Iriart, Celia; Waitzkin, Howard; Breilh, Jaime; Estrada, Alfredo; Merhy, Emerson Elías
This piece presents and analyzes a number of issues related to social medicine: the context of the emergence of social medicine; the differences between social medicine and public health; the theories, methods, and debates in social medicine; the main subjects or problems considered in social medicine; and the difficulties of disseminating the concepts of social medicine among English-speaking persons and among medical and public health professionals in general. Latin American social medicine has challenged other views by contributing to an understanding of the determinants of the health-disease-health care process and by using theories, methods, and techniques that are little known in the field of public health. Introducing Latin American social medicine, especially among English speakers, will be difficult due to the conceptual complexity of this field for persons who are accustomed to the theoretical framework of public health and medicine and also due to skepticism concerning research coming from the Third World. A multidisciplinary team is facing this challenge through two primary initiatives: 1) the creation of an Internet portal and database where there are structured abstracts in English, Portuguese, and Spanish of books, book chapters, and articles on social medicine and 2) the electronic publication of two journals on Latin American social medicine.
A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice. PMID:14652319
A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice.
Eldredge, Jonathan D; Waitzkin, Howard; Buchanan, Holly S; Teal, Janis; Iriart, Celia; Wiley, Kevin; Tregear, Jonathan
Background Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood. The Latin American Social Medicine (LASM) database finally bridges this previous gap. Description This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works. Conclusion This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM. PMID:15627401
Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time.
Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326
Buchanan, Holly Shipp; Waitzkin, Howard; Eldredge, Jonathan; Davidson, Russ; Iriart, Celia; Teal, Janis
Purpose: This preliminary report describes the development and implementation of a project to improve access to literature in Latin American social medicine (LASM). Methods: The University of New Mexico project team collaborated with participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Ecuador to identify approximately 400 articles and books in Latin American social medicine. Structured abstracts were prepared, translated into English, Spanish, and Portuguese, assigned Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and loaded into a Web-based database for public searching. The project has initiated Web-based publication for two LASM journals. Evaluation included measures of use and content. Results: The LASM Website (http://hsc.unm.edu/lasm) and database create access to formerly little-known literature that addresses problems relevant to current medicine and public health. This Website offers a unique resource for researchers, practitioners, and teachers who seek to understand the links between socioeconomic conditions and health. The project provides a model for collaboration between librarians and health care providers. Challenges included procurement of primary material; preparation of concise abstracts; working with trilingual translations of abstracts, metadata, and indexing; and the work processes of the multidisciplinary team. Conclusions: The literature of Latin American social medicine has become more readily available to researchers worldwide. The LASM project serves as a collaborative model for the creation of sustainable solutions for disseminating information that is difficult to access through traditional methods. PMID:14566372
Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila
The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.
Laurell, Asa Cristina
Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs. PMID:14652327
Silver, G. A.
Social medicine as a term has achieved acceptance in medical education and medical practice, although there is still some question as to its acceptance in reality. The term had its origin in the vigorous nineteenth-century efforts at both medical and social reform, combining the two in a recognition of the intimate connection between social factors and the causation of disease. Henry Ernest Sigerist, a Swiss physician and noted scholar of medical history, formulated the broadest concept in the 1930s, attracting students and a latent American reform movement toward the idea of restructuring medical education as one part of social reform, and indicating ways of restructuring medical practice as another element in improving medical care at the same time. In addition to promulgating the doctrine, he established the policy of examining and describing systems of medical education and medical care in other parts of the world, not only to assist in improving medical care in countries with well-organized systems, but to assist countries with poor resources and lesser organizational capability in meeting the goals of social medicine. Doubt as to the durability of the concept has been expressed, insofar as the recommended improvements have lagged behind the expression, and because so many changes have taken place in the nature of medical practice, medical discoveries, and advances in technology. A closer examination of Sigerist's writings on the subject and evaluation of the circumstances around present-day problems would seem to indicate that the flaw is not in the doctrine, but in the lack of social application. PMID:6537694
Piñeros, Juan Gabriel
Traditionally, malaria research and study have followed the positivist scientific paradigm and its biomedical conception of disease. From this perspective, diverse control actions and strategies have been designed. However, despite a century of scientific experience and the depth and thoroughness achieved in the knowledge of malaria, this has not been translated into a constant and progressive decrease of its epidemiological burden. This essay argues for the need for a change in malaria conception, reconfiguring it as a process of biological and social character, where the geno-phenotypical possibilities of the host-parasite relationship and of the diseases clinical expression are articulated with the historic and social dynamics of the spaces in which they occur. In addition, it proposes rethinking the epidemiological research of this entity on the basis of the visualization of the dynamic, heterogeneous, dialectic and complex character of biosocial organizations that constitute the reality of malaria (from the social structure to the genetic and phenotypic level of parasite individuals, vectors and humans). To achieve this, it is suggested that: 1) the Latin American perspective on the social determinants of health be adopted; 2) new analytical categories (for instance, malaria social territory) and new investigation tools (matrices of critical processes of social determination) be incorporated, and 3) the conventional epidemiological categories of infectious diseases such as the transmission and infectiousness be reinterpreted.
Bastardot, F; Vollenweider, P; Marques-Vidal, P
Social networks (social media or #SoMe) have entered medical practice within the last few years. These new media--like Twitter or Skype--enrich interactions among physicians (telemedicine), among physicians and patients (virtual consultations) and change the way of teaching medicine. They also entail new ethical, deontological and legal issues: the extension of the consultation area beyond the medical office and the access of information by third parties were recently debated. We develop here a review of some social networks with their characteristics, applications for medicine and limitations, and we offer some recommendations of good practice.
Schwenk, Eric S; Jaremko, Kellie M; Gupta, Rajnish K; Udani, Ankeet D; McCartney, Colin J L; Snively, Anne; Mariano, Edward R
Microblogs known as "tweets" are a rapid, effective method of information dissemination in health care. Although several medical specialties have described their Twitter conference experiences, Twitter-related data in the fields of anesthesiology and pain medicine are sparse. We therefore analyzed the Twitter content of 2 consecutive spring meetings of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine using publicly available online transcripts. We also examined the potential contribution of a targeted social media campaign on Twitter engagement during the conferences. The original Twitter meeting content was largely scientific in nature and created by meeting attendees, the majority of whom were nontrainee physicians. Physician trainees, however, represent an important and increasing minority of Twitter contributors. Physicians not in attendance predominantly contributed via retweeting original content, particularly picture-containing tweets, and thus increased reach to nonattendees. A social media campaign prior to meetings may help increase the reach of conference-related Twitter discussion.
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Occupational medicine has always been part of social medicine, but focuses on the part of the population in paid employment. Investigations of occupational diseases have identified several toxic chemicals that can affect other sectors of society: examples include cancers due to sawdust, asbestos, benzene, as well as carcinogens, mutagens and reproductive toxins. Better knowledge of the risks posed by epoxy resins, cements, formaldehyde, lead, toluene and other chemical agents has helped to understand certain diseases in the population. Knowledge of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive work has been of help in other areas; gradual resumption of appropriate activity seems to be the best basic treatment. Studies of mental overload and its consequences in the workplace (suicide, depression, etc.) have implications for human relations in society as a whole. Multidisciplinary networking helps to regularly take stock of findings in occupational medicine that may be applicable to social medicine.
Waitzkin, H; Waterman, B
Three sociolgists-Talcott Parson, Eliot Freidson, and Mechanic-have explained medical phneomena within a broader theoretical framework. Although all three have made significant contributions, their conclusions remain incomplete on the theoretical level and seldom have been helpful for workers concerned with ongoing problems of health care. Our purpose here is to summarize some of the strengths and weakness of each theoretical position. Parsons has elucidated the sick role as a deviant role in society, the function of physicians as agents of social control, and the normative patterns governing the doctor-patient relationship. The principal problems in Parsons' analysis center on an uncritical acceptance of physicians' social control functions, his inattention tot the ways in which physicians' behavior may inhibit change in society, and overoptimism about the medical profession's ability to regulate itself and to prevent the exploitation of patients. Viewing medical phenomena within a broader theory of the professions in general, Freidson has formulated w wide ranging critique of the medical profession and professional dominance. On the other hand, Freidson's work neglects the full political implications of bringing professional autonomy under control. Mechanic's coceptual approach emphasizes the social psychologic factors, rather than the institutional conditions, which are involved in the genesis of illness behavior. Mechanic also overlooks the ways in which illness behavior, by permitting a controllable from of deviance, fosters institutional stability. In conclusion, we present a breif overview of a theoretical framework whose general orientation is that of Marixian analysis. Several themes recur in this framework: illness as a source of exploitation, the sick role as a conservative mechanism fostering social stability, stratification in medicine, and the imperialsm of large medical institutions and health-related industries.
Boulton, Frank E
Addis was born and educated in Edinburgh, from the University of which he graduated MB in 1905, and MD in 1908, in which year he also gained membership of Edinburgh's Royal College of Physicians. After researching disordered haemostasis associated with various clinical conditions, he spent over a year in Germany: in Berlin with Dr. E.L. Salkowski learning urinalysis and at Heidelberg under Ludolph von Krehl studying haemophilics. Back in Edinburgh he concluded that the ultimate cause of haemophilia was an 'anatomical defect in the molecule of prothrombin'. He was the first to monitor the effects on plasma clotting times of transfusion of anticoagulated blood into a haemophilic. In 1911 he was recruited by Ray Lyman Wilbur, the first dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine, to investigate metabolic disorders including jaundice, diabetes and ultimately chronic renal disease. In 1917 he described the 'urea ratio'--the mathematical and conceptual forerunner of clearance formulae--and over the next 30 years developed a combined clinical and laboratory service for patients with inexorably failing kidneys. He devised an effective, rational and individually based dietary treatment--some patients such as Linus Pauling, who presented in 1941 with marked nephrosis, responded completely. Addis' Calvinist upbringing gave him a strong sense of 'mission' which during the American Depression developed into support for poverty-stricken workers in America, and against the fascists in Spain. He died before the full development of the 'McCarthy Witch Hunts' of the 1950s, although many associates, including Robert Oppenheimer, were interrogated.
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Medina, E; Cruz-Coke, R
During the last decade Chile has experienced a series of social changes under Christian Socialist (1964-1970), Marxist Socialist (1970-1973) and military (1973-1975) governments. These changes grossly affected the evolution of medicine and public health in Chile. Nevertheless, vital statistics show an overall improvement in health indexes, with a short interruption during the Marxist government. During this period medical standards and the quality of medical services declined when revolutionaries disrupted the organization of traditional socialized Chilean medicine founded 50 years ago. The vital statistics of 1974 suggest an overall recovery, but physical and human resources for health, eroded by revolution and the present acute economic crisis, have not yet begun to improve. Nevertheless, Chilean medicine has reasumed the technical character that should never have been abandoned.
Montepio, Susan N.
Focuses on the health behaviors of Filipino Americans in Los Angeles, analyzing what these behaviors mean to the people who hold and perform them. First discussed are traditional folk medicine, then the current practices, which have resulted from immigration and the subsequent forming of new networks. (LHW)
If the mission of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is clear--"to change the face of medicine to reflect the face of America" said Dr. Charles Terrell, the group's vice president for diversity policy and programs, at the opening of AAMC's recent conference on career development for minority faculty--then another fact is…
Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Baren, Jill M; Beeson, Michael S; Counselman, Francis L; Kowalenko, Terry; Marco, Catherine A; Muelleman, Robert L; Nelson, Lewis S; Wahl, Robert P; Korte, Robert C
The American Board of Emergency Medicine gathers extensive background information on emergency medicine residency programs and the residents in them. We present the 2014 annual report on the status of US emergency medicine training programs.
Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Baren, Jill M; Counselman, Francis L; Kowalenko, Terry; Marco, Catherine A; Muelleman, Robert L; Wahl, Robert P; Korte, Robert C
The American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) gathers extensive background information on emergency medicine residency programs and the residents in those programs. We present the 2013 annual report on the status of US emergency medicine training programs.
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie
Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706
McDavid, Raven I., Jr.
Societal differences among ethnic groups and other geographically remote bodies of peoples within a culture are often caused by dialectal variation. The social and educational implications of societal division by such linguistic differentiation are discussed in this article. The author touches on concepts relating to dialectology, paralanguage,…
Cohn, L H
Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence, had a consuming interest in all fields of education and science, including the practice of medicine and public health. He actively developed medical education, supported measures for public health, and encouraged scientific research supported by the government without policy intervention. Although a close friend of eminent physicians, his rationalism and scientific method placed him ahead of many practitioners of his time. He disparaged medical quackery but actively supported therapies such as vaccination that were based on research and careful observation. The School of Medicine at the University of Virginia was Jefferson's concrete contribution to the advancement of medical education in the United States and epitomized his preoccupation with medicine and science as important cornerstones of a healthy American nation.
Butler, William T.
This article reviews societal demands for increased accountability and social responsibility by academic medicine. The Association of American Medical Colleges is urged to prepare more generalist physicians and assure better access to health care services. A "National System of Regional Medical Care" is proposed. (Author/DB)
Waitzkin, Howard; Iriart, Celia; Estrada, Alfredo; Lamadrid, Silvia
The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of “health–illness,” and its stance on causal inference. A “golden age” occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice—a combination known as “praxis.” Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma. PMID:11574316
Gostomzyk, J G; Simoes, E; Mittelstaedt, G V
The economic transformation of health care systems, which is supported by both the economic and the political sector, is in demand of constant humane correction. Legal regulations of social systems securing health corresponding to the code of social law are guard rails for a responsible use of limited resources and are subject to constant development. All doctors caring for patients should be in a position to reflect the real life context of their patients as both causal and modifying influence for health and disease from a social medical perspective, apart from their specific medical field of expertise.Accordingly 3 parts of sub-specialization training are suggested: clinical tasks of social medicine as detailed in the code of social law, clinical social medicine in health care according to the 5(th) book of the code of social law and social medicine in clinical social medicine/participation. Higher level-of-care hospitals, as well as rehabilitation clinics, should offer sub-specialization in social medicine without interruption of employment contracts. Corresponding criteria for the regulation on further education should be formulated by the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) as the competent scientific association and presented to the committee on further education of the Federal Medical Association. This aims at strengthening social medicine in clinical care.
Schilling, Robert F., II; Schilling, Robert F.
Social workers and physicians have worked together since the early part of the century, although their professional relationship has tended to reflect the differing values and prestige of social work and medicine. Changes within social work and health care may present opportunities for closer collaboration. Discusses how social workers can…
Hodges, Frederick M
The antimasturbation fervor that swept through the English-speaking world during the 19th century raged with particular intensity and unequaled duration in the United States. American medical leaders were convinced that masturbation was the underlying cause of nearly all social problems and diseases. Even after the discovery and general acceptance of the germ theory of disease in the late 19th century, the U.S. medical establishment continued to maintain well into the middle of the 20th century that masturbation was both a pathological act and a cause of mental and physical disease. This article explores the dominant themes in the medical doctrines about masturbation that prevailed in the first half of the 19th century, by examining the case reports of five prominent American physicians: Benjamin Rush, Samuel Bayard Woodward, Alfred Hitchcock, Alonzo Garwood, and Edward H. Dixon.
Bloche, M Gregg
Straw men play a major role in the debate over racial disparity in American medicine. Most have been deployed by the disparities-denying right, but progressives intent on "outing" racism have sent forth their share. This essay flushes out the straw men while attempting to understand the competing moral premises that drive the politics of health care disparity. At bottom, arguments about the scope of disparity and discrimination in medical care are disputes about the appropriate scope of personal responsibility for life circumstances. Further research into the factors that correlate with racial differences in health care can shed light on the circumstances that bring about these differences. Whether these circumstances, once understood, should be deemed acceptable is a moral and political matter, and sharp differences over the scope of personal and public responsibility for these circumstances are inevitable. Such disagreements, however, distract us from efforts to reach common ground solutions to agreed-upon inequities in health care.
Rosenberg, Charles E
Erwin H. Ackerknecht was an influential member of that small group of largely émigré historians of medicine who professionalized their field in the United States. Ackerknecht was influenced by both contemporary social science and an implicitly political vision of social medicine. It was a vision reinforced by his work in social anthropology in Paris in the 1930s, and it is a tradition that has its own intellectual pedigree, one that can be traced back to the era of Rudolf Virchow. It was no accident that Ackerknecht wrote on the social and ecological dimensions of disease, and that he was a vigorous advocate of a powerfully felt but, in retrospect, inconsistent relativism. His emphases on everyday medical practice and on siting ideas in their social and institutional context seem prescient, a forerunner of contemporary trends in social and cultural history.
Fofana, Mariam O.
Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563
Holmes, Seth M; Greene, Jeremy A; Stonington, Scott D
Global health's goal to address health issues across great sociocultural and socioeconomic gradients worldwide requires a sophisticated approach to the social root causes of disease and the social context of interventions. This is especially true today as the focus of global health work is actively broadened from acute to chronic and from infectious to non-communicable diseases. To respond to these complex biosocial problems, we propose the recent expansion of interest in the field of global health should look to the older field of social medicine, a shared domain of social and medical sciences that offers critical analytic and methodological tools to elucidate who gets sick, why and what we can do about it. Social medicine is a rich and relatively untapped resource for understanding the hybrid biological and social basis of global health problems. Global health can learn much from social medicine to help practitioners understand the social behaviour, social structure, social networks, cultural difference and social context of ethical action central to the success or failure of global health's important agendas. This understanding - of global health as global social medicine - can coalesce global health's unclear identity into a coherent framework effective for addressing the world's most pressing health issues.
Baca Zinn, Maxine
Suggests that the biased image of Mexican-American women in current literature can be improved by: locating Mexican-American females in precise organizational context; distinguishing between macro- and microanalytical levels; separating social structural from cultural phenomena; and relating Mexican-American women's studies to general feminist…
Westerhaus, Michael; Finnegan, Amy; Haidar, Mona; Kleinman, Arthur; Mukherjee, Joia; Farmer, Paul
Research and clinical experience reliably and repeatedly demonstrate that the determinants of health are most accurately conceptualized as biosocial phenomena, in which health and disease emerge through the interaction between biology and the social environment. Increased appreciation of biosocial approaches have already driven change in premedical education and focused attention on population health in current U.S. health care reform. Medical education, however, places primary emphasis on biomedicine and often fails to emphasize and educate students and trainees about the social forces that shape disease and illness patterns. The authors of this Commentary argue that medical education requires a comprehensive transformation to incorporate rigorous biosocial training to ensure that all future health professionals are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to practice social medicine. Three distinct models for accomplishing such transformation are presented: SocMed's monthlong, elective courses in Northern Uganda and Haiti; Harvard Medical School's semester-long, required social medicine course; and the Lebanese American University's curricular integration of social medicine throughout its entire four-year curriculum. Successful implementation of social medicine training requires the institutionalization of biosocial curricula; the utilization of innovative, engaging pedagogies; and the involvement of health professions students from broad demographic backgrounds and with all career interests. The achievement of such transformational and necessary change to medical education will prepare future health practitioners working in all settings to respond more proactively and comprehensively to the health needs of all populations.
Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R
American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486
Cruess, Sylvia R
Medicine's relationship with society has been described as a social contract: an "as if" contract with obligations and expectations on the part of both society and medicine, "each of the other". The term is often used without elaboration by those writing on professionalism in medicine. Based on the literature, society's expectations of medicine are: the services of the healer, assured competence, altruistic service, morality and integrity, accountability, transparency, objective advice, and promotion of the public good. Medicine's expectations of society are: trust, autonomy, self-regulation, a health care system that is value-driven and adequately funded, participation in public policy, shared responsibility for health, a monopoly, and both non-financial and financial rewards. The recognition of these expectations is important as they serve as the basis of a series of obligations which are necessary for the maintenance of medicine as a profession. Mutual trust and reasonable demands are required of both parties to the contract.
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Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…
Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)
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Morgado, P J
The economic crisis in which Venezuela is living, caused by the fall in oil prices, has forced the government to reorganize its medical services. A central administrative organ, the National Health Service, has been created. It seeks to develop a social medicine directed at the less favored classes of the population. Notwithstanding the continuously rising costs of private medicine, which, until now, the government has permitted without restrictions, the shadow of government intervention looms ominously over private practice, where subemployment of doctors already exists, along with the growing tendencies of insurance companies to impose economic conditions. The Venezuelan Medical Federation, which, by law, groups all Venezuelan doctors, has began a battle on two main fronts: against the State intervention and against the insurance companies who hope to benefit at the expense of the already underpaid doctors.
A twelfth grade quinmester course designed to give the student an objective overview of the development of Communism vis-a-vis Americanism (Democracy) is outlined in this guide. The course focuses on what each way of life represents and their respective positions in world politics. Included are case studies in communist expansion, the communist…
Chandler, Christopher M; McDougal, Owen M
Plants belonging to the genus Veratrum have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, phytochemical investigations revealed a host of steroidal alkaloids in Veratrum species, some of which are potent bioactives. This review discusses Veratrum species that grow in North America with a focus on the medicinal history of these plants and the steroidal alkaloids they contain. While significant reviews have been devoted to singularly describing the plant species within the genus Veratrum (botany), the staggering breadth of alkaloids isolated from these and related plants (phytochemistry), and the intricacies of how the various alkaloids act on their biological targets (physiology and biochemistry), this review will straddle the margins of the aforementioned disciplines in an attempt to provide a unified, coherent picture of the Veratrum plants of North America and the medicinal uses of their bioactive steroidal alkaloids.
Chandler, Christopher M.
Plants belonging to the genus Veratrum have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, phytochemical investigations revealed a host of steroidal alkaloids in Veratrum species, some of which are potent bioactives. This review discusses Veratrum species that grow in North America with a focus on the medicinal history of these plants and the steroidal alkaloids they contain. While significant reviews have been devoted to singularly describing the plant species within the genus Veratrum (botany), the staggering breadth of alkaloids isolated from these and related plants (phytochemistry), and the intricacies of how the various alkaloids act on their biological targets (physiology and biochemistry), this review will straddle the margins of the aforementioned disciplines in an attempt to provide a unified, coherent picture of the Veratrum plants of North America and the medicinal uses of their bioactive steroidal alkaloids. PMID:25379034
Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W
Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine.
Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine.
Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C; Estrada, A; Lamadrid, S
There is little knowledge about Latin American social medicine in the English-speaking world. Social medicine groups exist in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, and Mexico. Dictatorships have created political and economic conditions which are more adverse in some countries than others; in certain instances, practitioners of social medicine have faced unemployment, arrest, torture, exile, and death. Social medicine groups have focused on the social determinants of illness and early death, the effects of social policies such as privatisation and public sector cutbacks, occupational and environmental causes of illness, critical epidemiology, mental health effects of political trauma, the impact of gender, and collaborations with local communities, labour organisations, and indigenous people. The groups' achievements and financial survival have varied, depending partly on the national context. Active professional associations have developed, both nationally and internationally. Several groups have achieved publication in journals and books, despite financial and technical difficulties that might be lessened through a new initiative sponsored by the US National Library of Medicine. The conceptual orientation and research efforts of these groups have tended to challenge current relations of economic and political power. Despite its dangers, Latin American social medicine has emerged as a productive field of work, whose findings have become pertinent throughout the world.
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Patel, Dipti; Jermacane, Daiga
The use of social media is widespread and provides new opportunities for healthcare professionals and healthcare organisations to interact with patients, the public, policy makers, and each other. Social media offers the possibility of providing users with up-to-date information when, where, and how they want it, but it also brings with it some challenges. With increasing use of social media, there is potential to change the way travel medicine is delivered; practitioners should consider how to exploit the benefits in their practice, and not be afraid to experiment. However they need to be cognizant of the potential pitfalls. The information exchanged requires careful application as it may not always achieve the desired outcome, it needs to be monitored for quality, accuracy, and reliability, and confidentiality and privacy must be maintained. Most importantly, as social media becomes more sophisticated and widely adopted in the healthcare arena, further evaluation and research is required to understand its impact and its application to travel medicine.
Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Carius, Michael L; Collier, Robert E; Counselman, Francis L; Kowalenko, Terry; Marco, Catherine A; Muelleman, Robert L; Korte, Robert C
The American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) gathers extensive background information on emergency medicine residency training programs and the residents in those programs. We present the 2012 annual report on the status of US emergency medicine training programs.
Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Marco, Catherine A; Baren, Jill M; Beeson, Michael S; Carius, Michael L; Counselman, Francis L; Heller, Barry N; Kowalenko, Terry; Muelleman, Robert L; Nelson, Lewis S; Wahl, Robert P; Korte, Robert C; Joldersma, Kevin B
The American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) gathers extensive background information on emergency medicine residency programs and the residents in those programs. We present the 2015 annual report on the status of US emergency medicine training programs.
Marco, Catherine A; Baren, Jill M; Beeson, Michael S; Carius, Michael L; Counselman, Francis L; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Goyal, Deepi G; Kowalenko, Terry; Muelleman, Robert L; Wahl, Robert P; Joldersma, Kevin B
The American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) gathers extensive background information on emergency medicine residency programs and the residents training in those programs. We present the 2016 annual report on the status of US emergency medicine training programs.
Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Litwin, Howard
This study examined the association between social network type and engagement in physical activity, alcohol abuse and use of complementary and alternative medicine by older Americans. Data from the National Social Life, Health & Aging Project were employed. Multivariate logistic regressions conducted separately for each health behavior showed that older people embedded in less resourceful network types were at greater risk for alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and less use of complementary and alternative medicine, net of the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, health, and the quality of the social relationships. The study underscores the importance of the construct of social network type for understanding healthy lifestyle in late life. PMID:22682660
Several Latin American countries are implementing a suite of so-called "postneoliberal" social and political economic policies to counter neoliberal models that emerged in the 1980s. This article considers the influence of postneoliberalism on public health discourses, policies, institutions, and practices in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Social medicine and neoliberal public health models are antecedents of postneoliberal public health care models. Postneoliberal public health governance models neither fully incorporate social medicine nor completely reject neoliberal models. Postneoliberal reforms may provide an alternative means of reducing health inequalities and improving population health.
Booker, Staja Q
Persistent (chronic) pain prompts older African Americans (AAs) to utilize a combination of biomedicine (BM) and spiritual medicine (SM)for pain management. Because less is known about how older AAs use these pain management interventions, healthcare providers are unable to provide holistic care and optimal pain management. Using a Christian and Afrocentric perspective, this article reviews older AAs use of BM and SM, offering reconmendations on how to integrate BM and SM for pain management.
