Science.gov

Sample records for american statistical association

  1. Selected Papers on Education Surveys: Papers Presented at the 1996 Meeting of the American Statistical Association. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasprzyk, Dan, Ed.

    The 11 papers in this volume were presented at the 1996 American Statistical Association (ASA) meeting in Chicago (Illinois), August 4 through 8. This is the fourth collection of ASA papers of particular interest to users of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) survey data published in the "Working Papers" series. The…

  2. Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Papers Presented at Meetings of the American Statistical Association. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) is an integrated system of surveys of public and private schools, school districts, school administrators, and teachers conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). This collection contains papers related to the SASS presented at meetings of the American Statistical Association in August…

  3. American Statistical Association: 1979 Proceedings of the Section on Statistical Education (22nd, Washington, D.C., August 13-16, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Statistical Association, Washington, DC.

    Twenty-two papers and discussions presented at the 1979 annual meeting of the American Statistical Association are reproduced. Papers dealing with student evaluation of instruction include "An Analysis of Student Evaluation of Instruction and Relationships Among Salary, Chairman's Ratings, and Student Ratings of Faculty," by Alvin C. Rencher;…

  4. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  5. The GAISE College Report: The American Statistical Association Meets Sound Pedagogy in Central Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Beverly L.

    2012-01-01

    Research in undergraduate statistics education often centers on the introductory course required for a large percentage of college students. While acknowledging the diverse setting, audience, and purpose of introductory courses, existing research assumes that courses offered by different disciplines share the same goals and teaching practices. The…

  6. The GAISE College Report: The American Statistical Association Meets Sound Pedagogy in Central Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Beverly L.

    2012-01-01

    Research in undergraduate statistics education often centers on the introductory course required for a large percentage of college students. While acknowledging the diverse setting, audience, and purpose of introductory courses, existing research assumes that courses offered by different disciplines share the same goals and teaching practices. The…

  7. Selected Papers on the Schools and Staffing Survey: Papers Presented at the 1997 Meeting of the American Statistical Association. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The five papers from this volume, which were presented at the 1997 American Statistical Association meeting, are of particular interest to users of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) survey data. They deal with the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a periodic survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for the NCES. The SASS…

  8. American Pharmacists Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Booklet A tour booklet on the American Pharmacists Association headquarters. MORE Spotlight Highlight: Erica Tolle, PharmD Each ... Booklet A tour booklet on the American Pharmacists Association headquarters. MORE Popular Links APhM - American Pharmacists Month ...

  9. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  10. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Molecule Read More ABTA News April 6, 2017 Chicago-Based American Brain Tumor Association’s Breakthrough for Brain ... Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain Tumor Association Phone: ...

  11. American Behcet's Disease Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... sponsors, Larry and Terri Gury. American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI 48308 Contact Us | Website Policy | webmaster@behcets.com American Behcet's Disease Association Copyright 2014

  12. American Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart.org Media for Heart.org American Heart Association An office pop-in from a coworker came ... employers for help. Why does the American Heart Association name a top college football coach? For Bear ...

  13. American Thyroid Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 87th Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association October 18–22, 2017, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada ... the 87th annual meeting of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) is almost upon us! On... Read More ...

  14. American Veterinary Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Posted Oct. 11, 2017 The American Animal Hospital Association announced Sept. 5 tha AAFP takes strong position ... 01,2017 Posted Oct. 11, 2017 The American Association of Feline Practitioners announced Sept. 6 that it ...

  15. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... by burn injury. Donate today The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care ... local burn center or hospital. © 2017 American Burn Association. All rights reserved.

  16. American Physical Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Other Publications For Media American Physical Therapy Association | 1111 North Fairfax Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1488 ... Follow APTA All contents © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association. All Rights Reserved. Use of this and other ...

