart rate variability with inconsistent discipline and parental involvement potentially influencing the entrainment of resting heart rate variability in parents and their children.

  19. Depression and coronary heart disease: recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Judith H; Bigger, J Thomas; Blumenthal, James A; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Kaufmann, Peter G; Lespérance, François; Mark, Daniel B; Sheps, David S; Taylor, C Barr; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2008-10-21

    Depression is commonly present in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Screening tests for depressive symptoms should be applied to identify patients who may require further assessment and treatment. This multispecialty consensus document reviews the evidence linking depression with CHD and provides recommendations for healthcare providers for the assessment, referral, and treatment of depression.

  20. 2015 SCAI/ACC/HFSA/STS Clinical Expert Consensus Statement on the Use of Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices in Cardiovascular Care (Endorsed by the American Heart Association, the Cardiological Society of India, and Sociedad Latino Americana de Cardiologia Intervencion; Affirmation of Value by the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology-Association Canadienne de Cardiologie D'intervention).

    PubMed

    Rihal, Charanjit S; Naidu, Srihari S; Givertz, Michael M; Szeto, Wilson Y; Burke, James A; Kapur, Navin K; Kern, Morton; Garratt, Kirk N; Goldstein, James A; Dimas, Vivian; Tu, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Although historically the intra-aortic balloon pump has been the only mechanical circulatory support device available to clinicians, a number of new devices have become commercially available and have entered clinical practice. These include axial flow pumps, such as Impella®; left atrial to femoral artery bypass pumps, specifically the TandemHeart; and new devices for institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These devices differ significantly in their hemodynamic effects, insertion, monitoring, and clinical applicability. This document reviews the physiologic impact on the circulation of these devices and their use in specific clinical situations. These situations include patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and acute decompensated heart failure. Specialized uses for right-sided support and in pediatric populations are discussed and the clinical utility of mechanical circulatory support devices is reviewed, as are the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines. © 2015 by The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, The American College of Cardiology Foundation, The Heart Failure Society of America, and The Society for Thoracic Surgery.

  1. Ventricular conduction and long-term heart failure outcomes and mortality in African Americans: insights from the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Greiner, Melissa A; DeVore, Adam D; Dunlay, Shannon M; Choudhary, Gaurav; Ahmad, Tariq; Khazanie, Prateeti; Randolph, Tiffany C; Griswold, Michael E; Eapen, Zubin J; O'Brien, Emily C; Thomas, Kevin L; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2015-03-01

    QRS prolongation is associated with adverse outcomes in mostly white populations, but its clinical significance is not well established for other groups. We investigated the association between QRS duration and mortality in African Americans. We analyzed data from 5146 African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study stratified by QRS duration on baseline 12-lead ECG. We defined QRS prolongation as QRS≥100 ms. We assessed the association between QRS duration and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards models and reported the cumulative incidence of heart failure hospitalization. We identified factors associated with the development of QRS prolongation in patients with normal baseline QRS. At baseline, 30% (n=1528) of participants had QRS prolongation. The cumulative incidences of mortality and heart failure hospitalization were greater with versus without baseline QRS prolongation: 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0-14.4) versus 7.1% (95% CI, 6.3-8.0) and 8.2% (95% CI, 6.9-9.7) versus 4.4% (95% CI, 3.7-5.1), respectively. After risk adjustment, QRS prolongation was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03-1.56; P=0.02). There was a linear relationship between QRS duration and mortality (hazard ratio per 10 ms increase, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12). Older age, male sex, prior myocardial infarction, lower ejection fraction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left ventricular dilatation were associated with the development of QRS prolongation. QRS prolongation in African Americans was associated with increased mortality and heart failure hospitalization. Factors associated with developing QRS prolongation included age, male sex, prior myocardial infarction, and left ventricular structural abnormalities. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Stakeholder discussion to reduce population-wide sodium intake and decrease sodium in the food supply: a conference report from the American Heart Association Sodium Conference 2013 Planning Group.

    PubMed

    Antman, Elliott M; Appel, Lawrence J; Balentine, Douglas; Johnson, Rachel K; Steffen, Lyn M; Miller, Emily Ann; Pappas, Antigoni; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-06-24

    public health efforts to promote cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease and will remain a priority for the American Heart Association. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. ACCF/AHA methodology for the development of quality measures for cardiovascular technology: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert O; Douglas, Pamela S; Buxton, Alfred E; Cohen, David J; Curtis, Jeptha P; Delong, Elizabeth; Drozda, Joseph P; Ferguson, T Bruce; Heidenreich, Paul A; Hendel, Robert C; Masoudi, Frederick A; Peterson, Eric D; Taylor, Allen J

    2011-09-27

    Consistent with the growing national focus on healthcare quality, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have taken a leadership role over the past decade in developing measures of the quality of cardiovascular care by convening a joint ACCF/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures. The Task Force is charged with identifying the clinical topics appropriate for the development of performance measures and with assembling writing committees composed of clinical and methodological experts in collaboration with appropriate subspecialty societies. The Task Force has also created methodology documents that offer guidance in the development of process, outcome, composite, and efficiency measures. Cardiovascular performance measures using existing ACCF/AHA methodology are based on Class I or Class III guidelines recommendations, usually with Level A evidence. These performance measures, based on evidence-based ACCF/AHA guidelines, remain the most rigorous quality measures for both internal quality improvement and public reporting. However, many of the tools for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease involve advanced technologies, such as cardiac imaging, for which there are often no underlying guideline documents. Because these technologies affect the quality of cardiovascular care and also have the potential to contribute to cardiovascular health expenditures, there is a need for more critical assessment of the use of technology, including the development of quality and performance measures in areas in which guideline recommendations are absent. The evaluation of quality in the use of cardiovascular technologies requires consideration of multiple parameters that differ from other healthcare processes. The present document describes methodology for development of 2 new classes of quality measures in these situations, appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures. Appropriate use measures are based on

  4. 77 FR 5373 - American Heart Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... play a part in many instances of cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure... to heart disease. Additional resources on how to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease are... research to unlock new treatments for cardiovascular disease. And the Centers for Disease Control and...

  5. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/World Heart Federation universal definition of myocardial infarction classification system and the risk of cardiovascular death: observations from the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38).

    PubMed

    Bonaca, Marc P; Wiviott, Stephen D; Braunwald, Eugene; Murphy, Sabina A; Ruff, Christian T; Antman, Elliott M; Morrow, David A

    2012-01-31

    The availability of more sensitive biomarkers of myonecrosis and a new classification system from the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) have led to evolution of the classification of MI. The prognostic implications of MI defined in the current era have not been well described. We investigated the association between new or recurrent MI by subtype according to the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/World Health Federation Task Force for the Redefinition of MI Classification System and the risk of cardiovascular death among 13 608 patients with acute coronary syndrome in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38 (TRITON-TIMI 38). The adjusted risk of cardiovascular death was evaluated by landmark analysis starting at the time of the MI through 180 days after the event. Patients who experienced an MI during follow-up had a higher risk of cardiovascular death at 6 months than patients without an MI (6.5% versus 1.3%, P<0.001). This higher risk was present across all subtypes of MI, including type 4a (peri-percutaneous coronary intervention, 3.2%; P<0.001) and type 4b (stent thrombosis, 15.4%; P<0.001). After adjustment for important clinical covariates, the occurrence of any MI was associated with a 5-fold higher risk of death at 6 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-7.1), with similarly increased risk across subtypes. MI is associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death, with a consistent relationship across all types as defined by the universal classification system. These findings underscore the clinical relevance of these events and the importance of therapies aimed at preventing MI.

  6. American Nurses Association Nursing World

    MedlinePlus

    ... ANA » My ANA » Shop » ANA Nursing Knowledge Center Nursing Insider News 10/13/2017 American Nurses Association ... 17 ANA Enterprise CEO Weston Announces Resignation More Nursing Insider News Upcoming Events 10/17/2017 - 10/ ...

  7. American Association of School Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toor, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 1993 activities of the American Association of School Librarians (AASL), including conferences, training programs, and position papers and lists current concerns, including school restructuring, literacy, certification competencies, outcomes-based education, cultural diversity, students at risk, and technology. (KRN)

  8. The Clinical Use of Stress Echocardiography in Non-Ischaemic Heart Disease: Recommendations from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pellikka, Patricia A; Budts, Werner; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Donal, Erwan; Dulgheru, Raluca; Edvardsen, Thor; Garbi, Madalina; Ha, Jong Won; Kane, Garvan C; Kreeger, Joe; Mertens, Luc; Pibarot, Philippe; Picano, Eugenio; Ryan, Thomas; Tsutsui, Jeane M; Varga, Albert

    2017-02-01

    A unique and highly versatile technique, stress echocardiography (SE) is increasingly recognized for its utility in the evaluation of non-ischaemic heart disease. SE allows for simultaneous assessment of myocardial function and haemodynamics under physiological or pharmacological conditions. Due to its diagnostic and prognostic value, SE has become widely implemented to assess various conditions other than ischaemic heart disease. It has thus become essential to establish guidance for its applications and performance in the area of non-ischaemic heart disease. This paper summarizes these recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The clinical use of stress echocardiography in non-ischaemic heart disease: recommendations from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pellikka, Patricia A; Budts, Werner; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Donal, Erwan; Dulgheru, Raluca; Edvardsen, Thor; Garbi, Madalina; Ha, Jong-Won; Kane, Garvan C; Kreeger, Joe; Mertens, Luc; Pibarot, Philippe; Picano, Eugenio; Ryan, Thomas; Tsutsui, Jeane M; Varga, Albert

    2016-11-01

    A unique and highly versatile technique, stress echocardiography (SE) is increasingly recognized for its utility in the evaluation of non-ischaemic heart disease. SE allows for simultaneous assessment of myocardial function and haemodynamics under physiological or pharmacological conditions. Due to its diagnostic and prognostic value, SE has become widely implemented to assess various conditions other than ischaemic heart disease. It has thus become essential to establish guidance for its applications and performance in the area of non-ischaemic heart disease. This paper summarizes these recommendations. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute for Oral Health! Give Today Join ADHA Today! Use promo code HP2017 for a Free online ... Promoting the “Daily 4” Canadian Dental Hygienists' Association Global Dental Hygiene Conference ADHA stands with TDHA during ...

  11. American Health Care Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Louis, Qualifications Required: Bachelor’s degree in business, marketing, health care administration or a related field Current Nursing Home ... Director of Assisted Living and Personal Care | Pennsylvania Health Care Association (PHCA) US - PA - Harrisburg, Qualifications: Preferred candidates ...

  12. American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7: Avoiding Heart Failure and Preserving Cardiac Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron R.; Shah, Amil M.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Alonso, Alvaro; Avery, Christy L.; Miedema, Michael D.; Konety, Suma; Chang, Patricia P.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many people may underappreciate the role of lifestyle in avoiding heart failure. We estimated whether greater adherence in middle age to American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 guidelines -- on smoking, body mass, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose -- is associated with lower lifetime risk of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function in old age. METHODS We studied the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort of 13,462 adults aged 45-64 years in 1987-89. From the 1987-89 risk factor measurements, we created a Life’s Simple 7 score (range 0-14, giving 2 points for ideal, 1 point for intermediate, and 0 points for poor components). We identified 2,218 incident heart failure events using surveillance of hospital discharge and death codes through 2011. In addition, in 4,855 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2011-13, we performed echocardiography from which we quantified left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. RESULTS One in four participants (25.5%) developed heart failure through age 85. Yet, this lifetime heart failure risk was 14.4% for those with a middle-age Life’s Simple 7 score of 10-14 (optimal), 26.8% for a score of 5-9 (average), and 48.6% for a score of 0-4 (inadequate). Among those with no clinical cardiovascular event, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in late life was approximately 40% as common, and diastolic dysfunction was approximately 60% as common, among those with an optimal middle-age Life’s Simple 7 score compared with an inadequate score. CONCLUSIONS Greater achievement of American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 in middle-age is associated with a lower lifetime occurrence of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function. PMID:25908393

  13. ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance American College of Chest Physicians.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Garcia, Mario J; Haines, David E; Lai, Wyman W; Manning, Warren J; Patel, Ayan R; Picard, Michael H; Polk, Donna M; Ragosta, Michael; Parker Ward, R; Weiner, Rory B

    2011-03-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), in partnership with the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where echocardiography is frequently considered. This document combines and updates the original transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2007 (1) and the original stress echocardiography appropriateness criteria published in 2008 (2). This revision reflects new clinical data, reflects changes in test utilization patterns,and clarifies echocardiography use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria.The indications (clinical scenarios)were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of the original appropriate use criteria (AUC).The 202 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9,to designate appropriate use(median 7 to 9), uncertain use(median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). Ninety-seven indications were rated as appropriate, 34 were rated as uncertain, and 71 were rated as inappropriate. In general,the use of echocardiography for initial diagnosis when there is a change in clinical status or when the results of the echocardiogram are anticipated to change patient management were rated appropriate. Routine testing when there was no change in clinical status or when results of testing were unlikely to modify management were more likely to be inappropriate than appropriate/uncertain.The AUC for echocardiography have the potential to impact physician decision making,healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore,recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research.

  14. 2015 SCAI/ACC/HFSA/STS Clinical Expert Consensus Statement on the Use of Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices in Cardiovascular Care: Endorsed by the American Heart Assocation, the Cardiological Society of India, and Sociedad Latino Americana de Cardiologia Intervencion; Affirmation of Value by the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology-Association Canadienne de Cardiologie d'intervention.

    PubMed

    Rihal, Charanjit S; Naidu, Srihari S; Givertz, Michael M; Szeto, Wilson Y; Burke, James A; Kapur, Navin K; Kern, Morton; Garratt, Kirk N; Goldstein, James A; Dimas, Vivian; Tu, Thomas

    2015-05-19

    Although historically the intra-aortic balloon pump has been the only mechanical circulatory support device available to clinicians, a number of new devices have become commercially available and have entered clinical practice. These include axial flow pumps, such as Impella(®); left atrial to femoral artery bypass pumps, specifically the TandemHeart; and new devices for institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These devices differ significantly in their hemodynamic effects, insertion, monitoring, and clinical applicability. This document reviews the physiologic impact on the circulation of these devices and their use in specific clinical situations. These situations include patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and acute decompensated heart failure. Specialized uses for right-sided support and in pediatric populations are discussed and the clinical utility of mechanical circulatory support devices is reviewed, as are the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, The American College of Cardiology Foundation, The Heart Failure Society of America, and The Society for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcome Reports: Update of the Utstein Resuscitation Registry Templates for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From a Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa, Resuscitation Council of Asia); and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Gavin D; Jacobs, Ian G; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Bhanji, Farhan; Biarent, Dominique; Bossaert, Leo L; Brett, Stephen J; Chamberlain, Douglas; de Caen, Allan R; Deakin, Charles D; Finn, Judith C; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Iwami, Taku; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; McNally, Bryan F; Morley, Peter T; Morrison, Laurie J; Monsieurs, Koenraad G; Montgomery, William; Nichol, Graham; Okada, Kazuo; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Travers, Andrew H; Nolan, Jerry P

    2015-11-01

    Resuscitation Council and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update of the Utstein Resuscitation Registry Templates for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: a statement for healthcare professionals from a task force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa, Resuscitation Council of Asia); and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Gavin D; Jacobs, Ian G; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Bhanji, Farhan; Biarent, Dominique; Bossaert, Leo L; Brett, Stephen J; Chamberlain, Douglas; de Caen, Allan R; Deakin, Charles D; Finn, Judith C; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Iwami, Taku; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Huei-Ming Ma, Matthew; McNally, Bryan F; Morley, Peter T; Morrison, Laurie J; Monsieurs, Koenraad G; Montgomery, William; Nichol, Graham; Okada, Kazuo; Eng Hock Ong, Marcus; Travers, Andrew H; Nolan, Jerry P

    2015-09-29

    Utstein-style guidelines contribute to improved public health internationally by providing a structured framework with which to compare emergency medical services systems. Advances in resuscitation science, new insights into important predictors of outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and lessons learned from methodological research prompted this review and update of the 2004 Utstein guidelines. Representatives of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation developed an updated Utstein reporting framework iteratively by meeting face to face, by teleconference, and by Web survey during 2012 through 2014. Herein are recommendations for reporting out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Data elements were grouped by system factors, dispatch/recognition, patient variables, resuscitation/postresuscitation processes, and outcomes. Elements were classified as core or supplemental using a modified Delphi process primarily based on respondents' assessment of the evidence-based importance of capturing those elements, tempered by the challenges to collect them. New or modified elements reflected consensus on the need to account for emergency medical services system factors, increasing availability of automated external defibrillators, data collection processes, epidemiology trends, increasing use of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emerging field treatments, postresuscitation care, prognostication tools, and trends in organ recovery. A standard reporting template is recommended to promote standardized reporting. This template facilitates reporting of the bystander-witnessed, shockable rhythm as a measure of emergency medical services system efficacy and all emergency medical services system-treated arrests as a measure of system effectiveness. Several additional important subgroups are identified that enable an estimate of the specific contribution of rhythm and bystander actions that are key determinants of outcome. © 2014 by the American Heart

  17. STEPS to a Healthier Heart: Improving Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Knowledge among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia Williams; Alexander, Dayna S.; Cummins, Kayla; Price, Amanda Alise; Anderson-Booker, Marian

    2018-01-01

    Background: African American women have the highest risk of death from heart disease among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups due to sedentary behaviors. Purpose: This article describes an intervention among 2 groups--a program group and an information group (intervention and comparison)--that assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge among…

  18. Echocardiographic Screening of Rheumatic Heart Disease in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jennifer H; Favazza, Michael; Legg, Arthur; Holmes, Kathryn W; Armsby, Laurie; Eliapo-Unutoa, Ipuniuesea; Pilgrim, Thomas; Madriago, Erin J

    2018-01-01

    While rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a treatable disease nearly eradicated in the United States, it remains the most common form of acquired heart disease in the developing world. This study used echocardiographic screening to determine the prevalence of RHD in children in American Samoa. Screening took place at a subset of local schools. Private schools were recruited and public schools underwent cluster randomization based on population density. We collected survey information and performed a limited physical examination and echocardiogram using the World Heart Federation protocol for consented school children aged 5-18 years old. Of 2200 students from two private high schools and two public primary schools, 1058 subjects consented and were screened. Overall, 133 (12.9%) children were identified as having either definite (3.5%) or borderline (9.4%) RHD. Of the patients with definitive RHD, 28 subjects had abnormal mitral valves with pathologic regurgitation, three mitral stenosis, three abnormal aortic valves with pathologic regurgitation, and seven borderline mitral and aortic valve disease. Of the subjects with borderline disease, 77 had pathologic mitral regurgitation, 12 pathologic aortic regurgitation, and 7 at least two features of mitral valve disease without pathologic regurgitation or stenosis. Rheumatic heart disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of RHD in American Samoa (12.9%) is to date the highest reported in the world literature. Echocardiographic screening of school children is feasible, while reliance on murmur and Jones criteria is not helpful in identifying children with RHD.

  19. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  20. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/SCCT 2012 appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization focused update: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Dehmer, Gregory J; Hirshfeld, John W; Smith, Peter K; Spertus, John A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Dehmer, Gregory J; Patel, Manesh R; Smith, Peter K; Chambers, Charles E; Ferguson, T Bruce; Garcia, Mario J; Grover, Frederick L; Holmes, David R; Klein, Lloyd W; Limacher, Marian C; Mack, Michael J; Malenka, David J; Park, Myung H; Ragosta, Michael; Ritchie, James L; Rose, Geoffrey A; Rosenberg, Alan B; Russo, Andrea M; Shemin, Richard J; Weintraub, William S; Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Shaw, Leslee; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M

    2012-04-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an update of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization frequently considered. In the initial document, 180 clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, extent of medical therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document, and the definition of appropriateness was unchanged. The technical panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate and likely to improve patients' health outcomes or survival. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate revascularization is considered inappropriate and unlikely to improve health outcomes or survival. Scores in the mid-range (4 to 6) indicate a clinical scenario for which the likelihood that coronary revascularization will improve health outcomes or survival is uncertain. In general, as seen with the prior AUC, the use of coronary revascularization for patients with acute coronary syndromes and combinations of significant symptoms and/or ischemia is appropriate. In contrast, revascularization of asymptomatic patients or patients with low-risk findings on noninvasive testing and minimal medical therapy are viewed less favorably. The technical panel felt that based on recent studies, coronary artery bypass grafting remains an appropriate method of revascularization for patients with high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD

  1. ACCF/SCAI/STS/AATS/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/SCCT 2012 Appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization focused update: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Dehmer, Gregory J; Hirshfeld, John W; Smith, Peter K; Spertus, John A

    2012-02-28

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an update of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization frequently considered. In the initial document, 180 clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, extent of medical therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document, and the definition of appropriateness was unchanged. The technical panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate and likely to improve patients' health outcomes or survival. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate revascularization is considered inappropriate and unlikely to improve health outcomes or survival. Scores in the mid-range (4 to 6) indicate a clinical scenario for which the likelihood that coronary revascularization will improve health outcomes or survival is uncertain. In general, as seen with the prior AUC, the use of coronary revascularization for patients with acute coronary syndromes and combinations of significant symptoms and/or ischemia is appropriate. In contrast, revascularization of asymptomatic patients or patients with low-risk findings on noninvasive testing and minimal medical therapy are viewed less favorably. The technical panel felt that based on recent studies, coronary artery bypass grafting remains an appropriate method of revascularization for patients with high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD

  2. American ginseng acutely regulates contractile function of rat heart.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mao; Murias, Juan M; Chrones, Tom; Sims, Stephen M; Lui, Edmund; Noble, Earl G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic ginseng treatments have been purported to improve cardiac performance. However reports of acute administration of ginseng on cardiovascular function remain controversial and potential mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of acute North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) administration on rat cardiac contractile function by using electrocardiogram (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurement, and Langendorff isolated, spontaneously beating, perfused heart measurements (LP). Eight-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were gavaged with a single dose of water-soluble American ginseng at 300 mg/kg body weight. Heart rate (HR) and BP were measured prior to and at 1 and 24 h after gavaging (ECG and BP). Additional groups were used for each time point for Langendorff measurements. HR was significantly decreased (ECG: 1 h: 6 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 8 ± 0.3%; BP: 1 h: 8.8 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 13 ± 0.4% and LP: 1 h: 22 ± 0.4%, 24 h: 19 ± 0.4%) in rats treated with water-soluble ginseng compared with pre or control measures. An initial marked decrease in left ventricular developed pressure was observed in LP hearts but BP changes were not observed in BP group. A direct inhibitory effect of North American ginseng was observed on cardiac contractile function in LP rats and on fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium transient in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes when exposed to ginseng (1 and 10 μg/ml). Collectively these data present evidence of depressed cardiac contractile function by acute administration of North American ginseng in rat. This acute reduction in cardiac contractile function appears to be intrinsic to the myocardium.