With the new national licensing regulations for physicians subsections of the social medicine became discrete subjects. The question arises, which contents the social medicine can have in the future, with consideration of important basic conditions. Such are the progress of medical knowledge, the representation of social medicine at medical faculties, changes of the medical supply, the transformation of jobs and the globalization. On a long-term basis effects of the demographic development, changes of the family structure and the financing of health and illness are important too. The social medicine should promptly make quality-assured contents available with consideration of the Internet. Such contents could be the comprehensive consultation, investigation and control of patient careers as well as the consultation and investigation from health problems in municipalities and in the society. In addition an inductive and practical oriented curriculum should be compiled, using the subject catalogue of the social medicine as well as a new basic textbook of social medicine.
Nunes, Everardo Duarte
This paper analyses some aspects of the trajectory of the Argentinian physician and sociologist Juan César García (1932-1984) in the field of Latin American Social Medicine. Three dimensions constituting his basic orientations are highlighted: the elaboration of systematic and reflective social thought; a critical attitude in questioning teaching and professional practices; a commitment to the institutionalization and dissemination of health knowledge.
Schagen, U; Schleiermacher, S
In 1905 the first German association of Social Medicine was founded. Out of its now 100 years of history two aspects which were of peculiar importance for its development are studied here by the method of historic analysis of the sources and the examination of secondary literature: the noteworthiness of this foundation is characterized by the fact that the society was based from its beginnings on multidisciplinarity and the appliance of different scientific methods. It is showed which fascination had exclusively biological and genetic explanations for the genesis of diseases and human attitude characteristics. In transformation to practical action these ideas led to the extermination of disease causing genetic attributes and often their bearers as well. This aim was followed up even when the genetic causation of specified attitudes was not clearly proved. These biological interpretations of disease phenomenons neglected social causes for the process of the appearance of certain diseases and the emergence of health. They were responsible for medical interventions into the physical integrity of hundreds of thousands of human beings under the political terms and conditions of National Socialism.
Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark
The following sports ultrasound (SPORTS US) curriculum is a revision of the curriculum developed by the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) in 2010. Several changes have been made to the curriculum with the primary aim of providing a pathway by which a sports medicine fellow can obtain sufficient SPORTS US training to become proficient in the core competencies of SPORTS US. The core competencies of SPORTS US are outlined in the learning objectives section of this document. The term "SPORTS US" was purposefully chosen rather than "musculoskeletal ultrasound" (MSK US) because it was recognized by the panel that the evolving field of SPORTS US encompasses non-MSK applications of ultrasound such as the FAST examination (focused assessment with sonography for trauma). Although the SPORTS US core competencies in this curriculum are all MSK in nature, they represent the minimum SPORTS US knowledge a sports medicine fellow should acquire during fellowship. However, additional training in more advanced MSK and non-MSK applications of ultrasound can be provided at the fellowship director's discretion. Completion of this SPORTS US curriculum fulfills the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine's (AIUM) requirements to perform an MSK US examination and the prerequisites for the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography's (ARDMS) MSK sonography certification examination.
Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J
To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.
Schiele, Jerome H.
Surveyed 300 African-American social work faculty concerning their scholarly productivity in terms of published journal articles. Found that African-American social work doctorates publish just as much as do other social work doctorates and that younger age (31-40) for receiving the doctorate is associated with higher publication rates. (KS)
Eraqi, Monica M.
Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…
American medicine is undergoing an unprecedented upheaval in its relationship with government, third party payers, business and professional groups, with its patients, and most of all within itself. These trends take the form of movements away from specialization which had been increasing until just recently; the introduction of practice criteria and practice guidelines; the virtual elimination of fee for service medicine; the creation of multiple physician health care organizations working in managed competition; and the grouping of doctors into provider organizations offering credit lines to health care systems. These trends, along with decreasing reliance on tissue diagnosis, declining support of medical research and ever-expanding health care teams have definite impact on the issue of negligence. The foregoing is an attempt to define these and to make some educated guesses as to their impact on health care delivery in the United States in the next several years and the ways in which the negligence climate is likely to change.
Finnoff, Jonathan T; Hall, Mederic M; Adams, Erik; Berkoff, David; Concoff, Andrew L; Dexter, William; Smith, Jay
The use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound has significantly increased over the past decade. A majority of the increased utilization is by nonradiologists. In sports medicine, ultrasound is often used to guide interventions such as aspirations, diagnostic or therapeutic injections, tenotomies, releases, and hydrodissections. This American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) position statement critically reviews the literature and evaluates the accuracy, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound-guided injections in major, intermediate, and small joints, and soft tissues, all of which are commonly performed in sports medicine. New ultrasound-guided procedures and future trends are also briefly discussed. Based upon the evidence, the official AMSSM position relevant to each subject is made.
Finnoff, Jonathan T; Hall, Mederic M; Adams, Erik; Berkoff, David; Concoff, Andrew L; Dexter, William; Smith, Jay
The use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound has significantly increased over the past decade. A majority of the increased utilization is by nonradiologists. In sports medicine, ultrasound is often used to guide interventions such as aspirations, diagnostic or therapeutic injections, tenotomies, releases, and hydrodissections. This American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) position statement critically reviews the literature and evaluates the accuracy, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound-guided injections in major, intermediate, and small joints, and soft tissues, all of which are commonly performed in sports medicine. New ultrasound-guided procedures and future trends are also briefly discussed. Based on the evidence, the official AMSSM position relevant to each subject is made.
George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.
Health professionals have begun using social media to benefit patients, enhance professional networks, and advance understanding of individual and contextual factors influencing public health. However, discussion of the dangers of these technologies in medicine has overwhelmed consideration of positive applications. This article summarizes the hazards of social media in medicine and explores how changes in functionality on sites like Facebook may make these technologies less perilous for health professionals. Finally, it describes the most promising avenues through which professionals can use social media in medicine – improving patient communication, enhancing professional development, and contributing to public health research and service. PMID:23903375
Chiodo, John J.
The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…
Tijerina, Mary; Deepak, Anne C.
An increase in Latinos in the social work academy is critical due to current underrepresentation in social work education programs and rapid Latino population growth in the United States. In this qualitative study, perceptions of Mexican American master's of social work-level practitioners regarding social work doctoral education and academia were…
Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R
As health care has become of great importance to both individual citizens and to society, it has become more important to understand medicine's relationship to the society it serves in order to have a basis for meaningful dialogue. During the past decade, individuals in the medical, legal, social sciences, and health policy fields have suggested that professionalism serves as the basis of medicine's relationship with society, and many have termed this relationship a social contract. However, the concept of medicine's social contract remains vague, and the implications of its existence have not been fully explored. This paper endorses the use of the term social contract, examines the origin of the concept and its relationship to professionalism, traces its evolution and application to medicine, describes the expectations of the various parties to the contract, and explores some of the implications of its use.
Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.
Pressel, David M
The activities of German doctors during the Nazi regime are well known and documented. They include efforts at eugenic sterilization and euthanasia, gruesome medical experimentation, and contributions to genocide. The German medical profession embraced the Nazi ideology of racial superiority. Nazi doctors enthusiastically perverted traditional medical mores of viewing each patient as a full individual towards a misguided sense of protecting the racial well-being of the nation from the perceived threat of certain groups of people. Similarly, some 20th-century American physicians engaged in activities prompted by a misguided sense of patients' worth as individuals. This essay will examine the ethical problems of Nazi medicine and ethical missteps in the United States in the context of challenges for contemporary physicians, particularly the way in which we refer to our patients.
Pressel, David M.
The activities of German doctors during the Nazi regime are well known and documented. They include efforts at eugenic sterilization and euthanasia, gruesome medical experimentation, and contributions to genocide. The German medical profession embraced the Nazi ideology of racial superiority. Nazi doctors enthusiastically perverted traditional medical mores of viewing each patient as a full individual towards a misguided sense of protecting the racial well-being of the nation from the perceived threat of certain groups of people. Similarly, some 20th-century American physicians engaged in activities prompted by a misguided sense of patients' worth as individuals. This essay will examine the ethical problems of Nazi medicine and ethical missteps in the United States in the context of challenges for contemporary physicians, particularly the way in which we refer to our patients. PMID:14717481
Yinger, J. Milton, Ed.; Simpson, George Eaton, Ed.
Aspects of social change among American Indians and in the relationships of Indians to government and the larger society are examined in the collection of articles by 12 political and social scientists. Focusing on recent developments, this look at American Indians today encompasses rapid population growth, urbanization of the Indian population,…
Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo
This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings.
Gaertner, T; Mittelstaedt, G v
The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) refers back to a tradition of over more than 100 years, nevertheless having a critical look at it. As a scientific medical society the DGSMP promotes cross-sectoral configuration of contemporary social medicine to the benefit of both, general welfare and individual health in form of prevention, rehabilitation, re-integration, palliation and long-term care. Human medicine is the lead discipline in the interdisciplinary approach by the DGSMP in order to create - facing the dynamics in the health care system - professional prerequisites to maintain and update solidarity and equity in medical services on a scientific basis.
Background The aim of the present study was to describe the use of prescribed and non prescribed medicines in a non-institutionalised population older than 15 years of an urban area during the year 2000, in terms of age and gender, social class, employment status and type of Primary Health Care. Methods Cross-sectional study. Information came from the 2000 Barcelona Health Interview Survey. The indicators used were the prevalence of use of prescribed and non-prescribed medicines in the two weeks prior to the interview. Descriptive analyses, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results More women than men took medicines (75.8% vs. 60% respectively). The prevalence of use of prescribed medicines increased with age while the prevalence of non-prescribed use decreased. These age differences are smaller among those with poor perceived health. In terms of social class, a higher percentage of men with good health in the more advantaged classes took non-prescribed medicines compared with disadvantaged classes (38.7% vs 31.8%). In contrast, among the group with poor health, more people from the more advantaged classes took prescribed medicines, compared with disadvantaged classes (51.4% vs 33.3%). A higher proportion of people who were either retired, unemployed or students, with good health, used prescribed medicines. Conclusion This study shows that beside health needs, there are social determinants affecting medicine consumption in the city of Barcelona. PMID:20441578
Vu, Francis; Bischoff, Thomas; Wolff, Hans; Guessous, Idris; Dory, Elodie; Dubois-Arber, Françoise; Stringhini, Silvia; Bodenmann, Patrick
Social medicine is a medicine that seeks to understand the impact of socio-economic conditions on human health and diseases in order to improve the health of a society and its individuals. In this field of medicine, determining the socio-economic status of individuals is generally not sufficient to explain and/or understand the underlying mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. Other factors must be considered such as environmental, psychosocial, behavioral and biological factors that, together, can lead to more or less permanent damages to the health of the individuals in a society. In a time where considerable progresses have been made in the field of the biomedicine, does the practice of social medicine in a primary care setting still make sense?
Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.
Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…
Examines development of social libraries (formed by associations for member use) in New England and rest of United States before 1850, and social and public library growth between 1850 and 1900. Opinions of contemporaries and seven aspects of American life indicating reluctance to abandon social library are highlighted. (27 references) (EJS)
Kasper, Jennifer; Greene, Jeremy A; Farmer, Paul E; Jones, David S
As physicians work to achieve optimal health outcomes for their patients, they often struggle to address the issues that arise outside the clinic. Social, economic, and political factors influence patients' burden of disease, access to treatment, and health outcomes. This challenge has motivated recent calls for increased attention to the social determinants of health. At the same time, advocates have called for increased attention to global health. Each year, more U.S. medical students participate in global health experiences. Yet, the global health training that is available varies widely. The discipline of social medicine, which attends to the social determinants of disease, social meanings of disease, and social responses to disease, offers a solution to both challenges. The analyses and techniques of social medicine provide an invaluable toolkit for providing health care in the United States and abroad.In 2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new course, required for all first-year students, that teaches social medicine in a way that integrates global health. In this article, the authors argue for the importance of including social medicine and global health in the preclinical curriculum; describe Harvard Medical School's innovative, integrated approach to teaching these disciplines, which can be used at other medical schools; and explore the barriers that educators may face in implementing such a curriculum, including resistance from students. Such a course can equip medical students with the knowledge and tools that they will need to address complex health problems in the United States and abroad.
Barth, Richard P.; Gilmore, Grover C.; Flynn, Marilyn S.; Fraser, Mark W.; Brekke, John S.
Conceptualized by social work deans and actualized with the support of major social work organizations, the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare was established in 2009. This article describes the historical context and creation of the Academy, whose objectives include recognizing outstanding social work scholars and practitioners;…
Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action. PMID:21356076
Gray, Bruce H; Jaff, Michael R; Slovut, David Paul; Bacharach, J Michael; Carman, Terry; Creager, Mark; Halperin, Jonathon; von Mering, Gregory; Kinlay, Scott
The American Board of Vascular Medicine (ABVM) was conceived through the Society for Vascular Medicine and this year will complete 10 years of certifying physicians who practice vascular medicine and endovascular medicine. The value of certification to our physicians, patients, and field cannot be understated. This paper reviews the highlights of the test development process, quality assurance measures, and management of these high stakes examinations.
Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel
The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.
Simoes, E; Gostomzyk, J G; Schmahl, F W; Bamberg, M; Brucker, S Y; Wallwiener, D
Social medicine is concerned--in the midst of a constantly changing society--with the social and economic conditions that influence health, disease and medical care. A comprehensive medical care therefore requires medical doctors who, beyond the biomedical issues, realize diseases in the context of the social needs of the individual person and systematically include these in their prevention, treatment and rehabilitation concepts.The system of social security, particularly the health care system, depends on medical doctors' expertise in helping patients for the appropriate use of services from the system of social security. According to the German professional education regulations for doctors the additional specialization in "social medicine" also includes the competence for "assessment of the nature and extent of health disorders and their classification in the framework of social security systems". This judgment is one part of the tasks of the Medical Services belonging to the various branches of the social security system. It is also provided in practice by medical doctors with competence in social medicine working in acute care facilities.
Simoes, E; Sokolov, A N; Graf, J; Pavlova, M A; Brucker, S Y; Wallwiener, D; Schmahl, F W; Bamberg, M
Advances in biomedicine, especially molecular biology and genetics, gave rise to the concept of personalized medicine targeting the patient's individual characteristics and needs to ensure the best possible therapy and healthcare. This concept, however, can be successfully implemented only if due consideration is given to (psycho-)social factors, as is shown for instance by considerably reduced post-therapy survival rates among cancer patients in regions with lower socioeconomic status, How breast cancer patients, for instance, find their way back to daily life and work after initial treatment at a breast center is substantially determined by multiple factors going beyond pure medical care. These factors critically affect health status and therapy outcomes, but are missing in current research agenda. A profound expertise in social medicine is required to respond in ways tailored to the individual's healthcare needs that go beyond just medical therapy. This expertise comprises, in particular, knowledge of inequality of access to healthcare due to varying health competence that in turn, results in inequality of health outcome and care. Competence in social medicine both in the clinic and outpatient care can help to individually target negative factors that originate from the social environment as well as from deficits in communication and coordination in the healthcare system and have an effect on the health status of patients..This, however, requires institutionalization of (clinical) social medicine and in particular, better opportunities for advanced training in social medicine in clinical departments and outpatient units.
Wacker, R. Fred
Discusses the philosophies of assimilationist liberalism and cultural pluralism as they emerged between 1900 and 1925 in opposition to social Darwinism and the immigration restriction, eugenics, and Americanization movements. (GC)
Kim, Janna L.
This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…
Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.
Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…
Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English…
Mayo, J. B., Jr.; Sheppard, Maia
In this article, the authors highlight connections between research on Two Spirit Native Americans and standard social studies curriculum. Two Spirit is a Pan-Indian term describing Native Americans who believe they embody both masculine and feminine characteristics/traits in one physical body. Findings from this research expand the field's…
Timimi, Farris K
Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are--online.
Harris, John M
There is agreement that the complex relationship between medicine and society is best described as a metaphorical social contract and that professionalism is the medical profession's contribution to this contract. Metaphors can help clarify abstract concepts, but they can also be abused if the counterfactual attributes of a metaphor become attributed to its subject. This seems to be happening with medical professionalism, which has sometimes been reduced to a contracted deliverable and a bargaining chip. The undesirable attributes of the social contract metaphor may be hindering efforts to understand and teach medical professionalism.Despite its theoretical weaknesses, the social contract metaphor has historical credibility because of its alleged association with the 1847 Code of Medical Ethics and the subsequent ascension of regular (allopathic) medicine in the early 20th century. However, the record does not support an argument that the intended purpose of the 1847 Code was to create a social contract or that one ever arose. The alternative account that a contract did arise, but physicians were poor partners, is neither satisfying nor explanatory.As now used, medicine's social contract metaphor has serious theoretical and historic weaknesses. Medical educators should remove this narrow and overworked metaphor from their discussions of professionalism. By doing this, educators and the profession in general would only lose the ability to threaten themselves with the cancellation of their social contract. In return they would open the door to a more complex and fruitful consideration of medical professionalism and medicine's relationship with society.
This guide outlines a course of study on American government for grades 10-12. The major intent of the publication is to provide a broad framework of goals and objectives, content, teaching strategies, class activities, and materials related to American government so that teachers may accept the model framework in total or draw ideas from it to…
Barazzetti, Gaia; Kaufmann, Alain; Benaroyo, Lazare
Genomic medicine is often presented as a new paradigm for personalized healthcare. Encompassing both a translational approach in research and a vision of future medical practice, genomic medicine may have important impact on the way healthcare professionals diagnostics, treat and prevent diseases. We discuss some ethical and social issues raised by the prospect of genome-based medical practice, namely: changing definitions of disease and identity, assessment of clinical validity and utility of genome screening, mastery of genomic information by healthcare professionals and its communication to patients, and questions related to the costs of genomic medicine for future healthcare.
Anderson, James G.; Evans, Francis B.
This study examines variations in family socialization practices among Anglo American and Mexican Americans and the effect of these practices on achievement values, self concept and educational achievement. Data were collected from 102 junior high school students and their families. (Author/BW)
Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.
Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…
Peacock, T D; Day, P A; Peacock, R B
American Indian gaming has been called the "new buffalo." It has the potential to greatly influence cultural traditions on American Indian reservations. This study looks at the social impact that American Indian gaming is having on one reservation in northern Minnesota. Tribal members share strong feelings, both positive and negative, about the issue. Concerns about gaming include an increase in gambling abuse and addiction; a lack of appropriate child care; and concern that gaming is replacing traditional social activities. Some express concern that American Indian values are being replaced by materialism. Supporters of gaming point out that gaming provides tribal members with an opportunity to learn job skills and have gainful employment. Implications for social policy are given.
Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…
Elias, Maurice J.; Moceri, Dominic C.
Developments in American policy, research and professional development to promote social and emotional learning in schools have drawn on work carried out by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), encouraged by the popular and political catalyst of Daniel Goleman's work on emotional intelligence. Based on CASEL's…
Kownslar, Allan O.
By focusing on controversial social/political issues in high school American history and social studies courses, classroom teachers can help students develop critical thinking skills. Contemporary issues of a controversial nature are particularly good topics for high school because students are generally familiar with the issues through exposure…
Kemper, Kathi J; Vohra, Sunita; Walls, Richard
The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to optimizing the well-being of children and advancing family-centered health care. Related to these goals, the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and, as a result, the need to provide information and support for pediatricians. From 2000 to 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics convened and charged the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine to address issues related to the use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and to develop resources to educate physicians, patients, and families. One of these resources is this report describing complementary and alternative medicine services, current levels of utilization and financial expenditures, and associated legal and ethical considerations. The subject of complementary and alternative medicine is large and diverse, and consequently, an in-depth discussion of each method of complementary and alternative medicine is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, this report will define terms; describe epidemiology; outline common types of complementary and alternative medicine therapies; review medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; review education and training for complementary and alternative medicine providers; provide resources for learning more about complementary and alternative medicine; and suggest communication strategies to use when discussing complementary and alternative medicine with patients and families.
Menchik, Daniel A
Over the last half century, changes in the structure of medicine have shifted the relationship between the profession of medicine and social institutions. In this paper, I uncover ideas for retheorizing this relationship by analyzing a review by Georg Simmel that has been previously overlooked. In an analytical overview and critical appraisal of Simmel's text, I argue that he considered preventative medical knowledge more influential when this knowledge is located outside the physician-patient relationship. Simmel suggests we need to identify how such knowledge is injected into medical and non-medical settings by the mixtures of professional-, market-, and state-based institutions governing medicine, and pay attention to how these institutions shift. His goals show continuity with a social medicine movement in Germany previously thought to be stalled, and are unique too in their focus on targeting institutions over individuals. Through a close analysis of Simmel's ideas, we can see the relationship of public health with social structural studies of medicine in theoretically innovative ways.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study extends the research on parental ethnic-racial socialization to Asian American late adolescents (N = 166). The authors specifically examined the factor structure, frequency, and correlates of a perceived ethnic-racial socialization measure. Ethnic identity was also hypothesized to function as a mediator in the relationship between perceived cultural socialization and social competence. The results supported a 3-factor model of perceived ethnic-racial socialization that included cultural socialization-pluralism, promotion of mistrust, and preparation for bias. Exploratory analyses revealed that ethnic-racial socialization messages were reported by large proportions of participants and were related to a number of demographic variables. The authors further found that perceived promotion of mistrust messages were inversely associated with social competence. They also found that perceived cultural socialization-pluralism was significantly related to social competence through ethnic identity. Results support the importance of perceived ethnic-racial socialization for Asian American development.
Murk, Peter J.; And Others
The Medicine Wheel is a Native American legend in which a circle contains countless points each of which represents a different, yet valid, perspective on the nature of reality. According to the Medicine Wheel legend, the north offers the gift of wisdom, the east offers illumination, the south offers innocence, and the west offers introspection.…
de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi
The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…
Vanderbilt, Allison A; Baugh, Reginald F; Hogue, Patricia A; Brennan, Julie A; Ali, Imran I
In the United States, the health of a community falls on a continuum ranging from healthy to unhealthy and fluctuates based on several variables. Research policy and public health practice literature report substantial disparities in life expectancy, morbidity, risk factors, and quality of life, as well as persistence of these disparities among segments of the population. One such way to close this gap is to streamline medical education to better prepare our future physicians for our patients in underserved communities. Medical schools have the potential to close the gap when training future physicians by providing them with the principles of social medicine that can contribute to the reduction of health disparities. Curriculum reform and systematic formative assessment and evaluative measures can be developed to match social medicine and health disparities curricula for individual medical schools, thus assuring that future physicians are being properly prepared for residency and the workforce to decrease health inequities in the United States. We propose that curriculum reform includes an ongoing social medicine component for medical students. Continued exposure, practice, and education related to social medicine across medical school will enhance the awareness and knowledge for our students. This will result in better preparation for the zero mile stone residency set forth by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education and will eventually lead to the outcome of higher quality physicians in the United States to treat diverse populations.
Hoffmann, W; Vahlensieck, W; Zermann, D-H
Due to the increasing incidence of prostate cancer in social-medicine-relevant age groups, a correct subject-specific evaluation of the professional capacity of these patients with all stages of disease is required. A concluding assessment is only significant when based on concrete functional deficits.
Grijalba, Francisco Javier Yuste
Appear the Spanish official data of mortality and morbility, as well as available of obesity and the metabolic syndrome to base the thesis of which the pathogenic style of life is the main determinant of one and others. Considerations become on their meaning epidemiologist as well as the forced repercussions in the decisions on the sanitary policy, that must take care of the social causes of becoming ill than their individual consequences more, in a etiologic perspective than more anatomoclinic.
Roberts, C S
The professional relationship between social workers and physicians historically has been somewhat strained. Social workers have been quick to blame the medical model for problems in health care and consequently have overlooked useful lessons from this model that could improve social work practice. To work effectively with physicians, social workers must be aware of physicians' professional values and be able to identify conflicts with social work values. Conflicting values in social work and medicine are identified in five areas: (1) saving life versus quality of life, (2) patient autonomy in setting treatment goals, (3) attitudes toward objective versus subjective data, (4) responses to patients with emotional problems, and (5) differing perspectives on interdisciplinary team roles. Case illustrations based on the author's experiences as director of behavioral science training for resident family practice physicians are included. Although different value orientations may produce conflict, the differences also can catalyze successful collaboration between the two professions, which ultimately will benefit patients who receive care.
Golden, Janet; Weiner, Lynn
This article examines American baby books from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. Baby books are ephemeral publications—formatted with one or more printed pages for recording developmental, health, and social information about infants and often including personal observations, artifacts such as photographs or palm prints, medical and other prescriptive advice, and advertisements. For historians they serve as records of the changing social and cultural worlds of infancy, offering insights into the interplay of childrearing practices and larger social movements.Baby books are a significant historical source both challenging and supporting current historiography, and they illustrate how medical, market and cultural forces shaped the ways babies were cared for and in turn how their won behavior shaped family lives. A typology of baby books includes the lavishly illustrated keepsake books of the late nineteenth century, commercial and public health books of the twentieth century, and on-line records of the present day. Themes that emerge over time include those of scientific medicine and infant psychology, religion and consumerism. The article relies on secondary literature and on archival sources including the collections of the UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library as well as privately held baby books.
Maya-Álvarez, Jorge Arturo; Lechuga-García, Rafael; Querevalú-Murillo, Walter
The cadaveric or donor-related transplant is a worldwide priority program. In Mexico, the human hospitalary resources primarily assigned to issues about donation and transplant are scarce. In our country, recent legal changes permit that undergraduate medicine students under University linking programs can be integrated in activities that guarantee a social profit, for example, the hospitalary donation coordination of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. This is a proposal with a legal framework, based in experiences of the Barcelona Provincial Hospital Clínic, that integrate undergraduate medicine students as monitors in the Hospitalary Donation Coordination area of the Mexican Institute of Social Security who are available 24 hours. During this social service stage, undergraduate medical students can benefit their community by optimizing potential for transplants via hospital organ donations.