  17. American Youth: A Statistical Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, James R.

    This document presents a statistics snapshot of young people, aged 15 to 24 years. It provides a broad overview of trends documenting the direction of changes in social behavior and economic circumstances. The projected decline in the total number of youth from 43 million in 1980 to 35 million in 1995 will affect marriage and childbearing…

  18. American Youth: A Statistical Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, James R.

    This document presents a statistics snapshot of young people, aged 15 to 24 years. It provides a broad overview of trends documenting the direction of changes in social behavior and economic circumstances. The projected decline in the total number of youth from 43 million in 1980 to 35 million in 1995 will affect marriage and childbearing…

  19. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more Insurance Reimbursement About AATA Shop Our Store ...Read more Journal Subscription Continuing Education Advertising and Marketing American Art Therapy Association Follow Us 4875 Eisenhower ...

  20. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic Plan ... CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education Services ...

  1. American Podiatric Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... to do so. Learn More about The National Advertisement Advertisement @APMA Tweets by @APMA Follow @APMA Featured Webinars ... 26 at 8 p.m. EDT. Register now! Advertisement © 2017 American Podiatric Medical Association, Inc. All rights ...

  2. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  3. American Association of Suicidology

    MedlinePlus

    Login | My AAS | Shopping Cart AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SUICIDOLOGY Suicide Prevention is Everyone's Business AAS is a charitable, nonprofit membership organization About AAS Staff Board of Directors Contact Us ...

  4. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  5. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Journal's website MONTHLY HEADLINES from MSKTC (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center) The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care professionals. The ABA Web site is not intended ...

  6. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  7. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Native American Homeschooling Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozon, Gina

    2000-01-01

    The Native American Home School Association helps Native parents to provide a good education free from the assimilationist tendencies of public school and to transmit Native values and culture. Discusses various home schooling styles, the effectiveness of home schooling in terms of academic achievement and socialization, and the effectiveness of…

  9. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vargas Award Volunteer Scholarships Publications HAND Journal Hand Association News Research Annual Research Grant AAHS/PSF Combined ... Annual Meeting The annual meetings of the American Association for Hand Surgery, American Society for Peripheral Nerve, ...

  10. Association of American Indian Physicians

    MedlinePlus

    Association of American Indian Physicians Apply Log In Facebook Twitter YouTube About Mission Board of Directors Staff ... of AAIP student programs. Join Renew Programs The Association of American Indian Physicians provides educational programs, health ...

  11. American Lung Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Americans live in counties with unhealthy levels of air pollution. Do you know the health risks? Learn more ... Americans live in counties with unhealthy levels of air pollution. Do you know the health risks? Learn more ...

  12. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  13. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  14. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  15. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  16. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  17. American Chronic Pain Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Access to Care Survey Results Events for November 2016: View All Events Su M Tu W Th ... 18 19 Previous Week Next Week 11/17/2016 American Headache Society 2016 Scottsdale Headache Symposium 11/ ...

  18. American Health Information Management Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Of Directors House Of Delegates Affiliates Component State Associations Volunteer Advocacy & Public Policy Advocacy Agenda Current Efforts ... Workshop AHIMA is collaborating with the American Medical Association (AMA) to offer an interactive, one-day outpatient ...

  19. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  20. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  1. A Statistical Portrait of American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    1985-01-01

    The American adolescent of the 1980s presents a mixed picture of social and economic trends. Census data on schooling, for example, reveal that the number of 17-year-olds who graduate from high school has remained relatively stable in the last 20 years. On the other hand, the dropout rate persists at the same high level, and racial differences are…

  2. A Statistical Portrait of American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    1985-01-01

    The American adolescent of the 1980s presents a mixed picture of social and economic trends. Census data on schooling, for example, reveal that the number of 17-year-olds who graduate from high school has remained relatively stable in the last 20 years. On the other hand, the dropout rate persists at the same high level, and racial differences are…

  3. Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS): 1995. Selected Papers Presented at the Meeting of the American Statistical Association (Orlando, Florida, August 13-17, 1996). Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The papers were presented at the Social Statistics Section, the Government Statistics Section, and the Section on Survey Research Methods. The following papers are included in the Social Statistics Section and Government Statistics Section, "Overcoming the Bureaucratic Paradigm: Memorial Session in Honor of Roger Herriot": "1995…

  4. American Association of Diabetes Educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can we make it better? Mar 31, 2017 Diabetes is never easy, and neither is being a ... of Use | Social Media Policy | Contact AADE | Sitemap © 2017 American Association of Diabetes Educators. All rights reserved. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Pinterest ...