  3. American ginseng acutely regulates contractile function of rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mao; Murias, Juan M.; Chrones, Tom; Sims, Stephen M.; Lui, Edmund; Noble, Earl G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic ginseng treatments have been purported to improve cardiac performance. However reports of acute administration of ginseng on cardiovascular function remain controversial and potential mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of acute North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) administration on rat cardiac contractile function by using electrocardiogram (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurement, and Langendorff isolated, spontaneously beating, perfused heart measurements (LP). Eight-week old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were gavaged with a single dose of water-soluble American ginseng at 300 mg/kg body weight. Heart rate (HR) and BP were measured prior to and at 1 and 24 h after gavaging (ECG and BP). Additional groups were used for each time point for Langendorff measurements. HR was significantly decreased (ECG: 1 h: 6 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 8 ± 0.3%; BP: 1 h: 8.8 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 13 ± 0.4% and LP: 1 h: 22 ± 0.4%, 24 h: 19 ± 0.4%) in rats treated with water-soluble ginseng compared with pre or control measures. An initial marked decrease in left ventricular developed pressure was observed in LP hearts but BP changes were not observed in BP group. A direct inhibitory effect of North American ginseng was observed on cardiac contractile function in LP rats and on fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium transient in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes when exposed to ginseng (1 and 10 μg/ml). Collectively these data present evidence of depressed cardiac contractile function by acute administration of North American ginseng in rat. This acute reduction in cardiac contractile function appears to be intrinsic to the myocardium. PMID:24672484

  4. Comprehensive electrocardiogram-to-device time for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A report from the American Heart Association mission: Lifeline program.

    PubMed

    Shavadia, Jay S; French, William; Hellkamp, Anne S; Thomas, Laine; Bates, Eric R; Manoukian, Steven V; Kontos, Michael C; Suter, Robert; Henry, Timothy D; Dauerman, Harold L; Roe, Matthew T

    2018-03-01

    Assessing hospital-related network-level primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performance for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is challenging due to differential time-to-treatment metrics based on location of diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG) for STEMI. STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI at 588 PCI-capable hospitals in AHA Mission: Lifeline (2008-2013) were categorized by initial STEMI identification location: PCI-capable hospitals (Group 1); pre-hospital setting (Group 2); and non-PCI-capable hospitals (Group 3). Patient-specific time-to-treatment categories were converted to minutes ahead of or behind their group-specific mean; average time-to-treatment difference for all patients at a given hospital was termed comprehensive ECG-to-device time. Hospitals were then stratified into tertiles based on their comprehensive ECG-to-device times with negative values below the mean representing shorter (faster) time intervals. Of 117,857 patients, the proportion in Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 42%, 33%, and 25%, respectively. Lower rates of heart failure and cardiac arrest at presentation are noted within patients presenting to high-performing hospitals. Median comprehensive ECG-to-device time was shortest at -9 minutes (25th, 75th percentiles: -13, -6) for the high-performing hospital tertile, 1 minute (-1, 3) for middle-performing, and 11 minutes (7, 16) for low-performing. Unadjusted rates of in-hospital mortality were 2.3%, 2.6%, and 2.7%, respectively, but the adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality was similar across tertiles. Comprehensive ECG-to-device time provides an integrated hospital-related network-level assessment of reperfusion timing metrics for primary PCI, regardless of the location for STEMI identification; further validation will delineate how this metric can be used to facilitate STEMI care improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ACCF/SCAI/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2012 appropriate use criteria for diagnostic catheterization: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Bailey, Steven R; Bonow, Robert O; Chambers, Charles E; Chan, Paul S; Dehmer, Gregory J; Kirtane, Ajay J; Wann, L Samuel; Ward, R Parker

    2012-05-29

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation, in collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where diagnostic catheterization is frequently considered. The indications (clinical scenarios) were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of noninvasive imaging appropriate use criteria. The 166 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9, to designate appropriate use (median 7 to 9), uncertain use (median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). Diagnostic catheterization may include several different procedure components. The indications developed focused primarily on 2 aspects of diagnostic catheterization. Many indications focused on the performance of coronary angiography for the detection of coronary artery disease with other procedure components (e.g., hemodynamic measurements, ventriculography) at the discretion of the operator. The majority of the remaining indications focused on hemodynamic measurements to evaluate valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and other conditions, with the use of coronary angiography at the discretion of the operator. Seventy-five indications were rated as appropriate, 49 were rated as uncertain, and 42 were rated as inappropriate. The appropriate use criteria for diagnostic catheterization have the potential to impact physician decision making, healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore, recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research.

  6. Sexual counselling for individuals with cardiovascular disease and their partners: a consensus document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP).

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny; Barnason, Susan A; Byrne, Molly; Doherty, Sally; Dougherty, Cynthia M; Fridlund, Bengt; Kautz, Donald D; Mårtensson, Jan; Mosack, Victoria; Moser, Debra K

    2013-11-01

    After a cardiovascular event, patients and their families often cope with numerous changes in their lives, including dealing with consequences of the disease or its treatment on their daily lives and functioning. Coping poorly with both physical and psychological challenges may lead to impaired quality of life. Sexuality is one aspect of quality of life that is important for many patients and partners that may be adversely affected by a cardiac event. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as '… a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences ….'(1(p4)) The safety and timing of return to sexual activity after a cardiac event have been well addressed in an American Heart Association scientific statement, and decreased sexual activity among cardiac patients is frequently reported.(2) Rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are twice as high as those in the general population, with similar rates of sexual dysfunction in females with CVD.(3) ED and vaginal dryness may also be presenting signs of heart disease and may appear 1-3 years before the onset of angina pectoris. Estimates reflect that only a small percentage of those with sexual dysfunction seek medical care;(4) therefore, routine assessment of sexual problems and sexual counselling may be of benefit as part of effective management by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers.

  7. Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Disease—A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research and the European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Jones, Daniel; Textor, Stephen; Goff, David C; Murphy, Timothy P; Toto, Robert D; White, Anthony; Cushman, William C; White, William; Sica, Domenic; Ferdinand, Keith; Giles, Thomas D; Falkner, Bonita; Carey, Robert M

    2008-06-24

    Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem faced by both primary care clinicians and specialists. While the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, clinical trials suggest that it is not rare, involving perhaps 20% to 30% of study participants. As older age and obesity are 2 of the strongest risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension, the incidence of resistant hypertension will likely increase as the population becomes more elderly and heavier. The prognosis of resistant hypertension is unknown, but cardiovascular risk is undoubtedly increased as patients often have a history of long-standing, severe hypertension complicated by multiple other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The diagnosis of resistant hypertension requires use of good blood pressure technique to confirm persistently elevated blood pressure levels. Pseudoresistance, including lack of blood pressure control secondary to poor medication adherence or white coat hypertension, must be excluded. Resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial in etiology. Successful treatment requires identification and reversal of lifestyle factors contributing to treatment resistance; diagnosis and appropriate treatment of secondary causes of hypertension; and use of effective multidrug regimens. As a subgroup, patients with resistant hypertension have not been widely studied. Observational assessments have allowed for identification of demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with resistant hypertension, and the role of secondary causes of hypertension in promoting treatment resistance is well documented; however, identification of broader mechanisms of treatment resistance is lacking. In particular, attempts to elucidate potential genetic causes of resistant hypertension have been limited. Recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of resistant hypertension remain largely empiric due to the lack of

  9. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Jones, Daniel; Textor, Stephen; Goff, David C; Murphy, Timothy P; Toto, Robert D; White, Anthony; Cushman, William C; White, William; Sica, Domenic; Ferdinand, Keith; Giles, Thomas D; Falkner, Bonita; Carey, Robert M

    2008-06-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem faced by both primary care clinicians and specialists. While the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, clinical trials suggest that it is not rare, involving perhaps 20% to 30% of study participants. As older age and obesity are 2 of the strongest risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension, the incidence of resistant hypertension will likely increase as the population becomes more elderly and heavier. The prognosis of resistant hypertension is unknown, but cardiovascular risk is undoubtedly increased as patients often have a history of long-standing, severe hypertension complicated by multiple other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The diagnosis of resistant hypertension requires use of good blood pressure technique to confirm persistently elevated blood pressure levels. Pseudoresistance, including lack of blood pressure control secondary to poor medication adherence or white coat hypertension, must be excluded. Resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial in etiology. Successful treatment requires identification and reversal of lifestyle factors contributing to treatment resistance; diagnosis and appropriate treatment of secondary causes of hypertension; and use of effective multidrug regimens. As a subgroup, patients with resistant hypertension have not been widely studied. Observational assessments have allowed for identification of demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with resistant hypertension, and the role of secondary causes of hypertension in promoting treatment resistance is well documented; however, identification of broader mechanisms of treatment resistance is lacking. In particular, attempts to elucidate potential genetic causes of resistant hypertension have been limited. Recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of resistant hypertension remain largely empiric due to the lack of

  10. 3 CFR 8477 - Proclamation 8477 of February 1, 2010. American Heart Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Proclamation Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Its victims are women and men, and people of all backgrounds and ethnicities, in all regions of our country. Although heart disease.... During American Heart Month, we rededicate ourselves to fighting this disease by improving our own heart...

  11. Testing of low-risk patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Ezra A; Kirk, J Douglas; Bluemke, David A; Diercks, Deborah; Farkouh, Michael E; Garvey, J Lee; Kontos, Michael C; McCord, James; Miller, Todd D; Morise, Anthony; Newby, L Kristin; Ruberg, Frederick L; Scordo, Kristine Anne; Thompson, Paul D

    2010-10-26

    The management of low-risk patients presenting to emergency departments is a common and challenging clinical problem entailing 8 million emergency department visits annually. Although a majority of these patients do not have a life-threatening condition, the clinician must distinguish between those who require urgent treatment of a serious problem and those with more benign entities who do not require admission. Inadvertent discharge of patients with acute coronary syndrome from the emergency department is associated with increased mortality and liability, whereas inappropriate admission of patients without serious disease is neither indicated nor cost-effective. Clinical judgment and basic clinical tools (history, physical examination, and electrocardiogram) remain primary in meeting this challenge and affording early identification of low-risk patients with chest pain. Additionally, established and newer diagnostic methods have extended clinicians' diagnostic capacity in this setting. Low-risk patients presenting with chest pain are increasingly managed in chest pain units in which accelerated diagnostic protocols are performed, comprising serial electrocardiograms and cardiac injury markers to exclude acute coronary syndrome. Patients with negative findings usually complete the accelerated diagnostic protocol with a confirmatory test to exclude ischemia. This is typically an exercise treadmill test or a cardiac imaging study if the exercise treadmill test is not applicable. Rest myocardial perfusion imaging has assumed an important role in this setting. Computed tomography coronary angiography has also shown promise in this setting. A negative accelerated diagnostic protocol evaluation allows discharge, whereas patients with positive findings are admitted. This approach has been found to be safe, accurate, and cost-effective in low-risk patients presenting with chest pain.

  12. Markers of kidney disease and risk of subclinical and clinical heart failure in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nisha; Katz, Ronit; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Afkarian, Maryam; Kestenbaum, Bryan; de Boer, Ian H; Young, Bessie

    2016-12-01

    African Americans and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for clinical heart failure (HF). In this study, we aimed to determine the association of markers of kidney disease with subclinical HF (by echocardiogram) and risk of clinical HF among a large, well-characterized community-based cohort of African American patients. We also examined whether the association of markers of kidney disease with HF was attenuated with adjustment for echocardiographic measures. We studied participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a large community-based cohort of African Americans. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured at baseline. We tested the association of eGFR and urine ACR with left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and physician-adjudicated incident HF. Among the 3332 participants in the study, 166 (5%) had eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 405 (12%) had urine ACR ≥30 mg/g. In models adjusted for demographics, comorbidity and the alternative measure of kidney disease, lower eGFR and higher urine ACR were associated with higher LVM {β-coefficient 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-2.31] per 10 mL/min/1.73 m 2 decrease in eGFR and 2.87 (95% CI 1.85-3.88) per doubling of urine ACR}. There was no association of eGFR and urine ACR with LVEF [β-coefficient -0.12 (95% CI -0.28-0.04) and -0.11 (95% CI -0.35-0.12), respectively]. There was no association of eGFR with the risk of incident HF [HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.91-1.14) per 10 mL/min/1.73 m 2 decrease], while there was a significant association of urine ACR [HR 2.22 (95% CI 1.29-3.84) per doubling of urine ACR]. This association was only modestly attenuated with adjustment for LVM [HR 1.95 (95% CI 1.09-3.49)]. Among a community-based cohort of African Americans, lower eGFR and higher ACR were associated with higher LVM. Furthermore, higher urine ACR was associated with incident HF, which was not entirely explained by

  13. Compliance with guideline-directed therapy in diabetic patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome: Findings from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) program.

    PubMed

    Deedwania, Prakash; Acharya, Tushar; Kotak, Kamal; Fonarow, Gregg C; Cannon, Christopher P; Laskey, Warren K; Peacock, W Frank; Pan, Wenqin; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate and compare baseline characteristics, outcomes and compliance with guideline based therapy at discharge among diabetic and non-diabetic patients admitted with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Study population consisted of 151,270 patients admitted with ACS from 2002 through 2008 at 411 sites participating in the American Heart Association's Get with the Guidelines (GWTG) program. Demographic variables, physical exam findings, laboratory data, left ventricular ejection fraction, length of stay, in-hospital mortality and discharge medications were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Temporal trends in compliance with guidelines directed therapy were evaluated. Of 151,270 patients, 48,938 (32%) had diabetes. Overall, diabetic patients were significantly older and more likely non-white. They had significantly more hypertension, atherosclerotic disease, CKD, and LV dysfunction and were more likely to present as NSTEMI. They had longer hospital stay and higher hospital mortality than non-diabetic patients. Diabetic patients were less likely to get LDL checks (65% vs 70%) and less frequently prescribed statins (85% vs 89%), RAAS blockers for LV dysfunction (80% vs 84%) and dual-antiplatelet therapy (69% vs 74%). Diabetic patients were less likely to achieve BP goals before discharge (75% vs 82%). Fewer diabetic patients met first medical contact to PCI time for STEMI (44% vs 52%). Temporal trends, however, showed continued progressive improvement in most performance measures from 2002 to 2008 (all P<.001). These data from a large cohort of ACS patients demonstrate gaps in compliance with guidelines directed therapy in diabetic patients but also indicate significant and continued improvement in most performance measures over time. Concerted efforts are needed to continue this positive trend. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cardiometabolic risks, lifestyle health behaviors and heart disease in Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Bayog, Maria Lg; Waters, Catherine M

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among all racial and ethnic populations in the USA. Cardiovascular risks and cardioprotective factors have been disparately estimated among Asian American subpopulations. The study's purpose was to describe the cardiometabolic risks and lifestyle health behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease, considering age and gender, in Filipinos, the second largest Asian American population. Secondary analysis was conducted of behavioral (smoking, walking, body mass index and soda, fast food and fruit/vegetable consumption), cardiometabolic (hypertension and diabetes) and heart disease variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. The metropolitan sample of Filipino American adults included 57.3% women and had a mean age of 47.9 ± 18.3 years ( n = 555). Among the sample, 7.4% had heart disease, 38.9% had hypertension, 16.6% had diabetes, 12.4% smoked cigarettes, 83.2% were insufficiently active, 54.2% were overweight/obese, 21.8% routinely ate fast food, 13.2% routinely drank soda and 90.3% did not meet the fruit/vegetable consumption recommendation. Age (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.0, p < 0.0001), hypertension (unadjusted OR = 4.8, p < 0.0001) and diabetes (unadjusted OR = 3.3, p = 0.001) were associated with heart disease. Hypertension was the single greatest heart disease risk, controlling for diabetes, age and gender (adjusted OR = 3.1, p = 0.006). Primary and secondary prevention and treatment of hypertension should be paramount, along with promotion of glucose control, regular moderate-intensity physical activity, weight management and increased fruit and vegetable consumption in the Filipino American population. A multidisciplinary, chronic care model that is population-specific, emphasizes integrated, comprehensive care and provides linkages between primary healthcare and community resources is recommended for practice.

  15. 'A Change of Heart': Racial Politics, Scientific Metaphor and Coverage of 1968 Interracial Heart Transplants in the African American Press.

    PubMed

    Koretzky, Maya Overby

    2017-05-01

    This paper explores the African American response to an interracial heart transplant in 1968 through a close reading of the black newspaper press. This methodological approach provides a window into African American perceptions of physiological difference between the races, or lack thereof, as it pertained to both personal identity and race politics. Coverage of the first interracial heart transplant, which occurred in apartheid South Africa, was multifaceted. Newspapers lauded the transplant as evidence of physiological race equality while simultaneously mobilising the language of differing 'black' and 'white' hearts to critique racist politics through the metaphor of a 'change of heart'. While interracial transplant created the opportunity for such political commentary, its material reality-potential exploitation of black bodies for white gain-was increasingly a cause for concern, especially after a contentious heart transplant from a black to a white man in May 1968 in the American South.

  16. The Epidemiology of Coping in African American Adults in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS).

    PubMed

    Brenner, Allison B; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Gebreab, Samson Y; Schulz, Amy J; Sims, Mario

    2017-12-07

    Differences in coping within the African American population are not well understood, yet these differences may be critical to reducing stress, improving health, and reducing racial health disparities. Using a descriptive, exploratory analysis of the Jackson Heart Study (N = 5301), we examine correlations between coping responses and associations between coping and demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and neighborhood factors. Overall, coping responses were not strongly correlated and patterns of associations between covariates and coping responses were largely inconsistent. The results suggest that coping varies substantially within this African American population and is driven mainly by psychosocial factors such as spirituality and interpersonal support. Understanding these complex relationships may inform strategies by which to intervene in the stress process to mitigate the effects of stress on health and to identify vulnerable subgroups of African Americans that might need targeted interventions to reduce exposure to stressors and improve coping capacities.

  17. 75 FR 73076 - National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ..., Independent Petroleum Association of America, Process Gas Consumers Group; Notice of Petition November 19... Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas Association, Independent Petroleum Association of America...