Krieg, Alexander; Xu, Yiyuan; Cicero, David C
There have been over 30 studies and two meta-analyses comparing social anxiety between Asian Americans and European Americans. However, few have investigated the invariance of social anxiety measures that would make these comparisons appropriate. In the current study, we systematically examined psychometric properties and configural, metric, and scalar invariance of five social anxiety measures and four short forms that have been used more than once to compare Asian Americans (n = 232) and European Americans (n = 193). We found that four (i.e., SPS-6, SIAS-6, SPS, and SPAI-18) of the nine scales were scalar invariant, three scales (i.e., SIAS, SPAI, and B-FNES) only achieved configural invariance, and two scales (i.e., FNES and SADS) failed to achieve configural invariance. Latent mean comparisons based on the scalar invariant measures revealed higher social anxiety scores for Asian Americans than European Americans. The findings are discussed with regard to the issues and challenges when comparing social anxiety among different cultural and ethnic groups.
Americans would create such an artifact. Since God and space aliens are marginally less credible than Native Americans in the archeological branch of... ARCHEOLOGY AND NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGION AT THE LEON RIVER MEDICINE WHEEL * --* ••Michael J. Quigg ---- ś* *-’• Qu••\\1"i ooh igger I.. *.•..I...34Christopher R. Lintz % S "Steve Russell 0~ Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited UNITED STATES ARMY FORT HOOD ARCHEOLOGICAL RESOURCE
Krishnakumar, Ambika; Buehler, Cheryl; Barber, Brian K.
We examined the cross-ethnic equivalency of socialization measures developed primarily with European American families. Four aspects of measurement equivalence were assessed: conceptual, operational, scalar, and functional. Evidence of between-and within-group measurement equivalency of socialization measures was derived from youth reports of 500…
Silver, Shirley; Miller, Wick R.
This book introduces the general reader to the mosaic of American Indian languages and cultures as they exist in time and space, and supplies limited technical linguistic orientation to encourage further exploration of language interrelationships, cultures, and other ways of knowing. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the status, diversity, and…
Hee Sun Park; Yoon Sook Shin; Yun, Doshik
This study examined factors affecting intention to enroll in an organ donor registry and intention to talk to family about organ donation. Participants indicated their views about maintaining body integrity as an individual right and donating organs as a social responsibility. Results showed that the influence of social responsibility on intention to enroll was stronger for white Americans than for Asian Americans. Individual right was negatively associated with intention to enroll among Asian Americans, but not among white Americans. Social responsibility was significant for intention to talk among both white Americans and Asian Americans, but individual right was not significant.
The AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) has initiated an important discussion on medical professionalism and the use of social media by issuing thoughtful and practical guidance for physicians and medical students. The implications of online activities for trust in the profession, as well as for trust between patient and doctor, however, will need further exploration as digital life expands and evolves.
Lopata, Helena Z.
It is concluded that most older men are married, while most older women are widows. Widowhood breaks many societal ties. With nine million in the U.S., widows are a significant social group, with numerous implications. (SD)
Fox, T G; Cole, D R; Lieberman, J A
Recent studies have shown that students and residents choosing Family Medicine career orientations have attained an academic parity with their counterparts in other specialties which was not demonstrated by their general practitioner predecessors. Similarly, the advent of Family Practice residencies and undergraduate course work has significantly altered the educational experience of today's medical students. This study adds to the literature by comparing a third element, the social character of Family Medicine oriented students, residents and practicing physicians. Three subgroups of Family Medicine oriented individuals; students, residents, and physicians, were surveyed through a mailed questionnaire. A study population of 768 individuals yielded a 73% response rate. The findings show that students and residents share a common pattern of identities and that this pattern is not shared with the physician subgroup. This results in rejection of the cohort replication theory. It also suggests a need for Family Practice training to provide role models from the new and emerging generation of family physicians.
Ganta, Abhishek; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil; Frank, Rachel M
Although studies have revealed high readability levels of orthopedic patient education materials, no study has evaluated sports medicine-related patient education materials. We conducted a study to assess the readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). All sports medicine patient education articles available online in 2012 from the AAOS and the AOSSM, including the Stop Sports Injuries Campaign (STOP), were identified, and their readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) readability test. Mean overall FK grade level of the 170 articles reviewed (104 from AAOS, 36 from AOSSM, 30 from STOP) was 10.2. Mean FK levels for the 3 sources were 9.5 (AAOS), 11.0 (AOSSM), and 11.5 (STOP) (P = .16). Fifteen (8.8%) of the 170 articles had a readability level at or below eighth grade (average reading level of US adults); only 2 (1.2%) of the 170 articles were at or below the recommended sixth-grade level. The majority of sports medicine-related patient education materials from AAOS and AOSSM had reading levels higher than recommended, indicating that the majority of the patient population may find it difficult to comprehend these articles.
Siegel, Elliot R.; Wood, Frederick B.; Dutcher, Gale A.; Ruffin, Angela; Logan, Robert A.; Scott, John C.
Objectives: Overcoming health disparities between majority and minority populations is a significant national challenge. This paper assesses outreach to Native Americans (American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians) by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). A companion paper details NLM's portfolio of Native American outreach projects. Method: NLM's Native American outreach is assessed in light of the presentations at a community-based health information outreach symposium and the goals set by NLM's plan to reduce health disparities. Results: NLM's current portfolio of Native American outreach projects appears most advanced in meeting the goal set in area 1 of the health disparities plan, “Promote use of health information by health professionals and the public.” NLM's portfolio also shows significant strength and good progress regarding area 2 of the plan, “Expand partnerships among various types of libraries and community-based organizations.” The portfolio is weaker in area 3, “Conduct and support informatics research.” More knowledge-building efforts would benefit NLM, the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and Native American and community-based organizations. Implications: The current Native American outreach portfolio should be continued, but new approaches are needed for evaluating Native American outreach and for forging collaborations with Native American groups, approaches grounded in consultation and mutual understanding of needs and perspectives. PMID:16239954
Social media is difficult to explain to a physician who has never used it. The medical literature on its pitfalls and abuses has overshadowed its positive applications and made many physicians wary of it. While I was initially reluctant to develop my own presence on social media, since embracing it as a tool for teaching and learning I have developed a different perspective. I see it as a tool that can be used positively or negatively. Much like a megaphone, it can amplify our voice so that the impact of our work can extend beyond the borders of our institutions and countries. Aided by the guidance and support of mentors who used social media before and alongside me, it has helped me to become a more competent, professional, engaged, and impactful physician. Within this article I will share my story to illustrate the many ways that social media can be used to enhance the profession of medicine.
Shweder, Richard A
Doctoring the genitals is compatible with a recognizable conception of social medicine. This commentary critically examines the distinction between medical and nonmedical procedures; presents an alternative account of Sohaila Bastami's personal reaction to the anonymous caller's request for referral information concerning hymen reconstruction surgery; and makes use of Yelp to simulate the caller's procedure for locating a helpful practitioner. Yelp is a very useful informational search engine that does not subject its users to a moral examination.
Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena
The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans. PMID:21998489
Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren
Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh
Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…
Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.
Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…
Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.
This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…
Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey
The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…
Senese, Guy B.
This book is a critical analysis of the concept of self-determination as it has been developed in the federal government's American Indian social and educational policies since the 1950s. Analyses focus on the links between Indian educational policy and economic development concerns and on the ways in which the idealistic language of…
Schiele, Jerome H.
The first national survey to focus specifically on publication productivity of African-American social work faculty is reported. Results (respondents, n=300) reveal productivity is associated more with individual than structural factors, a few faculty are producing most of the publications, and this subgroup is slightly less productive than the…
Goldman, Alyssa; Cornwell, Benjamin
The use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) is typically modeled as a function of individual health beliefs, including changes in perceptions of conventional medicine, an orientation toward more holistic care, and increasing patient involvement in health care decision-making. Expanding on research that shows that health-related behavior is shaped by social networks, this paper examines the possibility that CAM usage is partly a function of individuals’ social network structure. We argue that people are more likely to adopt CAM when they function as bridges between network members who are otherwise not (or poorly) connected to each other. This circumstance not only provides individuals with access to a wider range of information about treatment options, it also reduces the risk of sanctioning by network members if one deviates from conventional forms of treatment. We test this idea using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study of older Americans. Analyses of egocentric social network data show that older adults with bridging potential in their networks are significantly more likely to engage in a greater number of types of CAM. We close by discussing alternative explanations of these findings and their potential implications for research on CAM usage. PMID:26207353
Goldman, Alyssa W; Cornwell, Benjamin
The use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) is typically modeled as a function of individual health beliefs, including changes in perceptions of conventional medicine, an orientation toward more holistic care, and increasing patient involvement in health care decision-making. Expanding on research that shows that health-related behavior is shaped by social networks, this paper examines the possibility that CAM usage is partly a function of individuals' social network structure. We argue that people are more likely to adopt CAM when they function as bridges between network members who are otherwise not (or poorly) connected to each other. This circumstance not only provides individuals with access to a wider range of information about treatment options, it also reduces the risk of sanctioning by network members if one deviates from conventional forms of treatment. We test this idea using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study of older Americans. Analyses of egocentric social network data show that older adults with bridging potential in their networks are significantly more likely to engage in a greater number of types of CAM. We close by discussing alternative explanations of these findings and their potential implications for research on CAM usage.
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh
Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher cognitive scores for boys living in high negative social climate and low social capital neighborhoods and for girls living in high social capital neighborhoods. The positive association of promotion of mistrust and child behavior problems was magnified in neighborhoods that had low levels of social capital. A high negative social climate in the neighborhood attenuated the positive association between preparation for bias/promotion of mistrust and externalizing problems.
Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Osborne, Andrew H.
HIV continues to be transmitted at unacceptably high rates among African Americans, and most HIV-prevention interventions have focused on behavioral change. To theorize additional approaches to HIV prevention among African Americans, we discuss how sexual networks and drug-injection networks are as important as behavior for HIV transmission. We also describe how higher-order social structures and processes, such as residential racial segregation and racialized policing, may help shape risk networks and behaviors. We then discuss 3 themes in African American culture—survival, propriety, and struggle—that also help shape networks and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how these perspectives might help reduce HIV transmission among African Americans. PMID:19372519
Emadzadeh, Ali; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Karimi, Sharareh
Introduction Experts consider social accountability as a new paradigm in medical education and a cultural change that is necessary to be studied and understood more deeply. One of the problems of medical education is the inadequacy of medicine graduates to meet the social accountability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the general medicine curriculum for social accountability. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on three groups of experts, faculty members, and general physicians working in health centers in Mashhad in 2014. According to the needs assessment and definition of need as a requirement or preference, the research was conducted in three stages using the Delphi method, in which the opinions of experts, lecturers, and practitioners were collected and classified based on the CARE model in four areas, i.e., clinical activities, advocacy, research, and educational categories, and, ultimately, the percentage of agreement was determined. Results As indicated by the results of the need analysis, in order to reach social accountability of medical students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, the curriculum should cover four major areas, i.e., clinical activities, advocacy, research, and training. We found 38 items for social accountability that are required in the general medical curriculum, including clinical activities (12 items), advocacy (10 items), and scope of research (8 items). The educational area was comprised of 8 items. In this study, from 30 participants, only 19 people participated in the three-step Delphi, and there was a 70% response rate in the first stage and second stage, but 90.47% in the third stage. Conclusion There is a growing interest around the world for social accountability in medical schools and other health-related schools. It is expected that the results will be of interest to planners and policy-makers in this field so that we will observe a promotion in the culture of social accountability in
García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo
The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries' public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries' databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization's concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework.
Powers, Brian W; White, Augustus A; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H
African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development. America's ignoble history of violence, racism, and exclusion exposes African American physicians to distinct personal pressures and motivations that shape professional development and career goals. This article explores these intrinsic pressures with a focus on their historical roots; reviews evidence of their effect on physician development; and considers the implications of these trends for improving African American representation in academic medicine. The paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" is used to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities. Intrinsic motivations introduced by race-conscious professionalism complicate efforts to increase the representation of minorities in academic medicine. For many African American physicians, a desire to have their work focused on the community will be at odds with traditional paths to professional advancement. Specific policy options are discussed that would leverage race-conscious professionalism as a draw to a career in academic medicine, rather than a force that diverts commitment elsewhere.
Serena, Thomas E; Gelly, Helen; Bohn, Gregory A; Niezgoda, Jeffrey A
The American College of Hyperbaric Medicine provides this document for hospital credentialing committees as national standards for credentialing hyperbaric physicians. These recommendations represent the consensus opinion of expert leaders in the field of hyperbaric medicine. The principles set forth in this document are intended to serve as a guideline to assist healthcare organizations. This document applies to both hospital-based and nonhospital-affiliated centers.
Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra
The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system.
Background For younger generations, unconstrained online social activity is the norm. Little data are available about perceptions among young medical practitioners who enter the professional clinical arena, while the impact of existing social media policy on these perceptions is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existing perceptions about social media and professionalism among new physicians entering in professional clinical practice; and to determine the effects of formal social media instruction and policy on young professionals’ ability to navigate case-based scenarios about online behavior in the context of professional medicine. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving the new resident physicians at a large academic medical center. Medical residents from 9 specialties were invited to participate and answer an anonymous questionnaire about social media in clinical medicine. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 (Cary, NC), chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used as appropriate, and the correct responses were compared between different groups using the Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance. Results Familiarity with current institutional policy was associated with an average of 2.2 more correct responses (P=.01). Instruction on social media use during medical school was related to correct responses for 2 additional questions (P=.03). On dividing the groups into no policy exposure, single policy exposure, or both exposures, the mean differences were found to be statistically significant (3.5, 7.5, and 9.4, respectively) (P=.03). Conclusions In this study, a number of young physicians demonstrated a casual approach to social media activity in the context of professional medical practice. Several areas of potential educational opportunity and focus were identified: (1) online privacy, (2) maintaining digital professionalism, (3) safeguarding the protected health information of patients, and (4) the impact of
Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.
We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers' SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in…
Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Huang, Lihua
Measured by the prevalence of journal article contributions, geographic coverage, and international collaboration, this literature review found an increasing level of globalization with respect to American social work research and contribution to the social work profession from 2000-2009. Findings suggest changes are needed in global awareness and…
Wynia, Matthew K
The profession of medicine is based on a shared set of tacit and explicit agreements about what patients, doctors, and society at large should be able to expect from each other, a social contract that defines the profession. Historically, the development of this set of agreements depended upon the creation of social organizations that could speak for the entire profession. Over the last several decades, however, the perceived need for these organizations, and especially the umbrella organization for the profession, the American Medical Association, has waned. The reasons for this are complex, but the consequences are significant: an eroding social contract, fragmentation, lack of cohesion and integrity, and loss of the public's confidence. The present social contract is one-dimensional, overly simplistic, and failing to sustain the public's trust. To address these problems, a renewed social contract is necessary. Although this renewed contract should be based on foundations similar to the original, it must directly confront such contemporary challenges as resource allocation and conflicts of interest. Equally as important, to reinvigorate our social contract more physicians will need to come to grips with a basic truth: to sustain professionalism we need a strong, unified professional association.
Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David
American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.
Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E
Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).
O'Neill, Thomas R.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Schulte, Bradley M.; Leigh, Terrence
Background: Two medical specialty boards offer certification in family medicine: the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) and the American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians (AOBFP). The AOBFP certification is offered only to graduates of osteopathic colleges; however, graduates of both osteopathic and allopathic medical schools who have…
Wood, Frederick B.; Siegel, Elliot R.; Dutcher, Gale A.; Ruffin, Angela; Logan, Robert A.; Scott, John C.
Objectives: This paper provides the most complete accounting of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) Native outreach since 1995, when there were only a few scattered projects. Method: The descriptive overview is based on a review of project reports, inventories, and databases and input from the NLM Specialized Information Services Division, National Network Office of the Library Operations Division, National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and Office of Health Information Programs Development of the Office of the NLM Director. The overview focuses on NLM-supported or sponsored outreach initiatives involving Native peoples: American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians. Results: The review of NLM's relevant activities resulted in a portfolio of projects that clustered naturally into the following areas: major multisite projects: Tribal Connections and related, Native American Information Internship Project: Sacred Root, tribal college outreach and tribal librarianship projects, collaboration with inter-tribal and national organizations, participation in Native American Powwows, Native American Listening Circle Project, Native American Health Information, and other Native American outreach projects. Implications: NLM's Native American Outreach reached programmatic status as of late 2004. The companion paper identifies several areas of possible new or enhanced Native outreach activities. Both papers highlight the importance of solid reporting and evaluation to optimize project results and programmatic balance and priorities. PMID:16239955
This response to Tee Guidotti's (2008) critique of Elaine Draper's 'The Company Doctor: Risk, Responsibility, and Corporate Professionalism' (2003) argues that a forthright examination of the conflicts of those working in the field of occupational medicine is essential to maintaining the health of the profession and to promoting constructive policies. Research for 'The Company Doctor' reveals how doctors walk a tightrope of professional demands on them. The author describes how corporate employment affects medicine and science and how professionals working in corporations are subject to the decisions of company managers and to economic and legal imperatives stemming from their status as corporate employees. Analyzing company doctors' role in confronting toxics and responding to liability fears in corporations, the author argues that problems of lost credibility, stigmatization, and tarnished reputation that company doctors describe largely stem from the organizational constraints, economic interests, and other aspects of the social context of their work. These social forces exert powerful pressure on the ethical framework and daily work lives of these professionals as well as on the reputation of their field. The author discusses ways in which the conflicting demands from being both a corporate employee and a physician are a social and structural problem beyond individual ethics.
O'Neill, Thomas R.; Peabody, Michael R.; Stelter, Keith L.; Hagen, Michael D.
(Purpose) The purpose of our study was to assess the need for an external searchable resource to be used in conjunction with the American Board of Family Medicine's (ABFM) Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians (MC-FP) Examination, discuss the philosophical question of whether an ESR should be allowed on the examination, and outline…
Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health. PMID:15712787
Jhala, Chandrakant I; Jhala, Khushboo N
Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.
Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English interpreters, such as learners' age and education and the characteristics of good citizens within the Deaf community. According to the participants, younger students were adept at language acquisition, whereas older learners more readily understood the purpose of lessons. Children of deaf adults were seen as more culturally aware. The participants' beliefs echoed the theories of P. Freire (1970/1970) that educators consider the reality of each student and their praxis and were responsible for facilitating student self-awareness. Important characteristics in the social construction of students included independence, an appropriate attitude, an understanding of Deaf culture, ethical behavior, community involvement, and a willingness to pursue lifelong learning.
Kopperman, Paul E
Benjamin Rush was the first American physician to create a medical system that was distinct from European models. He was furthermore critical of shortcomings in European medicine and of aspects of 'modern' lifestyle, notably idleness and self-indulgence, which he regarded as detrimental to health. Nevertheless, he was Eurocentric and he believed that European and particularly British medicine was the best foundation for further progress although he also thought the final conquest of disease would come in America rather than in Europe. Rush manifested a deep interest in Native Americans and their medicine but in several key writings he deprecated Indian medical practice and characterized negatively many aspects of what he regarded as native culture. He also doubted that the natives could accommodate themselves to the republican ethos that he hoped would define America.
Wasserman, J; Flannery, M A; Clair, J M
African American distrust of medicine has consequences for treatment seeking and healthcare behaviour. Much work has been done to examine acute events (eg, Tuskegee Syphilis Study) that have contributed to this phenomenon and a sophisticated bioethics discipline keeps watch on current practices by medicine. But physicians and clinicians are not the only actors in the medical arena, particularly when it comes to health beliefs and distrust of medicine. The purpose of this paper is to call attention not just to ethical shortcomings of the past, but to the structural contexts of those events and the contributions and responsibilities of popular media and academic disciplines in the production of (often mythic) knowledge. We argue that ignoring context and producing inaccurate work has real impacts on health and healthcare, particularly for African Americans, and thus engenders ethical obligations incumbent on disciplines traditionally recognised as purely academic. PMID:17329393
Wasserman, J; Flannery, M A; Clair, J M
African American distrust of medicine has consequences for treatment seeking and healthcare behaviour. Much work has been done to examine acute events (eg, Tuskegee Syphilis Study) that have contributed to this phenomenon and a sophisticated bioethics discipline keeps watch on current practices by medicine. But physicians and clinicians are not the only actors in the medical arena, particularly when it comes to health beliefs and distrust of medicine. The purpose of this paper is to call attention not just to ethical shortcomings of the past, but to the structural contexts of those events and the contributions and responsibilities of popular media and academic disciplines in the production of (often mythic) knowledge. We argue that ignoring context and producing inaccurate work has real impacts on health and healthcare, particularly for African Americans, and thus engenders ethical obligations incumbent on disciplines traditionally recognised as purely academic.
Kelly, Patricia J; Rasu, Rafia; Lesser, Janna; Oscos-Sanchez, Manuel; Mancha, Juan; Orriega, Albert
Measurement of the effectiveness of violence prevention interventions is in a developmental phase. Social capital provides a framework within which to examine this topic from a community perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among three measures of social capital and attitudes about violence among Mexican-Americans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of households randomly selected by block in two adjacent Mexican-American communities. Demographics, attitudes about and experiences with violence, and three measures of social capital (collective efficacy, neighborhood block conditions, community integration) were assessed. Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were used to examine indicators of violence attitudes and experiences. Of the 473 respondents who completed the survey, 323 (68%) were female, 393 (83%) were Mexican-American, 395 (84%) were born in the US, and 346 (72%) owned their own homes. Participants with high measures of collective efficacy were 1.68 times more likely to have negative attitudes about violence (CI 1.06-2.65) and 15.25 times more likely to have negative attitudes about couple violence (CI 9.05-25.74). Participants with high scores on neighborhood block conditions were 2.33 times more likely to have negative attitudes about couple violence (CI 1.40-3.87). Scores on community integration were not significant indicators of participants' tolerance and experiences with violence. Two measures of social capital were positively associated with and predictive of negative attitudes toward violence. The results suggest that primary violence prevention programs in Mexican-American communities should focus on strengthening a sense of collective efficacy and improving neighborhood conditions.
Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Elder, Charles; Funk, Kristine; DeBar, Lynn
Objectives To examine the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for weight loss among Mexican-American women. Design Cross-sectional survey of different CAM modalities, including traditional Mexican medicine therapies. Settings The sample was drawn from women participating in a weight-loss program in Portland, Oregon. Subjects Sample consisted of 31 adult Mexican-American women. Results Most respondents reported using some form of CAM for weight loss, with most reporting using herbs and teas (70%), home remedies (61%) and massage (55%). Conclusions Mexican-American women report using a wide range of CAM therapies for weight loss. Understanding their patterns of use will enhance cultural competence of health care professionals and help address their medical needs. PMID:22773011
Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R
Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.
Light, D W; Liebfried, S; Tennstedt, F
This article describes the efforts by German workers' groups and pioneering social physicians to design health care services oriented to prevention and cost-effective treatment. Jews played a key role in developing these prototypes of today's health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs). The growing success of these services threatened private practitioners in a number of ways. They formed a trade union and took militant action. Stage by stage, the profession asserted its dominance, culminating in an alliance with the National Socialists and Hitler to take over these services and to purge them of socialist and Jewish physicians. Medical societies assisted Hitler in his policies of "purification," and the health care delivery systems shifted from being local, patient-centered, and health-oriented to being national, physician-centered, and focused on curing illness. After World War II, these changes were not reversed as part of denazification, and 40 years later, social medicine has yet to recover. PMID:3510052
Ornelas, India J; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia
In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach--photovoice--to collect information about African American men's perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the "Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health" project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men's health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed.
Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane’ Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people’s location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners’ centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity. PMID:27668001
Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.
Laurell, Asa Cristina
Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs.
Rao, Vijaya; Flores, Glenn
PURPOSE: African Americans comprise 13% of Americans but only 4% of U.S. physicians. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify African-American high-school student perspectives on barriers to African Americans pursuing careers in medicine. METHOD: Focus group interviews (consisting of 15 questions) were conducted of African-American high-school juniors attending a Milwaukee public high school in which 89% of students are African Americans. The two focus groups were conducted in 2006, transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. RESULTS: The 12 students interviewed in two focus groups had a mean age of 17 years; 41% of students' parents were high-school graduates. Major barriers to becoming a physician cited by students included financial constraints, lack of knowledge about medicine, little/no encouragement at home or in school, negative peer views on excelling academically, lack of African-American role models in the community and on TV, racism in medicine, and easier and more appealing alternatives for making money. Students stated that increasing the number of African-American physicians would enhance patient-physician communication and relationships, and more African Americans would become physicians if there were greater exposure to medicine in schools, more guidance at a younger age and more role models. CONCLUSION: Financial constraints, insufficient exposure to medicine as a career, little encouragement at home and in schools, lack of role models, and negative peer pressure may contribute to racial disparities in the physician workforce for African Americans. Exposure at a young age to role models and to medicine as a profession might increase the number of African American physicians. PMID:17913107
Hayes, Bryan D; Kobner, Scott; Trueger, N Seth; Yiu, Stella; Lin, Michelle
In July to August 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Annals Residents' Perspective article "Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum" by Scott et al. The objective was to describe a 14-day worldwide clinician dialogue about evidence, opinions, and early relevant innovations revolving around the featured article and made possible by the immediacy of social media technologies. Six online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and YouTube, which featured 3 preselected questions. Engagement was tracked through various Web analytic tools, and themes were identified by content curation. The dialogue resulted in 1,222 unique page views from 325 cities in 32 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 569,403 Twitter impressions, and 120 views of the video interview with the authors. Five major themes we identified in the discussion included curriculum design, pedagogy, and learning theory; digital curation skills of the 21st-century emergency medicine practitioner; engagement challenges; proposed solutions; and best practice examples. The immediacy of social media technologies provides clinicians the unique opportunity to engage a worldwide audience within a relatively short time frame.
Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas
Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups.
Haynes, Douglas M
In May 1870 the American Medical Association (AMA) voted to deny the admission of black delegates and their white colleagues to the national meeting in Washington, D.C. Historians of race and medicine have customarily viewed this decision as marking a crucial milestone in the formation of the nexus between racism and the development of the American medical profession in the era after the Civil War (1861-64). This study recasts this narrative by locating the 1870 decision in relation to the antebellum practices of the association and their social consequences for American medicine. It argues that the viability of the AMA as the national voice of the profession was critically dependent on rejecting racial equality. Indeed, at a moment when the question of the abolition of slavery polarized the nation, the AMA was founded in 1847 to create a voluntary professional organization, national in scope, dedicated to raising the standards of medical training and practice. To this end, the AMA elected presidents and selected host cities for annual meetings in the North, South, and West. Seven out of the fourteen meetings and six out of fourteen presidents were from slave and/or border states. These institutional practices together with the representation of blacks as different and enjoying an appropriate status as slaves grounded the national identity of the profession in black subordination. Similarly, the gendered discourses about healing and practices of female exclusion privileged medical authority as male by drawing on and reinforcing patriarchy. In the wake of the war, leaders hoped to restore the national character of the organization by resuming antebellum practices. In response to the new possibilities for blacks in medicine--as represented by the biracial National Medical Society--the AMA took steps to vigorously police the racial boundaries of the national profession. As this study will show, the 1870 decision reflected the logic of the racial politics at the heart
Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael
The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries.