  5. American Psychological Association annual report.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country.

  6. Statistical mechanics of associating fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touba, Hassan

    Two approaches have been considered in the study of thermodynamics of associating fluids. The first approach is related to submitting equations of state based on analytic chain association theory (ACAT). An associating fluid has been assumed to be a mixture of monomer, dimer, trimer, etc., and the composition distribution of the associating species has been obtained. The second view is to develop analytical expressions for the radial distribution functions (RDF). Initially, the molecular structure of simpler fluids is taken into account and an expression for the first shell of the RDF of such fluids is proposed. This expression satisfies all the limiting cases of the hard-sphere RDF at high temperatures, the ideal gas RDF at zero density, and the dilute-gas RDF at low densities. The only requirement is the introduction of a potential function into the model. This theory has been applied to the Lennard-Jones, Kihara and square-well pair intermolecular potential energy functions, and is also tested versus the experimental results for the argon RDF. Good agreement was obtained in most of the cases studied over a broad range of density and temperature. The expression for RDF is then incorporated with an effective Kihara pair potential for water which is a good example of an associating fluid. In this model, the ACAT is applied to the parameters of the potential function. These parameters are obtained in such a way that the experimental first shell RDF data of water can be reproduced at various temperatures. Comparisons of the predicted results for water at sub- and super-critical conditions with the simulation and diffraction data show an overall good agreement. One of the distinct properties of fluids is the molar refraction. It is shown here that the use of molar refraction as a measure of asymmetry of various compounds is inherently simple and yields more precise results than other available methods. The application of molar refraction is discussed for predicting

  7. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approved Supervisors My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred ... 838-9808 | Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | ...

  8. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Home About AAPOS Patient Info Resources Allied Health News & Events Meetings J AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Pay Dues Member ...

  9. 75 FR 73076 - National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...., American Public Gas Association, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Process Gas Consumers Group... Petroleum Association of America, and Process Gas Consumers Group (collectively, the Associations), filed...

  10. [Statistical Profiles and Characteristics of the American Indian Population: 1980 Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This packet includes six statistical profiles of American Indians and Alaska Natives based on the 1980 census, and a report on 1990 census plans for Native Americans. Three general profiles outline statistics on: (1) the American Indian population as a whole; (2) selected characteristics of American Indian men; and (3) selected characteristics of…

  11. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... older adolescents and adults. Read more IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Eliminating Wild-Type DNA in Liquid Biopsies Researchers ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  12. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Careers at AAOMS Contact Us MEMBER NEWS NEW ASSOCIATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MEETINGS & EXHIBITIONS 99TH ANNUAL MEETING, SCIENTIFIC ... for its generous support of aaoms.org American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 9700 W. Bryn ...

  13. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2013 Membership Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to collect data regarding membership demographics as well as variables concerning the work environment for art therapists. These surveys can provide a detailed description of these characteristics and how they may change over time. This article statistically compares the…

  14. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2013 Membership Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to collect data regarding membership demographics as well as variables concerning the work environment for art therapists. These surveys can provide a detailed description of these characteristics and how they may change over time. This article statistically compares the…

  15. The American Association for Laboratory Accreditation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    28 MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The American Association for Laboratory Accreditation 5a...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA),5301 Buckeystown Pike, Suite 350 ,Frederick,MD...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 What is A2LA? American Association for Laboratory Accreditation n Established in 1978 n Largest U.S. multi