  18. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Class I Guidelines for the Treatment of Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk: Implications for US Hispanics/Latinos Based on Findings From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Kaplan, Robert C; Swett, Katrina; Burke, Gregory; Daviglus, Martha; Jung, Molly; Talavera, Gregory A; Chirinos, Diana A; Reina, Samantha A; Davis, Sonia; Rodriguez, Carlos J

    2017-05-11

    The prevalence estimates of statin eligibility among Hispanic/Latinos living in the United States under the new 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol treatment guidelines are not known. We estimated prevalence of statin eligibility under 2013 ACC/AHA and 3rd National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATP III) guidelines among Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (n=16 415; mean age 41 years, 40% males) by using sampling weights calibrated to the 2010 US census. We examined the characteristics of Hispanic/Latinos treated and not treated with statins under both guidelines. We also redetermined the statin-therapy eligibility by using black risk estimates for Dominicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and Central Americans. Compared with NCEP/ATP III guidelines, statin eligibility increased from 15.9% (95% CI 15.0-16.7%) to 26.9% (95% CI 25.7-28.0%) under the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines. This was mainly driven by the ≥7.5% atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk criteria (prevalence 13.9% [95% CI 13.0-14.7%]). Of the participants eligible for statin eligibility under NCEP/ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, only 28.2% (95% CI 26.3-30.0%) and 20.6% (95% CI 19.4-21.9%) were taking statins, respectively. Statin-eligible participants who were not taking statins had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors compared with statin-eligible participants who were taking statins. There was no significant increase in statin eligibility when atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was calculated by using black estimates instead of recommended white estimates (increase by 1.4%, P =0.12) for Hispanic/Latinos. The eligibility of statin therapy increased consistently across all Hispanic/Latinos subgroups under the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines and therefore will potentially increase the number of undertreated Hispanic/Latinos in the United States. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American

  19. Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, David M; Allen, Norrina B; Griswold, Michael E; Guallar, Eliseo; Hong, Yuling; Lackland, Daniel T; Miller, Edgar Pete R; Polonsky, Tamar; Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Vupputuri, Suma

    2018-06-01

    To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. 2) systolic BP lowering to a target of <130 mm Hg may reduce the risk of several important outcomes including risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major cardiovascular events. No class of medications (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or beta blockers) was significantly better than thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics as a first-line therapy for any outcome. © 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, David M; Allen, Norrina B; Griswold, Michael E; Guallar, Eliseo; Hong, Yuling; Lackland, Daniel T; Miller, Edgar Pete R; Polonsky, Tamar; Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Vupputuri, Suma

    2018-05-15

    To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. 2) systolic BP lowering to a target of <130 mm Hg may reduce the risk of several important outcomes including risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major cardiovascular events. No class of medications (i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or beta blockers) was significantly better than thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics as a first-line therapy for any outcome. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inflammatory Obesity Phenotypes, Gender Effects, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Albert; Lacy, Mary E; Eaton, Charles; Correa, Adolfo; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2016-12-01

    Reasons for variations in atherosclerotic burden among individuals with similar levels of obesity are poorly understood, especially in African Americans. This study examines whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is useful for discriminating between benign and high-risk obesity phenotypes for subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans. Participants from the Jackson Heart Study (n=4682) were stratified into 4 phenotypes based on the presence of National Heart and Lung and Blood Institute definition of obesity or obesity-equivalent (body mass index ≥30 or body mass index 25-30 with waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) and inflammation by hsCRP ≥2 mg/L. Using multivariate regression models, we conducted cross-sectional analyses of the association between inflammatory obesity phenotypes and subclinical atherosclerosis determined by carotid intima-media thickness or coronary artery calcium scores. Sex-specific analyses were conducted given significant interaction for gender (P=0.03). The prevalence of obesity or equivalent was 65%, of which 30% did not have inflammation. Conversely, 37% of nonobese individuals had inflammation. Among nonobese men, hsCRP ≥2 mg/L identified a subset of individuals with higher carotid intima-media thickness (adjusted mean difference =0.05, 95% confidence interval 0.02, 0.08 mm) compared with their noninflammatory counterparts. Among obese men, hsCRP <2 mg/L identified a subset of individuals with lower coronary artery calcium compared with their inflammatory counterparts. Among women, associations between hsCRP and carotid intima-media thickness or coronary artery calcium were not found. In the largest African American population-based cohort to date, hsCRP was useful in identifying a subset of nonobese men with higher carotid intima-media thickness, but not in women. hsCRP did not identify a subset of obese individuals with less subclinical atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association

  2. Sclerostin is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and women and negatively associated with carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in men from the African American-Diabetes Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Register, Thomas C; Hruska, Keith A; Divers, Jasmin; Bowden, Donald W; Palmer, Nicholette D; Carr, J Jeffrey; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Hightower, R Caresse; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, S Carrie; Dietzen, Dennis J; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I

    2014-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CP) demonstrate inverse relationships. Sclerostin, an endogenous regulator of the Wnt pathway and bone formation, has been associated with impaired osteoblast activation and may play a role in vascular calcification. Our objective was to assess the relationships between sclerostin, BMD, and CP. Generalized linear models were fitted to test for associations between sclerostin, volumetric BMD (vBMD), and CP. A targeted population of 450 unrelated African Americans (AAs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was 56% female with mean/SD/median age of 55.4/9.5/55.0 years and a diabetes duration of 10.3/8.2/8.0 years. Plasma sclerostin, computed tomography-derived thoracic and lumbar vertebrae trabecular vBMD, coronary artery, carotid artery, and aortoiliac CP were measured. Plasma sclerostin was 1119/401/1040 pg/mL, thoracic vBMD was 206.3/52.4/204.8 mg/cm3, lumbar vBMD was 180.7/47.0/179.0 mg/cm3, coronary artery CP score was 284/648/13, carotid artery CP score was 46/132/0, and aortoiliac CP score was 1613/2910/282. Sclerostin levels were higher in men than women (P<.0001). Before and after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, hemoglobin A1c, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, plasma sclerostin levels were positively associated with thoracic and lumbar vertebrae vBMD (P<.0001). Sex-stratified analyses verified significant relationships in both men and women (both P<.001). Sclerostin was not associated with CP except for an inverse relationship with carotid CP in men (fully adjusted model, P=.03). In this cross-sectional study of AA men and women with T2D, circulating sclerostin was positively associated with vBMD in the spine in both sexes and inversely associated with carotid artery CP in men. Sclerostin may play a role in skeletal mineral metabolism in AA but fails to explain inverse relationships between BMD and CP.

  3. Acute coronary care in the elderly, part II: ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology: in collaboration with the Society of Geriatric Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Karen P; Newby, L Kristin; Armstrong, Paul W; Cannon, Christopher P; Gibler, W Brian; Rich, Michael W; Van de Werf, Frans; White, Harvey D; Weaver, W Douglas; Naylor, Mary D; Gore, Joel M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Ohman, E Magnus

    2007-05-15

    Age is an important determinant of outcomes for patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, community practice reveals a disproportionately lower use of cardiovascular medications and invasive treatment even among elderly patients who would stand to benefit. Limited trial data are available to guide care of older adults, which results in uncertainty about benefits and risks, particularly with newer medications or invasive treatments and in the setting of advanced age and complex health status. Part II of this American Heart Association scientific statement summarizes evidence on presentation and treatment of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction in relation to age (< 65, 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and > or = 85 years). The purpose of this statement is to identify areas in which the evidence is sufficient to guide practice in the elderly and to highlight areas that warrant further study. Treatment-related benefits should rise in an elderly population, yet data to confirm these benefits are limited, and the heterogeneity of older populations increases treatment-associated risks. Elderly patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction more often have relative and absolute contraindications to reperfusion, so eligibility for reperfusion declines with age, and yet elderly patients are less likely to receive reperfusion even if eligible. Data support a benefit from reperfusion in elderly subgroups up to age 85 years. The selection of reperfusion strategy is determined more by availability, time from presentation, shock, and comorbidity than by age. Additional data are needed on selection and dosing of adjunctive therapies and on complications in the elderly. A "one-size-fits-all" approach to care in the oldest old is not feasible, and ethical issues will remain even in the presence of adequate evidence. Nevertheless, if the contributors to treatment benefits and risks are understood, guideline-recommended care may be applied in a patient-centered manner in

  4. Differences in short-term versus long-term outcomes of older black versus white patients with myocardial infarction: findings from the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines (CRUSADE).

    PubMed

    Mathews, Robin; Chen, Anita Y; Thomas, Laine; Wang, Tracy Y; Chin, Chee Tang; Thomas, Kevin L; Roe, Matthew T; Peterson, Eric D

    2014-08-19

    Blacks are less likely than whites to receive coronary revascularization and evidence-based therapies after acute myocardial infarction, yet the impact of these differences on long-term outcomes is unknown. We linked Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines (CRUSADE) registry data to national Medicare claims, creating a longitudinal record of care and outcomes among 40 500 patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated at 446 hospitals to examine mortality and readmission rates (mean follow-up, 2.4 years) among black and white patients. Relative to whites (n=37 384), blacks (n=3116) were more often younger and female; more often had diabetes mellitus and renal failure; and received less aggressive interventions, including cardiac catheterization (60.7% versus 54.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (32.1% versus 23.8%; P<0.001), and coronary bypass surgery (9.2% versus 5.7%; P<0.001). Although blacks had lower 30-day mortality (9.1% versus 9.9%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.92), they had higher observed mortality at 1 year (27.9% versus 24.5%; P<0.001), although this was not significant after adjustment on long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.07). Black patients also had higher 30-day (23.6% versus 20.0%; P<0.001) and 1-year (62.0% versus 54.6%; P<0.001) all-cause readmission, but these differences were no longer significant after risk adjustment on 30-day (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.13) and long-term (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) follow-up. Although older blacks with an acute myocardial infarction had lower initial mortality rates than whites, this early survival advantage did not persist during long-term follow-up. The reasons for this are multifactorial but may include

  5. ACCF/ASE/ACEP/AHA/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2008 appropriateness criteria for stress echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriateness Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Khandheria, Bijoy; Stainback, Raymond F; Weissman, Neil J; Peterson, Eric D; Hendel, Robert C; Stainback, Raymond F; Blaivas, Michael; Des Prez, Roger D; Gillam, Linda D; Golash, Terry; Hiratzka, Loren F; Kussmaul, William G; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Masoudi, Frederick A; Mayo, Paul H; Porembka, David; Spertus, John A; Wann, L Samuel; Wiegers, Susan E; Brindis, Ralph G; Douglas, Pamela S; Patel, Manesh R; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2008-03-18

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) together with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriateness review for stress echocardiography. The review assessed the risks and benefits of stress echocardiography for several indications or clinical scenarios and scored them on a scale of 1 to 9 (based upon methodology developed by the ACCF to assess imaging appropriateness). The upper range (7 to 9) implies that the test is generally acceptable and is a reasonable approach, and the lower range (1 to 3) implies that the test is generally not acceptable and is not a reasonable approach. The midrange (4 to 6) indicates a clinical scenario for which the indication for a stress echocardiogram is uncertain. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Use of stress echocardiography for risk assessment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while routine repeat testing and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making and performance, reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research.

  6. ACCF/ASE/ACEP/AHA/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2008 Appropriateness Criteria for Stress Echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriateness Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Khandheria, Bijoy; Stainback, Raymond F; Weissman, Neil J; Peterson, Eric D; Hendel, Robert C; Stainback, Raymond F; Blaivas, Michael; Des Prez, Roger D; Gillam, Linda D; Golash, Terry; Hiratzka, Loren F; Kussmaul, William G; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lindenfeld, Joann; Masoudi, Frederick A; Mayo, Paul H; Porembka, David; Spertus, John A; Wann, L Samuel; Wiegers, Susan E; Brindis, Ralph G; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Patel, Manesh R; Peterson, Eric D; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2008-04-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) together with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriateness review for stress echocardiography. The review assessed the risks and benefits of stress echocardiography for several indications or clinical scenarios and scored them on a scale of 1 to 9 (based upon methodology developed by the ACCF to assess imaging appropriateness). The upper range (7 to 9) implies that the test is generally acceptable and is a reasonable approach, and the lower range (1 to 3) implies that the test is generally not acceptable and is not a reasonable approach. The midrange (4 to 6) indicates a clinical scenario for which the indication for a stress echocardiogram is uncertain. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Use of stress echocardiography for risk assessment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while routine repeat testing and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making and performance, reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research.

  7. ACCF/ASE/ACEP/AHA/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2008 appropriateness criteria for stress echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriateness Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Khandheria, Bijoy; Stainback, Raymond F; Weissman, Neil J; Peterson, Eric D; Hendel, Robert C; Stainback, Raymond F; Blaivas, Michael; Des Prez, Roger D; Gillam, Linda D; Golash, Terry; Hiratzka, Loren F; Kussmaul, William G; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Masoudi, Frederick A; Mayo, Paul H; Porembka, David; Spertus, John A; Wann, L Samuel; Wiegers, Susan E; Brindis, Ralph G; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Patel, Manesh R; Peterson, Eric D; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2008-03-18

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) together with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriateness review for stress echocardiography. The review assessed the risks and benefits of stress echocardiography for several indications or clinical scenarios and scored them on a scale of 1 to 9 (based upon methodology developed by the ACCF to assess imaging appropriateness). The upper range (7 to 9) implies that the test is generally acceptable and is a reasonable approach, and the lower range (1 to 3) implies that the test is generally not acceptable and is not a reasonable approach. The midrange (4 to 6) indicates a clinical scenario for which the indication for a stress echocardiogram is uncertain. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Use of stress echocardiography for risk assessment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while routine repeat testing and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making and performance, reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research.

  8. American Association of Tissue Banks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Committees Accreditation American Board of Tissue Banking Bylaws / Ethics Communications Donor Family Services Ad Hoc Committee Education Finance ... Bureau Accredited Bank Search Bookstore Bulletins Global Topics Communications & Media Job Center News Releases Patients and Community Useful ...

  9. Physical Activity and Incident Hypertension in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Keith M; Booth, John N; Seals, Samantha R; Abdalla, Marwah; Dubbert, Patricia M; Sims, Mario; Ladapo, Joseph A; Redmond, Nicole; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2017-03-01

    There is limited empirical evidence to support the protective effects of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with incident hypertension among African Americans. We studied 1311 participants without hypertension at baseline enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based study of African Americans residing in Jackson, Mississippi. Overall physical activity, moderate-vigorous physical activity, and domain-specific physical activity (work, active living, household, and sport/exercise) were assessed by self-report during the baseline examination (2000-2004). Incident hypertension, assessed at examination 2 (2005-2008) and examination 3 (2009-2013), was defined as the first visit with systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Over a median follow-up of 8.0 years, there were 650 (49.6%) incident hypertension cases. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with intermediate and ideal versus poor levels of moderate-vigorous physical activity were 0.84 (0.67-1.05) and 0.76 (0.58-0.99), respectively ( P trend=0.038). A graded, dose-response association was also present for sport/exercise-related physical activity (Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus Quartile 1: 0.92 [0.68-1.25], 0.87 [0.67-1.13], 0.75 [0.58-0.97], respectively; P trend=0.032). There were no statistically significant associations observed for overall physical activity, or work, active living, and household-related physical activities. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that regular moderate-vigorous physical activity or sport/exercise-related physical activity may reduce the risk of developing hypertension in African Americans. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Patient adherence to generic versus brand statin therapy after acute myocardial infarction: Insights from the Can Rapid Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines Registry.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Emily C; McCoy, Lisa A; Thomas, Laine; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Tracy Y

    2015-07-01

    Statins reduce mortality after acute myocardial infarction, but up to half of patients discontinue statin use within 1 year of therapy initiation. Although cost may influence medication adherence, it is unknown whether use of generic versus brand statins influences adherence. We linked detailed inhospital clinical data for 1421 non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients discharged on a statin in 2006 to Medicare Part D medication claims records to examine postdischarge medication use. One-year statin adherence was defined using the proportion of days covered with optimal adherence ≥80%. We examined the association of brand versus generic statin prescription and 1-year adherence after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors, predischarge lipid values, prior statin use, and socioeconomic status. Overall, 65.5% of statin fills were for brand-name statins. There were few baseline differences in demographics and clinical factors among generic versus brand users. Patient copay amounts were higher for brand versus generic statins (median = $25 vs $5, P < .001), yet the mean proportion of days covered over 1 year was similar (71.5% vs 68.9%; P = .97; unadjusted odds ratio 1.15 [95% CI 0.96-1.37]). Proportion of days covered ≥80% was low for both generic (56.2%) and brand statins (55.9%; P = .93). Statin adherence rates remained similar between generic and brand users after adjusting for demographics, clinical risk factors, lipid value, prior statin use, and socioeconomic status. In a cohort of older non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, we found no evidence that use of generic versus brand drug was associated with higher adherence to statins at 1 year after hospital discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new dietary strategy for long-term treatment of the metabolic syndrome is compared with the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines: the MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) project.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Abete, Itziar; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Forga, Luis; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7%; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7%; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8%; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4%; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9%; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8%; P= 0·008 and - 14·0%; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9%; P= 0·011), AST (11·3%; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0%; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4%; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8%; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1%; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good

  12. Relation Between Hospital Length of Stay and Quality of Care in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines--Coronary Artery Disease Data Set).

    PubMed

    Tickoo, Sumit; Bhardwaj, Adarsh; Fonarow, Gregg C; Liang, Li; Bhatt, Deepak L; Cannon, Christopher P

    2016-01-15

    Worries regarding short length of stay (LOS) adversely impacting quality of care prompted us to assess the relation between hospital LOS and inpatient guideline adherence in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We used the American Heart Association's Get with The Guidelines (GWTG)--Coronary Artery Disease data set. Data were collected from January 2, 2000, to March 21, 2010, for patients with acute coronary syndrome from 405 different sites. Of the 119,398 patients in the study, the mean LOS was 5.5 days with a median of 4 days. There was no difference in the LOS on the basis of hospital size, hospital type, or cardiac surgery availability. The population with an LOS <4 days were younger (63.8 ± 14.1 vs 70 ± 14.5, p <0.0001), men (63.8% vs 55.3%, p <0.0001) and had fewer clinical co-morbidities. The overall adherence was high in the GWTG participating hospitals. Those with the LOS <4 days were more likely to receive aspirin (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.19; p <0.001), clopidogrel (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.60 to 1.95; p <0.001), lipid-lowering therapy if indicated (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21; p <0.001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.21; p = 0.04) and smoking cessation counseling (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.24; p <0.001) compared to those with the LOS ≥ 4 days. In contrast, those with the LOS <4 days were less likely to receive beta blockers (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93; p <0.001). The odds of receiving defect-free care were greater for patients with the LOS <4 days (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.21; p <0.001). In conclusion, in GWTG participating hospitals, a shorter LOS did not appear to adversely affect adherence to discharge quality of care measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Circulating Procollagen Type III N-Terminal Peptide and Mortality Risk in African Americans With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ibrahim N; Bress, Adam P; Groo, Vicki; Ismail, Sahar; Wu, Grace; Patel, Shitalben R; Duarte, Julio D; Kittles, Rick A; Stamos, Thomas D; Cavallari, Larisa H

    2016-09-01

    Procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP) is a biomarker of cardiac fibrosis that is associated with heart failure prognosis in whites. Its prognostic significance in African Americans is unknown. We sought to determine whether PIIINP is associated with outcomes in African Americans with heart failure. Blood was collected from 138 African Americans with heart failure for determining PIIINP and genetic ancestry, and patients were followed prospectively for death or hospitalization for heart failure. PIIINP was inversely correlated with West African ancestry (R(2) = 0.061; P = .010). PIIINP > 4.88 ng/mL was associated with all-cause mortality on univariate (hazard ratio [HR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-11.0; P < .001) and multivariate (HR 5.8; 95% CI 1.9-17.3; P = .002) analyses over a median follow-up period of 3 years. We also observed an increased risk for the combined outcome of all-cause mortality or hospitalization for heart failure with PIIINP > 4.88 ng/mL on univariate (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-5.0; P < .001) and multivariate (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7; P = .016) analyses. High circulating PIIINP is associated with poor outcomes in African Americans with chronic heart failure, suggesting that PIIINP may be useful in identifying African Americans who may benefit from additional therapy to combat fibrosis as a means of improving prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. European and American recommendations for coronary heart disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Wood, D

    1998-02-01

    European and American recommendations for coronary heart disease prevention put patients with clinically manifest coronary heart disease, or other major atherosclerotic disease, as the top priority for prevention. Coronary patients should have professional support to stop smoking, eat a healthier diet (reduce the dietary intake of fat to 30% or less of total energy; saturated fat to no more than one third of total fat intake, cholesterol to less than 300 mg per day; increase monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat from both vegetables and marine sources; increase fresh fruit and vegetables) achieve optimal weight, and become physically fitter through regular aerobic exercise. The intensity of lifestyle intervention and the level of professional support required to achieve change should be determined by the absolute risk of a further major ischaemic event, based on an assessment of all risk factors, and this should also influence the threshold for drug therapy in relation to blood pressure, lipoproteins and glucose, rather than just the individual levels of these risk factors. In addition to lifestyle changes (reducing weight and restricting salt and alcohol as appropriate) blood pressure in coronary patients should be lowered if necessary with drug therapy. For these patients blood pressure should be consistently less than 140/90 mmHg. Lifestyle changes will reduce total cholesterol (and in particular LDL cholesterol) increase HDL cholesterol and lower triglycerides. Drug therapy may also be required and in coronary patients total cholesterol should be kept consistently below 4.8 mmol.l-1, and this threshold may be further reduced with the publication of new trial results. In insulin-dependent diabetes, rigorous metabolic control reduces the risk of microvascular complications and therefore for coronary patients with insulin-dependent or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus this is a desirable objective. As diabetics with coronary disease are at substantially

  15. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Workplace Health & Safety Journal Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week Member Discounts Monthly Newsletter Foundation About the ... 1, 2018. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. is the primary association for the largest ...