Green, Donald E., Ed.; Tonnesen, Thomas V., Ed.
This book discusses legal and social aspects of public policy in American society and their relationship to fulfilling the promise of social justice for American Indians. U.S. public policy is viewed as reflecting the collective sentiments of the electorate. If the American people have the will to bring about change in the socioeconomic conditions…
Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas. PMID:19150916
At the present instant we are evolving in the withdrawing of a lot of traditions. Alas one shouldn't live in the illusion that probably nothing will basically change nor be suspicious of either mass-media histrionics or political opportunism towards fashion phenomena; these will probably be the caricatured reflections of what shall perhaps become our society. They will however refer to their futility in the form of the wave which will mark an evolution we shall try to anticipate. In some degree it will allow to stimulate the thought or to modify structure of our medical institutions or our patients, the social and preventive technics that risk to begin won't be simple improvements of what we have now, but they'll open a qualitative universe and extremely different from those, that were born in the 19th century. This study should above all permit us to understand that our rapport with another reality perhaps, or perhaps a new way of life, 'culture' in the broadest sense, will be upset or simply brought into question. Here we see the importance that will be played by social and preventive medicine and evidently social and preventive psychiatry in the year 2000.
Crouter, Ann C; Baril, Megan E; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M
We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers' SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-efficacy and racial socialization depended on whether or not children had experienced discrimination. For fathers, a strong link between SES and occupational self-direction emerged, but significant associations were not found between occupational self-direction and self-efficacy, or self-efficacy and racial socialization. The discussion focuses on mother-father differences and the role of child effects in racial socialization.
Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M.
We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers’ SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-efficacy and racial socialization depended on whether or not children had experienced discrimination. For fathers, a strong link between SES and occupational self-direction emerged, but significant associations were not found between occupational self-direction and self-efficacy, or self-efficacy and racial socialization. The discussion focuses on mother-father differences and the role of child effects in racial socialization. PMID:21709729
Warner, Connor K.
In this study the author surveys social studies standards from 14 U.S. states seeking to answer: (a) what social studies knowledge about American Indians is deemed essential by those states mandating the development of American Indian Education curricula for all public K-12 students? and (b) at what grade levels is this social studies content…
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…
Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie
Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…
Although the German public health service is mainly concerned with social medical tasks there is too little awareness of the fact that social medicine forms the scientific basis of most actions. As a matter of fact social medicine in public health departments is often reduced to mere medical insurance and expert reports. This is mainly due to the historical development of social medicine in Germany. Among the numerous important social medical tasks of the public health service, this article mainly concentrates on local coordination, health promotion, health care, and social compensation, including subsidiary medical care of certain groups of the population and aspects of infectious disease control with particular attention to measures against AIDS. The further development of both the public health service and social medicine requires a closer cooperation between them.
Lee, Youjung; Choi, Sunha
The purpose of this study was to explore how Korean American family caregivers view the services they offer to patients with dementia. It also investigated the roles of social networks and satisfaction with social support on attitudes toward caregiving. Social network, satisfaction with social support, demographic characteristics, caregiving-related stress factors, and cultural factors were examined. We used a convenience sample of 85 Korean American dementia caregivers. The results from hierarchical multiple regression models show that the level of satisfaction with social support significantly contributed to Korean American caregivers' attitudes toward working with patients with dementia, while no statistically significant associate was found for social network. Higher levels of satisfaction with social support were associated with greater positive attitudes toward caregiving among Korean American caregivers (b = 0.26, p = .024). The implications for mental health professionals and policy makers are discussed.
Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.
Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…
Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.
Puffer, James C
Considerable controversy about the value of participating in Maintenance of Certification has recently arisen within the medical community. Despite this controversy, large numbers of family physicians certified by the American Board of Family Medicine participate in Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians. Surprisingly, a small but significant number of charter diplomats--those initially certified by the American Board of Family Medicine at its founding--are engaged in the process.
Georgopoulos, Basil S.; Matejko, Aleksander
Based on data from and about the medical, nursing, and administrative staffs in a probability sample of general hospitals, involving 41 institutions and some 2,400 respondents, certain aspects of the hospital social system are examined in each of the following basic problem-areas: organizational and member goal attainment; availability and allocation of organizational resources; organizational coordination; social integration; intraorganizational strain; and organizational adaptation. These areas are examined separately and in relation to one another, as a basis for understanding and assessing the overall effectiveness of the hospital as a complex social organization. Hospital effectiveness is viewed in the context of open system theory, as a joint function of the relative success with which the organization handles its problems in these key areas. Findings concerning a number of social-psychological variables in each area are presented and discussed, with emphasis on the interdependence of the areas and on organizational issues and implications. The results show some of the basic strengths and weaknesses of the system. Important differences associated with hospital size and affiliation are also discussed to illustrate the typical profile of the American general hospital and significant variations from it. Similarly, differences among the principal groups in the system are presented, where appropriate. Finally, promising directions for future organizational research in the hospital field are briefly presented.
Crigger, B J
What is the story of medicine and religion at the American Medical Association (AMA)? Where did the Department of Medicine and Religion originate? What did the program accomplish? Why was it all but completely discontinued after scarcely a decade? The surviving records support more than one interpretation. Exploring the broader organizational context helps tell a richer story.In this issue of Academic Medicine, Daniel Kim and colleagues open a window on a fascinating bit of history: that of the AMA's formal experience with religion and medicine during the 1960s and early 1970s; however, reconstructing the story of a program from documentary records is always something of an uncertain proposition. Equally important is taking account of such factors as the role of the AMA's House of Delegates in policy making, of state and county medical societies in carrying out program activities, and of the influence of charismatic individuals on decisions regarding programs and activities. Before the medical community decides what lesson(s) to draw from the story of the AMA's Department of Medicine and Religion, it should try to understand that story as completely as possible.As Kim et al note, the available materials leave out much that historians might wish to know. Records preserve the substance of decisions taken, but are largely silent about the reasoning behind those decisions. Relevant information is scattered through multiple record systems, making it difficult to find. Inevitably, historians have to read between the lines.
Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart
The current study examines whether the relation between mothers’ responses to their children’s negative emotions and teachers’ reports of children’s academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children’s negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children’s current academic standing and skillfulness with peers. Problem-focused responses to children’s negative emotions, which have traditionally been considered a supportive response, were positively associated with children’s school competence for European American children, but expressive encouragement, another response considered supportive, was negatively associated with children’s competence for African American children. The findings highlight the need to examine parental socialization practices from a culturally-specific lens. PMID:23914076
Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis
Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be
Barner, Jamie C.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Brown, Carolyn M.; Richards, Kristin M.
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is substantial among African-Americans; however, research on characteristics of African-Americans who use of CAM to treat specific conditions is scarce. Objective To determine what predisposing, enabling, need, and disease state factors are related to CAM use for treatment among a nationally representative sample of African-Americans. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed using the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). A nationwide representative sample of adult (≥ 18 years) African-Americans who used CAM in the past 12 months (n= 16,113,651 weighted; n=2,952 unweighted) were included. The Andersen Healthcare Utilization Model served the framework with CAM use for treatment as the main outcome measure. Independent variables included: predisposing (e.g., age, gender, education), enabling (e.g., income, employment, access to care); need (e.g., health status, physician visits, prescription medication use); and disease state (i.e., most prevalent conditions among African-Americans) factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to address the study objective. Results Approximately one in five (20.2%) CAM past 12 month users used CAM to treat a specific condition. Ten of the 15 CAM modalities were used primarily for treatment by African-Americans. CAM for treatment was significantly (p<0.05) associated with the following factors: graduate education, smaller family size, higher income, region (northeast, midwest, west more likely than south), depression/anxiety, more physician visits, less likely to engage in preventive care, more frequent exercise behavior, more activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and neck pain. Conclusions Twenty percent of African-Americans who used CAM in the past year were treating a specific condition. Alternative medical systems, manipulative and body-based therapies, as well as folk medicine, prayer, biofeedback, and energy/Reiki were used most often
Pina, Armando A.; Little, Michelle; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.
Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the balance between sensitivity and specificity. Overall, results supported the SPAI-C’s cross-race invariance but a few items emerged as non-invariant. Compared to past research, lower SPAI-C cutoff scores were found (13 to 15 range). Findings support research showing that African American youth generally have significantly lower (or similar) social anxiety levels than their White counterparts. Suggestions for using the SPAI-C with African American under non-invariant conditions youth are provided and implications of using lower cutoff scores are discussed. PMID:23872906
Later-generation Mexican American (third or more) experience diminishing educational gains compared with second-generation Mexican Americans. Positive racial and ethnic socialization (RES) and ethnic identity can facilitate strong academic performance. Using the oral histories of 18 third- and fourth-generation Mexican Americans in the same…
Edwards, Janice Berry; Clark, Trenette T.; Bryant, Shirley
This study of African American female faculty in predominantly White schools of social work was designed to examine the unique experience of these faculties. The examination also aimed to develop a better understanding of the challenges and the experiences of these faculty members. This exploratory study sampled African American female social work…
Mukai, Takayo; Kambara, Akiko; Sasaki, Yuji
Compares body dissatisfaction, need for social approval, and eating disorders between Japanese and American college women. Japanese women express greater dissatisfaction with their body. Need for social approval predicted Japanese eating disorders, whereas body fatness was a significant predictor for American women. (MMU)
Earls, Melissa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…
Mallett, Justin R.
This study analyzed how Kanter's theory of tokenism and its related concepts of performance pressure, social isolation and role entrapment can be used to understand the socialization of African American students at a small Midwestern college. Sixteen African American students were interviewed in focus groups to examine various aspects of their…
Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby
Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…
Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.
The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…
Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…
Wilson, Catherine Walker
The relationship of social class and racial prejudice to the home management skills of black Americans was the focus of this study. A questionnaire (a copy of which appears in an appendix) was used to interview a sample of 100 people divided into four subgroups: low social class blacks, low social class whites, middle social class blacks, and…
LaDou, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Daniel T; Egilman, David S; Frank, Arthur L; Kramer, Sharon N; Huff, James
The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) is a professional association that represents the interests of its company-employed physician members. Fifty years ago the ACOEM began to assert itself in the legislative arena as an advocate of limited regulation and enforcement of occupational health and safety standards and laws, and environmental protection. Today the ACOEM provides a legitimizing professional association for company doctors, and continues to provide a vehicle to advance the agendas of their corporate sponsors. Company doctors in ACOEM recently blocked attempts to have the organization take a stand on global warming. Company doctors employed by the petrochemical industry even blocked the ACOEM from taking a position on particulate air pollution. Industry money and influence pervade every aspect of occupational and environmental medicine. The controlling influence of industry over the ACOEM physicians should cease. The conflict of interests inherent in the practice of occupational and environmental medicine is not resolved by the ineffectual efforts of the ACOEM to establish a pretentious code of conduct. The conflicted interests within the ACOEM have become too deeply embedded to be resolved by merely a self-governing code of conduct. The specialty practice of occupational and environmental medicine has the opportunity and obligation to join the public health movement. If it does, the ACOEM will have no further purpose as it exists, and specialists in occupational and environmental medicine will meet with and be represented by public health associations. This paper chronicles the history of occupational medicine and industry physicians as influenced and even controlled by corporate leaders.
St.clair, Steven; Shults, Theodore
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), although developed in the context of civil rights legislation, is likely to have notable impact on the practice of occupational medicine. The ADA contains provisions limiting the use of preplacement examinations to determinations of the capability to perform the essential functions of the job and of direct threat to the health and safety of the job applicant and others. The Title 1 employment provisions of the ADA established definitions and requirements similar to those found in section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; leading cases that have been litigated under the Rehabilitation Act, as amended, are described. The limitations of available scientific and medical information related to determinations of job capability and direct threat and ramifications of the ADA on the practice of occupational medicine are discussed.
Gross, Eric R.; Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Small, Bryce A.; Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria
Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. A relatively large subset of this population carries a unique loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2. Found in approximately 560 million people of East Asian descent, ALDH2*2 reduces enzymatic activity by approximately 60% to 80% in heterozygotes. Furthermore, this variant is associated with a higher risk for several diseases affecting many organ systems, including a particularly high incidence relative to the general population of esophageal cancer, myocardial infarction, and osteoporosis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the ALDH2*2 variant, describe why this variant needs to be considered when selecting drug treatments, and suggest a personalized medicine approach for Asian American carriers of this variant. We also discuss future clinical and translational perspectives regarding ALDH2*2 research. PMID:25292432
summary The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of “scientific marketing.” PMID:25557515
George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E
BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890
Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.
Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366
Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.
Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641
Greene, Jeremy A
This paper explores the complex role that brand names have played in the maintenance of therapeutic standards within twentieth-century American medicine. What made a generic drug generic in the second half of the twentieth century--and by extension, what made a nonproprietary drug not proprietary in the first half--was dependent on changing drug branding practices and evolving standards of evidence attached to claims of therapeutic efficacy and safety. This article maps three eras of shifting oppositions between branded and unbranded pharmaceuticals. First, an era of "ethical marketing," extending from before the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 into roughly the 1930s, which pitted nonproprietary or "ethical" pharmaceuticals against proprietary or patent medicines; second, an era of ascendant brand-name prescribing from the 1930s until roughly the 1960s, as manufacturers of innovative and patent-protected "specialty" drugs depicted generic production as a form of counterfeiting; and finally, an era of generic backlash from the 1960s onwards, which assumed the interchangeability of branded and generic drugs. This article uses clinical, popular, policy, and trade literatures to explore the enduring roles of brand-logic in the face of generic competition in the American drug market.
Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.
Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J; Ducharme, Michel B; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Glickman, Ellen; Sallis, Robert E
It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that exercise can be performed safely in most cold-weather environments without incurring cold-weather injuries. The key to prevention is use of a comprehensive risk management strategy that: a) identifies/assesses the cold hazard; b) identifies/assesses contributing factors for cold-weather injuries; c) develops controls to mitigate cold stress/strain; d) implements controls into formal plans; and e) utilizes administrative oversight to ensure controls are enforced or modified. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that: 1) coaches/athletes/medical personnel know the signs/symptoms and risk factors for hypothermia, frostbite, and non-freezing cold injuries, identify individuals susceptible to cold injuries, and have the latest up-to-date information about current and future weather conditions before conducting training sessions or competitions; 2) cold-weather clothing be chosen based on each individual's requirements and that standardized clothing ensembles not be mandated for entire groups; 3) the wind-chill temperature index be used to estimate the relative risk of frostbite and that heightened surveillance of exercisers be used at wind-chill temperatures below -27 degrees C (-18 degrees F); and 4) individuals with asthma and cardiovascular disease can exercise in cold environments, but should be monitored closely.
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members is based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.
Jones, Randy A.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Steeves, Richard; Fraser, Gertrude; Lippert, Marguerite; Theodorescu, Dan; Mathews, Holly; Kilbridge, Kerry Laing
Purpose/Objectives To examine the cultural beliefs and attitudes of African American prostate cancer survivors regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities. Research Approach Mixed methods with primary emphasis on a phenomenology approach. Setting In-person interviews in participants’ homes and rural community facilities. Participants 14 African American men diagnosed with and treated for prostate cancer. Methodologic Approach Personal interviews using a semistructured interview guide. Main Research Variables Prostate cancer, CAM, African American men’s health, culture, herbs, prayer, spirituality, and trust. Findings All participants used prayer often; two men used meditation and herbal preparations. All men reported holding certain beliefs about different categories of CAM. Several men were skeptical of CAM modalities other than prayer. Four themes were revealed: importance of spiritual needs as a CAM modality to health, the value of education in relation to CAM, importance of trust in selected healthcare providers, and how men decide on what to believe about CAM modalities. Conclusions Prayer was a highly valued CAM modality among African American prostate cancer survivors as a way to cope with their disease. Medical treatment and trust in healthcare providers also were found to be important. Interpretation Most participants were skeptical of CAM modalities other than prayer. Participants expressed a strong belief in spirituality and religiosity in relationship to health and their prostate cancer. Participants’ trust in their healthcare providers was important. Healthcare providers must understand how African Americans decide what to believe about CAM modalities to improve their health. This research provided valuable information for future development of culturally sensitive communication and infrastructural improvements in the healthcare system. PMID:17573300
Wardlaw, Margaret P
Modern medicine serves a religious function for modern Americans as a conduit through which science can be applied directly to the human body. The first half of this paper will focus on the theoretical foundations for viewing medicine as a religious practice arguing that just as a hierarchical structured authoritarian church historically mediated access to God, contemporary Western medicine provides a conduit by which the universalizable truths of science can be applied to the human being thereby functioning as a new established religion. I will then illustrate the many parallels between medicine and religion through an analysis of rituals and symbols surrounding and embedded within the modern practice of medicine. This analysis will pay special attention to the primacy placed on secret interior knowledge of the human body. I will end by responding to the hope for a "secularization of American medicine," exploring some of the negative consequences of secularization, and arguing that, rather than seeking to secularize, American medicine should strive to use its religious features to offer hope and healing to the sick, in keeping with its historically religious legacy.
Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia
African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797
TAMHANE, ASHUTOSH; McGWIN, GERALD; REDDEN, DAVID T.; HUGHES, LAURA B.; BROWN, ELIZABETH E.; WESTFALL, ANDREW O.; CONN, DOYT L.; JONAS, BETH L.; SMITH, EDWIN A.; BRASINGTON, RICHARD D.; MORELAND, LARRY W.; BRIDGES, S. LOUIS; CALLAHAN, LEIGH F.
Objective. Racial/ethnic differences with regard to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use have been reported in the US. However, specific details of CAM use by African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are lacking. Methods. Data were collected from African Americans with RA enrolled in a multicenter registry regarding the use of CAM, including food supplements, topical applications, activities, and alternative care providers. Factors associated with CAM use by sex and disease duration were assessed using t-test, Wilcoxon’s rank sum test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the 855 participants, 85% were women and mean age at enrollment was 54 years. Overall, ever using any of the CAM treatments, activities, and providers was 95%, 98%, and 51%, respectively (median of 3 for number of treatments, median of 5 for activities, and median of 1 for providers). Those with longer disease duration (>2 years) were significantly more likely (odds ratio >2.0, P < 0.05) to use raisins soaked in vodka/gin, to take fish oils, or to drink alcoholic beverages for RA treatment than those with early disease. As compared to men, women were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to pray/attend church, write in a journal, and use biofeedback, but were less likely to smoke tobacco or topically apply household oils for treatment of RA. Conclusion. CAM use was highly prevalent in this cohort, even in individuals with early disease. Health care providers need to be aware of CAM use as some treatments may potentially have interactions with conventional medicines. This could be important within this cohort of African Americans, where racial disparities are known to affect access to conventional care. PMID:23983105
Kim, Sang-Kyun; Han, Jeong-Min; Song, Mi-Young
We in this paper propose a social network based on ontology in Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM). By using the social network, researchers can find collaborators and share research results with others so that studies in Korean Medicine fields can be activated. For this purpose, first, personal profiles, scholarships, careers, licenses, academic activities, research results, and personal connections for all of researchers in KIOM are collected. After relationship and hierarchy among ontology classes and attributes of classes are defined through analyzing the collected information, a social network ontology are constructed using FOAF and OWL. This ontology can be easily interconnected with other social network by FOAF and provide the reasoning based on OWL ontology. In future, we construct the search and reasoning system using the ontology. Moreover, if the social network is activated, we will open it to whole Korean Medicine fields.
Cook, D L; Barber, K R
Increasing numbers of minorities are seeking mental health assistance. Inclusion of cultural considerations is important for increasing sensitivity to those whose life experiences differ. For African Americans, therapy is better facilitated if one operates from a cultural specific frame of reference. African American women attending a women's support group were surveyed. Questionnaires querying dimensions on family relationships, self-esteem and dependency were utilized. Results indicated a relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in African American females. Social support and self-esteem were inversely associated with codependency. This study provides insight for mental health professionals in counseling African American females.
Granberg, Ellen M; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L
Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship.
Rodeiro, Idania; Remírez-Figueredo, Diadelis; García-Mesa, Milagros; Dorado, Pedro; LLerena, Adrián
Meeting report of the "Second Symposium on Pharmacology of Cytochrome P450 and Transporters" organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology in collaboration with the European Society of Pharmacogenetics and Theranostics (ESPT) and the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (www.ribef.com). The Symposium covered different topics on pharmacogenetics and its clinical implications, focusing on Latin-American populations. The activities of the ESPT were also presented and discussed. The topics addressed were regulatory aspects, the use of pharmacogenetics in pre-clinical research, herbal medicine, and natural products, ending with a discussion about translation into clinical practice, specifically for cardiovascular disorders and psychiatry. Finally, the implication for population diversity in Latin America was also discussed. The RIBEF initiative represents a promising step towards the inclusion of Latin American populations among those to benefit from the implementation of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. Among current RIBEF activities, the CEIBA.FP Consortium aims to study the variability of pheno- and genotypes in Hispanics that are relevant to pharmacogenetics. For this purpose, populations from Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia, Brasil, Perú, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Portugal, and Spain are currently being studied. The meeting's main conclusion was that population pharmacogenetic studies as well as academic clinical trials might need to be conducted in the different geographic locations/countries. This is important in order to improve drug safety, dosage recommendations, and pharmacovigilance programs, because environmental and ethnic factors vary across locations.
Golding, Jacqueline M.; Burnam, M. Audrey
Studies of relative levels of psychological distress among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites have found mixed results, possibly due to cultural differences within Mexican American samples which may confound potential ethnic differences. The hypothesis that differences in psychological distress between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic…
Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.
Brothers, Kyle B; Rothstein, Mark A
As research focused on personalized medicine has developed over the past decade, bioethics scholars have contemplated the ethical, legal and social implications of this type of research. In the next decade, there will be a need to broaden the focus of this work as personalized medicine moves into clinical settings. We consider two broad issues that will grow in importance and urgency. First, we analyze the consequences of the significant increase in health information that will be brought about by personalized medicine. Second, we raise concerns about the potential of personalized medicine to exacerbate existing disparities in healthcare. PMID:25601880
Dingus, Jeannine E.
Teacher socialization is primarily examined as an institutional-based phenomenon, with particular focus on individuals' PK-12 schooling experiences, teacher education programs, or workplace-based socialization. This study situates professional socialization experiences of African-American teachers within teaching families, examining how culturally…
Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…
Xu, Qiong; Mocarski, Richard
This survey of American and Chinese students at a state university in the southern United States measures Social Media (SM) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media…
Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.
The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; Lima, Julie
Self report and observational data on racial socialization practices in a sample of 218 African American parents of young children were used to determine whether or not parents could be characterized in terms of their pattern of racial socialization practices. Parents fell into four groups: silence about race, emphasis on cultural socialization,…
Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.
We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…
Chan, Teresa M; Rosenberg, Hans; Lin, Michelle
From January 20 to 24, 2014, Annals continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 Journal of the American Medical Association article "Clinical Decision Rules to Rule Out Subarachnoid Hemorrhage for Acute Headache" by Perry et al. This online journal club used the power of rapid Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and more detailed discussions hosted on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. There were more than 1,431 individuals from 501 cities in 59 countries who viewed the blog post. During this 5-day event, 28 comments (average word count 153 words) and 206 tweets were made. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated during this novel, multiplatform approach.
Wharton, Tracy C.; Kazi, Mansoor A.
With increased pressure on programs to evaluate outcomes, the issue of evaluation in social work has never been so topical. In response to these pressures, there has been a growing interest in evidence-based practice and strategies for the evaluation of social work programs. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is an international…
Saleh, Lena D.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support, and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviors. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multi-level interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945
Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.
Elsanousi, S; Elsanousi, M; Khalafallah, O; Habour, A
A socially accountable medical school is one that directs its education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the community it serves and verifying its impact on the community. This study aimed to assess the social accountability of the University of Gezira faculty of medicine in Sudan. We reviewed the literature, faculty documents and reports and used both the World Health Organization social accountability grid and the conceptualization-production-usability model as frameworks for analysis. In most of the domains and phases of the social accountability grid, the faculty's educational programme was found to be well-planned and well-implemented, demonstrating an impact on the community and active participation in health-system development in the local area. The University of Gezira faculty of medicine is socially responsible and responsive and is on the way to becoming fully socially accountable in certain aspects.
HARTSTEIN, JACOB I.
A RESOURCE BOOK, PROVIDING AMERICAN HISTORY AND SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS WITH APPROPRIATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE PAST AND PRESENT OF JEWS IN AMERICA, IS PRESENTED. THE INFORMATION CAN BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH PROGRAMS, UNITS, AND COURSES IN HISTORY AND INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION. THE FIRST SECTION GIVES AN HISTORIC ACCOUNT OF DIFFERENT PERIODS IN…
Mostofsky, David I
'Behavioural medicine' is poised to contribute to the quality of health to the benefit of patients and physicians. There is a need for medical students and residents to better understand the field of behavioural medicine, and for practising physicians to incorporate it in medical education and clinical practice. This paper seeks to correct an erroneous conceptualization of behavioural medicine as being limited to psychosocial and mental health adjustments, and to provide examples of selected applications for medical conditions, including those that are not primarily regarded as requiring changes in lifestyle or psychotherapy. In fact, there are dramatic treatment and intervention protocols available that employ behavioural procedures that can provide relief for patients in all medical and dental specialties and that deserve to be considered along with conventional treatment protocols.
Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.
More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233
Kuvlesky, William P.; Patella, Victoria M.
Theoretical statements by Talcott Parsons and others were used as a basis in deriving the hypothesis that degree of identification with the Mexican American subculture among adolescents is inversely related to desire for upward social mobility. (Author)
Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B
More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.
Kohn, Laura P.; Wilson, Melvin N.
Examined the distinguishing features of African American social support networks from an ecological perspective. Found that African American families function within an ecological framework with implications for support received and network membership. Types of support network and membership are experienced differently across family structure,…
Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and…
Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…
Kang, Agnes M.