  16. Statistical testing of association between menstruation and migraine.

    PubMed

    Barra, Mathias; Dahl, Fredrik A; Vetvik, Kjersti G

    2015-02-01

    To repair and refine a previously proposed method for statistical analysis of association between migraine and menstruation. Menstrually related migraine (MRM) affects about 20% of female migraineurs in the general population. The exact pathophysiological link from menstruation to migraine is hypothesized to be through fluctuations in female reproductive hormones, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the main diagnostic criterion today is concurrency of migraine attacks with menstruation. Methods aiming to exclude spurious associations are wanted, so that further research into these mechanisms can be performed on a population with a true association. The statistical method is based on a simple two-parameter null model of MRM (which allows for simulation modeling), and Fisher's exact test (with mid-p correction) applied to standard 2 × 2 contingency tables derived from the patients' headache diaries. Our method is a corrected version of a previously published flawed framework. To our best knowledge, no other published methods for establishing a menstruation-migraine association by statistical means exist today. The probabilistic methodology shows good performance when subjected to receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Quick reference cutoff values for the clinical setting were tabulated for assessing association given a patient's headache history. In this paper, we correct a proposed method for establishing association between menstruation and migraine by statistical methods. We conclude that the proposed standard of 3-cycle observations prior to setting an MRM diagnosis should be extended with at least one perimenstrual window to obtain sufficient information for statistical processing. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  17. American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle & Nerve AANEM Foundation ABEM Login American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine Improving the Lives of Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases About Vision, Mission & Values Board & Committees Committee Index Board Nominations AANEM ...

  18. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  19. [FROM STATISTICAL ASSOCIATIONS TO SCIENTIFIC CAUSALITY].

    PubMed

    Golan, Daniel; Linn, Shay

    2015-06-01

    The pathogenesis of most chronic diseases is complex and probably involves the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. One way to learn about disease triggers is from statistically significant associations in epidemiological studies. However, associations do not necessarily prove causation. Associations can commonly result from bias, confounding and reverse causation. Several paradigms for causality inference have been developed. Henle-Koch postulates are mainly applied for infectious diseases. Austin Bradford Hill's criteria may serve as a practical tool to weigh the evidence regarding the probability that a single new risk factor for a given disease is indeed causal. These criteria are irrelevant for estimating the causal relationship between exposure to a risk factor and disease whenever biological causality has been previously established. Thus, it is highly probable that past exposure of an individual to definite carcinogens is related to his cancer, even without proving an association between this exposure and cancer in his group. For multifactorial diseases, Rothman's model of interacting sets of component causes can be applied.

  20. National Association and Organization Reports. American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; American Booksellers Association; Association of Research Libraries; Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Council on Library and Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John W.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael; Webster, Duane E.; Johnson, Richard; Smith, Kathlin

    2002-01-01

    This section includes reports from the American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, American Booksellers Association, Association of Research Libraries, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), and Council on Library and Information Resources. (LRW)

  1. National Association and Organization Reports. American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; American Booksellers Association; Association of Research Libraries; Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Council on Library and Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John W.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael; Webster, Duane E.; Johnson, Richard; Smith, Kathlin

    2002-01-01

    This section includes reports from the American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, American Booksellers Association, Association of Research Libraries, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), and Council on Library and Information Resources. (LRW)

  2. Celebrations: American Camping Association Annual Report 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1986 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews the year's achievements and outlines goals for the future. An introductory message from ACA President Jean McMullan notes successful fund raising to improve the association's national headquarters, passage of federal legislation exempting camps from paying federal unemployment…

  3. The Program of the American Hospital Association *

    PubMed Central

    Yast, Helen

    1969-01-01

    The American Hospital Association has long evinced its interest in and concern for health science libraries and library service in hospitals. The Association's purpose, history, organizational structure, and functions are reviewed. Examples of library-oriented programs, publications, and projects from 1905 to the present time are cited. PMID:5778726

  4. American Camping Association Annual Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    Founded in 1910 as the Camp Directors' Association of America, the American Camping Association (ACA) is the largest organization serving the organized camping industry. Over 5,500 members come from all segments of the camp profession. This annual report for 1999 describes ACA activities in support of organizational commitments. These commitments…

  5. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  6. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  7. A statistical model estimating the number of African-American physicians in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    King, G.; Bendel, R.