  16. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  17. Perceived Discrimination and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Older African Americans: Insights From the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Lippmann, Steven J; Greiner, Melissa A; O'Brien, Emily C; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Mentz, Robert J; Sims, Mario

    2017-05-01

    To assess the associations of perceived discrimination and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in African Americans (AAs) in the Jackson Heart Study. In 5085 AAs free of clinical CV disease at baseline enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study from September 26, 2000, through March 31, 2004, and followed through 2012, associations of everyday discrimination (frequency of occurrences of perceived unfair treatment) and lifetime discrimination (perceived unfair treatment in 9 life domains) with CV outcomes (all-cause mortality, incident coronary heart disease [CHD], incident stroke, and heart failure [HF] hospitalization) were examined using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination were more common in participants who were younger and male and had higher education and income, lower perceived standing in the community, worse perceived health care access, and fewer comorbidities. Before adjustment, higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, incident CHD, stroke, and HF hospitalization. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association of everyday and lifetime discrimination with incident CHD, incident stroke, or HF hospitalization; however, a decrease in all-cause mortality with progressively higher levels of everyday discrimination persisted (hazard ratio per point increase in discrimination measure, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99; P=.02). The unexpected association of everyday discrimination and all-cause mortality was partially mediated by perceived stress. We found no independent association of perceived discrimination with risk of incident CV disease or HF hospitalization in this AA population. An observed paradoxical negative association of everyday discrimination and all-cause mortality was partially mediated by perceived stress. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  19. The Contribution of Psychosocial Stressors to Sleep among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dayna A.; Lisabeth, Lynda; Lewis, Tené T.; Sims, Mario; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Studies have shown that psychosocial stressors are related to poor sleep. However, studies of African Americans, who may be more vulnerable to the impact of psychosocial stressors, are lacking. Using the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) baseline data, we examined associations of psychosocial stressors with sleep in 4,863 African Americans. Methods: We examined cross-sectional associations between psychosocial stressors and sleep duration and quality in a large population sample of African Americans. Three measures of psychosocial stress were investigated: the Global Perceived Stress Scale (GPSS); Major Life Events (MLE); and the Weekly Stress Inventory (WSI). Sleep was assessed using self-reported hours of sleep and sleep quality rating (1 = poor; 5 = excellent). Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were used to examine the association of each stress measure (in quartiles) with continuous and categorical sleep duration (< 5 (“very short”), 5–6 h (“short”) and > 9 h (“long”) versus 7 or 8 h (“normal”); and with sleep quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, physical activity). Results: Mean age of the sample was 54.6 years and 64% were female. Mean sleep duration was 6.4 + 1.5 hours, 54% had a short sleep duration, 5% had a long sleep duration, and 34% reported a “poor” or “fair” sleep quality. Persons in the highest GPSS quartile had higher odds of very short sleep (odds ratio: 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02, 4.08), higher odds of short sleep (1.72, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.12), shorter average sleep duration (Δ = −33.6 min (95% CI: −41.8, −25.4), and reported poorer sleep quality (Δ = −0.73 (95% CI: −0.83, −0.63) compared to those in the lowest quartile of GPSS after adjustment for covariates. Similar patterns were observed for WSI and MLE. Psychosocial stressors were not associated with long sleep. For WSI, effects of stress on sleep

  20. Estimated GFR and incident cardiovascular disease events in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Shara, Nawar M; Wang, Hong; Mete, Mihriye; Al-Balha, Yaman Rai; Azalddin, Nameer; Lee, Elisa T; Franceschini, Nora; Jolly, Stacey E; Howard, Barbara V; Umans, Jason G

    2012-11-01

    In populations with high prevalences of diabetes and obesity, estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk better than by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Longitudinal cohort study comparing the association of GFR estimated using either the CKD-EPI or MDRD Study equation with incident CVD outcomes. American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study, a longitudinal population-based cohort with high prevalences of diabetes, CVD, and CKD. Estimated GFR (eGFR) predicted using the CKD-EPI and MDRD Study equations. Fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, consisting of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. The association between eGFR and outcomes was explored in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for traditional risk factors and albuminuria; the net reclassification index and integrated discrimination improvement were determined for the CKD-EPI versus MDRD Study equations. In 4,549 participants, diabetes was present in 45%; CVD, in 7%; and stages 3-5 CKD, in 10%. During a median of 15 years, there were 1,280 cases of incident CVD, 929 cases of incident coronary heart disease, 305 cases of incident stroke, and 381 cases of incident heart failure. Reduced eGFR (<90 mL/min/1.73 m2) was associated with adverse events in most models. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, the CKD-EPI equation correctly reclassified 17.0% of 2,151 participants without incident CVD to a lower risk (higher eGFR) category and 1.3% (n=28) were reclassified incorrectly to a higher risk (lower eGFR) category. Single measurements of eGFR and albuminuria at study visits. Although eGFR based on either equation had similar associations with incident CVD, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure events, in those not having events, reclassification of participants to eGFR categories was superior using the

  1. Aldosterone, Renin, Cardiovascular Events, and All-Cause Mortality Among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kalyani, Rita R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Bertoni, Alain G; Effoe, Valery S; Casanova, Ramon; Sims, Mario; Wu, Wen-Chih; Wand, Gary S; Correa, Adolfo; Golden, Sherita H

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association of aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), using a composite endpoint of coronary heart disease, stroke, and/or heart failure and mortality among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. There is a paucity of data for the association of aldosterone and PRA with incident CVD or all-cause mortality among community-dwelling African Americans. A total of 4,985 African American adults, 21 to 94 years of age, were followed for 12 years. Aldosterone, PRA, and cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (from 2000 to 2004). Incident events included coronary heart disease and stroke (assessed from 2000 to 2011) and heart failure (assessed from 2005 to 2011). Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident CVD and mortality, adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, current smoking, physical activity, dietary intake, and body mass index. Among 4,160 participants without prevalent CVD over a median follow-up of 7 years, there were 322 incident CVD cases. In adjusted analyses, each 1-U SD increase in log-aldosterone and log-PRA were associated with HR of 1.26 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.14 to 1.40) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.33) for incident CVD, respectively. Over a median of 8 years, 513 deaths occurred among 4,985 participants. In adjusted analyses, each 1-U SD increase in log-aldosterone and log-PRA were associated with HRs of 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.23) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.24) for mortality, respectively. Elevated aldosterone and PRA may play a significant role in the development of CVD and all-cause mortality among African Americans. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogeographic Ancestry, Self-Identified Race, and Admixture-Phenotype Associations in the Heart SCORE Study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Indrani; Kip, Kevin E.; Mulukutla, Suresh R.; Aiyer, Aryan N.; Marroquin, Oscar C.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Reis, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Large epidemiologic studies examining differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles between European Americans and African Americans have exclusively used self-identified race (SIR) to classify individuals. Recent genetic epidemiology studies of some CVD risk factors have suggested that biogeographic ancestry (BGA) may be a better predictor of CVD risk than SIR. This hypothesis was investigated in 464 African Americans and 771 European Americans enrolled in the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) Study in March and April 2010. Individual West African and European BGA were ascertained by means of a panel of 1,595 genetic ancestry informative markers. Individual BGA varied significantly among African Americans and to a lesser extent among European Americans. In the total cohort, BGA was not found to be a better predictor of CVD risk factors than SIR. Both measures predicted differences in the presence of the metabolic syndrome, waist circumference, triglycerides, body mass index, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein A, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between European Americans and African Americans. These results suggest that for most nongenetic cardiovascular epidemiology studies, SIR is sufficient for predicting CVD risk factor differences between European Americans and African Americans. However, higher body mass index and diastolic blood pressure were significantly associated with West African BGA among African Americans, suggesting that BGA should be considered in genetic cardiovascular epidemiology studies carried out among African Americans. PMID:22771727

  3. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    stream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonias in spite of many fewer catheters per 1000...multiple attempts the burn community has never been able to link ABA verification with enhanced reimbursement. It is clear that to accomplish this...goal, we must be able to link verification with improved outcomes, decreased mortality, shorter hospital stay, reduced hospital- acquired

  4. Long‐term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow‐up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, P<0.0001). Higher heart rate was also associated with higher all‐cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33, P=0.01). Spline analyses did not suggest a lower threshold beyond which the benefit of a lower heart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long‐term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all‐cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

  5. Perioperative beta blockade in noncardiac surgery: a systematic review for the 2014 ACC/AHA guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Duncan, Dallas; Nkonde-Price, Chileshe; Virani, Salim S; Washam, Jeffrey B; Fleischmann, Kirsten E; Fleisher, Lee A

    2014-12-09

    : 0.92 to 1.71). These differences were qualitatively unchanged after the POISE-1 trial was excluded. Perioperative beta blockade started within 1 day or less before noncardiac surgery prevents nonfatal MI but increases risks of stroke, death, hypotension, and bradycardia. Without the controversial DECREASE studies, there are insufficient data on beta blockade started 2 or more days prior to surgery. Multicenter RCTs are needed to address this knowledge gap. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk and the American Dream: Life Course Observations From the BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Pollock, Benjamin D; Harville, Emily W; Mills, Katherine T; Tang, Wan; Chen, Wei; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2018-02-06

    Economic literature shows that a child's future earnings are predictably influenced by parental income, providing an index of "socioeconomic mobility," or the ability of a person to move towards a higher socioeconomic status from childhood to adulthood. We adapted this economic paradigm to examine cardiovascular risk mobility (CRM), or whether there is life course mobility in relative cardiovascular risk. Participants from the BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study) with 1 childhood and 1 adult visit from 1973 to 2016 (n=7624) were considered. We defined population-level CRM as the rank-rank slope (β) from the regression of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk percentile ranking onto childhood CVD risk percentile ranking (β=0 represents complete mobility; β=1 represents no mobility). After defining and measuring relative CRM, we assessed its correlation with absolute cardiovascular health using the American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health metrics. Overall, there was substantial mobility, with black participants having marginally better CRM than whites (β black =0.10 [95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.15]; β white =0.18 [95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.22]; P =0.01). Having high relative CVD risk at an earlier age significantly reduced CRM (β age×slope =-0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.03 to -0.01; P <0.001). Relative CRM was strongly correlated with life course changes in Ideal Cardiovascular Health sum ( r =0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.65). Results from this novel application of an economic mobility index to cardiovascular epidemiology indicated substantial CRM, supporting the paradigm that life course CVD risk is highly modifiable. High CRM implies that the children with the best relative CVD profiles may only maintain a slim advantage over their peers into adulthood. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Celebrations: American Camping Association Annual Report 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1986 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews the year's achievements and outlines goals for the future. An introductory message from ACA President Jean McMullan notes successful fund raising to improve the association's national headquarters, passage of federal legislation exempting camps from paying federal unemployment…

  8. Reduced intrinsic heart rate is associated with reduced arrhythmic susceptibility in guinea-pig heart.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2014-12-01

    In the clinical setting, patients with slower resting heart rate are less prone to cardiovascular death compared with those with elevated heart rate. However, electrophysiological adaptations associated with reduced cardiac rhythm have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, relationships between intrinsic heart rate and arrhythmic susceptibility were examined by assessments of action potential duration (APD) rate adaptation and inducibility of repolarization alternans in sinoatrial node (SAN)-driven and atrioventricular (AV)-blocked guinea-pig hearts perfused with Langendorff apparatus. Electrocardiograms, epicardial monophasic action potentials, and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed in normokalemic and hypokalemic conditions. Slower basal heart rate in AV-blocked hearts was associated with prolonged ventricular repolarization during spontaneous beating, and with attenuated APD shortening at increased cardiac activation rates during dynamic pacing, when compared with SAN-driven hearts. During hypokalemic perfusion, the inducibility of repolarization alternans and tachyarrhythmia by rapid pacing was found to be lower in AV-blocked hearts. This difference was ascribed to prolonged ERP in the setting of reduced basal heart rate, which prevented ventricular capture at critically short pacing intervals required to induce arrhythmia. Reduced basal heart rate is associated with electrophysiological changes that prevent electrical instability upon an abrupt cardiac acceleration.

  9. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.

  10. The Contribution of Psychosocial Stressors to Sleep among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dayna A; Lisabeth, Lynda; Lewis, Tené T; Sims, Mario; Hickson, DeMarc A; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-07-01

    Studies have shown that psychosocial stressors are related to poor sleep. However, studies of African Americans, who may be more vulnerable to the impact of psychosocial stressors, are lacking. Using the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) baseline data, we examined associations of psychosocial stressors with sleep in 4,863 African Americans. We examined cross-sectional associations between psychosocial stressors and sleep duration and quality in a large population sample of African Americans. Three measures of psychosocial stress were investigated: the Global Perceived Stress Scale (GPSS); Major Life Events (MLE); and the Weekly Stress Inventory (WSI). Sleep was assessed using self-reported hours of sleep and sleep quality rating (1 = poor; 5 = excellent). Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were used to examine the association of each stress measure (in quartiles) with continuous and categorical sleep duration (< 5 ("very short"), 5-6 h ("short") and > 9 h ("long") versus 7 or 8 h ("normal"); and with sleep quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, physical activity). Mean age of the sample was 54.6 years and 64% were female. Mean sleep duration was 6.4 + 1.5 hours, 54% had a short sleep duration, 5% had a long sleep duration, and 34% reported a "poor" or "fair" sleep quality. Persons in the highest GPSS quartile had higher odds of very short sleep (odds ratio: 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02, 4.08), higher odds of short sleep (1.72, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.12), shorter average sleep duration (Δ = -33.6 min (95% CI: -41.8, -25.4), and reported poorer sleep quality (Δ = -0.73 (95% CI: -0.83, -0.63) compared to those in the lowest quartile of GPSS after adjustment for covariates. Similar patterns were observed for WSI and MLE. Psychosocial stressors were not associated with long sleep. For WSI, effects of stress on sleep duration were stronger for younger (< 60 y) and college-educated African-Americans

  11. Multi-variant study of obesity risk genes in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijian; Wilson, James G; Jiang, Fan; Griswold, Michael; Correa, Adolfo; Mei, Hao

    2016-11-30

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been successful in identifying obesity risk genes by single-variant association analysis. For this study, we designed steps of analysis strategy and aimed to identify multi-variant effects on obesity risk among candidate genes. Our analyses were focused on 2137 African American participants with body mass index measured in the Jackson Heart Study and 657 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped at 8 GWAS-identified obesity risk genes. Single-variant association test showed that no SNPs reached significance after multiple testing adjustment. The following gene-gene interaction analysis, which was focused on SNPs with unadjusted p-value<0.10, identified 6 significant multi-variant associations. Logistic regression showed that SNPs in these associations did not have significant linear interactions; examination of genetic risk score evidenced that 4 multi-variant associations had significant additive effects of risk SNPs; and haplotype association test presented that all multi-variant associations contained one or several combinations of particular alleles or haplotypes, associated with increased obesity risk. Our study evidenced that obesity risk genes generated multi-variant effects, which can be additive or non-linear interactions, and multi-variant study is an important supplement to existing GWAS for understanding genetic effects of obesity risk genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Social support among African Americans with heart failure: is there a role for community health advisors?

    PubMed

    Durant, Raegan W; Brown, Qiana L; Cherrington, Andrea L; Andreae, Lynn J; Hardy, Claudia M; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2013-01-01

    The study had 2 objectives: (1) to gather the observations of community health advisors (CHAs) on the role of social support in the lives of African Americans; and (2) to develop a lay support intervention framework, on the basis of the existing literature and observations of CHAs, depicting how social support may address the needs of African American patients with heart failure. Qualitative data were collected in semistructured interviews among 15 CHAs working in African American communities in Birmingham, Alabama. Prominent themes included the challenge of meeting clients' overlapping health care and general life needs, the variation in social support received from family and friends, and the opportunities for CHAs to provide multiple types of social support to clients. CHAs also believed that their support activities could be implemented among populations with heart failure. The experience of CHAs with social support can inform a potential framework of a lay support intervention among African Americans with heart failure. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  13. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND INCIDENT HYPERTENSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS: THE JACKSON HEART STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Booth, John N.; Seals, Samantha R.; Abdalla, Marwah; Dubbert, Patricia M.; Sims, Mario; Ladapo, Joseph A.; Redmond, Nicole; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence to support the protective effects of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with incident hypertension among African Americans. We studied 1,311 participants without hypertension at baseline enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based study of African Americans residing in Jackson, MS. Overall physical activity, moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and domain-specific physical activity (work, active living, household, and sport/exercise) were assessed by self-report during the baseline exam (2000–2004). Incident hypertension, assessed at exam 2 (2005–2008) and exam 3 (2009–2013), was defined as the first visit with systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Over a median follow-up of 8.0 years, there were 650 (49.6%) incident hypertension cases. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for incident hypertension comparing participants with intermediate and ideal versus poor levels of MVPA were 0.84 (0.67–1.05) and 0.76 (0.58–0.99), respectively (P-trend=0.038). A graded, dose-response association was also present for sport/exercise-related physical activity (Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 vs. Quartile 1: 0.92 [0.68–1.25], 0.87 [0.67–1.13], 0.75 [0.58–0.97], respectively; P-trend=0.032). There were no statistically significant associations observed for overall physical activity, or work, active living, and household-related physical activities. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that regular MVPA or sport/exercise-related physical activity may reduce the risk of developing hypertension in African Americans. PMID:28137988

  14. ACC/AHA Special Report: Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategies: A Summary of Systematic Reviews by the NHLBI Implementation Science Work Group: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wiley V; Pearson, Thomas A; Bennett, Glen C; Cushman, William C; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gorman, Paul N; Handler, Joel; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kushner, Robert F; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Stevens, Victor J; Wells, Barbara L

    2017-02-28

    reviews), reminders (3 of 4 reviews), and provider incentives (1 of 1 review) were generally effective for cost reduction. Educational outreach visits (1 of 1 review) and provider incentives (1 of 1 review) were also generally effective for cost-effectiveness outcomes. Barriers to clinician adoption or adherence to guidelines included time constraints (8 reviews/overviews); limited staffing resources (2 overviews); timing (5 reviews/overviews); clinician skepticism (5 reviews/overviews); clinician knowledge of guidelines (4 reviews/overviews); and higher age of the clinician (1 overview). Facilitating factors included guideline characteristics such as format, resources, and end-user involvement (6 reviews/overviews); involving stakeholders (5 reviews/overviews); leadership support (5 reviews/overviews); scope of implementation (5 reviews/overviews); organizational culture such as multidisciplinary teams and low-baseline adherence (9 reviews/overviews); and electronic guidelines systems (3 reviews). The strategies of audit and feedback and educational outreach visits were generally effective in improving both process of care and clinical outcomes. Reminders and provider incentives showed mixed effectiveness, or were generally ineffective. No general conclusion could be reached about cost effectiveness, because of limitations in the evidence. Important gaps exist in the evidence on effectiveness of implementation interventions, especially regarding clinical outcomes, cost effectiveness and contextual issues affecting successful implementation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heart Rate at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Laskey, Warren K.; Alomari, Ihab; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J.; Zhao, Xin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Eapen, Zubin J.; Yancy, Clyde; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether heart rate upon discharge following hospitalization for heart failure is associated with long‐term adverse outcomes and whether this association differs between patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well studied. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study from clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for 46 217 patients participating in Get With The Guidelines®–Heart Failure. Cox proportional‐hazards models were used to estimate the association between discharge heart rate and all‐cause mortality, all‐cause readmission, and the composite outcome of mortality/readmission through 1 year. For SR and AF patients with heart rate ≥75, the association between heart rate and mortality (expressed as hazard ratio [HR] per 10 beats‐per‐minute increment) was significant at 0 to 30 days (SR: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.39; AF: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 31 to 365 days (SR: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.20; AF: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08). Similar associations between heart rate and all‐cause readmission and the composite outcome were obtained for SR and AF patients from 0 to 30 days but only in the composite outcome for SR patients over the longer term. The HR from 0 to 30 days exceeded that from 31 to 365 days for both SR and AF patients. At heart rates <75, an association was significant for mortality only for both SR and AF patients. Conclusions Among older patients hospitalized with heart failure, higher discharge heart rate was associated with increased risks of death and rehospitalization, with higher risk in the first 30 days and for SR compared with AF. PMID:25904590

  16. ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Computed Tomography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allen J; Cerqueira, Manuel; Hodgson, John McB; Mark, Daniel; Min, James; O'Gara, Patrick; Rubin, Geoffrey D

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is frequently considered. The present document is an update to the original CCT/cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) appropriateness criteria published in 2006, written to reflect changes in test utilization, to incorporate new clinical data, and to clarify CCT use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria (1). The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Ninety-three clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of CCT angiography for diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with low or intermediate risk or pretest probability for coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, whereas testing in high-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Use of noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for calcium scoring was rated as appropriate within intermediate- and selected low-risk patients. Appropriate applications of CCT are also within the category of cardiac structural and functional evaluation. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on physician decision making, performance, and reimbursement policy, and that they will help guide future research. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. QTL mapping of leukocyte telomere length in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Best, Lyle G.; Lee, Elisa T.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Cole, Shelley A.; Zhao, Jinying

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres play a central role in cellular senescence and are associated with a variety of age-related disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Telomere length varies greatly among individuals of the same age, and is heritable. Here we performed a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measured by quantitative PCR in 3,665 American Indians (aged 14 – 93 years) from 94 large, multi-generational families. All participants were recruited by the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS), a prospective study to identify genetic factors for cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in American Indians residing in Oklahoma, Arizona and Dakota. LTL heritability was estimated to be between 51% and 62%, suggesting a strong genetic predisposition to interindividual variation of LTL in this population. Significant QTLs were localized to chromosome 13 (Logarithm of odds score (LOD) = 3.9) at 13q12.11, to 18q22.2 (LOD = 3.2) and to 3p14.1 (LOD = 3.0) for Oklahoma. This is the first study to identify susceptibility loci influencing leukocyte telomere variation in American Indians, a minority group suffering from a disproportionately high rate of type 2 diabetes and other age-related disorders. PMID:24036517

  18. Left Ventricular Function Across the Spectrum of Body Mass Index in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vivek G; Gupta, Deepak K; Terry, James G; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Wang, Thomas J; Correa, Aldolfo; Griswold, Michael; Taylor, Herman; Carr, John Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    This study sought to assess whether body mass index (BMI) was associated with subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in African-American individuals. Higher BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. Obesity disproportionately affects African Americans; however, the association between higher BMI and LV function in African Americans is not well understood. Peak systolic circumferential strain (ECC) was measured by tagged cardiac magnetic resonance in 1,652 adult African-American participants of the Jackson Heart Study between 2008 and 2012. We evaluated the association between BMI and ECC in multivariate linear regression and restricted cubic spline analyses adjusted for prevalent cardiovascular disease, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, LV mass, and ejection fraction. In exploratory analyses, we also examined whether inflammation, insulin resistance, or volume of visceral adipose tissue altered the association between BMI and ECC. The proportions of female, nonsmokers, diabetic, and hypertensive participants rose with increase in BMI. In multivariate-adjusted models, higher BMI was associated with worse ECC (β = 0.052; 95% confidence interval: 0.028 to 0.075), even in the setting of preserved LV ejection fraction. Higher BMI was also associated with worse ECC when accounting for markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, E-selection, and P-selectin), insulin resistance, and volume of visceral adipose tissue. Higher BMI is significantly associated with subclinical LV dysfunction in African Americans, even in the setting of preserved LV ejection fraction. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  20. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Best, Lyle G.; Umans, Jason G.; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T.; Jones, Dean P.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups. PMID:27434237

  1. American Association of University Women 2013 Bylaws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The American Association of University Women (AAUW) Bylaws contain governance history, policies and procedures for managing the organization, and information to conduct AAUW's affairs. The 2013 bylaws are divided into the following articles: (1) Name and Office; (2) Purpose; (3) Use of Name; (4) Membership and Dues; (5) Nominations and Elections;…

  2. American Evaluation Association: Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Evaluation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association (AEA) strives to promote ethical practice in the evaluation of programs, products, personnel, and policy. This article presents the list of principles which AEA developed to guide evaluators in their professional practice. These principles are: (1) Systematic Inquiry; (2) Competence; (3) Integrity/Honesty; (4)…

  3. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  4. Update on the American Mosquito Control Association

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The American Mosquito Control Association in a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to promoting the highest standard in professional mosquito control. It is comprised of more than 1300 members representing students, scientists, regulators, industry, mosquito control employees and many other...