Provides an interactional account of conflict negotiation strategies in Korean American discourse. With specific attention to the sociolinguistic phenomenon of codeswitching among Korean Americans, argues that speaking Korean at particular moments evokes ideologies of social hierarchy that serve to mitigate potential conflicts. (Author/VWL)
Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.
In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…
Johnson, Jonathan Lee
The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…
Locke, Steven; Lindley, Lorinda
This investigation examines an elementary social studies methods course taught on an American Indian reservation through a state university. Data were collected from American Indian pre-service teachers over four years through taped interviews, classroom observations, and a review of homework and in-class assignments. A Freirean critical pedagogy…
Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.
This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…
Using an interpretive analysis, American history standards from nine states that incorporate high-stakes assessments in social studies are analyzed for their representation of American Indians. Research on high-stakes assessments shows that teachers are more likely to align their instruction with state standards due to mounting pressure to achieve…
A survey of the educational background of American leaders in the context of a social-cultural setting is offered in this Volume II monograph which is divided into three major parts. Part one, a brief introduction, gives an overview of American education from 1776-1830 furnishing information on educational theory, practice, and methods in that…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.
In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…
Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.
The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…
Millard, Colin; Brhlikova, Petra; Pollock, Allyson
The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) was established to help countries prioritise medicines according to their health care needs. Selection for the List is based on rigorous scrutiny of public health relevance, evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost effectiveness. The WHO ideal is that a medicine and its efficacy are based on science, but in reality a medicine has a social life and the acceptance of a pharmaceutical intervention involves the interaction of a wide array of governmental and civil society organisations, and industry. Misoprostol is a medicine widely used for both abortion and prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in low income countries. Although the evidence for the latter is highly contested it was nevertheless added to the WHO EML in 2011. We use social network analysis to examine the social, political and economic field surrounding the WHO EML applications and health policy. We describe a chronology of the drug's use and of the applications to the WHO EML and carry out a social network analysis of the organisations and individuals involved in the applications, research and dissemination. The research identified a network of 238 organisations and individuals involved in the promotion of misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage and present at the time of the WHO EML applications. There is a strong interdependency between the funding bodies, civil society organisations, researchers and clinician organisations. The research was part of an EU FP7 funded project on Accessing Medicines in Africa and South Asia (2010-2013).
Davis, S P
This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.
Objectives. We examined how different dimensions of social capital (i.e., family and friend connections, neighborhood and family cohesion, family conflict) were associated with smoking behavior among a nationally representative sample of Asian American men and whether the associations varied by ethnic group. Methods. The sample consisted of 998 adult Asian American men who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey from 2002 to 2003. We conducted weighted multivariate logistic regressions on data for the sample and for each of 4 ethnic subgroups (Chinese, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Other). Results. Vietnamese American men had the highest prevalence of current smoking; Chinese American men, the lowest. After controlling for sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and perceived discrimination, neighborhood cohesion was inversely associated with smoking among Asian American men, and family and friend connections and family cohesion were not. An exception was family cohesion, which was associated with increased odds of smoking among Filipino American men. Conclusions. The relationship between social capital and smoking among Asian American men varied according to specific dimensions of social capital and was ethnicity specific. These findings highlight the need for smoking prevention and cessation interventions to take into consideration the heterogeneity that exists among Asian Americans. PMID:22401511
Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea
Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.
It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain
Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin
National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.
Programs of the National Library of Medicine over almost a century and a half are described, ranging from a history of American medical literature and the development of medical indexing to modern technological developments. Activities covered include the development of the Toxicology Information Program and the online data base TOXLINE; the…
Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin
An American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry faculty is reported. Data, including academic and experience backgrounds of faculty and their teaching load, are presented. Differences in training are noted in comparing the average chemistry professor to the average assistant professor. (Author/MLW)
Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J
Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients.
Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J
Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417
Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S
The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.
Francis, C. K.
The medical profession will face many challenges in the new millennium. As medicine looks forward to advances in molecular genetics and the prospect of unprecedented understanding of the causes and cures of human disease, clinicians, scientists and bioethicists may benefit from reflection upon the origins of the medical ethos and its relevance to postmodern medicine. Past distortions of the medical ethos, such as Nazism and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, as well as more recent experience with the ethical challenges of employer-based market driven managed care, provide important lessons as medicine contemplates the future. Racial and ethnic disparities in health status and access to care serve as a reminders that the racial doctrines that fostered the horrors of the Holocaust and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study have not been completely removed from contemporary thinking. Inequalities in health status based on race and ethnicity, as well as socioeconomic status, attest to the inescapable reality of racism in America. When viewed against a background of historical distortions and disregard for the traditional tenets of the medical ethos, persistent racial and ethnic disparities and health and the prospect of genetic engineering raise the specter of discrimination because of genotype, a postmodern version of "racist medicine" or of a "new eugenics." There is a need to balance medicine's devotion to the wellbeing of the patient and the primacy of the patient-physician relationship against with the need to meet the health care needs of society. The challenge facing the medical profession in the new millennium is to establish an equilibrium between the responsibility to assure quality health care for the individual patient while affecting societal changes to achieve "health for all." PMID:11405593
Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas.
Hill, Paul, Jr.
This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…
Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.
The present study examined mothers’ emotion socialization of 3-year-old children with behavior problems, to determine whether emotion socialization practices, as well as the relation between these practices and child functioning, varied across ethnicities. Participants were 134 preschoolers with behavior problems. Mothers were European American (n = 96) and Latina American (n = 38; predominately Puerto Rican). Audiotaped mother-child interactions were coded for emotion socialization behaviors. Latina and European American mothers used similar emotion socialization practices on most dimensions. Latina mothers were more likely to minimize or not respond to their children’s negative affect. However, this difference did not appear to have ramifications for children. This study provided evidence for both differences and similarities across ethnicities on emotion socialization practices. PMID:27042157
Kim, Y; Grant, D
There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies.
Paruthi, Shalini; Brooks, Lee J.; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn; Hall, Wendy A.; Kotagal, Suresh; Lloyd, Robin M.; Malow, Beth A.; Maski, Kiran; Nichols, Cynthia; Quan, Stuart F.; Rosen, Carol L.; Troester, Matthew M.; Wise, Merrill S.
Sleep is essential for optimal health in children and adolescents. Members of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine developed consensus recommendations for the amount of sleep needed to promote optimal health in children and adolescents using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method. The recommendations are summarized here. A manuscript detailing the conference proceedings and the evidence supporting these recommendations will be published in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Citation: Paruthi S, Brooks LJ, D'Ambrosio C, Hall WA, Kotagal S, Lloyd RM, Malow BA, Maski K, Nichols C, Quan SF, Rosen CL, Troester MM, Wise MS. Recommended amount of sleep for pediatric populations: a consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):785–786. PMID:27250809
Murdach, Allison D.
Social work authors in the 1950s claimed progressivism as a unique social work "tradition" and set of values, and this historical interpretation has influenced many versions of social work history since that time. Today, other voices in the profession claim various divergent traditions for social work and note that the progressive tradition has…
Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tang, Dickson; Rekrut, Frances M; Condit, Caitlin
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety scale in a community sample of African Americans. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the combined scales comparing the data to 2- and 3-factor solutions commonly reported in the literature. The results indicated that neither solution produce an adequate fit to the data in this study. We then proceeded to conduct an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory framework of both scales. While we were able to extract a 2-factor solution from the data, the item composition of the factors was somewhat different for African Americans than what is typically reported in non-Hispanic White samples. While we conclude that use of the two social anxiety scales is warranted, we make recommendations regarding the interpretation of both scales with African Americans.
Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia
In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men’s health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed. PMID:19201993
Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna
This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J; Randolph, Suzanne M; Nickerson, Kim
The association between parent racial socialization and child competence was examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of African American preschoolers living in an urban setting. Interviews were conducted in the homes of 200 families. Racial socialization was assessed by parent report as well as by observation of the sociocultural context of the home, and child outcomes were assessed using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Child Behavior Checklist. Results indicated that African American parents who provided homes that were rich in African American culture had preschool children who had greater amounts of factual knowledge and better developed problem-solving skills. African American parents who socialized their preschool children to be proud of their heritage reported fewer problem behaviors.
Martínez-López, B; Perez, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M
Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory have been used widely in sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology and medicine. Social network analysis and graph theory provide a conceptual framework to study contact patterns and to identify units of analysis that are frequently or intensely connected within the network. Social network analysis has been used in human epidemiology as a tool to explore the potential transmission of infectious agents such as HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and syphilis. In preventive veterinary medicine, SNA is an approach that offers benefits for exploring the nature and extent of the contacts between animals or farms, which ultimately leads to a better understanding of the potential risk for disease spread in a susceptible population. Social network analysis, however, has been applied only recently in preventive veterinary medicine, therefore the characteristics of the technique and the potential benefits of its use remain unknown for an important section of the international veterinary medicine community. The objectives of this paper were to review the concepts and theoretical aspects underlying the use of SNA and graph theory, with particular emphasis on their application to the study of infectious diseases of animals. The paper includes a review of recent applications of SNA in preventive veterinary medicine and a discussion of the potential uses and limitations of this methodology for the study of animal diseases.
Strelnick, A H; Swiderski, Debbie; Fornari, Alice; Gorski, Victoria; Korin, Eliana; Ozuah, Philip; Townsend, Janet M; Selwyn, Peter A
Founded in 1970 to train physicians to practice in community health centers and underserved areas, the Residency Program in Social Medicine (RPSM) of Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, has graduated 562 board-eligible family physicians, general internists, and pediatricians whose careers fulfill this mission. The RPSM was a model for federal funding for primary care residency programs and has received Title VII grants during most of its history. The RPSM has tailored its mission and structured its curriculum to promote a community and population orientation and to provide the requisite knowledge and skills for integrating social medicine into clinical practice. Six unique hallmarks of RPSM training are (1) mission-oriented resident recruitment/selection and self-management, (2) interdisciplinary collaborative training among primary care professionals, (3) community-health-center-based and community-oriented primary care education, (4) biopsychosocial and ecological family systems curriculum, (5) the social medicine core curriculum and projects, and (6) grant support through Title VII. These hallmark curricular, training, and funding elements, in which population health is deeply embedded, have been carefully evaluated, regularly revised, and empirically validated since the program's inception. Practice outcomes for RPSM graduates as leaders in and advocates for population health and the care of underserved communities are described and discussed in this case study.
Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.
Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis
For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions.
The Department of Social Medicine at the Medical Faculty of Masaryk University was founded by Prof. Dr František Hamza. Prof. Dr Adolf Žáček, who worked in the World Health Organization in Geneva in 1961-1963, uses his knowledge and experiences to remarkable increasing quality of education and research at this department. Present situation in health care system in the Czech Republic demonstrates that there are great challenges for education and research in the field of Social Medicine.
Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.
This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors of…
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Smalls, Ciara P.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Nguyen, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.
This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among patterns of racial socialization experiences and racial identity in a sample of 358 African American adolescents (60% female and 40% male). Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: High Positive, Moderate…
Brega, Angela G.; Coleman, Lerita M.
Examines the direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among African American adolescents (N=50). Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized as were those who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single primary category. The more racial socialization…
Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika
Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…
Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon
Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…
GOINS, ALVIN E.
SOCIAL MATURITY IN THE AMERICAN ADOLESCENT IS DEFINED AS THAT PERIOD SOMEWHERE BETWEEN CHILDHOOD AND ADULTHOOD WHEN THE INDIVIDUAL HAS ACHIEVED THE ABILITY TO TOLERATE AND ADJUST TO FRUSTRATION WITHOUT STRESS WHILE ACHIEVING ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, A TOLERANT OUTLOOK, AND A SATISFACTORY LIFE PHILOSOPHY. THE MEASURES OF SOCIAL MATURITY OF THE…
Layton, Edwin T., Jr.
In examining the history of American engineering, this book emphasizes professionalism, social responsibility, and ethics. It explains how some engineers have attempted to express a concern for the social effects of technology and to forge codes of ethics which could articulate the profession's fundamental obligation to the public. The document's…
Hodge, David R.; Limb, Gordon E.
Although social work practitioners are increasingly likely to administer spiritual assessments with Native American clients, few qualitative assessment instruments have been validated with this population. This mixed-method study validates a complementary set of spiritual assessment instruments. Drawing on the social validity literature, a sample…
Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M
Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.
Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.
Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and…
Child socialization research among American Indians must account for tribal differences, examining gender roles in a given tribal culture, and employing studies of enculturation and acculturation, life histories, and ethnographies. Child socialization in the Teton Sioux or Lakota tribe can be used to illustrate these research techniques. The…
Prieur, Annick; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Laursen, Julie; Pedersen, Oline
The article traces the origin and development of the concept of social skills in first and foremost American academic discourse. As soon as the concept of social skills was coined, the concern for people lacking such skills started and has been on the increase ever since (now sharing public attention with related concepts such as self-control,…
Al-Fadhli, Hussain M.; Kersen, Thomas Michael
Data from 2008 Monitoring the Future were used to test how well religious, family, and cultural social capital influenced 8th and 10th grade student aspirations, future plans, and prior academic experience. This study focused only on a sample of 4,273 African American students. Results indicated a strong association between family social capital…
Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.
Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…
Using American religious traditions as measures of bonding and bridging social capital in communities, we empirically test how these different forms of social capital affect crime rates in 3,157 U.S. counties in 2000. Our results suggest that the bonding networks evangelical Protestants promote in communities explain why counties with a greater…
Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna
This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…
Mendez, Julia L.; McDermott, Paul; Fantuzzo, John
Presents multiple constructs that play a role in understanding African American preschool children's social competence. Findings support the importance of considering both children's developmental stage and their gender when evaluating aspects of social competence, particularly temperament and interactive peer play abilities. Discusses…
The social environment may influence health directly or indirectly through psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms and discrimination. This study explored potential psychosocial mediators of the associations between the social environment and physical and mental health in...
Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji
The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science.
McKay, Mary McKernan; Atkins, Marc S; Hawkins, Tracie; Brown, Catherine; Lynn, Cynthia J
Parents (n = 161) and teachers (n = 18) from an urban elementary school serving primarily African American children completed questionnaires regarding racial socialization, social support, and involvement in activities that support youth educational achievement at home and school. Parental reports of racism awareness, and contact with school staff were significantly correlated with parent reports of at-home involvement and at-school involvement. Parent reports of social support from the parent community were significantly related to at-home involvement only. Relative to teacher reports, parents reported more formal contacts with school staff, and higher levels of racism awareness, religiosity, and African American cultural pride. Teachers and parents agreed on school climate and parental levels of at-home and at-school involvement. The results suggest that racial socialization processes are related to parent involvement in children's schooling and that increased efforts are needed to bridge a cultural gap between parents and teachers in inner-city communities.
Thompson, C P; Anderson, L P; Bakeman, R A
The aim of this study was to determine if racial identity mediates the relation between racial socialization and acculturative stress in African American university students, once demographic factors are accounted for. In a sample of 84 participants, significant relations were found between racial socialization and acculturative stress, racial socialization and racial identity, and racial identity and acculturative stress. Partial support for a mediational model was found, with the best predictors of acculturative stress being immersion attitudes and internalization attitudes.
Begun, James W.; Rieker, Patricia P.
Initial efforts at the University of North Carolina to develop a social science curriculum that is relevant to medical practice are reported. Descriptions of course content, format, teaching strategies, and course evaluation are included with a focus on the question of relevance. (Author/JMD)
Andrade, S J
Reviewing the social science literature on the Chicana or Mexican American woman reveals a tenaciously perpetuated stereotype in which she appears almost exclusively as a submissive maternal figure. This may be related to an on-going trend to support studies of interpersonal or cultural characteristics of Chicanas and a resistance to undertake evaluations of systemic discrimination against Mexican American women. Almost all such studies investigated lower class samples, thus confounding ethnicity with socioeconomic status. The size and selection of many of the samples are questionable for purposes of generalizing to the entire population. Because many concepts are not defined in behavioral terms, they are seldom assessed empirically. The main concern is to what extent social scientists and the media are dictating norms to the Chicano family and to what extent are social planners and educators being influenced by these images. Examples from 3 distinct areas of research conclude with interpretations of Mexican American women that differ considerably from those with a heavy emphasis on cultural values: 1) demographic analyses of the 1970 Public Use Samples of the census that acknowledge the disadvantaged economic position of Mexican Americans; 2) studies that are beginning to measure empirically the family dynamics of Mexican Americans; and 3) family planning studies that attempt to examine the interaction between health care delivery systems and Mexican American contraceptive behavior. Trained and experienced Chicana researchers are needed to offset the male orientation and ethnocentrism that have characterized the social sciences.
Morin, C M; Hauri, P J; Espie, C A; Spielman, A J; Buysse, D J; Bootzin, R R
This paper reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for primary chronic insomnia. It is based on a review of 48 clinical trials and two meta-analyses conducted by a task force appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to develop practice parameters on non-drug therapies for the clinical management of insomnia. The findings indicate that nonpharmacological therapies produce reliable and durable changes in several sleep parameters of chronic insomnia sufferers. The data indicate that between 70% and 80% of patients treated with nonpharmacological interventions benefit from treatment. For the typical patient with persistent primary insomnia, treatment is likely to reduce the main target symptoms of sleep onset latency and/or wake time after sleep onset below or near the 30-min criterion initially used to define insomnia severity. Sleep duration is also increased by a modest 30 minutes and sleep quality and patient's satisfaction with sleep patterns are significantly enhanced. Sleep improvements achieved with these behavioral interventions are sustained for at least 6 months after treatment completion. However, there is no clear evidence that improved sleep leads to meaningful changes in daytime well-being or performance. Three treatments meet the American Psychological Association (APA) criteria for empirically-supported psychological treatments for insomnia: Stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, and paradoxical intention; and three additional treatments meet APA criteria for probably efficacious treatments: Sleep restriction, biofeedback, and multifaceted cognitive-behavior therapy. Additional outcome research is needed to examine the effectiveness of treatment when it is implemented in clinical settings (primary care, family practice), by non-sleep specialists, and with insomnia patients presenting medical or psychiatric comorbidity.
Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V.; Waters, Catherine M.; Dailey, Dawn E.; Lee, Kathryn A.; Lyndon, Audrey
Objective To describe the use of social media during the antepartum and postpartum periods among first-time African American mothers and their support persons. Design A qualitative critical ethnographic research design within the contexts of Family Life Course Development Theory and Black Feminist Theory. Setting Participants were recruited from community-based, public health, and home visiting programs. Participants A purposive sample was recruited, consisting of 14 pregnant African American women and eight support persons. Methods Pregnant and postpartum African American women and their support persons were interviewed separately during the antepartum and postpartum periods. Data were analyzed thematically. Results Participants frequently used social media for educational and social support and searched the internet for perinatal and parenting information. Most participants reported using at least one mobile application during their pregnancies and after giving birth. Social media were typically accessed through smartphones and/or computers using different websites and applications. While participants gleaned considerable information about infant development from these applications, they had difficulty finding and recalling information about infant feeding. Conclusion Social media are an important vehicle to disseminate infant feeding information; however, they are not currently being used to full potential. Our findings suggest that future interventions geared towards African American mothers and their support persons should include social media approaches. The way individuals gather, receive, and interpret information is dynamic. The increasing popularity and use of social media platforms offers the opportunity to create more innovative, targeted mobile health interventions for infant feeding and breastfeeding promotion. PMID:25712127
Background Emergency Medicine (EM) is increasingly becoming an international field. The number of fellowships in International EM in the USA is growing along with opportunities to complete international health electives (IHEs) during residency training. The impact on host institutions, however, has not been adequately investigated. The objective of this study is to assess the experience of several South American hospitals hosting foreign EM residents completing IHEs. Methods Anonymous, semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with physicians working in Emergency Departments in three hospitals in Lima, Peru and one hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. All participants reported previously working with EM foreign rotators. Interviews were analyzed qualitatively and coded for common themes. Results Three department chairs, six residents, and 15 attending physicians were interviewed (total = 24). After qualitative analysis of interviews, two broad theme categories emerged: Benefits and Challenges. Most commonly reported benefits were knowledge sharing about emergency medical systems (78%), medical knowledge transfer (58%), and long-term relationship formation (42%). Top challenges included rotator Spanish language proficiency (70%) lack of reciprocity (58%), and level of training and rotation length (25%). Spanish proficiency related directly to how involved rotators became in patient care (e.g., taking a history, participating in rounds) but was not completely prohibitive, as a majority of physicians interviewed felt comfortable speaking in English. Lack of reciprocity refers to the difficulty of sending host physicians abroad as well as failed attempts at building long-lasting relationships with foreign institutions. Lastly, 25% preferred rotators to stay for at least 1 month and rotate in the last year of EM residency. This latter preference increased knowledge transfer from rotator to host. Conclusions Our research identified benefits and challenges
Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; Dorman, Steve M.
Background: Little research has addressed the prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among undergraduate students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to: (1) measure the prevalence and type of CAM use among a sample of college undergraduates, and (2) test the significance of select social-cognitive…
Sherin, Kevin M; Lowe, Andrea L; Harvey, Bart J; Leiva, Daniel F; Malik, Aaqib; Matthews, Sarah; Suh, Ryung
The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) is providing a set of recommendations designed to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with distractions due to texting while driving. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 12% of all fatal crashes involving at least one distracted driver are estimated to be related to cell phone use while driving. Given the combination of visual, manual, and cognitive distractions posed by texting, this is an issue of major public health concern for communities. Therefore, the ACPM feels it is timely to discuss this issue and provide the following recommendations: 1. Encourage state legislatures to develop and pass legislation banning texting while driving, while simultaneously implementing comprehensive and dedicated law enforcement strategies including penalties for these violations. Legislatures should establish a public awareness campaign regarding the dangers of texting while driving as an integral part of this legislation. 2. Promote further research into the design and evaluation of educational tools regarding texting while driving that can be incorporated into the issuance of driver’s licenses. 3. Provide primary care providers with the appropriate tools to educate patients of all ages. 4. Conduct additional studies investigating the risks associated with cell phone usage while driving, particularly texting, with motor vehicle crashes.
Mejia Restrepo, Samuel; Velez Arango, Alba Lucía; Buritica Arboleda, Olga Clemencia; Arango Mejia, María Cristina; Rio Gomez, Jaime Alberto del
Based on the new social security system in Colombia (1993), which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical policy and evaluated their application, using indicators and a specific disease (diabetes mellitus) as a marker. Although there is a legal framework providing the people's right to access health care services and essential medicines, the country lacks a comprehensive pharmaceuticals policy. Most of the institutions experience problems in distributing the medicines listed under the Mandatory Health Plan, a low percentage of medicines is dispensed at zero cost, and a major portion of patients purchase medicines through associations of diabetics or rely on alternative medicine. The study unveiled several obstacles to equity in health care coverage and access to essential medicines.
Brega, A G; Coleman, L M
The direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among 50 African-American adolescents were investigated. A stigma is a characteristic about which others hold negative attitudes and stereotypes. Subjective stigmatization measures the degree to which an individual internalizes such negative attitudes and stereotypes toward a social group of which he or she is a member. Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized than were participants who did not. Further, participants who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single "primary" category were more destigmatized than those who did not. Unexpectedly, the more racial socialization messages participants received, the more self-stigmatized they were. The importance of religiosity and racial socialization in the lives of African-American adolescents are discussed.
Neblett, Enrique W; Smalls, Ciara P; Ford, Kahlil R; Nguyên, Hòa X; Sellers, Robert M
This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among patterns of racial socialization experiences and racial identity in a sample of 358 African American adolescents (60% female and 40% male). Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: High Positive, Moderate Positive, and Low Frequency. Adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences at Wave 1 were associated with Wave 2 adolescent racial identity approximately one year later. Specifically, High Positive and Low Frequency racial socialization were associated with racial centrality, assimilationist ideology, and nationalist ideology. These findings suggest that various patterns of racial socialization practices play an important role in the developing significance and meaning that African American adolescents ascribe to race.
Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L
Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States.
Rook, Brian W.
The development of the League of United Latino American Citizens (LULAC) is often viewed as a method of cultural assimilation through adult education. However, LULAC can be viewed through a collectivist's lens wherein the members established a shared philosophy, teaching adults to mobilize and expand their cause quickly and effectively. The social…
Smith, Herman W.; Francis, Linda E.
Cultural expectations provide meaning to human perceptions of who-does-what-to-whom-where. However, the effects of actions directed at oneself have been much less systematically studied. This article replicates the American factorial design of Britt and Heise (1992) in a Japanese setting. The analysis demonstrates both cultural similarities and…
Sorkin, Alan L.
"American Indians are the poorest of any nonwhite minority in the United States. Life on the reservation offers them few opportunities: if they move to the city, they face problems of adjustment that can prove insurmountable. What is being done--what more could be done--to help Indians satisfy their needs in a largely alien society? To develop the…
Olson, Jeffery E.
Five economic hypotheses of what American universities value (profit, production, prestige, faculty consumption, or academic resources and activities) were tested to illustrate the implicit value framework, a conceptual framework for inferring the objective economic values of an organization from the manner in which society has defined its…
Bennett, John W., Ed.
Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely…
Hubbert, Ann O
The paper presents a historically unique partnership between an American Southwestern, Catholic faith-based, urban hospital and a program it sponsored on the spirituality of American Indian Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) by a Comanche medicine man. A discussion is offered on the cultural partnerships, experiences and benefits achieved through the cultural accommodations of these spiritual beliefs and practices within this healthcare system. The theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Culture Care Theory), including the Sunrise Enabler, is applied in discussion of these past experiences to explore the relationships among and between the participating cultures. The intent of the partnerships within this program was not to 'learn Indian healing ceremonies' but to share the philosophy of TIM with all people (clients and professionals) as a means to enhance their own way of living. Examples of actual nursing decisions and actions are provided including outcomes from the program within the healthcare system and globally.
Bartolini, Stefano; Bilancini, Ennio; Pugno, Maurizio
During the last 30 years US citizens experienced, on average, a decline in reported happiness, social connections, and confidence in institutions. We show that a remarkable portion of the decrease in happiness is predicted by the decline in social connections and confidence in institutions. We carry out our investigation in three steps. First, we…
Through an analysis of activities called for in social studies texts at three grade levels, the author critically examines the links between children's improvisational performance and social studies curricula. He asks: What is unique about the process of embodying a historical or contemporary character as part of the learning process (such as a…
Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.