    1995-01-01

    Using mark-recaptured methodology and network sampling procedures, a statistical model was developed to estimate the number of African-American physicians in the United States. A sample (stratified by geographic region, medical specialty and an age surrogate) was selected from the National Medical Association's Masterfile of Black Physicians (NMAMBP). Respondents were asked to list the names of five black physicians who resided or practiced in their immediate geographic area. Data also were collected about citizenry as well as other demographic and professional information. The NMAMBP was used mathematically as a "marked" group that could then be "recaptured," allowing mark-recapture methodology to be used as the nucleus of the statistical estimation procedure. The results revealed that in 1991, the total number of US African-American physicians (black US citizens) was estimated to be 16,282 with a conservative standard error of 764 and an approximate 95% confidence interval, yielding a range of 14,754 to 17,810 physicians. This estimate is from 17% to about 32% lower than the 21,538 black doctors reported by the 1990 Bureau of the Census and has important implications for attempts to reform the health-care system and policies designed to produce more African-American physicians. PMID:7752278

  8. Institutional Racism and the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Jack; Senn, David J.

    1973-01-01

    Psychologists for Social Action showed how the American Psychological Association (APA) practices institutional racism by condoning employment practices of Lancaster Press, APA's major printer; a May 1973 postscript documents APA's continued hesitancy to influence its suppliers toward equal employment practices. (Author/JM)

  9. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  10. American Evaluation Association: Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Evaluation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association (AEA) strives to promote ethical practice in the evaluation of programs, products, personnel, and policy. This article presents the list of principles which AEA developed to guide evaluators in their professional practice. These principles are: (1) Systematic Inquiry; (2) Competence; (3) Integrity/Honesty; (4)…

  11. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  12. American Association of University Women 2013 Bylaws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The American Association of University Women (AAUW) Bylaws contain governance history, policies and procedures for managing the organization, and information to conduct AAUW's affairs. The 2013 bylaws are divided into the following articles: (1) Name and Office; (2) Purpose; (3) Use of Name; (4) Membership and Dues; (5) Nominations and Elections;…

  13. American Camping Association Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The American Camping Association (ACA) is a community of camp professionals dedicated to enriching the lives of children and adults through the camp experience. This annual report describes ACA activities during 2000, grouped in five areas: (1) expansion of services and other development of ACA's 24 regional sections and partnerships with other…

  14. American Camping Association. Annual Report, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1985 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews trends and successes of the year. The document is in the format of a calendar covering the period October 1985 through September 1986. Calendar pages, on which relevant camping events are noted, alternate with pages of text. An introductory message from ACA President Jean McMullan…

  15. American Camping Association. Annual Report, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1985 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews trends and successes of the year. The document is in the format of a calendar covering the period October 1985 through September 1986. Calendar pages, on which relevant camping events are noted, alternate with pages of text. An introductory message from ACA President Jean McMullan…

  16. American Camping Association Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The American Camping Association (ACA) is a community of camp professionals dedicated to enriching the lives of children and adults through the camp experience. This annual report describes ACA activities during 2000, grouped in five areas: (1) expansion of services and other development of ACA's 24 regional sections and partnerships with other…

  17. Update on the American Mosquito Control Association

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The American Mosquito Control Association in a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to promoting the highest standard in professional mosquito control. It is comprised of more than 1300 members representing students, scientists, regulators, industry, mosquito control employees and many other...

  18. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-14

    907) 428-6007, craig.campbell2@us.army.mil American Samoa Attorney General Sialega Malaetasi Togafau, America Samoa Government, P.O. Box 7, Pago ... Pago , AS 96799, (684) 633-4163 Arizona Major General David P. Rataczak, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix

  19. Periodontitis associated with Chronic Kidney Disease among Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, Effie; Hall, Yoshio; Swede, Helen; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective In comparison to non-Hispanic whites, a number of healthcare disparities, including poor oral health, have been identified among Hispanics in general and Mexican-Americans in particular. We hypothesized that Mexican-Americans with Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) would have higher prevalence of chronic periodontitis compared to Mexican Americans with normal kidney function, and that the level of kidney function would be inversely related to the prevalence of periodontal disease. Method We examined this hypothesis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994 (NHANES III) dataset. We followed the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP)/Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition for periodontitis. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-Epidemiology (EPI) equation for Hispanic populations. The classification to CKD stages was based on the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Results Periodontitis prevalence increased across the kidney function groups showing a statistically significant dose-response association (p<0.001). Mexican Americans with reduced kidney function were 2-fold more likely to have periodontitis compared to Mexican Americans with normal kidney function after adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, diabetes and socioeconomic status. Multivariate adjusted Odds Ratio for periodontitis significantly increased with 1, 5 and 10 mL/minute eGFR reduction from the mean. Conclusion This is the first report, to the best our knowledge, that showed an increase of periodontitis prevalence with decreased kidney function in this population. PMID:22775287

  20. Selected Statistics on the Status of Asian-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado

    1977-01-01

    Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.

  1. Report from the American Psychological Association.

    PubMed

    Goodstein, L D

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the difficult circumstances that the American Psychological Association (APA) and the mental health community are facing during the 1980s. While a great deal has been learned about mental health issues of older persons and research has demonstrated that they can benefit by appropriate services, the majority of elders needing mental health services are still not receiving them. Service, research and policy issues of concern to APA are discussed and several positive APA activities are noted.

  2. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. PMID:21695023

  3. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Zaitlen, Noah; Lettre, Guillaume; Chen, Gary K; Tandon, Arti; Kao, W H Linda; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Larkin, Emma; Lange, Leslie A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Musani, Solomon K; Divers, Jasmin; Mychaleckyj, Joe; Li, Mingyao; Papanicolaou, George J; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah J; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Chanock, Stephen J; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Cameron D; Buxbaum, Sarah; Ekunwe, Lynette; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Myers, Simon; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Wilson, James G; Price, Alkes L

    2011-04-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping) or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD), but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  4. Enhanced Statistical Tests for GWAS in Admixed Populations: Assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Zaitlen, Noah; Lettre, Guillaume; Chen, Gary K.; Tandon, Arti; Kao, W. H. Linda; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Larkin, Emma; Lange, Leslie A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Musani, Solomon K.; Divers, Jasmin; Mychaleckyj, Joe; Li, Mingyao; Papanicolaou, George J.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Buxbaum, Sarah; Ekunwe, Lynette; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Myers, Simon; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Wilson, James G.; Price, Alkes L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping) or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD), but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations. PMID:21541012

  5. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  6. Statistical Handbook on Aging Americans. 1994 Edition. Statistical Handbook Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Frank L., Ed.; Schick, Renee, Ed.

    This statistical handbook contains 378 tables and charts illustrating the changes in the United States' aging population based on data collected during the 1990 census and several other surveys. The tables and charts are organized by topic as follows: demographics (age and sex distribution, life expectancy, race and ethnicity, geographic…

  7. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes Timothy K. Stanton Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department Woods Hole Oceanographic...the statistics of acoustic echoes due to the presence of fish, especially in the case of a long-range active sonar. Toward this goal, fundamental...advances in the understanding of fish behavior, especially in aggregations, will be made under conditions relevant to the echo statistics problem

  8. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. The American Kinesiology Association Undergraduate Core Curriculum©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the elements of the undergraduate core in kinesiology that have been established by the American Kinesiology Association. The American Kinesiology Association also describes a set of ten student-learning outcomes that emanate from the four core content elements. This information has been developed by the American Kinesiology…

  10. The American Kinesiology Association Undergraduate Core Curriculum©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the elements of the undergraduate core in kinesiology that have been established by the American Kinesiology Association. The American Kinesiology Association also describes a set of ten student-learning outcomes that emanate from the four core content elements. This information has been developed by the American Kinesiology…

  11. The health of the American slave examined by means of Union Army medical statistics.

    PubMed

    Freemon, F R

    1985-01-01

    The health status of the American slave in the 19th century remains unclear despite extensive historical research. Better knowledge of slave health would provide a clearer picture of the life of the slave, a better understanding of the 19th-century medicine, and possibly even clues to the health problems of modern blacks. This article hopes to contribute to the literature by examining another source of data. Slaves entering the Union Army joined an organization with standardized medical care that generated extensive statistical information. Review of these statistics answers questions about the health of young male blacks at the time American slavery ended.