  5. American Camping Association Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The American Camping Association (ACA) is a community of camp professionals dedicated to enriching the lives of children and adults through the camp experience. This annual report describes ACA activities during 2000, grouped in five areas: (1) expansion of services and other development of ACA's 24 regional sections and partnerships with other…

  6. ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 appropriate use criteria for cardiac computed tomography. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allen J; Cerqueira, Manuel; Hodgson, John McB; Mark, Daniel; Min, James; O'Gara, Patrick; Rubin, Geoffrey D; Kramer, Christopher M; Berman, Daniel; Brown, Alan; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Cury, Ricardo C; Desai, Milind Y; Einstein, Andrew J; Gomes, Antoinette S; Harrington, Robert; Hoffmann, Udo; Khare, Rahul; Lesser, John; McGann, Christopher; Rosenberg, Alan; Schwartz, Robert; Shelton, Marc; Smetana, Gerald W; Smith, Sidney C

    2010-11-23

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is frequently considered. The present document is an update to the original CCT/cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) appropriateness criteria published in 2006, written to reflect changes in test utilization, to incorporate new clinical data, and to clarify CCT use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria (1). The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Ninety-three clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of CCT angiography for diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with low or intermediate risk or pretest probability for coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, whereas testing in high-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Use of noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for calcium scoring was rated as appropriate within intermediate- and selected low-risk patients. Appropriate applications of CCT are also within the category of cardiac structural and functional evaluation. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on physician decision making, performance, and reimbursement policy, and that they will help guide future research.

  7. ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Computed Tomography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allen J; Cerqueira, Manuel; Hodgson, John McB; Mark, Daniel; Min, James; O'Gara, Patrick; Rubin, Geoffrey D

    2010-11-23

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is frequently considered. The present document is an update to the original CCT/cardiac magnetic resonance appropriateness criteria published in 2006, written to reflect changes in test utilization, to incorporate new clinical data, and to clarify CCT use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Ninety-three clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of CCT angiography for diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with low or intermediate risk or pretest probability for coronary artery disease was viewed favorably, whereas testing in high-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Use of noncontrast computed tomography for calcium scoring was rated as appropriate within intermediate- and selected low-risk patients. Appropriate applications of CCT are also within the category of cardiac structural and functional evaluation. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on physician decision making, performance, and reimbursement policy, and that they will help guide future research.

  8. Essential features of designating out-of-hospital cardiac arrest as a reportable event: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; and Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Graham; Rumsfeld, John; Eigel, Brian; Abella, Benjamin S; Labarthe, Darwin; Hong, Yuling; O'Connor, Robert E; Mosesso, Vincent N; Berg, Robert A; Leeper, Barbara Bobbi; Weisfeldt, Myron L

    2008-04-29

    The 2010 impact goal of the American Heart Association is to reduce death rates from heart disease and stroke by 25% and to lower the prevalence of the leading risk factors by the same proportion. Much of the burden of acute heart disease is initially experienced out of hospital and can be reduced by timely delivery of effective prehospital emergency care. Many patients with an acute myocardial infarction die from cardiac arrest before they reach the hospital. A small proportion of those with cardiac arrest who reach the hospital survive to discharge. Current health surveillance systems cannot determine the burden of acute cardiovascular illness in the prehospital setting nor make progress toward reducing that burden without improved surveillance mechanisms. Accordingly, the goals of this article provide a brief overview of strategies for managing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We review existing surveillance systems for monitoring progress in reducing the burden of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States and make recommendations for filling significant gaps in these systems, including the following: 1. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and their outcomes through hospital discharge should be classified as reportable events as part of a heart disease and stroke surveillance system. 2. Data collected on patients' encounters with emergency medical services systems should include descriptions of the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders and defibrillation by lay responders. 3. National annual reports on key indicators of progress in managing acute cardiovascular events in the out-of-hospital setting should be developed and made publicly available. Potential barriers to action on cardiac arrest include concerns about privacy, methodological challenges, and costs associated with designating cardiac arrest as a reportable event.

  9. 'Hearts and minds': association, causation and implication of cognitive impairment in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Jane A; McMurray, John Jv; Quinn, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of heart failure is one of the leading causes of hospitalisation and mortality in older adults. An association between cognitive impairment and heart failure is well described but our understanding of the relationship between the two conditions remains limited. In this review we provide a synthesis of available evidence, focussing on epidemiology, the potential pathogenesis, and treatment implications of cognitive decline in heart failure. Most evidence available relates to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and the syndromes of chronic cognitive decline or dementia. These conditions are only part of a complex heart failure-cognition paradigm. Associations between cognition and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and between acute delirium and heart failure also seem evident and where data are available we will discuss these syndromes. Many questions remain unanswered regarding heart failure and cognition. Much of the observational evidence on the association is confounded by study design, comorbidity and insensitive cognitive assessment tools. If a causal link exists, there are several potential pathophysiological explanations. Plausible underlying mechanisms relating to cerebral hypoperfusion or occult cerebrovascular disease have been described and it seems likely that these may coexist and exert synergistic effects. Despite the prevalence of the two conditions, when cognitive impairment coexists with heart failure there is no specific guidance on treatment. Institution of evidence-based heart failure therapies that reduce mortality and hospitalisations seems intuitive and there is no signal that these interventions have an adverse effect on cognition. However, cognitive impairment will present a further barrier to the often complex medication self-management that is required in contemporary heart failure treatment.

  10. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... must be made. Do I want to receive aggressive treatment? Is quality of life more important than ... American Heart Association recommends: An annual heart failure review to discuss how well you are functioning, current ...

  11. Aldosterone, Renin, and Diabetes Mellitus in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua J.; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Kalyani, Rita R.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Bertoni, Alain G.; Effoe, Valery S.; Casanova, Ramon; Sims, Mario; Correa, Adolfo; Wu, Wen-Chih; Wand, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Previous research has suggested that activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may promote insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, but the association with incident diabetes in African Americans is unknown. Objective: We examined the association of aldosterone and renin with insulin resistance, β-cell function, and incident diabetes in a large African American cohort. Design: The Jackson Heart Study is a prospective study of the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in African Americans. Setting: Participants were recruited from the tricounty area of metropolitan Jackson, Mississippi. Participants: A total of 5301 African American adults, aged 21–94 years, were assessed at baseline and through 12 years of follow-up. Data on aldosterone, renin, and risk factors were collected at baseline (2000–2004). Diabetes (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or glycated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) was assessed at baseline and through 12 years of follow-up. Participants were excluded for missing data on baseline covariates or diabetes follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes using sequential modeling adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, systolic blood pressure, current smoking, physical activity, dietary intake, and body mass index. Exposures: Aldosterone, renin, and diabetes risk factors were measured. Outcomes: Outcomes included the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incident diabetes. Results: Among 3234 participants over a median of 8.0 years of follow-up, there were 554 cases of incident diabetes. Every 1% increase in log-transformed aldosterone was associated with a 0.18% higher log-transformed HOMA-IR in cross-sectional analyses of nondiabetic participants (P < .001). Log-transformed aldosterone and renin levels in the fifth vs first quintile were associated with a 78% (HR 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.35

  12. Aldosterone, Renin, and Diabetes Mellitus in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kalyani, Rita R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Bertoni, Alain G; Effoe, Valery S; Casanova, Ramon; Sims, Mario; Correa, Adolfo; Wu, Wen-Chih; Wand, Gary S; Golden, Sherita H

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may promote insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, but the association with incident diabetes in African Americans is unknown. We examined the association of aldosterone and renin with insulin resistance, β-cell function, and incident diabetes in a large African American cohort. The Jackson Heart Study is a prospective study of the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in African Americans. Participants were recruited from the tricounty area of metropolitan Jackson, Mississippi. A total of 5301 African American adults, aged 21–94 years, were assessed at baseline and through 12 years of follow-up. Data on aldosterone, renin, and risk factors were collected at baseline (2000–2004). Diabetes (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or glycated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) was assessed at baseline and through 12 years of follow-up. Participants were excluded for missing data on baseline covariates or diabetes follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes using sequential modeling adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, systolic blood pressure, current smoking, physical activity, dietary intake, and body mass index. Aldosterone, renin, and diabetes risk factors were measured. Outcomes included the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incident diabetes. Among 3234 participants over a median of 8.0 years of follow-up, there were 554 cases of incident diabetes. Every 1% increase in log-transformed aldosterone was associated with a 0.18% higher log-transformed HOMA-IR in cross-sectional analyses of nondiabetic participants (P < .001). Log-transformed aldosterone and renin levels in the fifth vs first quintile were associated with a 78% (HR 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.35–2.34) and 35% (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.72) increase in diabetes

  13. 2015 SCAI/ACC/HFSA/STS Clinical Expert Consensus Statement on the Use of Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices in Cardiovascular Care (Endorsed by the American Heart Association, the Cardiological Society of India, and Sociedad Latino Americana de Cardiología Intervencionista; Affirmation of Value by the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology-Association Canadienne de Cardiologie d'intervention).

    PubMed

    Rihal, Charanjit S; Naidu, Srihari S; Givertz, Michael M; Szeto, Wilson Y; Burke, James A; Kapur, Navin K; Kern, Morton; Garratt, Kirk N; Goldstein, James A; Dimas, Vivian; Tu, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This article provides a brief summary of the relevant recommendations and references related to percutaneous mechanical circulatory support. The goal was to provide the clinician with concise, evidence-based contemporary recommendations, and the supporting documentation to encourage their application. The full text includes disclosure of all relevant relationships with industry for each writing committee member. A fundamental aspect of all expert consensus statements is that these carefully developed, evidence-based documents can neither encompass all clinical circumstances, nor replace the judgment of individual physicians in management of each patient. The science of medicine is rooted in evidence, and the art of medicine is based on the application of this evidence to the individual patient. This expert consensus statement has adhered to these principles for optimal management of patients requiring percutaneous mechanical circulatory support. © 2015 by The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, The American College of Cardiology Foundation, the Heart Failure Society of America, and The Society for Thoracic Surgery.

  14. Improving heart health among Black/African American women using civic engagement: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alison G M; Hudson, Linda B; Chui, Kenneth; Metayer, Nesly; Lebron-Torres, Namibia; Seguin, Rebecca A; Folta, Sara C

    2017-01-24

    Despite increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related conditions, evaluations of health interventions indicate that Black/African American women are less likely to benefit than their white counterparts and are not as likely to engage in behaviors that reduce CVD risk. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of civic engagement as an intervention strategy to address heart health in Black/African American women. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post study design, civic engagement was tested by convening a convenience sample of self-identified Black/African American women, ages 30-70 years, English-speaking, and BMI ≥25.0 (n = 28) into "Change Clubs" in four churches. Feasibility was examined through adherence, satisfaction, retention, and ability of Change Clubs to meet at least 50% of self-identified action steps for community change. Effectiveness data included: dietary intake, measures of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, and anthropometrics. Psychosocial factors hypothesized to serve as the mechanisms by which civic engagement enacts behavior change were also assessed. At baseline, the study sample (n = 28) had a mean age of 50.5 y; 53.6% had an associate degree or higher; 60.7% had an income of $35,000 or higher; and 57.4% were employed full time. At the conclusion of the study, all participants were satisfied with the progress of their Change Club and with the overall experience and Change Clubs met their self-identified action steps for community change. The intervention had a significant effect on finish time on the cardiorespiratory fitness test (p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001). Study results suggest feasibility and evidence of preliminary effectiveness of using a civic engagement approach to address behavior change in a way that is appealing and acceptable to Black/African American women. NCT02173366.

  15. Intermittent Auscultation for Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Surveillance: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Fetal heart rate surveillance is a standard component of intrapartum care. The fetal heart rate can be evaluated using intermittent auscultation or electronic fetal monitoring. Research that has compared these 2 strategies found them to be equivalent with respect to long-term neonatal outcomes. The purpose of this clinical bulletin by the American College of Nurse-Midwives is to review the evidence for use of intermittent auscultation and provide recommendations for intermittent auscultation technique, interpretation, and documentation. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  16. Peer Training of Community Health Workers to Improve Heart Health Among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Willock, Robina Josiah; Mayberry, Robert M.; Yan, Fengxia; Daniels, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Training community health workers (CHWs) builds a workforce that is essential to addressing the chronic disease crisis. This article describes a highly replicable CHW training program that targets heart disease risk among African American women. Background African American women suffer disproportionately from heart disease mortality and morbidity. Well-trained CHWs are uniquely positioned to close this disparity gap. Method We used a Learning Circle approach to train CHWs in heart health education. The curriculum blended web-based, self-directed learning and in-person peer coaching. CHWs learned through (a) peer-to-peer sharing, (b) problem solving and brainstorming, and (c) leadership and experiential activities. Training evaluation measures were CHWs' (a) self-confidence, (b) heart health knowledge, (c) satisfaction with training, (d) training retention, and (e) replication of training within 90 days after training. Results This training resulted in appreciable effects on four of five outcome measures. Heart health knowledge increased significantly among experienced CHWs (p = .011). CHWs were satisfied with training and retention was 100%. CHWs initiated and subsequently delivered 122 person hours of community heart health education and CHW training in their communities. Discussion/Conclusion CHW heart health training using Learning Circles is a practical and replicable method of training CHWs and holds significant potential for building capacity in resource-poor community organizations. PMID:24891525

  17. Peer training of community health workers to improve heart health among African American women.

    PubMed

    Josiah Willock, Robina; Mayberry, Robert M; Yan, Fengxia; Daniels, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Training community health workers (CHWs) builds a workforce that is essential to addressing the chronic disease crisis. This article describes a highly replicable CHW training program that targets heart disease risk among African American women. African American women suffer disproportionately from heart disease mortality and morbidity. Well-trained CHWs are uniquely positioned to close this disparity gap. Method. We used a Learning Circle approach to train CHWs in heart health education. The curriculum blended web-based, self-directed learning and in-person peer coaching. CHWs learned through (a) peer-to-peer sharing, (b) problem solving and brainstorming, and (c) leadership and experiential activities. Training evaluation measures were CHWs' (a) self-confidence, (b) heart health knowledge, (c) satisfaction with training, (d) training retention, and (e) replication of training within 90 days after training. This training resulted in appreciable effects on four of five outcome measures. Heart health knowledge increased significantly among experienced CHWs (p = .011). CHWs were satisfied with training and retention was 100%. CHWs initiated and subsequently delivered 122 person hours of community heart health education and CHW training in their communities. CHW heart health training using Learning Circles is a practical and replicable method of training CHWs and holds significant potential for building capacity in resource-poor community organizations. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. CADIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND INCIDENT HYPERTENSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS: THE JACKSON HEART STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Booth, John N.; Abdalla, Marwah; Tanner, Rikki M.; Diaz, Keith M.; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Tajeu, Gabriel S.; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Bress, Adam P.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Several modifiable health behaviors and health factors that comprise the Life’s Simple 7, a cardiovascular health metric, have been associated with hypertension risk. We determined the association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a cohort of African-Americans. We analyzed participants without hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000–2004) who attended ≥1 follow-up visit in 2005–2008 or 2009–2012 (n=1878). Body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting glucose were assessed at baseline and categorized as ideal, intermediate or poor using the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 definitions. Incident hypertension was defined at the first visit wherein a participant had systolic blood pressure≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure≥90 mmHg or self-reported taking antihypertensive medication. There percentage of participants with ≤1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ideal Life’s Simple 7 components was 6.5%, 22.4%, 34.4%, 25.2%, 10.0% and 1.4%, respectively. No participants had 7 ideal components. During follow-up (median: 8.0 years), 944 (50.3%) participants developed hypertension, including 81.3% with ≤1 and 11.1% with 6 ideal components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 versus ≤1 ideal component were 0.80 (0.61–1.03), 0.58 (0.45–0.74), 0.30 (0.23–0.40), 0.26 (0.18–0.37) and 0.10 (0.03–0.31), respectively (p-trend<0.001). This association was present among participants with baseline systolic blood pressure<120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure<80 mmHg and, separately systolic blood pressure 120–139 or diastolic blood pressure 80–89 mmHg. African-Americans with better cardiovascular health have lower hypertension risk. PMID:28652461

  19. Active life expectancy of Americans with diabetes: risks of heart disease, obesity, and inactivity.

    PubMed

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2015-01-01

    Few researchers have studied whether diabetes itself is responsible for high rates of disability or mortality, or if factors associated with diabetes contribute importantly. We estimated associations of diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and physical inactivity with life expectancy (LE), the proportion of life with disability (DLE), and disability in the last year of life. Data were from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1999-2011 and 1986, African American and white women and men ages 55+, n=1,980, 17,352 person-years). Activities of daily living defined disability. Multinomial logistic Markov models estimated disability transition probabilities adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and the health factors. Microsimulation measured outcomes. White women and men exemplify results. LE was, for women: 3.5 years less with diabetes than without (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.0), 11.1 less (10.3-12.0) adding heart disease, 21.9 less with all factors (15.3-28.5), all p<0.001. Corresponding results for men: 1.7 years (0.9-2.3, not significant), 8.2 (6.8-9.5) and 18.1 (15.6-20.6), both p<0.001. DLE was, for women: 23.5% (21.7-25.4) with no risk factors, 27.1% (25.7-28.6) with diabetes alone, 34.6% (33.1-36.1) adding heart disease, 52.9% (38.9-66.8) with all factors, all p<0.001; for men: 13.2% (11.7-14.6), 16.3% (14.8-17.8, p<0.01); and 22.1% (20.5-23.7), 36.4% (25.0-47.8), both p<.001. Among people with diabetes, those with other conditions were much less likely to have no disability in the final year of life. Much of the disability and mortality with diabetes was due to heart disease, obesity, and inactivity, risks that can be modified by health behaviors and medical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Hypertension Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Dudley, Amanda; Gebreab, Samson; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Bruce, Marino A.; James, Sherman A.; Robinson, Jennifer C.; Williams, David R.; Taylor, Herman A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with prevalent hypertension in African Americans. Methods. Everyday discrimination, lifetime discrimination, burden of discrimination, and stress from discrimination were examined among 4939 participants aged 35 to 84 years (women = 3123; men = 1816). We estimated prevalence ratios of hypertension by discrimination, and adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and risk factors. Results. The prevalence of hypertension was 64.0% in women and 59.7% in men. After adjustment for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, lifetime discrimination and burden of discrimination were associated with greater hypertension prevalence (prevalence ratios for highest vs lowest quartile were 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.15] and 1.09 [95% CI = 1.02,1.16] for lifetime discrimination and burden of discrimination, respectively). Associations were slightly weakened after adjustment for body mass index and behavioral factors. No associations were observed for everyday discrimination. Conclusions. Further understanding the role of perceived discrimination in the etiology of hypertension may be beneficial in eliminating hypertension disparities. PMID:22401510

  1. Perceived discrimination and hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Dudley, Amanda; Gebreab, Samson; Wyatt, Sharon B; Bruce, Marino A; James, Sherman A; Robinson, Jennifer C; Williams, David R; Taylor, Herman A

    2012-05-01

    Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with prevalent hypertension in African Americans. Everyday discrimination, lifetime discrimination, burden of discrimination, and stress from discrimination were examined among 4939 participants aged 35 to 84 years (women = 3123; men = 1816). We estimated prevalence ratios of hypertension by discrimination, and adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and risk factors. The prevalence of hypertension was 64.0% in women and 59.7% in men. After adjustment for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, lifetime discrimination and burden of discrimination were associated with greater hypertension prevalence (prevalence ratios for highest vs lowest quartile were 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.15] and 1.09 [95% CI = 1.02,1.16] for lifetime discrimination and burden of discrimination, respectively). Associations were slightly weakened after adjustment for body mass index and behavioral factors. No associations were observed for everyday discrimination. Further understanding the role of perceived discrimination in the etiology of hypertension may be beneficial in eliminating hypertension disparities.

  2. The Hearts & Minds That Matter Most: Maintaining American National Will

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-15

    even “spin” it, before introducing it to the American people. This interpretation of information is usually benign , but sometimes journalists or...stray from this code of ethics .97 Large portions of the media attempt to influence the public and pressure officials, and others allow fame...conflict of interest and creates a situation that violates the journalistic code of ethics . Once the United States was drawn into the Second World War

  3. Genetic polymorphisms associated with heart failure: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengqi; Guo, Guanlun; Ji, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    To review possible associations reported between genetic variants and the risk, therapeutic response and prognosis of heart failure. Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI) were systematically searched for relevant papers, published between January 1995 and February 2015. Eighty-two articles covering 29 genes and 39 polymorphisms were identified. Genetic association studies of heart failure have been highly controversial. There may be interaction or synergism of several genetic variants that together result in the ultimate pathological phenotype for heart failure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A Scientific Statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Jerry P; Neumar, Robert W; Adrie, Christophe; Aibiki, Mayuki; Berg, Robert A; Böttiger, Bernd W; Callaway, Clifton; Clark, Robert S B; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Jauch, Edward C; Kern, Karl B; Laurent, Ivan; Longstreth, W T; Merchant, Raina M; Morley, Peter; Morrison, Laurie J; Nadkarni, Vinay; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Rivers, Emanuel P; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio; Sellke, Frank W; Spaulding, Christian; Sunde, Kjetil; Hoek, Terry Vanden

    2008-12-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prognostication in relation to the post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Relevant articles were identified using PubMed, EMBASE and an American Heart Association EndNote master resuscitation reference library, supplemented by hand searches of key papers. Writing groups comprising international experts were assigned to each section. Drafts of the document were circulated to all authors for comment and amendment. The 4 key components of post-cardiac arrest syndrome were identified as (1) post-cardiac arrest brain injury, (2) post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction, (3) systemic ischaemia/reperfusion response, and (4) persistent precipitating pathology. A growing body of knowledge suggests that the individual components of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome are potentially treatable.