This study examines 12 grade five elementary school students' attitudes and beliefs concerning personal and social responsibility in physical education. Factors used to identify students' attitudes and beliefs were initially divided into the six levels of Hellison's Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR), namely: irresponsibility,…
Procter, David R.
This paper, on the relationship between political socialization, the educational process, and what is taught in schools, is organized into three chapters, each of which is largely devoted to reviewing the literature of a particular area. Chapter 1 focuses on the process of political socialization in general and seeks to convey the variety of…
Bannon, William M; Cavaleri, Mary A; Rodriguez, James; McKay, Mary M
OBJECTIVE: To examine how parental endorsement of racial socialization parenting practices relates to child mental health service use among an urban sample of African American families. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of urban African American parents (n = 96) provided ratings of their beliefs concerning various dimensions of racial socialization constructs, i.e., spiritual or religious coping (SRC), extended family caring (EFC), cultural pride reinforcement (CPR), and assessed regarding their use of child mental health services. RESULTS: At the multivariate level, the use of child mental health services was significantly positively associated with moderate levels of endorsement of SRC and EFC. Inversely, scores in the moderate range of CPR were associated with a reduced likelihood of child mental health service use. CONCLUSION: Parental endorsement of racial socialization parenting practices appear to play a salient role in child mental health service use among an urban African American families. Further research with larger and more representative samples should be pursued.
Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L
The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population.
Hurd, Noelle M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A
This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents’ internalizing symptoms via adolescents’ social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; M age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on adolescents’ mental health outcomes was conducted. Higher neighborhood poverty and unemployment rates predicted greater internalizing symptoms via lower cumulative social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. In contrast, higher concentrations of African American and residentially stable residents in one’s neighborhood related to fewer internalizing symptoms among adolescent residents via greater cumulative social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23199188
Howard, Lionel C; Rose, Jason C; Barbarin, Oscar A
Although parental socialization practices are critical to a child's social development, little is known of the details of how parental practices function to meet the specific challenges of supporting young boys' development as African American and men. Accordingly, this article offers a window onto how 15 parents of African American boys (ages 3-8) conceive and implement strategies for their sons' social and emotional development. Using ethnographic observations and structured interview data, this article explores the ways they promote emerging racial and gender identities and socioemotional well-being. Findings reveal that highly incongruous messages and expectations are communicated to young boys about race and gender. The study's findings have implications for young African American boys' emerging racial and gender identities.
Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L
Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding.
Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober
Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.
Özçakar, L; Franchignoni, F; Frontera, W; Negrini, S
Case reports (CR) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side-effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. Yet, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AJPMR) and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, we discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well-written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.
Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter
Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.
Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner
Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933
Albert, Mathieu; Paradis, Elise; Kuper, Ayelet
This paper explores social scientists' and humanities (SSH) scholars' integration within the academic medical research environment. Three questions guided our investigation: Do SSH scholars adapt to the medical research environment? How do they navigate their career within a culture that may be inconsistent with their own? What strategies do they use to gain legitimacy? The study builds on three concepts: decoupling, doxa, and epistemic habitus. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with SSH scholars working in 11 faculties of medicine across Canada. Participants were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. For most of our participants, moving into medicine has been a challenging experience, as their research practices and views of academic excellence collided with those of medicine. In order to achieve some level of legitimacy more than half of our participants altered their research practices. This resulted in a dissonance between their internalized appreciation of academic excellence and their new, altered, research practices. Only six participants experienced no form of challenge or dissonance after moving into medicine, while three decided to break with their social science and humanities past and make the medical research community their new home. We conclude that the work environment for SSH scholars in faculties of medicine does not deliver on the promise of inclusiveness made by calls for interdisciplinarity in Canadian health research.
Topf, Joel M; Hiremath, Swapnil
Medical media is changing along with the rest of the media landscape. One of the more interesting ways that medical media is evolving is the increased role of social media in medical media's creation, curation and distribution. Twitter, a microblogging site, has become a central hub for finding, vetting, and spreading this content among doctors. We have created a Twitter journal club for nephrology that primarily provides post-publication peer review of high impact nephrology articles, but additionally helps Twitter users build a network of engaged people with interests in academic nephrology. By following participants in the nephrology journal club, users are able to stock their personal learning network. In this essay we discuss the history of medical media, the role of Twitter in the current states of media and summarize our initial experience with a Twitter journal club.
Schroeder, Steven A
A recurring conference theme was the essential place of social justice within family medicine, especially the need to focus on denominator populations, exalt the personal and caring qualities of doctoring, and address social determinants of health. Many expressed solidarity with "community," but it is not always easy to define community in our large and diverse nation. Exhortations for health advocacy were frequently voiced, but putting these into meaningful action agendas is a challenge. There was general agreement that medicine is in flux and that the many expressions of "commodity-centered consumerism" have altered organization and financing. The increasing demands by "consumers", who want low cost, instant availability, and shared decision-making, and yet change doctors when health plans alter coverage also differentially impact high-volume, low-margin specialties such as family medicine. Additional challenges were the electronic health record and calibrating an appropriate work/life balance. Five action steps are recommended: 1) speak out on the important social and moral issues; 2) be the experts on personal care; 3) make common cause with potential allies; 4) help institutions perceive the value of generalism; and 5) help find ways to enrich generalist disciplines to increase the joy of medicine and decrease the threat of burn out.
Wilson, Nathan W
From the period immediately following the second world war, western (orthodox) medicine - both as a philosophy of medicine and as a professional guild of medical professionals actively practicing medicine - has made progress in leaps and bounds, especially considering the advances in technology and associated enterprises. Over the last thirty years, however, the practice of orthodox medicine has taken a turn for the worst despite progressive philosophies and tenets of basic practice as offered by the professional bodies that regulate how medicine is operated and implemented. Current healthcare environments are in a chaotic state of affairs, most notably due to issues involving affordability of medical professionals. It is argued that the social-professional status of medical doctors allow exorbitant and unreachable demands on governments for increased salaries. The title-based supremacy of doctors within the occupations domain is not supported by what they are offering society at large, and it compromises the ability of medical institutions and governments to provide better and more affordable healthcare. From a sociological point of view, this paper examines the social-religious history of such social class-based occupational power and dominance, and paves the way toward an overhaul of current medical education frameworks that proactively will ensure greater occupational equity in healthcare settings, across all healthcare disciplines tasked with patient care and improvement of healthcare services. In essence, doctoral titles should only be awarded after successful completion of postgraduate doctoral studies, and a new breed of medical professionals must emerge, able to contribute more meaningfully to the advancement of medicine as a profession, as well as toward increased standards of healthcare and improved health services delivery.
Wilson, N. W.
From the period immediately following the second world war, western (orthodox) medicine – both as a philosophy of medicine and as a professional guild of medical professionals actively practicing medicine – has made progress in leaps and bounds, especially considering the advances in technology and associated enterprises. Over the last thirty years, however, the practice of orthodox medicine has taken a turn for the worst despite progressive philosophies and tenets of basic practice as offered by the professional bodies that regulate how medicine is operated and implemented. Current healthcare environments are in a chaotic state of affairs, most notably due to issues involving affordability of medical professionals. It is argued that the social-professional status of medical doctors allow exorbitant and unreachable demands on governments for increased salaries. The title-based supremacy of doctors within the occupations domain is not supported by what they are offering society at large, and it compromises the ability of medical institutions and governments to provide better and more affordable healthcare. From a sociological point of view, this paper examines the social-religious history of such social class-based occupational power and dominance, and paves the way toward an overhaul of current medical education frameworks that proactively will ensure greater occupational equity in healthcare settings, across all healthcare disciplines tasked with patient care and improvement of healthcare services. In essence, doctoral titles should only be awarded after successful completion of postgraduate doctoral studies, and a new breed of medical professionals must emerge, able to contribute more meaningfully to the advancement of medicine as a profession, as well as toward increased standards of healthcare and improved health services delivery. PMID:23121737
Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily
This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups.
Marshall, Gillian L; Rue, Tessa C
The relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among older black American populations is poorly understood. Although a small number of studies have examined the relationship between stress and social support, few have examined the association between perceived discrimination, social networks, and depressive symptoms among a representative sample of older racial and ethnic groups. This study examines (a) the relationship between sociodemographic factors, perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms and (b) social networks as a potential moderator in the perceived discrimination and depressive symptom relationship between 2 groups of older black Americans. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the National Survey of American Life with a sample of older African Americans (N = 837) and Caribbean blacks (N = 271). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Linear regression analyses were used to predict depressive symptoms. The relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant in both groups. Social networks contributed as a protective factor for depressive symptoms for both groups. However, there was no significant moderation effect. Results suggest that regardless of ethnic affiliation, the experience of perceived discrimination is similar in both groups and is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Future research is needed in this area to better understand the associations between sociodemographic factors, perceived discrimination, social networks, and their impact on depressive symptoms.
McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Burton, Linda M; Davis, Kelly D; Dotterer, Aryn M; Swanson, Dena P
Mothers' and fathers' cultural socialization and bias preparation with older (M=13.9 years) and younger (M=10.31 years) siblings were studied in 162 two-parent, African American families. Analyses examined whether parental warmth and offspring age and gender were linked to parental practices and whether parents' warmth, spouses' racial socialization, or youth age or gender moderated links between racial socialization and youth outcomes. Parental warmth was linked to parents' socialization. Mothers engaged in more socialization with older offspring, and fathers more with sons. Mothers' cultural socialization was positively related to youth ethnic identity and fathers' was negatively related to youth depression symptoms. Youth exhibited a lower locus of control when mothers were high but fathers were low in racial socialization.
Shelby, Rebecca A; Crespin, Tim R; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M; Lamdan, Ruth M; Siegel, Jamie E; Taylor, Kathryn L
Past studies show that optimism and social support are associated with better adjustment following breast cancer treatment. Most studies have examined these relationships in predominantly non-Hispanic White samples. The present study included 77 African American women treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Women completed measures of optimism, social support, and adjustment within 10-months of surgical treatment. In contrast to past studies, social support did not mediate the relationship between optimism and adjustment in this sample. Instead, social support was a moderator of the optimism-adjustment relationship, as it buffered the negative impact of low optimism on psychological distress, well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit. These data suggest that perceived social support is an important resource for women with low optimism.
Queiroz, M S
This article focuses on social representations of alternative medicines by a group of professors from the School of Medicine and health professionals from the public health system in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, basically physicians and nurses. The article also emphasizes personal trajectories by which these health professionals opted for a dissident theoretical and practical perspective vis-à-vis the hegemonic positivist scientific medical paradigm. The research methods were mainly ethnographic, from a phenomenological perspective. The article concludes by sustaining (in theoretical terms) the importance of these dissident perspectives for scientific development.
Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin
Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R
In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.
Oetzel, John; Duran, Bonnie
This essay synthesizes the research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in American Indian and/or Alaska Native communities using a social ecological framework. The review of literature demonstrates that American Indian and/or Alaska Native women are at an elevated risk for IPV compared to non-American Indian women and thus this essay describes…
Mordini, Emilio; Ottolini, Corinna
Identity is important when it is weak. This apparent paradox is the core of the current debate on identity. Traditionally, verification of identity has been based upon authentication of attributed and biographical characteristics. After small scale societies and large scale, industrial societies, globalization represents the third period of personal identification. The human body lies at the heart of all strategies for identity management. The tension between human body and personal identity is critical in the health care sector. The health care sector is second only to the financial sector in term of the number of biometric users. Many hospitals and healthcare organizations are in progress to deploy biometric security architecture. Secure identification is critical in the health care system, both to control logic access to centralized archives of digitized patients' data, and to limit physical access to buildings and hospital wards, and to authenticate medical and social support personnel. There is also an increasing need to identify patients with a high degree of certainty. Finally there is the risk that biometric authentication devices can significantly reveal any health information. All these issues require a careful ethical and political scrutiny.
LI, Shijian; DELVA, Jorge
Growing research finds that social capital is associated with smoking. However, most studies focus on white populations and do not take into account potential differences between genders. The present study examines the associations between social capital and self-report smoking status and assesses the moderating role of gender among a national representative sample of Asian American adults. Social capital consisted of measures of individual social connectedness (i.e. social ties with relatives and friends) and subjective evaluation of family and neighborhood environment (i.e. family and neighborhood cohesion, family conflict). Asian men were almost three times more likely to be current smokers than women (20.1% vs. 7.0%). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that family conflicts or higher levels of connectedness with family members were associated with increased odds of being a current smoker among Asian Americans as a whole. Further stratified analysis revealed significant gender differences in several aspects of social capital: there were stronger effects of social connectedness with family members on increasing the odds of smoking for women than for men. In addition, women who had closer connections to friends had greater odds of being current smokers, whereas the opposite was true for men. The findings of this study provide new evidence for the differential effects of social capital by gender, suggesting that more studies are needed to understand social capital’s effects in different racial/ethnic populations and the mechanisms by which the effects vary with gender. PMID:22706023
Britten, Nicky; Maguire, Kath
This article consists of two personal reflections about the changing status of lay knowledge over the last 20 years. The first reflection is by Nicky Britten from the perspective of a sociologist working in medical schools whose interest in this topic was motivated by my own personal experience of health care and of teaching general practitioners. Starting with the problematic deficit model of 'ignorant patients', I trace the literature on patient-centredness, shared decision-making, lay knowledge, public involvement in research and social movements. Looking at medicines use in particular, I deplore the continued hegemony of the concept of compliance in the face of extensively documented problems with the licensing, regulation, prescribing and monitoring of medicines. I argue that lay knowledge is now taken more seriously, not so much because of advocacy by clinicians and academics, but because of social movements and social action. We may have moved from 'anecdotes' to 'lived experience' but there is still a way to go, particularly when it comes to medicines use. I end with a possible future scenario. The second reflection is by Kath Maguire and is a response from the perspective of someone who came to work in this field with the express purpose of improving engagement with lay knowledge. It questions my own 'layness' and explores the issues raised by Nicky Britten using the lens of lived experience. Finally, it questions the paradigm of social movements and highlights the importance of developing different ways of listening.
Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji
Summary The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations, and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial, and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors, and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference, and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology, and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors, and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging, and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science. PMID:26636627
Gregg, Jessica; Solotaroff, Rachel; Amann, Ted; Michael, Yvonne; Bowen, Judith
Despite the increasing attention paid to the role of social forces in determining health, most physicians finish their training ill-prepared to address these issues. The authors describe their efforts to fill that training gap for internal medicine residents at Oregon Health and Science University through a community-based social medicine curriculum, designed in 2006 in conjunction with community partners at Central City Concern (CCC), an organization addressing homelessness, poverty, and addiction in downtown Portland, Oregon. The challenge was to develop a curriculum that would (1) fit within the scheduling constraints of an established categorical internal medicine residency program, (2) give all internal medicine residents a chance to better understand how social forces affect health, and (3) help show how they, as health professionals, might intervene to improve health and health care. The authors maintain that by developing this curriculum with community partners--who took the lead in deciding what residents should learn about their community and how they should learn it--the residency program is providing a relatively brief but extremely rich opportunity for residents to engage the personal, social, and health-related issues experienced by clients served by CCC. The authors first provide a brief overview of the curriculum and describe how the principles and practices of community-based participatory research were used in its development. They then discuss the challenges involved in teaching medical residents about social determinants of health, how their academic-community partnership approaches those challenges, and the recently established methods of evaluating the curriculum.
Abstract Objective To assess whether new pharmaceutical products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 were registered, commercialized and sold at affordable prices in the Latin American countries where they were tested. Methods We obtained a list of new molecular entities (new pharmaceutical products) approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012. FDA medical reviews indicated the countries where pivotal clinical trials had been conducted. The registration status of the products was obtained from pharmaceutical registers; pharmaceutical companies confirmed their availability in national markets and local pricing observatories provided the price of medicines in retail pharmacies. Affordability was assessed as the cost of a course of treatment as a proportion of monthly income. Information on safety and efficacy was gathered from independent drug bulletins. Findings Of an expected 114 registrations, if the 33 products had been registered in all the countries where tested, only 68 (60%) were completed. Eight products were registered and commercialized in all countries but 10 had not been registered in any of the countries. With one exception, products for which we obtained pricing information (n = 18) cost more than the monthly minimum wage in all countries and 12 products cost at least five times the monthly minimum wage. Conclusion Many pharmaceutical products tested in Latin America are unavailable and/or unaffordable to most of the population. Ethical review committees should consider the local affordability and therapeutic relevance of new products as additional criteria for the approval of clinical trials. Finally, clinical trials have opportunity costs that need to be assessed. PMID:26600609
Nyce, James M; Timpka, Toomas
Social medicine deals with the interplay between medicine and society. An awareness of how analytical categories have emerged historically can strengthen the role the discipline can play in the societal reinventions of health care now under way around the world. This study examines the categories that informed social medicine in Sweden during the 20th century. An anthropological field study was conducted over a 12-year period in a Swedish academic clinical setting. Historical documents were used to link local-level issues with macro-level (here, national and European) contexts. Social medicine, modernity, and social democracy were found to share a common history and a common vision of what society should be. As a result, concepts from politics, ideology, economy, and science tended to be conflated. As a clinician at the study site explained, "samhälle [community] is both society and state". The consequence for social medicine is that culture has become neglected as an analytical category. This institutional amnesia has strongly influenced how 21st century social medicine, in this region of the world, has defined itself and its interests. To return a cultural perspective to social medicine, a critical distance must be kept between the analyses the discipline undertakes and the prevailing societal ideologies.
Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.
Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…
Lenhart, Amanda; Madden, Mary; Smith, Aaron; Purcell, Kristen; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee
Social media use has become so pervasive in the lives of American teens that having a presence on a social network site is almost synonymous with being online. Fully 95% of all teens ages 12-17 are now online and 80% of those online teens are users of social media sites. The authors focused their attention in this research on social network sites…
Hygiene, asserted the "Pasteurians", is "the very base of politics". Professor of preventive medicine at Nancy medical school, the phtisiologist Jacques Parisot well epitomized the style of a discipline that had soon shown interest for the avenues of action. Just as many other practical minds in Europe and elsewhere, he lamented the discrepancies between medical innovation and organizational change. However, as a French Professor medicine he had more latitude than his foreign colleagues to try bringing together the laboratory, medical education and the clinics. Chair of the Health Committee of the League of Nations from 1937 to the war, Parisot is an interesting case of these "Statesmen in disguise": to him social medicine, a science for action, was nothing but a vehicle to improve the Welfare of the community.
Bagner, Daniel M.; Storch, Eric A.; Roberti, Jonathan W.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale (LSDS) in a sample of African-American and Hispanic-American children. Participants were a non-clinical sample (N = 186) of children ages 11 to 13 in the fifth and sixth grades in a school in the Metropolitan New York area. Confirmatory factor…
Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena
This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment.
Crosnoe, Robert; Frank, Kenneth; Mueller, Anna Strassmann
To investigate the role of body size in social networks, this study estimated cross-nested multilevel network models (p2) with longitudinal data from the 16 saturated schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As body mass index increased, the likelihood of being nominated by schoolmates as friends--but not the likelihood of…
Dunn, Kerri F.; Cowan, Gloria
Compares social influence strategies of 40 Japanese and 41 U.S. college women for various targets. Free responses indicate that Japanese women use strong and neutral strategies more frequently and weak strategies less frequently than U.S. women. U.S. women use manipulation more frequently and reasoning less frequently than Japanese women. (SLD)
Cartledge, Mark J.
This study explores benevolent action among Pentecostals in the USA using a congregational questionnaire survey of worshippers among the Church of God (Cleveland, TN) (N = 1522). The influence of religiosity and the socialization of a perceived relationship of love with God (Godly Love) are explored, while controlling for background variables. The…
Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn
Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…
Mordkowitz, Eliott R.; Ginsburg, Herbert P.
The family backgrounds of successful Asian students were examined to generate testable hypotheses about the socialization of exemplary school achievement of these students. Structured interviews were conducted with 15 Asian students, all of whom would be considered in the top 5% of achievement nationally. These were Harvard University…
Hall, Jeffrey A
Abstract Although social networking sites (SNS) have become increasingly prevalent and integrated into the lives of users, the role of SNS in courtship is relatively unknown. The present manuscript reports on the characteristics of Americans married between 2005 and 2012 who met through SNS drawn from a weighted national sample (N=18,527). Compared to other online meetings (i.e., dating sites, online communities, one-on-one communication), individuals who met through SNS were younger, married more recently, and were more likely to be African American. Compared with offline meetings, individuals who met through SNS were more likely to be younger, male, African American and Hispanic, married more recently, and frequent Internet users with higher incomes. Trends suggest an increasing proportion of individuals are meeting using SNS, necessitating further research on factors that influence romantic relational development through SNS.
Examined classroom discourse at a southern cosmetology school, noting African American students' language socialization. Highlighted freshmen's and seniors' engagement with formal/textbook scripts about proper communication, analyzing how teachers and students made sense of official metacommunicative scripts about proper salon communication.…
Stevenson, Howard C. Jr.
Investigates the factor structure of a measure of racial socialization attitudes for African American adolescents to determine whether the components of the construct are reliable and measure different phenomena. Four factors, based on research with 200 inner-city adolescents, were found to be very meaningful and moderately reliable. Development…
Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.
The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…
Wilson, Derek; Foster, Jennifer; Anderson, Shawanda; Mance, GiShawn
Research indicates that African Americans living in an oppressive society may be at an increased risk of experiencing psychological symptoms. Oppressive society has been defined as the continual denial of resources to marginalized groups. This study examined the possible moderating effects of racial socialization (using Scale of Racial…
McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Burton, Linda M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Swanson, Dena P.
Mothers' and fathers' cultural socialization and bias preparation with older (M=13.9 years) and younger (M=10.31 years) siblings were studied in 162 two-parent, African American families. Analyses examined whether parental warmth and offspring age and gender were linked to parental practices and whether parents' warmth, spouses' racial…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Nickerson, Kim
Examined the association between parent racial socialization and child competence among African American preschoolers. Found that strong racial identity and ethnic cultural enrichment at home were linked to higher factual knowledge and better developed problem-solving skills, as well as fewer problem behaviors. (JPB)
Scott, Lionel D.
Surveyed African American high school students regarding whether strategies they used to cope with perceived discrimination related to their racial identity and racial socialization. The degree to which race was central to self-concept and identity was unrelated to both approach and avoidance strategies. Frequency of receiving socialization…
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the mechanisms by which Chinese American parents' experiences of discrimination influenced their adolescents' ethnicity-related stressors (i.e., cultural misfit, discrimination, attitudes toward education). We focused on whether parents' ethnic-racial socialization practices and perpetual foreigner…
Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine
Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…
Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing
For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…
An attempt to add substance to history, the curriculum guide for grades 7-8 presents in 12 culture guides information on American Indians for teachers to use as supplement materials to social studies texts. Each culture guide is accompanied with a teacher guide offering activities or discussion/quiz questions. Topics of culture guides encompass…
Sellers, Brian G.
This study's purpose is to investigate the expansion of social control efforts in American elementary and secondary school settings, particularly the use of zero-tolerance policies. These policies entail automatic punishments, such as suspensions, expulsions, and referrals to the juvenile and criminal justice systems for a host of school-based…
Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.
The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the views of exchange students from Asia about their academic and social experiences at an American university. The participants were eight exchange students from Japan (four men and four women). This study was descriptive-qualitative (Patton, 2002). The data sources were a demographic survey…
Politics and a lack of money resulted in decades of neglect for the social sciences in China, by foreign and domestic institutions alike. American universities looking to establish partnerships here have focused instead on high-demand fields like finance and the hard sciences. But societal change, along with a government push to develop more…
The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a measure of social support for fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents. Focus groups (N = 30) and pilot testing procedures (N = 17) were used to develop and pretest questionnaire item...
Garriott, Patton O.; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Zoma, Lorrine; Mackie-Hernandez, Dylan; Lavin, Kelly
This study tested a social cognitive model of math/science career goals in a sample (N = 258) of Mexican American high school students. Familism and proximal family supports for math/science careers were examined as predictors of math/science: performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, interests, and goals. Results showed that the hypothesized…
This article seeks to evaluate the social and cultural context of education among Chinese learners in order to identify ways through which American educators can best serve such students. It is intended that such efforts will create multiple pathways to knowledge for Chinese learners by accommodating their varying learning needs. Several common…
Sasso, Pietro A.
Males who are members of American college fraternal organizations remain one of the heaviest drinking populations among college students (Wall, 2006). Within fraternities, alcohol use is ceded to social status (Larimer et al., 1997). This culturally ingrained alcohol misuse has confounded interventions and programming to address this phenomenon…
Phillips, James A.
This university independent course of study on the contemporary American novel is presented to bring to light a source of social significance in America. Four novels are studied: Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle," John Steinbeck's "The Grapes of Wrath" and "Of Mice and Men," and Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird." Nine assignments are included. (CK)
Camicia, Steven P.
This article examines a case of curriculum conflict in order to understand how the social studies curriculum is changed by such conflicts. In the case, a small group of activists challenged a local sixth grade history curriculum, which claimed that the WWII internment of Japanese Americans was a mistake. Activists claimed that the internment was…
Williams, Sharon Wallace; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye
Purpose: This study examined connections (linking, compensatory, or none) between three systems of social support (informal, church, and formal). Predictors of each system were also examined. Design and Methods: A community sample of 187 caregivers who provided care to older African American participants in the Duke Established Populations for…
Loder, Tondra L.
Emphasizing the salience of social and historical contexts in understanding contemporary urban school leadership, this article presents reflections from a subset of African American women principals who came of age during the Civil Rights era and assumed leadership subsequent to the enactment of the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988. The main…
Sangalang, Cindy C.; Gee, Gilbert C.
It is almost taken for granted that social relationships benefit mental health, yet these relationships may not always be protective. This study examines how the support and strains individuals derive from family and friends may be related to depression and anxiety among Asian Americans. Data come from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian…
Finkelstein, Martin J.
A profile of the American college professor is presented, based on social science studies. The historical background is traced, with attention to the early development of the professorial role during the latter half of the eighteenth century, the progressive professionalization of the faculty during the nineteenth century, and the consolidation of…
Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth
A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.; Brody, Gene H.