  12. The Health of the American Slave Examined by Means of Union Army Medical Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Freemon, Frank R.

    1985-01-01

    The health status of the American slave in the 19th century remains unclear despite extensive historical research. Better knowledge of slave health would provide a clearer picture of the life of the slave, a better understanding of the 19th-century medicine, and possibly even clues to the health problems of modern blacks. This article hopes to contribute to the literature by examining another source of data. Slaves entering the Union Army joined an organization with standardized medical care that generated extensive statistical information. Review of these statistics answers questions about the health of young male blacks at the time American slavery ended. PMID:3881595

  13. An entropy-based statistic for genomewide association studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Boerwinkle, Eric; Xiong, Momiao

    2005-07-01

    Efficient genotyping methods and the availability of a large collection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms provide valuable tools for genetic studies of human disease. The standard chi2 statistic for case-control studies, which uses a linear function of allele frequencies, has limited power when the number of marker loci is large. We introduce a novel test statistic for genetic association studies that uses Shannon entropy and a nonlinear function of allele frequencies to amplify the differences in allele and haplotype frequencies to maintain statistical power with large numbers of marker loci. We investigate the relationship between the entropy-based test statistic and the standard chi2 statistic and show that, in most cases, the power of the entropy-based statistic is greater than that of the standard chi2 statistic. The distribution of the entropy-based statistic and the type I error rates are validated using simulation studies. Finally, we apply the new entropy-based test statistic to two real data sets, one for the COMT gene and schizophrenia and one for the MMP-2 gene and esophageal carcinoma, to evaluate the performance of the new method for genetic association studies. The results show that the entropy-based statistic obtained smaller P values than did the standard chi2 statistic.

  14. A Statistical Profile of the American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut Populations for the United States: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    Twenty graphs and charts provide a 1980 statistical profile of American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut populations for the United States. Data indicate the 1980 Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut population was 1,420,400, an increase of 592,132 since 1970; little population change by region occurred during the decade, with 49% still located in the West; states…

  15. 1980 Resolutions: National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This paper contains nineteen resolutions adopted by the National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education (NAAPAE). The resolutions concern (1) the maintenance of Asian/Pacific American linguistic and cultural traditions by educational institutions, (2) the support of Asian/Pacific American studies programs, (3) NAAPAE support of…

  16. Dissecting the genetics of complex traits using summary association statistics

    PubMed Central

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Price, Alkes L.

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified tens of thousands of genetic variants associated with complex traits and diseases. These studies have produced extensive repositories of genetic variation and trait measurements across large numbers of individuals, providing tremendous opportunities for further analyses. However, privacy concerns and other logistical considerations often limit access to individual-level genetic data, motivating the development of methods that analyze summary association statistics. Here we review recent progress on statistical methods that leverage summary association data to gain insights into the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases. PMID:27840428

  17. Dissecting the genetics of complex traits using summary association statistics.

    PubMed

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Price, Alkes L

    2017-02-01

    During the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been used to successfully identify tens of thousands of genetic variants associated with complex traits and diseases. These studies have produced extensive repositories of genetic variation and trait measurements across large numbers of individuals, providing tremendous opportunities for further analyses. However, privacy concerns and other logistical considerations often limit access to individual-level genetic data, motivating the development of methods that analyse summary association statistics. Here, we review recent progress on statistical methods that leverage summary association data to gain insights into the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases.