  5. 3 CFR 8344 - Proclamation 8344 of February 2, 2009. American Heart Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ongoing fight against cardiovascular disease, the Congress, by Joint Resolution approved December 30, 1963... fighting cardiovascular disease. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this second day of... Proclamation Together, we can turn the tide on the number one killer of American women and men. Heart disease...

  6. The Impact of Personalized Risk Feedback on Mexican Americans' Perceived Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…

  7. Languages of the heart: the biomedical and the metaphorical in American fiction.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Jones, David S

    2014-01-01

    The role of heart disease in American fiction has received less attention from scholars of literature, history, and medicine than have portrayals of tuberculosis, cancer, or HIV/AIDS, despite the fact that heart disease topped mortality charts for most of the 20th century. This article surveys manifestations of coronary artery disease in popular works of 20th-century American fiction to trace how authors and their protagonists grappled with the disease while knowledge of pathophysiology and therapeutics evolved. Countering Susan Sontag's mechanistic vision of patient encounters-where disease is absent of metaphor-we pair popular fiction with concurrent historical analysis to show that the proliferation of technological narratives of cardiac therapeutics could not displace the deeply symbolic nature of characters' encounters with heart disease. Because of the limited ability of the biomedical narrative to convey the meanings of disease and treatments, doctors and patients need to communicate through the rich possibilities of metaphor.

  8. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process.

  9. Self-Care Behaviors of African Americans Living with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Woda, Aimee; Haglund, Kristin; Belknap, Ruth Ann; Sebern, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    African Americans have a higher risk of developing heart failure (HF) than persons from other ethnic groups. Once diagnosed, they have lower rates of HF self-care and poorer health outcomes. Promoting engagement in HF self-care is amenable to change and represents an important way to improve the health of African Americans with HF. This study used a community-based participatory action research methodology called photovoice to explore the practice of HF self-care among low-income, urban, community dwelling African Americans. Using the photovoice methodology, themes emerged regarding self-care management and self-care maintenance.

  10. Association of heart rate at hospital discharge with mortality and hospitalizations in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Habal, Marlena V; Liu, Peter P; Austin, Peter C; Ross, Heather J; Newton, Gary E; Wang, Xuesong; Tu, Jack V; Lee, Douglas S

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Hospital discharge is an opportunity for identification of modifiable prognostic factors in the transition to chronic HF. We examined the association of discharge heart rate with 30-day and 1-year mortality and hospitalization outcomes in a cohort of 9097 patients with HF discharged from hospital. Discharge heart rate was categorized into predefined groups: 40 to 60 (n=1333), 61 to 70 (n=2170), 71 to 80 (n=2631), 81 to 90 (n=1700), and >90 bpm (n=1263). There was a significant increase in all-cause 30-day mortality with adjusted odds ratios of 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.14; P=0.003) for discharge heart rates 81 to 90 bpm and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.13-2.16; P=0.007) for heart rates>90 bpm when compared with the reference group (heart rates, 61-70 bpm). Cardiovascular death risk at 30 days was also higher with adjusted odds ratio 1.59 (discharge heart rates, 81-90 bpm; 95% CI, 1.09-2.33; P=0.017) and 1.65 (discharge heart rates, >90 bpm; 95% CI, 1.09-2.48; P=0.017). One-year all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.72; P<0.001) and cardiovascular death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12-1.92; P=0.005) were higher with discharge heart rates>90 bpm when compared with the reference group (heart rates, 40-60 bpm). Readmissions for HF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54; P=0.021) and cardiovascular disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08-1.54; P=0.004) within 30 days were also higher with discharge heart rates>90 bpm. Higher discharge heart rates were associated with greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality≤1-year follow-up and an elevated risk of 30-day readmission for HF and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Diabetes, depressive symptoms, and functional disability in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Ji, Nan; Carnethon, Mercedes; Bertoni, Alain G; Selvin, Elizabeth; Gregg, Edward W; Sims, Mario; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the degree to which comorbid depression contributes to the relationship of diabetes with functional disability in African Americans (AAs), a population at high-risk for complications. We examined 2989 African Americans (AAs) in the Jackson Heart Study who had diabetes and depressive symptoms (CES-D) assessed at baseline. Overall functional disability was defined as the inability to perform at least one task of daily living. Multivariable logistic regression models explored the association of diabetes and depressive symptoms with functional disability. Prevalence of overall functional disability was highest with both diabetes and depressive symptoms (54%), similar with diabetes alone (31%) or depressive symptoms alone (33%), and lowest with neither (15%). Adjusting for demographics, smoking, BMI, cardiovascular comorbidities, and hsCRP, the association of depressive symptoms alone (OR=2.30,95% CI 1.75-3.03) and both diabetes and depressive symptoms (OR=2.75,1.88-4.04) with overall functional disability was significant, but not for diabetes alone (OR=1.26,0.95-1.67), compared to neither. In regression analyses including any diabetes and any depressive symptoms together in models, the main effect of depressive symptoms but not diabetes was associated with overall functional disability, and the interaction term was not significant (p-value=0.84). Functional disability was highest among AAs who have both diabetes and depressive symptoms; the latter was a stronger contributor. Future studies should explore mechanisms underlying functional disability in diabetes, particularly the role of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obesity, And What You Can Do Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic Stress Management How Does Stress Affect You? ... increases such dangers as alcoholism, high blood pressure , obesity , ... risks, the American Heart Association cautions people NOT to start drinking ... ...

  13. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY IN OKAPI (OKAPIA JOHNSTONI).

    PubMed

    Warren, Joshua D; Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Weldon, Alan D; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren L; Garner, Michael M; Citino, Scott B

    2017-03-01

    Acute signs associated with cardiovascular disease occurred in three pregnant okapi ( Okapia johnstoni ) during early to midgestation and progressed to congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed antemortem using echocardiography and plasma cardiac troponin levels. Clinical signs included decreased activity, hyporexia, tachypnea, dyspnea, flared nostrils, and productive coughing with copious amounts of foamy nasal discharge. Parenteral and oral treatment with furosemide, enalapril, and spironolactone controlled clinical signs in the three okapi allowing each to carry out one pregnancy to term. Two okapi carried the first pregnancy to term after showing signs, while one okapi aborted the first calf and gave birth to a healthy calf in a subsequent pregnancy. Subsequent pregnancy in one okapi ended with abortion and associated dystocia and endometritis. Following parturition, clinical signs associated with heart failure resolved in all three individuals; serial echocardiography in two individuals showed improvement in fractional shortening and left atrial size and all three okapi showed markedly decreased pleural effusion and resolution of pulmonary edema. However, subsequent pregnancies in all three okapi induced respiratory distress and recurrence of congestive heart failure; one okapi died from congestive heart failure associated with subsequent pregnancy. This case series describes the clinical presentation and pathologic findings of congestive heart failure during pregnancy in adult okapi.

  14. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal variants and genes and gain further insights into the biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimal changes in heart rate of incubating American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in response to human activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borneman, Tracy E.; Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    An organism's heart rate is commonly used as an indicator of physiological stress due to environmental stimuli. We used heart rate to monitor the physiological response of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) to human activity in their nesting environment. We placed artificial eggs with embedded microphones in 42 oystercatcher nests to record the heart rate of incubating oystercatchers continuously for up to 27 days. We used continuous video and audio recordings collected simultaneously at the nests to relate physiological response of birds (heart rate) to various types of human activity. We observed military and civilian aircraft, off-road vehicles, and pedestrians around nests. With the exception of high-speed, low-altitude military overflights, we found little evidence that oystercatcher heart rates were influenced by most types of human activity. The low-altitude flights were the only human activity to significantly increase average heart rates of incubating oystercatchers (12% above baseline). Although statistically significant, we do not consider the increase in heart rate during high-speed, low-altitude military overflights to be of biological significance. This noninvasive technique may be appropriate for other studies of stress in nesting birds.

  16. Promoting heart health: an HBCU collaboration with the Living Heart Foundation and the National Football League Retired Players Association.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Peggy; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Onsomu, Elijah O; Hoover, Eddie L; Cammock, Cheryl E; Roberts, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States and African Americans are disproportionately affected. Cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, family history of heart disease, and physical inactivity are often higher in African American young adults. The aim of the current study was to assess cardiovascular disease risk factors at a historically black college and university (HBCU) in North Carolina. A collaborative partnership was established that included Living Heart Foundation, the NFL Retired Players Association and a HBCU. Ninety-one students (77 females and 14 males) aged 18 to 55 years (mean, 24 y, SD = 9 y) were recruited via dissemination of flyers, brochures, mass e-mailing, and announcements. Demographic and medical history data were collected. Stata version 10.1 was used for all analyses. Fifty-three percent of the participants reported having experienced a chronic health condition, 32% were overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25-29.9 kg/m2) and 31% obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). Five percent of females and 23% of males had high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 mg/dL or less, indicative of a risk for developing heart disease. There is an urgent need to intervene among African American college students and address behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Such interventions may have a major impact on their overall and future health outcomes. Strategies to be employed need to focus on the integration of culturally appropriate healthy lifestyle programs into the curriculum and university health centers. Consultations with stakeholders for ideas and resources should be encouraged.

  17. Pediatric heart failure and worsening renal function: association with outcomes after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Satish K; Yarlagadda, Vamsi V; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Singh, Tajinder P; Givertz, Michael M; Almond, Christopher S D

    2012-03-01

    Renal function deteriorates in some children awaiting heart transplantation. This study was initiated to assess the effects of worsening renal function (WRF) on post-heart transplantation outcomes and to determine the effect of waiting-list associated WRF on survival after heart transplantation. All children aged <18 years who underwent their first heart transplantation between 1999 and 2009, had reported plasma creatinine concentrations at listing and at transplantation, and were free of renal replacement therapy at listing were identified using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network database. The independent effects of WRF on in-hospital mortality and post-discharge survival were assessed using logistic regression and log-rank analyses, respectively. Of the 2,216 children included in the analysis, WRF occurred in 334 (15%) awaiting heart transplantation: WRF was mild (stage 1) in 210 (63%), moderate (stage 2) in 40 (12%), and severe (stage 3) in 84 (25%). All WRF stages were independently associated with in-hospital, post-transplant mortality: mild WRF with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.5); moderate WRF, 2.7 (95% CI, 1.1-6.7); and severe WRF, 3.6 (95% CI, 2.0-6.5). WRF was not associated with death after discharge (hazard ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.7) at a median follow-up of 2.7 years. WRF occurs in 15% of children awaiting heart transplantation and is associated with early but not late post-transplant mortality. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Factors for Rapid Kidney Function Decline Among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study (JHS).

    PubMed

    Young, Bessie A; Katz, Ronit; Boulware, L Ebony; Kestenbaum, Bryan; de Boer, Ian H; Wang, Wei; Fülöp, Tibor; Bansal, Nisha; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Griswold, Michael; Powe, Neil R; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Correa, Adolfo

    2016-08-01

    Racial differences in rapid kidney function decline exist, but less is known regarding factors associated with rapid decline among African Americans. Greater understanding of potentially modifiable risk factors for early kidney function loss may help reduce the burden of kidney failure in this high-risk population. Prospective cohort study. 3,653 African American participants enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) with kidney function data from 2 of 3 examinations (2000-2004 and 2009-2013). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors for kidney failure. Rapid decline was defined as a ≥30% decline in eGFR during follow-up. We quantified the association of risk factors with rapid decline in multivariable models. Clinical (systolic blood pressure and albuminuria [albumin-creatinine ratio]) and modifiable risk factors. Mean age was 54±12 (SD) years, 37% were men, average body mass index was 31.8±7.1kg/m(2), 19% had diabetes mellitus (DM), and mean eGFR was 96.0±20mL/min/1.73m(2) with an annual rate of decline of 1.27mL/min/1.73m(2). Those with rapid decline (11.5%) were older, were more likely to be of low/middle income, and had higher systolic blood pressures and greater DM than those with nonrapid decline. Factors associated with ≥30% decline were older age (adjusted OR per 10 years older, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.34-1.71), cardiovascular disease (adjusted OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12-2.10), higher systolic blood pressure (adjusted OR per 17mmHg greater, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41), DM (adjusted OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 2.02-3.41), smoking (adjusted OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10-2.31), and albumin-creatinine ratio > 30mg/g (adjusted OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.08-1.21). Conversely, results did not support associations of waist circumference, C-reactive protein level, and physical activity with rapid decline. No midstudy creatinine measurement at

  19. Risk Factors for Rapid Kidney Function Decline Among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study (JHS)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bessie A.; Katz, Ronit; Boulware, Ebony; Kestenbaum, Bryan; de Boer, Ian H.; Wang, Wei; Fülöp, Tibor; Bansal, Nisha; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Griswold, Michael; Powe, Neil N.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Correa, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Background Racial differences in rapid kidney function decline exist, but less is known regarding factors associated with rapid decline among African Americans. A greater understanding of potentially modifiable risk factors for early kidney function loss may help reduce the burden of kidney failure in this high-risk population. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 3653 African-American participants enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) with kidney function data from two of three examinations (2000-2004 and 2009-2013). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Predictors Demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, clinical risk factors for kidney failure. Outcomes Rapid decline was defined as a ≥ 30% decline in eGFR during follow-up. We quantified the association of risk factors with rapid decline in multivariable models. Measurements Clinical (systolic blood pressure, albuminuria [albumin-creatinine ratio]) and modifiable risk factors. Results Mean age was 54 ± 12 (SD) years, 37% were male, average body mass index was 31.8 ± 7.1 kg/m2, 19% had diabetes mellitus (DM) and mean eGFR was 96.0 ±20 ml/min/1.73m2 with an annual rate of decline of 1.27 ml/min/1.73m2. Those with rapid decline (11.5%) were older, more likely to be of low/middle income, had higher systolic blood pressure, and greater DM than those with non-rapid decline. Factors associated with ≥30% decline were older age (adjusted OR per 10 years older, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.34-1.71); cardiovascular disease (adjusted OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12-2.10), higher systolic blood pressure (adjusted OR per 17 mm Hg greater, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41); DM (adjusted OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 2.02-3.41), smoking (adjusted OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10-2.31), and albumin-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g (adjusted OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.08-1.21). Conversely, results did not support associations of waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and

  20. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Petrone, Andrew B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Dubbert, Patricia M; Taylor, Herman; Tucker, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Type 2 diabetes (DM) disproportionally affects African Americans. Data on the association between egg consumption and risk of DM are sparse. We sought to examine whether egg consumption is associated with the prevalence and incidence of DM among African Americans. Methods We analyzed baseline data from 4,568 participants of the Jackson Heart Study. Egg consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire designed for this population. We used generalized estimating equations to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios of DM and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios of DM with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The average age was 55±13 years and 64% of subjects were women. The median frequency of egg consumption was 2/week for men and 1/week for women. The prevalence of DM was 22% overall (21% of men and 23% of women). Multivariable adjusted prevalence ratio [PR(95% CI)] for DM were: 1.00 (ref), 1.14 (0.90–1.44), 1.33 (1.04–1.70), 1.33 (1.06–1.68), 1.26 (0.99–1.61), and 1.52 (1.17–1.97) for egg consumption of <1/month, 1–3/month, 1/week, 2/week, 3–4/week, and 5+/week, respectively, p for linear trend 0.0024. Corresponding multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.00 (ref), 0.88 (0.65–1.19), 0.94 (0.68–1.30), 0.91 (0.66–1.25), 1.11 (0.81–1.52), and 1.17 (0.81–1.70), respectively, during a mean follow up of 7.3 years (p for linear trend 0.22). Conclusions While egg consumption was positively associated with prevalent DM, prospective analysis did not show an association of egg intake with incidence of DM among African Americans. PMID:25971658

  1. Residential distance to major roadways and cardiac structure in African Americans: cross-sectional results from the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Anne M; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-08

    Heart failure (HF) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality among African Americans. Ambient air pollution, including from traffic, is associated with HF, but the mechanisms remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cross-sectional associations between residential distance to major roadways with markers of cardiac structure: left ventricular (LV) mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter, LV end-systolic diameter, and LV hypertrophy among African Americans. We studied baseline participants of the Jackson Heart Study (recruited 2000-2004), a prospective cohort of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among African Americans living in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. All cardiac measures were assessed from echocardiograms. We assessed the associations between residential distance to roads and cardiac structure indicators using multivariable linear regression or multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Among 4826 participants, residential distance to road was <150 m for 103 participants, 150-299 m for 158, 300-999 for 1156, and ≥1000 m for 3409. Those who lived <150 m from a major road had mean 1.2 mm (95% CI 0.2, 2.1) greater LV diameter at end-systole compared to those who lived ≥1000 m. We did not observe statistically significant associations between distance to roads and LV mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter, or LV hypertrophy. Results did not materially change after additional adjustment for hypertension and diabetes or exclusion of those with CVD at baseline; results strengthened when modeling distance to A1 roads (such as interstate highways) as the exposure of interest. We found that residential distance to roads may be associated with LV end-systolic diameter, a marker of systolic dysfunction, in this cohort of African Americans, suggesting a potential mechanism by which exposure to traffic pollution increases the risk of HF.

  2. Association between heart rate variability and manual pulse rate.

    PubMed

    Hart, John

    2013-09-01

    One model for neurological assessment in chiropractic pertains to autonomic variability, tested commonly with heart rate variability (HRV). Since HRV may not be convenient to use on all patient visits, more user-friendly methods may help fill-in the gaps. Accordingly, this study tests the association between manual pulse rate and heart rate variability. The manual rates were also compared to the heart rate derived from HRV. Forty-eight chiropractic students were examined with heart rate variability (SDNN and mean heart rate) and two manual radial pulse rate measurements. Inclusion criteria consisted of participants being chiropractic students. Exclusion criteria for 46 of the participants consisted of a body mass index being greater than 30, age greater than 35, and history of: a) dizziness upon standing, b) treatment of psychiatric disorders, and c) diabetes. No exclusion criteria were applied to the remaining two participants who were also convenience sample volunteers. Linear associations between the manual pulse rate methods and the two heart rate variability measures (SDNN and mean heart) were tested with Pearson's correlation and simple linear regression. Moderate strength inverse (expected) correlations were observed between both manual pulse rate methods and SDNN (r = -0.640, 95% CI -0.781, -0.435; r = -0.632, 95% CI -0.776, -0.425). Strong direct (expected) relationships were observed between the manual pulse rate methods and heart rate derived from HRV technology (r = 0.934, 95% CI 0.885, 0.962; r = 0.941, 95% CI 0.897, 0.966). Manual pulse rates may be a useful option for assessing autonomic variability. Furthermore, this study showed a strong relationship between manual pulse rates and heart rate derived from HRV technology.