This article uses hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of African American children and their primary caregivers to examine the association between various community factors and child conduct problems. The analysis revealed a rather strong inverse association between level of collective socialization and conduct problems. This relationship…
Hanley, Mary Stone
Social justice is a complex theory and practice that includes the equitable redistribution of resources and the recognition of culture. This is a report about the Tubman Theater Project, a culturally relevant drama program in which African American middle and high school students confronted racism and classism, as well as their unexamined…
Kegler, Michelle C.; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka
This study assesses similarities and differences in anti-smoking socialization beliefs of White and Native American parents in a low-income, rural population in northeastern Oklahoma. Data are from a population-based, cross-sectional children's environmental health study in which in-home interviews were conducted with 356 parents (56.2% White,…
This research reports information from semi-structured interviews with 14 northern California Filipino Americans to explore how social connections are associated with methamphetamine use. The interviews examine how the social connections of Filipino American methamphetamine users are influenced by class and generational status. I hypothesize that drug users become involved in social networks that facilitate drug use and that cases of recovery occur among users when they change their social networks. Generational differences in age of first methamphetamine use suggest that drug usage among first generation users may be a way of coping with social class disadvantages. User social networks within social class groups generate ethnic solidarity and highlight the existence of a shared culture that plays an adaptive role in aiding survival, but such support does not appear to help Filipinos stop methamphetamine use. The realization by users that their networks have enabled and reinforced their drug usage serves as a major turning point in helping them "break free" from the social ties that foster continued usage. Those that maintain their ties to user networks tend to remain users.
Ilardi, Dawn L; Kaslow, Nadine J
The social brain model emphasizes improving our understanding of the relational factors that influence treatment adherence. Consistent with this framework, which has been applied to medical adherence, it was hypothesized that insecure attachment styles, interpersonal hassles, and low levels of social support would explain group psychotherapy attendance. Results from 51 abused and suicidal low-income, African American women who attended at least 1 session of an empowerment group psychotherapy indicated that lower attendance was related to (a) insecure attachment styles (fearful) and (b) interpersonal hassles (perceived social differences, lack of social acceptability, social victimization). Perceived social support did not predict group therapy attendance. The value of addressing attachment styles and interpersonal factors to enhance treatment participation is underscored.
We mostly deal here with socio-medical aspects of vaccinations. Various initiatives are summed up that are intended to optimize the system of immunization by vaccines and to establish certain innovative, and also internationally remarkable approaches. In spite of the undoubted successes of vaccinations in Austria, there still are some major deficits that should be eliminated. The Austrian system of immunization by vaccines has been mainly concentrating on continuously adapting its vaccination schedules. Such modifications are based on current scientific knowledge and thus dynamic in nature whereas the public health system necessarily relies on commonly established and easily adoptable requirements. This discrepancy has brought about a certain degree of uncertainty in some instances.--(See K. Spork, I. Mutz: "Recommendations for Vaccination in Childhood and for Adults".) By further developing immunization programs into a general concept of immunization by vaccines we should be able to put the potential benefits of preventive medical care better into effect than before because such a concept based on clearly defined public health objectives provides strategic and tactical measures and, what is even more important, also includes evaluation.--(See Vutuc, Kunze: "Epidemiology as Background for Vaccinations".) In this connection it has also been necessary to develop various activities in the field of social marketing, examples of which will be mentioned in this issue. There is mainly one recurring source of dispute that must be discussed here, the question of what is immunization of the public at large and what is immunization to be recommended for certain groups (so called risk groups). It has to be principally noted that the idea of risk group immunization has not been too effective in many areas. A typical example for such a project that has to be reconsidered is the active immunization against Central European Encephalitis (CEE) or Tick Bone Encephalitis (TBE
Wasserman, Jason Adam
Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate "social facts" in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental processes of thinking by which art and science proceed have not been addressed to this end. As such, the art of medical practice is conceptualized as an innate gift, and thus little is done to cultivate it. Yet doing so is more important than ever because uncertainty in diagnosing and treating chronic illnesses, the most significant contemporary mortality risks, suggests a re-expanding role for clinical judgment.
Bowie, Stan L; Hall, J Camille; Johnson, Oliver J
The study surveyed a national sample of 100 African American master of social work graduates to retroactively assess perceived diversity content in Human Behavior courses before and after the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) established accreditation standards on diversity. Seventy-one percent of the respondents were females, the mean age was 45.8 years, and their graduation years ranged from 1958 to 2002. Most graduated from northeastern schools (34%), followed by midwestern (28%), southeastern (22%), northwestern (11%), and southwestern (5%) schools. Investigators used the Preparation for Graduate Education Social Work Education Scale and the Human Behavior Survey Addendum (alpha = .97). There were no statistically significant differences on diversity content scores for participants enrolled before and after CSWE diversity standards were established, but graduates of historically Black colleges gave higher diversity content scores in every area. Study includes discussion and implications for Afrocentric theory and the need to prepare practitioners for future social work careers in multicultural communities.
Frantz, Terrill L
This paper introduces the contemporary perspectives and techniques of social network analysis (SNA) and agent-based modeling (ABM) and advocates applying them to advance various aspects of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). SNA and ABM are invaluable methods for representing, analyzing and projecting complex, relational, social phenomena; they provide both an insightful vantage point and a set of analytic tools that can be useful in a wide range of contexts. Applying these methods in the CAM context can aid the ongoing advances in the CAM field, in both its scientific aspects and in developing broader acceptance in associated stakeholder communities.
... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...
Morgenthaler, Timothy; Kramer, Milton; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Coleman, Jack; Kapur, Vishesh; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd
Insomnia is highly prevalent, has associated daytime consequences which impair job performance and quality of life, and is associated with increased risk of comorbidities including depression. These practice parameters provide recommendations regarding behavioral and psychological treatment approaches, which are often effective in primary and secondary insomnia. These recommendations replace or modify those published in the 1999 practice parameter paper produced by the American Sleep Disorders Association. A Task Force of content experts was appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to perform a comprehensive review of the scientific literature since 1999 and to grade the evidence regarding non-pharmacological treatments of insomnia. Recommendations were developed based on this review using evidence-based methods. These recommendations were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of both chronic primary insomnia (Standard) and secondary insomnia (Guideline). Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and cognitive behavior therapy are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Standard) and sleep restriction therapy, multicomponent therapy (without cognitive therapy), biofeedback and paradoxical intention are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Guideline). There was insufficient evidence to recommend sleep hygiene education, imagery training and cognitive therapy as single therapies or when added to other specific approaches. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of insomnia in older adults and in the treatment of insomnia among chronic hypnotic users (Standard).
Geiger, H Jack
The academic discipline of social medicine has always had a political and policy advocacy component, in addition to its core functions of research and teaching. Its origins lie in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the work of Johann Peter Frank and Rudolph Virchow, among others. Virchow's dictum that "politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale" highlights that most social determinants of health are politically determined and shape population health. Yet despite intense epidemiological and sociological research on the social determinants of health, less attention has been paid to this political and policy dimension.During the 1960s, the author and many other clinicians were directly involved in attempts to use health care institutions to foster structural change. However, the author argues that efforts to assist individual patients and more effectively manage their interactions with the health care system, as described in the articles in this issue's special collection on "structural competency," while worthy and useful, do not confront root causes. Going forward, efforts to effect structural change must take place outside the arena of the clinical encounter and involve interprofessional teams and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations. They should intervene directly on the structures that contribute to illness such as poor housing, income and wealth inequality, inferior education, racism and residential segregation, and toxic concentrations of extreme poverty in urban areas. Collectively, these efforts-within and outside the spheres of medicine-represent the real operative form of structural competency.
Bowler, Mark; Messer, Emily J. E.; Claidière, Nicolas; Whiten, Andrew
Wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. Hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. However, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. The function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. By manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two groups of tufted capuchins, we tested predictions derived from the main hypotheses for the functions of anointing and in particular, social anointing. Monkeys engaged in individual and social anointing in similar proportions when resources were rare or common, and monkeys holding resources continued to join anointing groups, indicating that social anointing has functions beyond that of gaining access to resources. The distribution of individual and social anointing actions on the monkeys’ bodies supports a medicinal function for both individual and social anointing, that requires no additional social bonding hypotheses. Individual anointing targets hard-to-see body parts that are harder to groom, whilst social anointing targets hard-to-reach body parts. Social anointing in capuchins is a form of mutual medication that improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines. PMID:26456539
Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the mechanisms by which Chinese American parents' experiences of discrimination influenced their adolescents' ethnicity-related stressors (i.e., cultural misfit, discrimination, attitudes toward education). We focused on whether parents' ethnic-racial socialization practices and perpetual foreigner stress moderated or mediated this relationship. Participants were 444 Chinese American families. Results indicated no evidence of moderation, but we observed support for mediation. Parental experiences of discrimination were associated with more ethnic-racial socialization practices and greater parental perpetual foreigner stress. More ethnic-racial socialization was related to greater cultural misfit in adolescents, whereas more perpetual foreigner stress was related to adolescents' poorer attitudes toward education and more reported discrimination. Relationships between mediators and outcomes were stronger for fathers than for mothers.
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the mechanisms by which Chinese American parents’ experiences of discrimination influenced their adolescents’ ethnicity-related stressors (i.e., cultural misfit, discrimination, attitudes toward education). We focused on whether parents’ ethnic-racial socialization practices and perpetual foreigner stress moderated or mediated this relationship. Participants were 444 Chinese American families. Results indicated no evidence of moderation, but we observed support for mediation. Parental experiences of discrimination were associated with more ethnic-racial socialization practices and greater parental perpetual foreigner stress. More ethnic-racial socialization was related to greater cultural misfit in adolescents, whereas more perpetual foreigner stress was related to adolescents’ poorer attitudes toward education and more reported discrimination. Relationships between mediators and outcomes were stronger for fathers than for mothers. PMID:20161516
Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M
This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents.
Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve
High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions.
Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M.; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle
We present a novel study on the role of gender in perceptions of and emotions about in-group social image among American Muslims. Two hundred and five (147 females, 58 males) American Muslims completed a questionnaire on how Muslims feel in U.S. society. The study measured both stereotypical (i.e., ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed’) as well as non-stereotypical in-group social images (i.e., ‘powerful,’ ‘honorable’). In particular, participants were asked how much they believe Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed,’ ‘honorable,’ and ‘powerful’ in U.S. society, and how much anger and sadness they feel about the way U.S. society views Muslims. Participants believed Muslims are seen in stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘frightening’ and ‘oppressed’) more than in non-stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘powerful’ and ‘honorable’). Moreover, perceived in-group social image as ‘powerful’ or ‘honorable’ did not predict the intensity of felt anger or sadness. In contrast, the more participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ the more intense their anger and sadness. Furthermore, responses to perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ were moderated by gender. American Muslim female participants believed that Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed’ in U.S. society to a greater extent than male participants did. In addition, perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ only predicted anger for female participants: the more female participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed,’ the more intense their anger. This study contributes to the scarce literature on American Muslims in psychology, and shows that both anger and sadness are relevant to the study of perceived social image. PMID:28123374
KEDROWICZ, APRIL A.; ROYAL, KENNETH; FLAMMER, KEVEN
Introduction: While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of the acceptability of various social media postings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. All students and faculty members at the College of Veterinary Medicine were invited to participate. The sample size included 140 students and 69 faculty members who completed the Social Media Scale (SMS), a 7-point semantic differential scale. The SMS consisted of 12 items that measured the extent to which a variety of behaviors, using social media, constituted acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Items appearing on the SMS were an amalgamation of modified items previously presented by Coe, Weijs, Muise et al. (2012) and new items generated specifically for this study. The data were collected during the spring semester of 2015 using Qualtrics online survey software and analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that statistically significant differences existed between the students’ and faculty members’ ratings of acceptable behavior, as well as gender differences and differences across class years. Conclusion: These findings have implications for the development of policy and educational initiatives around professional identity management in the social sphere. PMID:27795965
Hypertension is present in epidemic proportions in adults of industrialized societies and is associated with a markedly increased risk of developing numerous cardiovascular pathologies. There is a continuing debate as to the efficacy of aggressive pharmacological therapy in individuals with mild to moderate elevations in blood pressure. This has led to a search for nonpharmacological therapies, such as exercise training, for these individuals. The available evidence indicates that endurance exercise training by individuals at high risk for developing hypertension will reduce the rise in blood pressure that occurs with time. Thus, it is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that endurance exercise training is recommended as a nonpharmacological strategy to reduce the incidence of hypertension in susceptible individuals. A large number of studies indicate that endurance exercise training will elicit a 10 mm Hg average reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in individuals with mild essential hypertension (blood pressures 140-180/90-105 mm Hg). Endurance exercise training also has the capacity to improve other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals. Endurance exercise training appears to elicit even greater reductions in blood pressure in patients with secondary hypertension due to renal dysfunction. The mode (large muscle activities), frequency (3-5 d.wk-1), duration (20-60 min), and intensity (50-85% of maximal oxygen uptake) of the exercise recommended to achieve this effect are generally the same as those prescribed for developing and maintaining cardiovascular fitness in healthy adults. Exercise training at somewhat lower intensities (40-70% VO2max) appears to lower blood pressure as much, or more, than exercise at higher intensities, which may be important in specific hypertensive populations. Physically active and fit individuals with hypertension have markedly lower rates of mortality than
Beamon, Krystal K
Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills.
Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace
Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students.
Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia
Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence.
The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of "scientific marketing."
Le Duc, James W; Deacetis, Judy
During 1991-2010, 456 persons from 62 countries were provided financial support to attend the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Winners came from 17 African, 16 Asia-Pacific, 14 Latin American and Caribbean, and 13 European and Middle Eastern countries, and from Canada and the United States. Virtually equal numbers of awards were offered to women and men. Winners were selected from U.S. academic centers (30%), foreign universities (26%), international centers, institutes or research units (30%), and approximately 5% from U.S. government agencies. Almost all winners (73 of 76, 96%) had scientific publications subsequent to receiving the travel award. Less than 10% of award winners continued their membership in the Society after their one-year complementary membership. Winners indicated that the travel awards program facilitated international exchange and fostered collaborations between Society members and international scientists.
Le Duc, James W.; DeAcetis, Judy
During 1991–2010, 456 persons from 62 countries were provided financial support to attend the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Winners came from 17 African, 16 Asia-Pacific, 14 Latin American and Caribbean, and 13 European and Middle Eastern countries, and from Canada and the United States. Virtually equal numbers of awards were offered to women and men. Winners were selected from U.S. academic centers (30%), foreign universities (26%), international centers, institutes or research units (30%), and approximately 5% from U.S. government agencies. Almost all winners (73 of 76, 96%) had scientific publications subsequent to receiving the travel award. Less than 10% of award winners continued their membership in the Society after their one-year complementary membership. Winners indicated that the travel awards program facilitated international exchange and fostered collaborations between Society members and international scientists. PMID:21896796
Washington, Harriet A; Baker, Robert B; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R
Between 1910 and 1968, the National Medical Association (NMA) repeatedly clashed with the American Medical Association (AMA) over the latter organization's racial bars to membership and other health policy issues. The NMA, founded in 1895 as a nonexclusionary medical society to provide a voice for disenfranchised black physicians and patients, struggled in its early years, during which AMA leadership took scant notice of it. But skirmishes ensued over such actions as stigmatizing racial labels in the AMA's American Medical Directory, which, beginning in 1906, listed all U.S. physicians but designated African Americans with the notation col. The NMA also repeatedly asked the AMA to take action against overt racial bars on blacks' membership in its constituent state and county societies. During the civil rights era, African American physicians received no AMA support in seeking legal remedies to hospital segregation. And the NMA and AMA found themselves opposed on other policy issues, including Medicaid and Medicare. These differences eventually catalyzed a series of direct confrontations. The 1965 AMA meeting in New York City, for example, was protested by about 200 NMA-led picketers. The NMA's quest for racial equality in medicine was supported by some other medical organizations, such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights. In 1966, the AMA House voted to amend the AMA Constitution and Bylaws, giving its Judicial Council (now the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs) the authority to investigate allegations of discrimination. This paved the way for a subsequent era of increasing cooperation and understanding.
Sheps, Samuel; Ho, Kendall; Novak-Lauscher, Helen; Eysenbach, Gunther
Background Social media are dynamic and interactive computer-mediated communication tools that have high penetration rates in the general population in high-income and middle-income countries. However, in medicine and health care, a large number of stakeholders (eg, clinicians, administrators, professional colleges, academic institutions, ministries of health, among others) are unaware of social media’s relevance, potential applications in their day-to-day activities, as well as the inherent risks and how these may be attenuated and mitigated. Objective We conducted a narrative review with the aim to present case studies that illustrate how, where, and why social media are being used in the medical and health care sectors. Methods Using a critical-interpretivist framework, we used qualitative methods to synthesize the impact and illustrate, explain, and provide contextual knowledge of the applications and potential implementations of social media in medicine and health care. Both traditional (eg, peer-reviewed) and nontraditional (eg, policies, case studies, and social media content) sources were used, in addition to an environmental scan (using Google and Bing Web searches) of resources. Results We reviewed, evaluated, and synthesized 76 articles, 44 websites, and 11 policies/reports. Results and case studies are presented according to 10 different categories of social media: (1) blogs (eg, WordPress), (2) microblogs (eg, Twitter), (3) social networking sites (eg, Facebook), (4) professional networking sites (eg, LinkedIn, Sermo), (5) thematic networking sites (eg, 23andMe), (6) wikis (eg, Wikipedia), (7) mashups (eg, HealthMap), (8) collaborative filtering sites (eg, Digg), (9) media sharing sites (eg, YouTube, Slideshare), and others (eg, SecondLife). Four recommendations are provided and explained for stakeholders wishing to engage with social media while attenuating risk: (1) maintain professionalism at all times, (2) be authentic, have fun, and do not be
Miyawaki, Christina E
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
Gerald, Michael C.
A study assessed and compared the current status of undergraduate, nonprofessional pharmacology courses as taught in the U. S. and Canadian colleges of pharmacy and medicine; courses offered by veterinary medicine are also noted. Pharmacy courses seek to increase general drug knowledge and promote rational drug use. (Author/MLW)
Stein, Wayne J.
This book traces the development of tribally controlled colleges (TCC), placing them in a historical context within Native American higher education and within the junior and community college movement. It examines the first 10 years of the movement, focusing in particular on six TCC's and the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC),…
Baker, Robert B; Washington, Harriet A; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R
An independent panel of experts, convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) Institute for Ethics, analyzed the roots of the racial divide within American medical organizations. In this, the first of a 2-part report, we describe 2 watershed moments that helped institutionalize the racial divide. The first occurred in the 1870s, when 2 medical societies from Washington, DC, sent rival delegations to the AMA's national meetings: an all-white delegation from a medical society that the US courts and Congress had formally censured for discriminating against black physicians; and an integrated delegation from a medical society led by physicians from Howard University. Through parliamentary maneuvers and variable enforcement of credentialing standards, the integrated delegation was twice excluded from the AMA's meetings, while the all-white society's delegations were admitted. AMA leaders then voted to devolve the power to select delegates to state societies, thereby accepting segregation in constituent societies and forcing African American physicians to create their own, separate organizations. A second watershed involved AMA-promoted educational reforms, including the 1910 Flexner report. Straightforwardly applied, the report's population-based criterion for determining the need for phySicians would have recommended increased training of African American physicians to serve the approximately 9 million African Americans in the segregated south. Instead, the report recommended closing all but 2 African American medical schools, helping to cement in place an African American educational system that was separate, unequal, and destined to be insufficient to the needs of African Americans nationwide.
Guerrero, Alma D; Fuller, Bruce; Chu, Lynna; Kim, Anthony; Franke, Todd; Bridges, Margaret; Kuo, Alice
Latino toddlers fall behind White peers at 24 months of age in oral language and interactive skills with their mothers in English or Spanish. But Latino children enter kindergarten with social skills that rival White peers, despite social-class disparities. We ask whether cognitive trajectories widen during the 24-48 month period, how these patterns differ for Latinos, especially Mexican-Americans, and whether similar gaps in social-emotional growth appear. We analyzed growth patterns for a nationally representative birth sample (n = 4,690) drawn in 2001, estimating levels of change in development from 24 to 48 months of age, focusing on Latino subgroups. The mean gap in cognitive processing for Mexican-American children, already wide at 24-months of age relative to Whites (three-fourths of a standard deviation), remained constant at 48 months. But differences in social-emotional status were statistically insignificant at both 24 and 48 months. Mexican-American mothers were observed to be equally warm and supportive relative to White peers during interaction tasks. Yet the former group engaged less frequently in cognitive facilitation, oral language, and preliteracy activities in the home. Growth in both cognitive and social domains was considerably lower in larger families, placing children raised in poor or Spanish-speaking homes within a large household at greater risk of delays. Pediatricians and practitioners must carefully gauge the social-emotional well-being of Latino children, in developmental surveillance activities. Growth in cognitive and social domains unfolds independently for children of Mexican heritage, even when raised in economically poor families.
Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Gobin, Robyn
African American women are at high risk for sexual assault. In addition, many African American women endorse use of social support and religiosity to cope with life stressors. The current study investigates the relationship between these two coping strategies and post-trauma symptoms (depression and PTSD) in a sample of 413 African American female sexual assault survivors using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings indicated that African American assault survivors who have greater social support were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression and PTSD. Conversely, increased use of religious coping was related to greater endorsement of depression and PTSD symptoms. Counseling and research implications are explored. PMID:22410773
Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi
HIV chronicity has resulted in increased life expectancy for many African American women who acquired the disease during the epidemic’s peak years. As these women live longer and age, their social support needs may increase. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington, DC with 23 HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65 to explore women’s perceptions about how aging and HIV chronicity affects their social support needs. Participants were recruited from the longitudinal Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) participant pool. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Participants reported needing increased social support, especially emotional support from health care providers, family, and HIV-positive peers. The importance of providers and HIV-positive peers was discussed most frequently relative to meeting these needs. Health care providers in particular may need to increase their provision of emotional support when devising treatment plans to meet the social support needs of older HIV-positive African American women. PMID:28239009
Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E
Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.
Hill, Terrence D.; Uchino, Bert N.; Eckhardt, Jessica L.; Angel, Jacqueline L.
Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic whites and blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men. PMID:26966256
Hill, Terrence D; Uchino, Bert N; Eckhardt, Jessica L; Angel, Jacqueline L
Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men.
This paper uses social conflict theory to reconsider the relationship of American nursing theory and individualised mental health care in the UK. It is argued that nursing theory has developed within a context of 'American dream' individualism, and that this ideology may be problematic for some UK mental health nurses and service users whose values and beliefs are those of different socio-political traditions. The paper explores the historical background of Anglo-American nursing theory, and then uses conflict theory to generate challenging propositions about the culture bias and political instrumentality of individualised care in mental health settings. In so doing, it critiques the 'scientific' and 'liberal' preconceptions of individualised care which have dominated mental health care policy for over a decade.
Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira
The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community.
Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira
The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community.
Echeverria, Sandra E; Mustafa, Mehnaz; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Kim, Soyeon; Hastings, Katherine G; Amadi, Chioma; Palaniappan, Latha
Little evidence exists examining cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans and how social determinants such as nativity status and education pattern risk in the United States (U.S.) context. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which purposely oversampled Asian Americans from 2011 to 2014, and examined prevalence of Type II diabetes, smoking and obesity for Asian Americans (n=1363) and non-Latino Whites (n=4121). We classified Asian Americans as U.S. or foreign-born and by years in the U.S. Obesity status was based on standard body mass index (BMI) cut points of ≥30kg/m(2) and Asian-specific cut points (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) that may be more clinically relevant for this population. We fit separate logistic regression models for each outcome using complex survey design methods and tested for the joint effect of race, nativity and education on each outcome. Diabetes and obesity prevalence (applying Asian-specific BMI cut points) were higher among Asian Americans when compared to non-Latino Whites but smoking prevalence was lower. These patterns remained in fully adjusted models and showed small increases with longer duration in the U.S. Joint effects models showed higher odds of prevalent Type II diabetes and obesity (Asian-specific) for foreign-born Asians, regardless of years in the U.S. and slightly higher risk for lowe ducation, when compared to non-Latino Whites with high education. Smoking models showed significant interaction effects between race and education for non-Latino Whites only. Our study supports the premise that social as well as clinical factors should be considered when developing health initiatives for Asian Americans.
BROWN, RYAN A.
Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine (“meth”) in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth’s pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption. PMID:21637733
Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P
The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality); (2) affective feelings towards group membership (private regard); and, (3) perceptions of how group members are perceived by nonmembers (public regard). Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify racial identity profiles, or dominant combinations of racial centrality, private regard, and public regard among a sample of 208 female African American primary caregivers. Mean differences in the content of caregivers' socialization emphases by profile group were then assessed. Findings indicated that caregivers' with different identity profiles emphasized different messages. These findings and their implications are discussed.
Hodge, David R; Limb, Gordon E
Although social work practitioners are increasingly likely to administer spiritual assessments with Native American clients, few qualitative assessment instruments have been validated with this population. This mixed-method study validates a complementary set of spiritual assessment instruments. Drawing on the social validity literature, a sample of experts in Native culture (N = 50) evaluated the instruments' cultural consistency, strengths, limitations, and areas needing improvement. Regarding the degree of congruence with Native American culture, verbally based spiritual histories ranked highest and diagrammatically oriented spiritual genograms ranked lowest, although all instruments demonstrated at least moderate levels of consistency with Native culture.The results also suggest that practitioners' level of spiritual competence plays a crucial role in ensuring the instruments are operationalized in a culturally appropriate manner.
Cousins, J H; Power, T G; Olvera-Ezzell, N
The present study examined maternal education, acculturation, and health locus of control beliefs in relation to parenting strategies that promote the internalization of healthy eating habits in Mexican-American children. Eighty low-income Mexican-American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in the study. Mother-child interactions during dinner were observed, and mothers were interviewed about the socialization strategies they used to influence their children's food consumption. Results indicated that mothers with more external health locus of control beliefs were less likely to use socialization techniques associated with internalization. Acculturation was negatively related to the use of internalization techniques, with less traditional mothers using more directive strategies. Education did not predict maternal behavior after controlling for health locus of control beliefs.
Burke, Laurie A; Neimeyer, Robert A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E
Psychological adaptation following homicide loss is challenged not only by the violent nature of the death itself but also by the bereaved's relationships with would-be supporters. Recruiting a sample of 54 African-American homicidally bereaved individuals, we examined perceived and actual support, the size of the support network, family versus non-family support, and number of negative relationships to gauge the role of social support in bereavement outcomes such as complicated grief, PTSD, and depression. Results of quantitative assessments revealed that size of available network, quantity of negative relationships, and levels of grief-specific support were correlated with bereavement outcome. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research on the role of social support in adaptation of African Americans to traumatic loss are discussed.