  3. Association of Genetic Loci with Sleep Apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: The Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Goodloe, Robert; De, Gourab; Kowgier, Matthew; Weng, Jia; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Cade, Brian; Fulop, Tibor; Gharib, Sina A.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Hillman, David; Larkin, Emma K.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Li, Li; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Palmer, Lyle; Zee, Phyllis; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15) in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK) gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10−6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3) gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts. Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis. PMID:23155414

  4. Comparison of risk scores for the prediction of stroke in African Americans: Findings from the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Foraker, Randi E; Greiner, Melissa; Sims, Mario; Tucker, Katherine L; Towfighi, Amytis; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Shoben, Abigail B; Smith, Sakima; Talegawkar, Sameera; Blackshear, Chad; Wang, Wei; Hardy, Natalie Chantelle; O'Brien, Emily

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from existing cohort studies supports the prediction of incident coronary heart disease and stroke using 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores and the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association's cardiovascular health (CVH) metric. We included all Jackson Heart Study participants with complete scoring information at the baseline study visit (2000-2004) who had no history of stroke (n = 4,140). We used Kaplan-Meier methods to calculate the cumulative incidence of stroke and used Cox models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for stroke according to CVD risk and CVH score. We compared the discrimination of the 2 models according to the Harrell c index and plotted predicted vs observed stroke risk calibration plots for each of the 2 models. The median age of the African American participants was 54.5 years, and 65% were female. The cumulative incidence of stroke increased across worsening categories of CVD risk and CVH. A 1-unit increase in CVD risk increased the hazard of stroke (1.07, 1.06-1.08), whereas each 1-unit increase in CVH corresponded to a decreased hazard of stroke (0.76, 0.69-0.83). As evidenced by the c statistics, the CVH model was less discriminating than the CVD risk model (0.59 [0.55-0.64] vs 0.79 [0.76-0.83]). Both scores were associated with incident stroke in a dose-response fashion; however, the CVD risk model was more discriminating than the CVH model. The CVH score may still be preferable for its simplicity in application to broad patient populations and public health efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hearts and Minds: Honors Programs in North American Christian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    For readers outside North America, the concept of "honors education" may be confusing (since the word honours features in British and Commonwealth degree titles) or obscure (bringing to mind associations with aristocratic privilege or elitist competition). But in the United States the development of honors programs in colleges, and later honors…

  6. Postoperative tricuspid regurgitation after adult congenital heart surgery is associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew J; Ginns, Jonathan N; Ye, Siqin; Chai, Paul; Quaegebeur, Jan M; Bacha, Emile; Rosenbaum, Marlon S

    2016-02-01

    be considered in patients with adult congenital heart disease with moderate or greater preoperative tricuspid regurgitation. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Loss of GSTM1 Associates with Kidney Failure and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Tin, Adrienne; Scharpf, Robert; Estrella, Michelle M; Yu, Bing; Grove, Megan L; Chang, Patricia P; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Köttgen, Anna; Arking, Dan E; Boerwinkle, Eric; Le, Thu H; Coresh, Josef; Grams, Morgan E

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferase mu 1 ( GSTM1) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic compounds with glutathione to facilitate their degradation or excretion. The loss of one or both copies of GSTM1 is common in many populations and has been associated with CKD progression. With the hypothesis that the loss of GSTM1 is also associated with incident kidney failure and heart failure, we estimated GSTM1 copy number using exome sequencing reads in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a community-based prospective cohort of white and black participants. Overall, 51.2% and 39.8% of white participants and 25.6% and 48.5% of black participants had zero or one copy of GSTM1 , respectively. Over a median follow-up of 24.6 years, 256 kidney failure events occurred in 5715 participants without prevalent kidney failure, and 1028 heart failure events occurred in 5368 participants without prevalent heart failure. In analysis adjusted for demographics, diabetes, and hypertension, having zero or one copy of GSTM1 associated with higher risk of kidney failure and heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for zero or one versus two copies of GSTM1 : kidney failure, 1.66 [1.27 to 2.17]; heart failure, 1.16 [1.04 to 1.29]). Risk did not differ significantly between participants with zero and one copy of GSTM1 ( P >0.10). In summary, the loss of GSTM1 was significantly associated with incident kidney and heart failure, independent of traditional risk factors. These results suggest GSTM1 function is a potential treatment target for the prevention of kidney and heart failure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. ACCF/ASNC appropriateness criteria for single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology endorsed by the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Ralph G; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Peterson, Eric D; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M; Patel, Manesh R; Raskin, Ira E; Hendel, Robert C; Bateman, Timothy M; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Gibbons, Raymond J; Gillam, Linda D; Gillespie, John A; Hendel, Robert C; Iskandrian, Ami E; Jerome, Scott D; Krumholz, Harlan M; Messer, Joseph V; Spertus, John A; Stowers, Stephen A

    2005-10-18

    Under the auspices of the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC), an appropriateness review was conducted for radionuclide cardiovascular imaging (RNI), specifically gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI). The review assessed the risks and benefits of the imaging test for several indications or clinical scenarios and scored them based on a scale of 1 to 9, where the upper range (7 to 9) implies that the test is generally acceptable and is a reasonable approach, and the lower range (1 to 3) implies that the test is generally not acceptable and is not a reasonable approach. The mid range (4 to 6) implies that the test may be generally acceptable and may be a reasonable approach for the indication. The indications for this review were primarily drawn from existing clinical practice guidelines and modified based on discussion by the ACCF Appropriateness Criteria Working Group and the Technical Panel members who rated the indications. The method for this review was based on the RAND/UCLA approach for evaluating appropriateness, which blends scientific evidence and practice experience. A modified Delphi technique was used to obtain first- and second-round ratings of 52 clinical indications. The ratings were done by a Technical Panel with diverse membership, including nuclear cardiologists, referring physicians (including an echocardiographer), health services researchers, and a payer (chief medical officer). These results are expected to have a significant impact on physician decision making and performance, reimbursement policy, and future research directions. Periodic assessment and updating of criteria will be undertaken as needed.

  9. Recommendations for the imaging assessment of prosthetic heart valves: a report from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging endorsed by the Chinese Society of Echocardiography, the Inter-American Society of Echocardiography, and the Brazilian Department of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pibarot, Philippe; Chambers, John; Edvardsen, Thor; Delgado, Victoria; Dulgheru, Raluca; Pepi, Mauro; Cosyns, Bernard; Dweck, Mark R; Garbi, Madalina; Magne, Julien; Nieman, Koen; Rosenhek, Raphael; Bernard, Anne; Lowenstein, Jorge; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Rabischoffsky, Arnaldo; Vyhmeister, Rodrigo Hernández; Zhou, Xiao; Zhang, Yun; Zamorano, Jose-Luis; Habib, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is rare but potentially life-threatening. Although often challenging, establishing the exact cause of PHV dysfunction is essential to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. In clinical practice, a comprehensive approach that integrates several parameters of valve morphology and function assessed with 2D/3D transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography is a key to appropriately detect and quantitate PHV dysfunction. Cinefluoroscopy, multidetector computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and to a lesser extent, nuclear imaging are complementary tools for the diagnosis and management of PHV complications. The present document provides recommendations for the use of multimodality imaging in the assessment of PHVs. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL INSTRUMENT OF PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE JACKSON HEART STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Gutierrez, Mary Lou; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Assessing the discrimination-health disparities hypothesis requires psychometrically sound, multidimensional measures of discrimination. Among the available discrimination measures, few are multidimensional and none have adequate psychometric testing in a large, African American sample. We report the development and psychometric testing of the multidimensional Jackson Heart Study Discrimination (JHSDIS) Instrument. Methods A multidimensional measure assessing the occurrence, frequency, attribution, and coping responses to perceived everyday and lifetime discrimination; lifetime burden of discrimination; and effect of skin color was developed and tested in the 5302-member cohort of the Jackson Heart Study. Internal consistency was calculated by using Cronbach α. coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis established the dimensions, and intercorrelation coefficients assessed the discriminant validity of the instrument. Setting Tri-county area of the Jackson, MS metropolitan statistical area. Results The JHSDIS was psychometrically sound (overall α=.78, .84 and .77, respectively, for the everyday and lifetime subscales). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded 11 factors, which confirmed the a priori dimensions represented. Conclusions The JHSDIS combined three scales into a single multidimensional instrument with good psychometric properties in a large sample of African Americans. This analysis lays the foundation for using this instrument in research that will examine the association between perceived discrimination and CVD among African Americans. PMID:19341164

  11. Factors influencing self-care behaviors of African Americans with heart failure: a photovoice project.

    PubMed

    Woda, Aimee; Belknap, Ruth Ann; Haglund, Kristin; Sebern, Margaret; Lawrence, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the influences of heart failure (HF) self-care among low income, African Americans. Compared to all other racial groups, African Americans have the highest risk of developing HF, coupled with high mortality and morbidity rates. Using the photovoice method, participants related important lifestyle factors through photography. The participants and researcher met for reflection and discussion 2 h per week for six weeks. Four themes emerged: family support gives me the push I need, social interaction lifts me up, improving my mind to lift depression can improve my heart, and it is important but challenging to follow the HF diet. The findings from this study may assist policy makers, health care professionals, patients, and support systems in understanding the complexity of engaging in HF self-care. This understanding may lead to the development of appropriate patient-centered assessments and interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hendel, Robert C; Berman, Daniel S; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Heidenreich, Paul A; Henkin, Robert E; Pellikka, Patricia A; Pohost, Gerald M; Williams, Kim A

    2009-06-09

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac radionuclide imaging (RNI) is frequently considered. This document is a revision of the original Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (SPECT MPI) Appropriateness Criteria, published 4 years earlier, written to reflect changes in test utilization and new clinical data, and to clarify RNI use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine appropriate use criteria (AUC) on a frequent basis. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Sixty-seven clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of cardiac RNI for diagnosis and risk assessment in intermediate- and high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while testing in low-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Additionally, use for perioperative testing was found to be inappropriate except for high selected groups of patients. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making, test performance, and reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research.

  13. Weight Status and Blood Pressure among Adolescent African American Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2015-08-07

    Obesity had not been considered a significant factor contributing to high levels of hypertension among African American males until recently. Epidemiologic research on heart disease among males has primarily focused on adults; however, the significant rise in obesity and hypertension prevalence among African American boys indicates that studies examining the relationship between excess body weight and elevated blood pressure among this high-risk population are critically needed. The purpose of our study was to examine the degree to which weight status has implications for elevated blood pressure among young African American males. The data for this cross-sectional study were drawn from adolescent males (N=105), aged 12-19 years and who participated in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study - an offspring cohort study examining cardiovascular disease risks among adolescent descendants of Jackson Heart Study participants. Blood pressure was the primary outcome of interest and weight status was a key independent variable. Other covariates were fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sleep, and stress. Approximately 49% of adolescent males in the study were overweight or obese. Bivariate and multiple variable analyses suggest that obesity may be correlated with elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels among African American boys. Results from ordinary least squared regression analysis indicate that the DBP for boys carrying excess weight was 4.2 mm Hg (P<.01) higher than the corresponding DBP for their normal weight counterparts, after controlling for age, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and sleep. Additional studies are needed to specify the manner through which excess weight and weight gain can accelerate the development and progression of CVD-related diseases among African American males over the life course, thereby providing evidenced-based information for tailored interventions that can reduce risks for premature morbidity

  14. Trends and Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality Among American Indians/Alaska Natives, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Carma; Schieb, Linda; Dai, Shifan; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Cho, Pyone

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated heart disease death rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and Whites after improving identification of AI/AN populations. Methods. Indian Health Service (IHS) registration data were linked to the National Death Index for 1990 to 2009 to identify deaths among AI/AN persons aged 35 years and older with heart disease listed as the underlying cause of death (UCOD) or 1 of multiple causes of death (MCOD). We restricted analyses to IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Areas and to non-Hispanic populations. Results. Heart disease death rates were higher among AI/AN persons than Whites from 1999 to 2009 (1.21 times for UCOD, 1.30 times for MCOD). Disparities were highest in younger age groups and in the Northern Plains, but lowest in the East and Southwest. In AI/AN persons, MCOD rates were 84% higher than UCOD rates. From 1990 to 2009, UCOD rates declined among Whites, but only declined significantly among AI/AN persons after 2003. Conclusions. Analysis with improved race identification indicated that AI/AN populations experienced higher heart disease death rates than Whites. Better prevention and more effective care of heart disease is needed for AI/AN populations. PMID:24754556

  15. The impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position on cardiovascular disease events in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Gebreab, Samson Y; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brenner, Allison B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Sims, Mario; Subramanyam, Malavika; Griswold, Michael E; Wyatt, Sharon B; James, Sherman A

    2015-05-27

    Few studies have examined the impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. We used data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) to examine the associations of multiple measures of lifecourse SEP with CVD events in a large cohort of African Americans. During a median of 7.2-year follow-up, 362 new or recurrent CVD events occurred in a sample of 5301 participants aged 21 to 94. Childhood SEP was assessed by using mother's education, parental home ownership, and childhood amenities. Adult SEP was assessed by using education, income, wealth, and public assistance. Adult SEP was more consistently associated with CVD risk in women than in men: age-adjusted hazard ratios for low versus high income (95% CIs), 2.46 (1.19 to 5.09) in women and 1.50 (0.87 to 2.58) in men, P for interaction=0.1244, and hazard ratio for low versus high wealth, 2.14 (1.39 to 3.29) in women and 1.06 (0.62 to 1.81) in men, P for interaction=0.0224. After simultaneous adjustment for all adult SEP measures, wealth remained a significant predictor of CVD events in women (HR=1.73 [1.04, 2.85] for low versus high). Education and public assistance were less consistently associated with CVD. Adult SEP was a stronger predictor of CVD events in younger than in older participants (HR for high versus low summary adult SEP score 3.28 [1.43, 7.53] for participants ≤50 years, and 1.90 (1.36 to 2.66) for participants >50 years, P for interaction 0.0846). Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD risk in women or men. Adult SEP is an important predictor of CVD events in African American women and in younger African Americans. Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD events in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. APOE Genotypes Associate With Cognitive Performance but Not Cerebral Structure: Diabetes Heart Study MIND

    PubMed Central

    Raffield, Laura M.; Hardy, Joycelyn C.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Divers, Jasmin; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, S. Carrie; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Wagner, Benjamin C.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bowden, Donald W.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dementia is a debilitating illness with a disproportionate burden in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Among the contributors, genetic variation at the apolipoprotein E locus (APOE) is posited to convey a strong effect. This study compared and contrasted the association of APOE with cognitive performance and cerebral structure in the setting of T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) MIND (n = 754) and African Americans from the African American (AA)-DHS MIND (n = 517) were examined. The cognitive battery assessed executive function, memory, and global cognition, and brain MRI was performed. RESULTS In European Americans and African Americans, the APOE E4 risk haplotype group was associated with poorer performance on the modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (P < 0.017), a measure of global cognition. In contrast to the literature, the APOE E2 haplotype group, which was overrepresented in these participants with T2D, was associated with poorer Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test performance (P < 0.032). Nominal associations between APOE haplotype groups and MRI-determined cerebral structure were observed. CONCLUSIONS Compared with APOE E3 carriers, E2 and E4 carriers performed worse in the cognitive domains of memory and global cognition. Identification of genetic contributors remains critical to understanding new pathways to prevent and treat dementia in the setting of T2D. PMID:27703028

  17. Obesity and synergistic risk factors for chronic kidney disease in African American adults: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Robert E; Davenport, Clemontina A; Diamantidis, Clarissa J; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Tyson, Crystal C; Hall, Rasheeda; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Young, Bessie; Mwasongwe, Stanford E; Pendergast, Jane; Boulware, L Ebony; Scialla, Julia J

    2017-08-30

    African Americans are at high risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Obesity may increase the risk for CKD by exacerbating features of the metabolic syndrome and promoting glomerular hyperfiltration. Whether other factors also affecting these pathways may amplify or mitigate obesity-CKD associations has not been investigated. We studied interactions between obesity and these candidate factors in 2043 African Americans without baseline kidney disease enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study. We quantified obesity as body mass index (BMI), sex-normalized waist circumference and visceral adipose volume measured by abdominal computed tomography at an interim study visit. Interactions were hypothesized with (i) metabolic risk factors (dietary quality and physical activity, both quantified by concordance with American Heart Association guidelines) and (ii) factors exacerbating or mitigating hyperfiltration (dietary protein intake, APOL1 risk status and use of renin-angiotensin system blocking medications). Using multivariable regression, we evaluated associations between obesity measures and incident CKD over the follow-up period, as well as interactions with metabolic and hyperfiltration factors. Assessed after a median of 8 years (range 6-11 years), baseline BMI and waist circumference were not associated with incident CKD. Higher visceral adipose volume was independently associated with incident CKD (P   =   0.008) in a nonlinear fashion, but this effect was limited to those with lower dietary quality (P   =   0.001; P-interaction = 0.04). In additional interaction models, higher waist circumference was associated with greater risk of incident CKD among those with the low-risk APOL1 genotype (P   =   0.04) but not those with a high-risk genotype (P-interaction = 0.02). Other proposed factors did not modify obesity-CKD associations. Higher risks associated with metabolically active visceral adipose volume and interactions with dietary quality suggest

  18. Executive function, but not memory, associates with incident coronary heart disease and stroke.

    PubMed

    Rostamian, Somayeh; van Buchem, Mark A; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Jukema, J Wouter; Mooijaart, Simon P; Sabayan, Behnam; de Craen, Anton J M

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of performance in cognitive domains executive function and memory with incident coronary heart disease and stroke in older participants without dementia. We included 3,926 participants (mean age 75 years, 44% male) at risk for cardiovascular diseases from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) with Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24 points. Scores on the Stroop Color-Word Test (selective attention) and the Letter Digit Substitution Test (processing speed) were converted to Z scores and averaged into a composite executive function score. Likewise, scores of the Picture Learning Test (immediate and delayed memory) were transformed into a composite memory score. Associations of executive function and memory were longitudinally assessed with risk of coronary heart disease and stroke using multivariable Cox regression models. During 3.2 years of follow-up, incidence rates of coronary heart disease and stroke were 30.5 and 12.4 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In multivariable models, participants in the lowest third of executive function, as compared to participants in the highest third, had 1.85-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-2.45) higher risk of coronary heart disease and 1.51-fold (95% CI 0.99-2.30) higher risk of stroke. Participants in the lowest third of memory had no increased risk of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.74-1.32) or stroke (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.57-1.32). Lower executive function, but not memory, is associated with higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Lower executive function, as an independent risk indicator, might better reflect brain vascular pathologies. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians.

  20. Creation of the American Board of Ophthalmology: The Role of the American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth D

    2016-09-01

    In the early 20th century, the American Medical Association (AMA), specifically its Section on Ophthalmology, played a central role in the founding of America's first medical specialty board, the American Board of Ophthalmology. With the American Ophthalmological Society and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, the AMA's contributions to the formation of the American Board of Ophthalmology led to the establishment of sound educational standards for practicing ophthalmologists and helped to advance the culture of medical excellence within the profession that is synonymous with board certification today. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Countercontrols for the american educational research association.

    PubMed

    Greer, R D

    1982-01-01

    Publications of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) maintain that years of research in education have failed to produce a useful technology for teachers. Little is said to be known about teaching children beyond the potential of new findings such as mastery learning, time on task, and features of an appropriate school climate. These latter conclusions are in stark contrast to the large body of useful findings in the behavior analysis literature. Several possible reasons are discussed for the discrepancy in views between behavior analysts and educational researchers. The lack of acknowledgement of behavior analysis is viewed as a serious problem because of the control that the educational research establishment exerts over federal funding of research and the training of teachers. There is a growing use of some of the aspects of behavior analysis by educational researchers; however, the derivation is not acknowledged and there is little enlightenment about radical behaviorism. It is suggested that ABA should countercontrol the influence of AERA by incorporating doctoral students in educational research as students of behavior analysis, teaching the complexity of behaviorism, teaching the positions of the opposing camp to behavior analysis students. ABA can take an aggressive role in countercontrolling AERA by forming committees to insure (a) quality of treatment, (b) funding representation in government, (c) protection and qualified review of untenured behavior analysts, (d) expansion of certification.

  2. Relationships among measures of physical activity and hearing in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Haas, Patrick J; Bishop, Charles E; Gao, Yan; Griswold, Michael E; Schweinfurth, John M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the relationships among measures of physical activity and hearing in the Jackson Heart Study. Prospective cohort study. We assessed hearing on 1,221 Jackson Heart Study participants who also had validated physical activity questionnaire data on file. Hearing thresholds were measured across frequency octaves from 250 to 8,000 Hz, and various frequency pure-tone averages (PTAs) were constructed, including PTA4 (average of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz), PTA-high (average of 4,000 and 8,000 Hz), PTA-mid (average of 1,000 and 2,000 Hz), and PTA-low (average of 250 and 500 Hz). Hearing loss was defined for pure tones and pure-tone averages as >25 dB HL in either ear and averaged between the ears. Associations between physical activity and hearing were estimated using linear regression, reporting changes in decibel hearing level, and logistic regression, reporting odds ratios (OR) of hearing loss. Physical activity exhibited a statistically significant but small inverse relationship with PTA4, -0.20 dB HL per doubling of activity (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.35, -0.04; P = .016), as well as with PTA-low and pure tones at 250, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz in adjusted models. Multivariable logistic regression modeling supported a decrease in the odds of high-frequency hearing loss among participants who reported at least some moderate weekly physical activity (PTA-high, OR: 0.69 [95% CI: 0.52, 0.92]; P = .011 and 4000 Hz, OR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.57, 0.99]; P = .044). Our study provides further evidence that physical activity is related to better hearing; however, the clinical significance of this relationship cannot be estimated given the nature of the cross-sectional study design. 2b Laryngoscope, 126:2376-2381, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Napping, and Incident Heart Failure: Prospective Associations in the British Regional Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Wannamethee, S Goya; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy; Whincup, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    To examine the associations between self-reported nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep and incident heart failure (HF) in men with and without preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD). Population-based prospective study. General practices in 24 British towns. Men aged 60-79 without prevalent HF followed for 9 years (N = 3,723). Information on incident HF cases was obtained from primary care records. Assessment of sleep was based on self-reported sleep duration at night and daytime napping. Self-reported short nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour were associated with preexisting CVD, breathlessness, depression, poor health, physical inactivity, and manual social class. In all men, self-reported daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour duration was associated with significantly greater risk of HF after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.06-2.71) than in those who reported no daytime napping. Self-reported nighttime sleep duration was not associated with HF risk except in men with preexisting CVD (<6 hours: aHR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.31-6.45; 6 hours: aHR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.89-4.03; 8 hours: aHR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.61-2.71; ≥9 hours: aHR = 1.80, 905% CI = 0.71-4.61 vs nighttime sleep of 7 hours). Snoring was not associated with HF risk. Self-reported daytime napping of longer than 1 hour is associated with greater risk of HF in older men. Self-reported short sleep (<6 hours) in men with CVD is associated with particularly high risk of developing HF. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. An official American Thoracic Society/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/Society of Critical Care Medicine/Association of Organ and Procurement Organizations/United Network of Organ Sharing Statement: ethical and policy considerations in organ donation after circulatory determination of death.

    PubMed

    Gries, Cynthia J; White, Douglas B; Truog, Robert D; Dubois, James; Cosio, Carmen C; Dhanani, Sonny; Chan, Kevin M; Corris, Paul; Dark, John; Fulda, Gerald; Glazier, Alexandra K; Higgins, Robert; Love, Robert; Mason, David P; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Shapiro, Ron; Shemie, Sam; Tracy, Mary Fran; Travaline, John M; Valapour, Maryam; West, Lori; Zaas, David; Halpern, Scott D

    2013-07-01

    Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) has the potential to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Because consent and management of potential donors must occur before death, DCDD raises unique ethical and policy issues. To develop an ethics and health policy statement on adult and pediatric DCDD relevant to critical care and transplantation stakeholders. A multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders was convened to develop an ethics and health policy statement. The panel consisted of representatives from the American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Association of Organ Procurement Organizations, and the United Network of Organ Sharing. The panel reviewed the literature, discussed important ethics and health policy considerations, and developed a guiding framework for decision making by stakeholders. A framework to guide ethics and health policy statement was established, which addressed the consent process, pre- and post mortem interventions, the determination of death, provisions of end-of-life care, and pediatric DCDD. The information presented in this Statement is based on the current evidence, experience, and clinical rationale. New clinical research and the development and dissemination of new technologies will eventually necessitate an update of this Statement.

  5. Six-minute walk test and heart rate variability: lack of association in advanced stages of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Woo, M A; Moser, D K; Stevenson, L W; Stevenson, W G

    1997-09-01

    The 6-minute walk and heart rate variability have been used to assess mortality risk in patients with heart failure, but their relationship to each other and their usefulness for predicting mortality at 1 year are unknown. To assess the relationships between the 6-minute walk test, heart rate variability, and 1-year mortality. A sample of 113 patients in advanced stages of heart failure (New York Heart Association Functional Class III-IV, left ventricular ejection < 0.25) were studied. All 6-minute walks took place in an enclosed, level, measured corridor and were supervised by the same nurse. Heart rate variability was measured by using (1) a standard-deviation method and (2) Poincaré plots. Data on RR intervals obtained by using 24-hour Holter monitoring were analyzed. Survival was determined at 1 year after the Holter recording. The results showed no significant associations between the results of the 6-minute walk and the two measures of heart rate variability. The results of the walk were related to 1-year mortality but not to the risk of sudden death. Both measures of heart rate variability had significant associations with 1-year mortality and with sudden death. However, only heart rate variability measured by using Poincaré plots was a predictor of total mortality and risk of sudden death, independent of left ventricular ejection fraction, serum levels of sodium, results of the 6-minute walk test, and the standard-deviation measure of heart rate variability. Results of the 6-minute walk have poor association with mortality and the two measures of heart rate variability in patients with advanced-stage heart failure and a low ejection fraction. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal clinical usefulness of the 6-minute walk and heart rate variability in patients with advanced-stage heart failure.

  6. Prenatally diagnosed fetal lung lesions with associated conotruncal heart defects: is there a genetic association?

    PubMed

    Hüsler, Margaret R; Wilson, R Douglas; Rychik, Jack; Bebbington, Michael W; Johnson, Mark P; Mann, Stephanie E; Hedrick, Holly L; Adzick, Scott

    2007-12-01

    Congenital lung malformation can easily be diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. Associated extrapulmonary malformations such as heart defects and chromosomal aberrations are rare. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history, outcome and other associated malformations in fetuses with lung lesions and an associated heart defect. Retrospective analysis of 4 cases of prenatally diagnosed fetal CCAMs and hybrid lesions with an associated heart defect and review of 8 cases in the literature. At a single referral center 1.9% of the fetuses with Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) were diagnosed with an associated heart defect. Seven of the total 12 cases (58%) reviewed had a conotruncal heart abnormality. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 5 (42%) of the cases. This retrospective review shows that karyotyping in fetal lung lesions with an associated heart defect or isolated large lung lesions is indicated. It also suggests that there is a subpopulation of fetuses with CCAMs who have conotruncal heart defects. This finding may suggest a common genetic background. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Associations of Conventional Echocardiographic Measures with Incident Heart Failure and Mortality: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ruth F; Deo, Rajat; Bansal, Nisha; Anderson, Amanda H; Yang, Peter; Go, Alan S; Keane, Martin; Townsend, Ray; Porter, Anna; Budoff, Matthew; Malik, Shaista; He, Jiang; Rahman, Mahboob; Wright, Jackson; Cappola, Thomas; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Roy, Jason; Sha, Daohang; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-01-06

    strongly associated with incident heart failure, even after adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Association of Rare Loss-Of-Function Alleles in HAL, Serum Histidine: Levels and Incident Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Alexander H; Muzny, Donna; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; de Vries, Paul S; Bis, Joshua C; Musani, Solomon K; Alexander, Danny; Morrison, Alanna C; Franco, Oscar H; Uitterlinden, André; Hofman, Albert; Dehghan, Abbas; Wilson, James G; Psaty, Bruce M; Gibbs, Richard; Wei, Peng; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Histidine is a semiessential amino acid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few data are available on the associations between genetic variants, histidine levels, and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. By conducting whole exome sequencing on 1152 African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and focusing on loss-of-function (LoF) variants, we identified 3 novel rare LoF variants in HAL, a gene that encodes histidine ammonia-lyase in the first step of histidine catabolism. These LoF variants had large effects on blood histidine levels (β=0.26; P=1.2×10(-13)). The positive association with histidine levels was replicated by genotyping an independent sample of 718 ARIC African Americans (minor allele frequency=1%; P=1.2×10(-4)). In addition, high blood histidine levels were associated with reduced risk of developing incident CHD with an average of 21.5 years of follow-up among African Americans (hazard ratio=0.18; P=1.9×10(-4)). This finding was validated in an independent sample of European Americans from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring Cohort. However, LoF variants in HAL were not directly significantly associated with incident CHD after meta-analyzing results from the CHARGE Consortium. Three LoF mutations in HAL were associated with increased histidine levels, which in turn were shown to be inversely related to the risk of CHD among both African Americans and European Americans. Future investigations on the association between HAL gene variation and CHD are warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study: Theory-Informed Recruitment in an African American Population.

    PubMed

    Beech, Bettina M; Bruce, Marino A; Crump, Mary E; Hamilton, Gina E

    2017-04-01

    Recruitment for large cohort studies is typically challenging, particularly when the pool of potential participants is limited to the descendants of individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal "parent" study. The increasing complexity of family structures and dynamics can present challenges for recruitment in offspring. Few best practices exist to guide effective and efficient empirical approaches to participant recruitment. Social and behavioral theories can provide insight into social and cultural contexts influencing individual decision-making and facilitate the development strategies for effective diffusion and marketing of an offspring cohort study. The purpose of this study was to describe the theory-informed recruitment approaches employed by the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study (JHKS), a prospective offspring feasibility study of 200 African American children and grandchildren of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)-the largest prospective cohort study examining cardiovascular disease among African American adults. Participant recruitment in the JHKS was founded on concepts from three theoretical perspectives-the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Strength of Weak Ties, and Marketing Theory. Tailored recruitment strategies grounded in participatory strategies allowed us to exceed enrollment goals for JHKS Pilot Study and develop a framework for a statewide study of African American adolescents.

  10. The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study: Theory-Informed Recruitment in an African American Population

    PubMed Central

    Beech, Bettina M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Crump, Mary E.; Hamilton, Gina E.

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment for large cohort studies is typically challenging, particularly when the pool of potential participants is limited to the descendants of individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal “parent” study. The increasing complexity of family structures and dynamics can present challenges for recruitment in offspring. Few best practices exist to guide effective and efficient empirical approaches to participant recruitment. Social and behavioral theories can provide insight into social and cultural contexts influencing individual decision-making and facilitate the development strategies for effective diffusion and marketing of an offspring cohort study. The purpose of this study was to describe the theory-informed recruitment approaches employed by the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study (JHKS), a prospective offspring feasibility study of 200 African American children and grandchildren of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)—the largest prospective cohort study examining cardiovascular disease among African American adults. Participant recruitment in the JHKS was founded on concepts from three theoretical perspectives—the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Strength of Weak Ties, and Marketing Theory. Tailored recruitment strategies grounded in participatory strategies allowed us to exceed enrollment goals for JHKS Pilot Study and develop a framework for a statewide study of African American adolescents. PMID:27129858

  11. Use of Hydralazine‐Isosorbide Dinitrate Combination in African American and Other Race/Ethnic Group Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Golwala, Harsh B.; Thadani, Udho; Liang, Li; Stavrakis, Stavros; Butler, Javed; Yancy, Clyde W.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydralazine‐isosorbide dinitrate (H‐ISDN) therapy is recommended for African American patients with moderate to severe heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (<40%) (HFrEF), but use, temporal trends, and clinical characteristics associated with H‐ISDN therapy in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results An observational analysis of 54 622 patients admitted with HFrEF and discharged home from 207 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure registry from April 2008 to March 2012 was conducted to assess prescription, trends, and predictors of use of H‐ISDN among eligible patients. Among 11 185 African American patients eligible for H‐ISDN therapy, only 2500 (22.4%) received H‐ISDN therapy at discharge. In the overall eligible population, 5115 of 43 498 (12.6%) received H‐ISDN at discharge. Treatment rates increased over the study period from 16% to 24% among African Americans and from 10% to 13% among the entire HFrEF population. In a multivariable model, factors associated with H‐ISDN use among the entire cohort included younger age; male sex; African American/Hispanic ethnicity; and history of diabetes, hypertension, anemia, renal insufficiency, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower heart rate. In African American patients, these factors were similar; in addition, being uninsured was associated with lower use. Conclusions Overall, few potentially eligible patients with HFrEF are treated with H‐ISDN, and among African‐Americans fewer than one‐fourth of eligible patients received guideline‐recommended H‐ISDN therapy. Improved ways to facilitate use of H‐ISDN therapy in African American patients with HFrEF are needed. PMID:23966379

  12. Masked Hypertension and Incident Clinic Hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Marwah; Booth, John N.; Seals, Samantha R.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Diaz, Keith M.; Sims, Mario; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Masked hypertension, defined as non-elevated clinic blood pressure and elevated out-of-clinic blood pressure may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic blood pressure and masked hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of African Americans. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic blood pressure <140/90mmHg, complete ABPM, who were not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline in 2000–2004. Masked daytime hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ≥135/85mmHg; masked nighttime hypertension as mean nighttime blood pressure ≥120/70mmHg; and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour blood pressure ≥130/80mmHg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005–2008 and 2009–2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked nighttime hypertension and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51–3.02), 1.79 (1.24–2.60), 2.22 (1.58–3.12), and 1.91 (1.32–2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can identify African Americans at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension. PMID:27185746

  13. Community Health Representatives: A Valuable Resource for Providing Coronary Heart Disease Health Education Activities for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Vicki L.

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses select health issues of Native Americans, emphasizing coronary heart disease (CHD). The link between lifestyle and CHD is discussed. CHD risk data from a study of 67 Community Health Representatives is presented, and the role these paraprofessionals can play in health education among Native Americans is discussed. (IAH)

  14. Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ellison, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. Methods We studied in a cross-sectional design 4,970 participants aged 25 to 93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend <0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, family CHD risk group, energy intake, education, non-chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR=1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. Conclusions These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general population. PMID:20858571

  15. Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N; North, Kari E; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; Ellison, R Curtis

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. We studied in a cross-sectional design 4970 participants aged 25-93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend <0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, family CHD risk group, energy intake, education, non-chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR = 1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general United States population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Therapeutical considerations in associated atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mitu, O; Mitu, F; Constantin, S; Cojocaru, Elena; Leon, Maria-Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia very common in medical practice, often associated with heart failure. Pathophysiological relationship between atrial fibrillation and heart failure is in the attention of numerous case studies, being incomplete elucidated. We made a retrospective study on patients with both diseases, hospitalized in Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Hospital, Iasi, during 01.01.2013 - 31.12.2013. The obtained data allowed the classification of patients according to gender distribution, age groups, area of origin, clinical aspects, and association with other diseases, instituted treatment and appreciation of CHADS2 score. Data interpretation was performed with appropriate statistical methods. We found a higher frequency of the disease among male patients, male: female ratio being 2:1; the most of the patients lived in urban area. The pick of diseases incidence was in patients over 65 years with a total percentage of 70.84% of cases. We noted that the most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea (in all patients), palpitations, dizziness, headache, fatigue, asthenia, dyspnea at rest and pain/chest pressure. In our study, the majority of patients received the beta-blocker--digoxin combination (46 patients, 40 patients respectively). The coexistence of the two disorders could be explained by identifying common risk factors. Beta blockers should be the first therapeutic option in patients with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation because they have the effect of controlling heart rate and improve survival in patients with these disorders. Meanwhile, digoxin is a drug, only certain conditions of high accuracy monitoring; whose major clinical indications are heart failure and atrial rhythm disturbances.

  17. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: Part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Thomas G; Hall, John E; Appel, Lawrence J; Falkner, Bonita E; Graves, John; Hill, Martha N; Jones, Daniel W; Kurtz, Theodore; Sheps, Sheldon G; Roccella, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure is essential to classify individuals, to ascertain blood pressure-related risk, and to guide management. The auscultatory technique with a trained observer and mercury sphygmomanometer continues to be the method of choice for measurement in the office, using the first and fifth phases of the Korotkoff sounds, including in pregnant women. The use of mercury is declining, and alternatives are needed. Aneroid devices are suitable, but they require frequent calibration. Hybrid devices that use electronic transducers instead of mercury have promise. The oscillometric method can be used for office measurement, but only devices independently validated according to standard protocols should be used, and individual calibration is recommended. They have the advantage of being able to take multiple measurements. Proper training of observers, positioning of the patient, and selection of cuff size are all essential. It is increasingly recognized that office measurements correlate poorly with blood pressure measured in other settings, and that they can be supplemented by self-measured readings taken with validated devices at home. There is increasing evidence that home readings predict cardiovascular events and are particularly useful for monitoring the effects of treatment. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory monitoring gives a better prediction of risk than office measurements and is useful for diagnosing white-coat hypertension. There is increasing evidence that a failure of blood pressure to fall during the night may be associated with increased risk. In obese patients and children, the use of an appropriate cuff size is of paramount importance.

  18. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Thomas G; Hall, John E; Appel, Lawrence J; Falkner, Bonita E; Graves, John; Hill, Martha N; Jones, Daniel W; Kurtz, Theodore; Sheps, Sheldon G; Roccella, Edward J

    2005-02-08

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure is essential to classify individuals, to ascertain blood pressure-related risk, and to guide management. The auscultatory technique with a trained observer and mercury sphygmomanometer continues to be the method of choice for measurement in the office, using the first and fifth phases of the Korotkoff sounds, including in pregnant women. The use of mercury is declining, and alternatives are needed. Aneroid devices are suitable, but they require frequent calibration. Hybrid devices that use electronic transducers instead of mercury have promise. The oscillometric method can be used for office measurement, but only devices independently validated according to standard protocols should be used, and individual calibration is recommended. They have the advantage of being able to take multiple measurements. Proper training of observers, positioning of the patient, and selection of cuff size are all essential. It is increasingly recognized that office measurements correlate poorly with blood pressure measured in other settings, and that they can be supplemented by self-measured readings taken with validated devices at home. There is increasing evidence that home readings predict cardiovascular events and are particularly useful for monitoring the effects of treatment. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory monitoring gives a better prediction of risk than office measurements and is useful for diagnosing white-coat hypertension. There is increasing evidence that a failure of blood pressure to fall during the night may be associated with increased risk. In obese patients and children, the use of an appropriate cuff size is of paramount importance.

  19. Generalization of Associations of Kidney-Related Genetic Loci to American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Karin; Almasy, Laura; Laston, Sandra; Lee, Elisa T.; Best, Lyle G.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Cole, Shelley A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives CKD disproportionally affects American Indians, who similar to other populations, show genetic susceptibility to kidney outcomes. Recent studies have identified several loci associated with kidney traits, but their relevance in American Indians is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study used data from a large, family-based genetic study of American Indians (the Strong Heart Family Study), which includes 94 multigenerational families enrolled from communities located in Oklahoma, the Dakotas, and Arizona. Individuals were recruited from the Strong Heart Study, a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. This study selected 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 loci identified from recently published kidney-related genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry to evaluate their associations with kidney function (estimated GFR; individuals 18 years or older, up to 3282 individuals) and albuminuria (urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; n=3552) in the Strong Heart Family Study. This study also examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOL1 region with estimated GFR in 1121 Strong Heart Family Study participants. GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Equation. Additive genetic models adjusted for age and sex were used. Results This study identified significant associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms with estimated GFR in or nearby PRKAG2, SLC6A13, UBE2Q2, PIP5K1B, and WDR72 (P<2.1 × 10-3 to account for multiple testing). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci explained 2.2% of the estimated GFR total variance and 2.9% of its heritability. An intronic variant of BCAS3 was significantly associated with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio. APOL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with estimated GFR in a single variant test or haplotype analyses, and the at

  20. The Association between 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Score Calculated Using 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level among Aged 40-79 Years in Korea: The Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mun Hee; Kim, Young Sang; Oh, Hye Jin; Kwon, Yu Ri; Kim, Hye Won

    2018-05-01

    We examined the relationship between 10-year predicted atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Koreans aged 40-79 years. A population-based, cross-sectional design was used from data based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014. A total of 1,134 healthy Koreans aged 40-79 years were included. A positive relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and ASCVD score was shown in women (β=0.015) after adjusting for central obesity, physical activity, and supplement intake. The chances of being in the moderate to high risk (risk group, ASCVD score ≥5%) with vitamin D sufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/mL) was 1.267-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.039-1.595) greater than the chance of being included in the group with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/mL) after adjustments in women. Our research indicated a significantly positive association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and ASCVD score. Further detailed studies to evaluate this correlation are needed.

  1. [Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadmium body burden and increased blood pressure in middle-aged American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, N; Fry, R C; Balakrishnan, P; Navas-Acien, A; Oliver-Williams, C; Howard, A G; Cole, S A; Haack, K; Lange, E M; Howard, B V; Best, L G; Francesconi, K A; Goessler, W; Umans, J G; Tellez-Plaza, M

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with cardiovascular disease in populations, but the relationship of Cd with hypertension has been inconsistent. We studied the association between urinary Cd concentrations, a measure of total body burden, and blood pressure in American Indians, a US population with above national average Cd burden. Urinary Cd was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and adjusted for urinary creatinine concentration. Among 3714 middle-aged American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Study (mean age 56 years, 41% male, 67% ever-smokers, 23% taking antihypertensive medications), urinary Cd ranged from 0.01 to 78.48 μg g -1 creatinine (geometric mean=0.94 μg g -1 ) and it was correlated with smoking pack-year among ever-smokers (r 2 =0.16, P<0.0001). Participants who were smokers were on average light-smokers (mean 10.8 pack-years), and urinary Cd was similarly elevated in light- and never-smokers (geometric means of 0.88 μg g -1 creatinine for both categories). Log-transformed urinary Cd was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure in models adjusted for age, sex, geographic area, body mass index, smoking (ever vs never, and cumulative pack-years) and kidney function (mean blood pressure difference by lnCd concentration (β)=1.64, P=0.002). These associations were present among light- and never-smokers (β=2.03, P=0.002, n=2627), although not significant among never-smokers (β=1.22, P=0.18, n=1260). Cd was also associated with diastolic blood pressure among light- and never-smokers (β=0.94, P=0.004). These findings suggest that there is a relationship between Cd body burden and increased blood pressure in American Indians, a population with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. A Model Partnership: The American Heart Association and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopulos, Diana; Hafner, Dudley H.

    1982-01-01

    For higher education, the increasing number of nonprofit managers represents a graduate-level audience that may be as significant as the audience of business managers who emerged from private industrial corporations at the turn of the century. Yet colleges and universities have responded slowly to the needs of the third sector. (MLW)

  4. Association between heart rhythm and cortical sound processing.

    PubMed

    Marcomini, Renata S; Frizzo, Ana Claúdia F; de Góes, Viviane B; Regaçone, Simone F; Garner, David M; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Oliveira, Fernando R; Valenti, Vitor E

    2018-04-26

    Sound signal processing signifies an important factor for human conscious communication and it may be assessed through cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEP). Heart rate variability (HRV) provides information about heart rate autonomic regulation. We investigated the association between resting HRV and CAEP. We evaluated resting HRV in the time and frequency domain and the CAEP components. The subjects remained at rest for 10 minutes for HRV recording, then they performed the CAEP examinations through frequency and duration protocols in both ears. Linear regression indicated that the amplitude of the N2 wave of the CAEP in the left ear (not right ear) was significantly influenced by standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR-intervals (17.7%) and percentage of adjacent RR-intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 milliseconds (25.3%) time domain HRV indices in the frequency protocol. In the duration protocol and in the left ear the latency of the P2 wave was significantly influenced by low (LF) (20.8%) and high frequency (HF) bands in normalized units (21%) and LF/HF ratio (22.4%) indices of HRV spectral analysis. The latency of the N2 wave was significantly influenced by LF (25.8%), HF (25.9%) and LF/HF (28.8%). In conclusion, we promote the supposition that resting heart rhythm is associated with thalamo-cortical, cortical-cortical and auditory cortex pathways involved with auditory processing in the right hemisphere.

  5. Genetic and environmental contributions to cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians: the strong heart family study.

    PubMed

    North, Kari E; Howard, Barbara V; Welty, Thomas K; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Yeh, J L; Fabsitz, Richard R; Roman, Mary J; MacCluer, Jean W

    2003-02-15

    The aims of the Strong Heart Family Study are to clarify the genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in American Indians and to map and identify genes for CVD susceptibility. The authors describe the design of the Strong Heart Family Study (conducted between 1998 and 1999) and evaluate the heritabilities of CVD risk factors in American Indians from this study. In the first phase of the study, approximately 950 individuals, aged 18 years or more, in 32 extended families, were examined. The examination consisted of a personal interview, physical examination, laboratory tests, and an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The phenotypes measured during the physical examination included anthropometry, lipoproteins, blood pressure, glycemic status, and clotting factors. Heritabilities for CVD risk factor phenotypes were estimated using a variance component approach and the program SOLAR. After accounting for the effects of covariates, the authors detected significant heritabilities for many CVD risk factor phenotypes (e.g., high density lipoprotein cholesterol (heritability = 0.50) and diastolic blood pressure (heritability = 0.34)). These results suggest that heredity explains a substantial proportion of the variability of CVD risk factors and that thes