Santiago, Anna; Lucero, Jessica
We quantify how teen employment outcomes for low-income African Americans and Latinos relate to their neighborhood conditions during ages 14–17. Data come from surveys of Denver Housing Authority (DHA) households who have lived in public housing scattered throughout Denver County. Because DHA household allocation mimics random assignment to neighborhood, this program represents a natural experiment for overcoming geographic selection bias. Our logistic and Tobit regression analyses found overall greater odds of teen employment and more hours worked for those who lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of pre-1940 vintage housing, property crime rates and child abuse rates, though the strength of relationships was highly contingent on gender and ethnicity. Teen employment prospects of African Americans were especially diminished by residence in more socially vulnerable, violent neighborhoods, implying selective potential gains from social mixing alternatives. PMID:26273120
Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Owen, Margaret Tresch
Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children’s school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2½ years old, and child outcomes assessed one year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed. PMID:25364832
Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas
This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p < 0.05) of unprotected receptive anal intercourse compared to Latino MSM. Results suggest that minority social media users can be recruited for HIV studies and that sexual risk behavioural differences exist among minority social networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions.
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Owen, Margaret Tresch
Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children's school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2.5 years old, and child outcomes assessed 1 year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed.
Rogers, Charles R; Mitchell, Jamie A; Franta, Gabriel J; Foster, Margaret J; Shires, Deirdre
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly preventable when CRC screening is utilized, yet CRC screening completion among African American men is relatively low and their mortality rates remain 50% higher juxtaposed to their White counterparts. Since a growing body of literature indicates masculinity, racism, and social support each have strong influences on CRC screening uptake, this systematic review examined the connections between these three sociocultural factors and CRC screening uptake among African American men. Potential studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Cited reference searching for the final sample was employed to identify and assess additional studies for inclusion using Scopus. The methodological quality of the reviewed evidence was also evaluated. Nineteen studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirteen studies employed nonexperimental research designs; a quasi-experimental design was present in four, and two utilized experimental designs. Studies were published between 2000 and 2014; the majority between 2009 and 2013. Social support was most frequently addressed (84%) while masculinity and racism were equally studied with paucity (11%) for their influence on CRC screening. After evaluating conceptual and methodological characteristics of the studies, 42% fell below average in quality and rigor. The need for increased attention to the sociocultural correlates of CRC screening for African American men are highlighted in this systematic review, and important recommendations for research and practice are provided. Alongside a call for more rigorous research, further research examining the influence of masculinity and racism on CRC screening completion among African American men is warranted.
Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.
McFarland, Sam G
In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.
Redden, Charlotte E.
Quality of life at an academic institution includes students perception of the university environment, perceptions of their cultural fit within the environment and stress created by environmental context. African American students perceived their predominantly white university more negatively than their white counterparts. Understanding the…
Dean, Lorraine; Subramanian, SV; Williams, David R.; Armstrong, Katrina; Charles, Camille Zubrinsky; Kawachi, Ichiro
Black/African-American women are more likely to get breast cancer at a young age and/or be diagnosed at a late disease stage, pointing to a greater need to promote mammography for Black women at earlier ages than are currently recommended. This study explores how perceived neighborhood social capital, that is, perceptions of how tight-knit a neighborhood is and what power that confers to neighborhood members, relates to use of mammography for Black women in Philadelphia. Living in a community with tight social ties (social cohesion) or that have a collective motivation for community change (collective efficacy) may increase the likelihood that an individual woman in that community will hear health messages from other community members and neighbors (diffusion of information) and will have access to health-related resources that allow them to engage in healthy behaviors. No prior studies have explored the role of social capital in decisions for mammography use. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analyzed self-report of mammography in the past year for 2,586, Black women over age 40 across 381 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA census tracts. Our study included individual demographic and aggregates of individual-level social capital data from the Public Health Management Corporation's 2004, 2006, and 2008 Community Health Database waves, and 2000 US Census sociodemographic characteristics. Individual perceptions that a Black woman's neighborhood had high social capital, specifically collective efficacy, had a positive and statistically significant association with mammography use (OR=1.40, CI: 1.05, 1.85). Our findings suggest that an individual woman's perception of greater neighborhood social capital may be related to increased mammography use. Although this analysis could not determine the direction of causality, it suggests that social capital may play a role in cancer preventive screening for African-American women in Philadelphia, which warrants further study
Stanford, Jevetta; Webb, Fern J.; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12–17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha=0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B=0.421, p<0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B=0.227, p<0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study’s findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465
Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels.
Özdemir, Vural; Dove, Edward S; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Şardaş, Semra; Yıldırım, Arif; Yılmaz, Şenay Görücü; Ömer Barlas, I; Güngör, Kıvanç; Mete, Alper; Srivastava, Sanjeeva
No field in science and medicine today remains untouched by Big Data, and psychiatry is no exception. Proteomics is a Big Data technology and a next generation biomarker, supporting novel system diagnostics and therapeutics in psychiatry. Proteomics technology is, in fact, much older than genomics and dates to the 1970s, well before the launch of the international Human Genome Project. While the genome has long been framed as the master or "elite" executive molecule in cell biology, the proteome by contrast is humble. Yet the proteome is critical for life-it ensures the daily functioning of cells and whole organisms. In short, proteins are the blue-collar workers of biology, the down-to-earth molecules that we cannot live without. Since 2010, proteomics has found renewed meaning and international attention with the launch of the Human Proteome Project and the growing interest in Big Data technologies such as proteomics. This article presents an interdisciplinary technology foresight analysis and conceptualizes the terms "environtome" and "social proteome". We define "environtome" as the entire complement of elements external to the human host, from microbiome, ambient temperature and weather conditions to government innovation policies, stock market dynamics, human values, political power and social norms that collectively shape the human host spatially and temporally. The "social proteome" is the subset of the environtome that influences the transition of proteomics technology to innovative applications in society. The social proteome encompasses, for example, new reimbursement schemes and business innovation models for proteomics diagnostics that depart from the "once-a-life-time" genotypic tests and the anticipated hype attendant to context and time sensitive proteomics tests. Building on the "nesting principle" for governance of complex systems as discussed by Elinor Ostrom, we propose here a 3-tiered organizational architecture for Big Data science such as
Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…
Pullen, Erin; Perry, Brea; Oser, Carrie
Research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilise preventative care services than Americans of European descent, and that these patterns may contribute to racial health disparities in the United States. Despite the persistence of inequalities in preventative care utilisation, culturally relevant factors influencing the use of these gateway health services have been understudied among marginalised groups. Using a stratified sample of 205 low-income African American women, this research examines the predictors of receiving a physical exam, with a particular emphasis on how differing levels of social support from friend and family networks and experiences of racial discrimination and cultural mistrust shape utilisation. The findings underscore the importance of traditional predictors of utilisation, including insurance status and having a usual physician. However, they also indicate that supportive ties to friendship networks are associated with higher predicted rates of having an annual physical exam, while social support from family and sentiments of cultural mistrust are associated with lower rates of utilisation. Broadly, the findings indicate that even as traditional predictors of help-seeking become less relevant, it will be critical to explore how variations in discrimination experiences and social relationships across marginalised groups drive patterns of preventative care utilisation.
In free competition expert services in Social Medicine must supply their expertise with high quality in a short time and at low cost. The demands by customers in respect of motivation of the staff and innovative organisation are as important competitive factors as high quality standards for expertise production. These guiding principles completed by "Kaizen" and "Lean production" are necessary requirements for the further existence of the enterprise in competition. Quality assurance must be promoted in a process looking to the future in active quality management.
Burke, Adam; Kuo, Tony; Harvey, Rick; Wang, Jun
Introduction. International comparative research on traditional medicine (TM) offers a useful method for examining differences in patient characteristics and can provide insight into: (i) more universal characteristics which may cross cultures and international borders; (ii) unique characteristics influenced by regional/national factors; and (iii) cultural values of immigrant populations. To explore these issues TM patients from the United States and China were compared. Methods. Data collection took place at two TM college clinics. A convenience sample of 128 patients in China and 127 patients in the United States completed a 28-item questionnaire. Results. There was a marked similarity between the two patient groups in terms of the biological characteristics of age and gender. Musculoskeletal issues were the most common presenting complaints in the United States; while in China TM was used for a more diverse array of conditions. The majority of patients in both countries had initially used allopathic medicine (AM); significantly, more of the United States respondents stopped allopathic treatment after beginning traditional treatment. In comparing the two countries, patients in China were significantly more satisfied with AM and American patients significantly more satisfied with TM. In comparing the two medicines, the patient samples in both countries were significantly more satisfied with TM than AM. Discussion. Although treatment often originated with allopathic providers, many patients sought alternatives presumably to find the best solution to their problems. This tendency toward self-assignment suggests that a pluralistic healthcare system may provide the greatest satisfaction resulting from personal choice and improved outcomes. PMID:18955368
Suter, Coral; Croddy, Marshall
Designed for teachers of students in grades 7-12, this social studies infusion unit examines individual rights and responsibilities in the context of the American criminal justice system and explores the balance between individual and group rights achieved at various levels of American government. An introductory chapter outlines the program and…
We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry’s economic interests. PMID:23237151
Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine
We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.
Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe
One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills.
Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M
The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American adolescents (ages 10-14, M = 12.39, SD = 1.07) completed measures of socialization, private regard, grades and behavioral engagement. Latent Profile Analysis revealed a 2-cluster solution fit the data best - 1) High Engagement-Race Salient (HERS) cluster and 2) Low Engagement-Non-Salient cluster (LENS). Girls had higher representation in the HERS cluster. When private regard was examined as a moderator, girls' grades were unrelated to barrier socialization and private regard. In contrast, barrier socialization was associated with lower grades for low private regard boys. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered racial school contexts that African American youth must navigate to be academically successful.
Salgirli, Sanem Güvenç
This article aims to add a new dimension to the analysis of the relationship between medicine and eugenics via a discussion of the community of Turkish physicians in the period between the two World Wars. It argues that even though the relationship between the two fields has been discussed before in terms of the professional ideology of doctors, the medical community itself has not come under scrutiny by scholars. It is the purpose of this article to show eugenics as the main unifying edifice of that community and argue that eugenics is to be found in the patterns of social reproduction of the doctors as part of the professional middle class in addition to being those who transfer knowledge of medicine. As can be seen in Turkey in the 1930s, the doctors, in their efforts to construct themselves as the pioneers of modern scientific medicine, as well as the new ruling class of the country, used eugenics extensively both as a means of self-identification, and as a way to build a professional class "fit" to rule the country.
Reznick, Jeffrey S
Polytrauma is an immediate outcome of current warfare, and the need to investigate this condition is equally immediate. The value of historical analysis in this endeavor should not be underestimated. It is among the best tools we have to help ensure that current research and practice involve engagement with the social contexts of polytrauma as well as with the medical science of its treatment. This special communication provides historical perspective on certain aspects of the polytraumatic condition--namely, limb loss, prosthetic rehabilitation, and community reintegration after receiving a prosthesis. It discusses the influential role of societal factors in these areas to encourage greater understanding that the care of persons with polytrauma must involve critical thinking about their relationships to and participation in society as well as their treatment by medical science. This special communication also provides historical perspective to enrich appreciation of the value of history for the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), the PM&R clinician, and the PM&R clinical researcher. Readers will learn that historical knowledge puts PM&R research and practice into perspective, reminding us that rehabilitation should involve critical thinking not only about medicine, but also about social roles and the participation of people in society despite physical and psychologic challenges.
Tsai, Kim M.; Telzer, Eva H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The current study examined how parents’ cultural socialization efforts contribute to adolescents’ family obligation values and behaviors and how these processes may depend upon the relational climate at home. Utilizing survey and daily diary methodologies, 428 Mexican American adolescents (50% males; MAge=15 years) and their parents (83% mothers; MAge=42 years) participated in the study. Adolescents reported on their family obligation values and engagement in family assistance tasks across 14 days. Parents reported on their cultural socialization practices. Results indicated that parental cultural socialization was associated with adolescents’ family obligation values and behaviors when parent-child relationships were low in conflict and high in support. Findings suggest that the transmission of cultural values and practices is best facilitated through positive parent-child relationships. PMID:25726966
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline.
Plog, Stephen; Heitman, Carrie
Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico has been the focus of much recent archaeological research on Pueblo groups who lived during the 9th through 12th centuries in the American Southwest. Here, we examine variation in mortuary patterns in the canyon, focusing in particular on one mortuary crypt, to address questions of social differentiation and the chronology of important sociopolitical processes. Based on new radiocarbon dates as well as reanalysis of the stratigraphy and spatial distribution of materials in the mortuary crypt, we conclude that significant social differentiation began in Chaco ca. 150–200 y earlier than suggested by previous research. We argue that social inequality was sanctified and legitimized by linking people to founders, ancestors, and cosmological forces. PMID:21059921
Ness, Jose; Cirillo, Dominic J.; Weir, David R.; Nisly, Nicole L.; Wallace, Robert B.
Purpose: The correlates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization among elders have not been fully investigated. This study was designed to identify such correlates in a large sample of older adults, thus generating new data relevant to consumer education, medical training, and health practice and policy. Design and Methods: A…
Fischer Zellers, Darlene
This study examines the organizational and contextual factors associated with faculty mentoring programs in academic medicine within major research institutions in the United States, and explores the usefulness of organizational behavior theory in understanding these relationships. To date, many formal faculty mentoring programs are in operation…
In this article the author is concerned with the intersection of two congruent phenomena: (1) an increasing number of references to borders in contemporary Native American art; and (2) an increasing occurrence of border-rights conflicts between Native nations and the governments of the United States and Canada. Focusing on the period roughly 1990…
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric
We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (MdnAge = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics—including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being. PMID:22058659
Viseltear, A. J.
This paper considers the antecedent events that led to the development of Yale's Institute of Human Relations, the program of interdisciplinary research and teaching established, and the principal protagonists, James Rowland Angell, President of Yale University, and Milton C. Winternitz, Dean of the School of Medicine, both of whom were committed to the concept that medicine is a social science. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6399650
Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Bonutti, Faustino; Msaki, Peter; Kazema, R
The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates)) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly.
Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Rodriguez, Lori A
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. METHOD: 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis shows no association between acculturation and problems among men or women. Birthplace is a risk factor for social problems among both genders. Among men, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and South/Central Americans are more likely to report social problems than Cuban Americans. Other risk factors for men are unemployment, a higher volume of drinking, and a higher frequency of binge drinking. Among women, Mexican American origin and binge drinking are also risk factors for reporting problems. CONCLUSIONS: U.S.-born Hispanics may experience stress and other detrimental effects to health because of their minority status, which may increase the likelihood of more drinking and the development of alcohol-related problems.
Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L
In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to <30% of total energy intake may facilitate weight loss by reducing total energy intake. Although there may be advantages to modifying protein and carbohydrate intake, the optimal doses of these macronutritents for weight loss have not been determined. Significant health benefits can be recognized with participation in a minimum of 150 min (2.5 h) of moderate intensity exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed.
Gutierrez, Ian A; Goodwin, Lucas J; Kirkinis, Katherine; Mattis, Jacqueline S
The family is the principal context for religious and spiritual socialization. Although religion remains a central force in the lives of most African Americans, research has failed to explore the role and impact of family on religious socialization within this population. This study addresses that gap in the literature by (1) exploring adults' perceptions of the influence of their parents, grandparents, and siblings on their religious and spiritual lives, and (2) examining the extent to which those perceptions are associated with subjective religiosity, subjective spirituality, religious importance, and commitment to religious socialization among a community sample of urban-residing African American adults in the Midwest and Northeast (N = 319). Findings revealed that, on average, parents, grandparents, and siblings positively influenced adults' religious commitment and values. However, mothers had the greatest positive influence on these outcomes. Religious commitment and values were differentially associated with family members as a function of the generation and gender of the family member. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Saleem, Mohammed M.; Thomas, Michael K.
This study analyzes the reporting of the September 11th terrorist attacks in social studies textbooks from a Muslim perspective and reports on findings from a study of the responses of American Muslim children to the treatment of the events of September 11th in social studies textbooks. Constructivist grounded theory was used to centralize the…
Thrasher, James F.; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Oates, Veronica
This study used data from 850 African Americans to test optimal matching theory (OMT). OMT predicts that (1) the most important dimensions of social support depend on the controllability of the behavior and (2) different network members often provide support across health behaviors. Data were gathered on social support source for physical…
Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Robinson, Courtney; Pahlke, Erin
Although research on African American family socialization is increasing, little is known about the beliefs, goals, and strategies of middle-class parents of young children. This study's aim was to address this research gap by examining three key aspects of parental socialization. First, the authors investigated whether and how African American…
Recently, social scientists have become increasingly interested in the nature of communications from parents to children regarding ethnicity and race. Termed racial socialization, race-related messages to children may have important consequences for children's identity development and well-being. This study examined the frequency and correlates of two dimensions of racial socialization-messages about ethnic pride, history, and heritage (Cultural Socialization) and messages about discrimination and racial bias (Preparation for Bias)--among 273 urban African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican parents. Parents reported more frequent Cultural Socialization than Preparation for Bias. There were no significant ethnic group differences in the frequency of Cultural Socialization. However, African American parents reported more frequent Preparation for Bias than did Dominican parents who, in turn, reported more frequent messages of this sort than did Puerto Rican parents Ethnic identity was a stronger predictor of Cultural Socialization among Puerto Rican and Dominican parents than among their African American counterparts. In contrast, perceived discrimination experiences was a stronger predictor of Preparation for Bias among African American and Dominican parents than among Puerto Rican parents. Finally, race-related phenomenon accounted for more variance in both Cultural Socialization and Preparation for Bias among parents reporting on their behaviors with children 10-17 years old as compared to parents reporting on their behaviors with children 6-9 years old.
Stevenson, Howard C.; Reed, Jocelyn; Bodison, Preston; Bishop, Angela
Studied the relationship between racial socialization and racial identity attitudes in 287 low-income inner-city African American adolescents. Results suggest that beliefs in various types of racial socialization differentially contribute to positive psychological outcomes for adolescents. Gender differences are discussed, and a cultural…
Bennett, M. Daniel, Jr.
Racial socialization and ethnic identity are emerging, albeit atheoretical, constructs that have been argued to promote prosocial outcomes among ethnic minority youths. Using structural equation modeling, the author explored the influence of racial socialization and ethnic identity on school engagement in a sample of 131 African American youths.…
Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin
This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.'s entrepreneurial successes.
Steele, Janee Marie
Social justice has become an increasingly controversial topic among members of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Specifically, concerns have been raised over what is perceived to be: (a) the liberal political agenda of social justice advocates, (b) the marginalization of conservative counselors, and (c) the inappropriate use of ACA…
Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.
This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…
Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan
Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…
Goodchild, Lester F.
This article explores the influence of evolutionary ideas, especially Social Darwinism, on G. Stanley Hall's (1844-1924) educational ideas and major writings on gender and race. Hall formed these progressive ideas as he developed an American Social Darwinist pedagogy, embedded in his efforts to create the discipline of psychology, the science of…
Thornhill, Theodore E.
African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…
Lam, Brian Trung
This prospective study examined whether interdependent self-construal (collectivism), independent self-construal (individualism), family cohesion, and social support would predict levels of self-esteem among Vietnamese American adolescents. Standardized self-report measures of family cohesion, social support, and self-esteem, as well as a measure…
Boyd, C. Trenton
Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050
Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Baucom, Brian R; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Atkins, David C; Porter, Laura S; Zimmermann, Tanja
Social support in couples often occurs during conversations and is an important predictor of positive outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Even though talking about cancer may be upsetting, vocally expressed emotional arousal and its association with social support have not been examined. The goal of this study was to examine the role of vocally encoded emotional arousal and social support behaviors in 129 German and American couples, assessed at baseline of clinical trials for women with breast cancer and their male partners. Range of fundamental frequency was used as a measure of expressed emotional arousal during videotaped interactions in which the women shared cancer-related concerns. Social support behaviors were assessed as specific social support behaviors at the talk-turn level (positive, neutral, and negative) and broader communication behaviors also relevant to social support at the global level (depth and articulation, caring, quality of communication) using the Social Support Interaction Coding System (Bradbury & Pasch, 1994). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Women displayed more positive, fewer neutral support-receiving behaviors, and greater depth and articulation if their own emotional arousal was higher. Women also displayed more neutral and (at the trend level) fewer positive support-receiving behaviors if their partners' emotional arousal was higher. Men's behaviors were not associated with their own or women's emotional arousal. Results indicate that it may be adaptive for women with cancer to openly experience their distress during social support conversations with their partners; high emotional arousal of the partners may interfere with this process.
Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W
Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.
Park, Clara C., Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.; Goodwin, A. Lin, Ed.
This research anthology is the third volume in a series sponsored by the Special Interest Group-Research on the Education of Asian and Pacific Americans (SIG-REAPA) of the American Educational Research Association and National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education. This series explores and explains the lived experiences of Asian and…
When comic books rose to mass popularity in the early 1940s, one segment of the industry specialized in "true adventures," with stories about real people from the past and the present--in contrast to competing books that offered fantasy, science fiction, superheroes, detectives and crime, funny people, or funny animals. This study examines the figures from both medical history and twentieth-century medicine who were portrayed as heroes and role models in these comic books: first, to call attention to this very popular, if unknown, genre of medical history, and second, to illustrate how medical history was used at that time to popularize scientific and medical ideas, to celebrate the achievements of medical research, to encourage medical science as a career choice, and to show medicine as a humane and noble enterprise. The study explains how these medical history stories were situated in American popular culture more generally, and how the graphic power of comic books successfully conveyed both values and information while also telling a good story. Attention to this colorful genre of popular medical history enriches our picture of the mid-twentieth-century public's enthusiasm for medical progress.
Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R; Scott, Lyn; Fuller, Bruce; Anguiano, Rebecca; Figueroa, Ariana Mangual; Livas-Dlott, Alejandra
The question of how home activities advance the early social and cognitive development of Latino children receives growing attention from psychologists and social scientists. Some scholars and practitioners, focused on promoting "school readiness," frame the problem as weak parenting, signaled by insufficient rich language or academic skills. Other theorists, rooted in ecocultural theory, argue that early socialization and cognitive engagement are culturally situated within routine home activities. These activity structures vary and change over time as families acculturate, adapting to local social ecologies. Little is known empirically about the activity structures within Latino homes, including how young children participate. We detail the social architecture and cognitive engagement pertaining to 6 prevalent home activities in which 24 Mexican American 4-year-olds were engaged over 14 months. We then report how children participate in these 6 activities, and their potential relevance to the cognitive skills gap seen at school entry. We found that children's activities reproduced heritage language, symbols, and knowledge less often than suggested in prior literature; children's typical level of cognitive engagement varied greatly among tasks; and the distribution of time spent in activities is associated with the mother's school attainment and home language.
La Greca, Annette M; Ingles, Candido J; Lai, Betty S; Marzo, Juan C
Social anxiety is a common psychological disorder that often emerges during adolescence and is associated with significant impairment. Efforts to prevent social anxiety disorder require sound assessment measures for identifying anxious youth, especially those from minority backgrounds. We examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in Hispanic American adolescents (N = 1,191; 56% girls; 15-18 years) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicated that the factorial configuration of the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was invariant across gender and age. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that boys exhibited higher structured means than girls on the Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General) subscale. On all SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and SAD-General, estimates of the structured means decreased with adolescent age. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.
Carey, Devin C.; Richards, Maryse H.
Objective Because of the evidence that children living in inner city communities are chronically exposed to violence, the goal of the present study was to longitudinally explore the reciprocal and perpetuating relationship between exposure to violence and child social maladjustment. Method Participants were 268 African American students (M age = 11.65 years, 40% males and 60% females) from six inner city Chicago public schools in high crime neighborhoods. Data was collected longitudinally over three years on measures of demographic information, exposure to community violence, and social adjustment. It was hypothesized that high levels of exposure to community violence, would be related to higher reports of social maladjustment (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally) and these variables would interact transactionally, leading to a greater risk of exposure to violence. Results These hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and results revealed that exposure to community violence was not consistently linked to social maladjustment. Transactional results revealed that there are certain periods in development in which being more socially maladjusted may put a youth in risk for more exposure to violence. Conclusions Results of the present study have important implications for interventions for inner-city youth exposed to violence. PMID:25171169
Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott
In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing.
Zhang, Wei; Ta, Van M
Focusing on Asian Americans, this study examines how self-rated physical and mental health depends on the layered social connections (including 4 types: family cohesion, relative support, friend support, and neighborhood cohesion), socioeconomic status, and immigration-related factors (including nativity, length of residence in the U.S., and proficiency of the English language). It draws on the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study, a nationally representative household survey of Latino and Asian Americans. Findings of this study include: (1) there are significant differences in self-rated physical health among Asian Americans of different national origin, but their self-rated physical health differences diminish after indicators of socioeconomic status and immigration-related factors are considered; (2) four types of social connections are all related to the self-rated physical and mental health of Asian Americans, but the patterns of the associations as well as the mechanisms linking the associations vary; and (3) family cohesion has independent and direct effects on both self-rated physical and mental health over and above controls and mediators, whereas the effects of other social connection measures are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and immigration-related factors. In sum, this study indicates the significant effects of social connections, socioeconomic status, and immigration-related factors on the self-rated physical and mental health of Asian Americans.
Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Bahemann, A; Baldus, A; Behrens, J; Nyffeler, I D; Echterhoff, W; Fialka-Moser, V; Fries, W; Fuchs, H; Gmünder, H P; Gutenbrunner, C; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Pöthig, D; Queri, S; Rentsch, H P; Rink, M; Schian, H-M; Schian, M; Schmitt, K; Schwarze, M; Ulrich, P; von Mittelstaedt, G; Seger, W
Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The WHO has not yet classified personal factors for global use although they impact on the functioning of persons positively or negatively. In 2010, the ICF working group of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) presented a proposal for the classification of personal factors into 72 categories previously arranged in 6 chapters. Now a positioning paper has been added in order to stimulate a discussion about the fourth component of the ICF, to contribute towards a broader and common understanding about the nature of personal factors and to incite a dialogue among all those involved in health care as well as those people with or with-out health problems in order to gain a comprehensive perspective about a person's condition.