  18. Countercontrols for the american educational research association

    PubMed Central

    Greer, R. Douglas

    1982-01-01

    Publications of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) maintain that years of research in education have failed to produce a useful technology for teachers. Little is said to be known about teaching children beyond the potential of new findings such as mastery learning, time on task, and features of an appropriate school climate. These latter conclusions are in stark contrast to the large body of useful findings in the behavior analysis literature. Several possible reasons are discussed for the discrepancy in views between behavior analysts and educational researchers. The lack of acknowledgement of behavior analysis is viewed as a serious problem because of the control that the educational research establishment exerts over federal funding of research and the training of teachers. There is a growing use of some of the aspects of behavior analysis by educational researchers; however, the derivation is not acknowledged and there is little enlightenment about radical behaviorism. It is suggested that ABA should countercontrol the influence of AERA by incorporating doctoral students in educational research as students of behavior analysis, teaching the complexity of behaviorism, teaching the positions of the opposing camp to behavior analysis students. ABA can take an aggressive role in countercontrolling AERA by forming committees to insure (a) quality of treatment, (b) funding representation in government, (c) protection and qualified review of untenured behavior analysts, (d) expansion of certification. PMID:22478558

  19. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education: Winter Supplement. Reports, Minutes, Statistics, and Abstracts of Meeting Podium and Poster Sessions (100th AACP Annual Meeting, July 4-7, 1999, Boston, MA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This 1999 annual supplement to the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education contains reports of staff members of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP); policy guidelines; the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education annual report; and minutes of various AACP meetings. Also included are statistics on pharmacy student…

  20. The Use of Statistics in the "American Journal of Health Education" from 1994 through 2003: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray M.; Stoddard, Julianne; Shields, Eric C.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies the extent that knowledge of selected study designs and elementary statistical techniques may assist readers in understanding the statistical component of articles in the "American Journal of Health Education." The frequency of and trend in use of selected statistical research designs and statistical methods is reported,…

  1. Creation of the American Board of Ophthalmology: The Role of the American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth D

    2016-09-01

    In the early 20th century, the American Medical Association (AMA), specifically its Section on Ophthalmology, played a central role in the founding of America's first medical specialty board, the American Board of Ophthalmology. With the American Ophthalmological Society and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, the AMA's contributions to the formation of the American Board of Ophthalmology led to the establishment of sound educational standards for practicing ophthalmologists and helped to advance the culture of medical excellence within the profession that is synonymous with board certification today.

  2. A scan statistic for identifying chromosomal patterns of SNP association.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Levin, Albert M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Robertson, Henry; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association scan statistic that takes into account the complex distribution of the human genome variation in the identification of chromosomal regions with significant SNP associations. This scan statistic has wide applicability for genetic analysis, whether to identify important chromosomal regions associated with common diseases based on whole-genome SNP association studies or to identify disease susceptibility genes based on dense SNP positional candidate studies. To illustrate this method, we analyzed patterns of SNP associations on chromosome 19 in a large cohort study. Among 2,944 SNPs, we found seven regions that contained clusters of significantly associated SNPs. The average width of these regions was 35 kb with a range of 10-72 kb. We compared the scan statistic results to Fisher's product method using a sliding window approach, and detected 22 regions with significant clusters of SNP associations. The average width of these regions was 131 kb with a range of 10.1-615 kb. Given that the distances between SNPs are not taken into consideration in the sliding window approach, it is likely that a large fraction of these regions represents false positives. However, all seven regions detected by the scan statistic were also detected by the sliding window approach. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns within the seven regions were highly variable indicating that the clusters of SNP associations were not due to LD alone. The scan statistic developed here can be used to make gene-based or region-based SNP inferences about disease association.

  3. Effects of an Interteaching Probe on Learning and Generalization of American Psychological Association (APA) Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…

  4. American Educational Research Association Abstracts of Papers, Fiftieth Anniversary Meeting 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC.

    This document contains abstracts of 53 papers presented at the 1966 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. A sampling of the varied subjects covered includes: teacher training, behavior, and evaluation; student aptitudes, attitudes, motivation, and achievement; education of disadvantaged; statistical methods and theory;…

  5. Comparative Evaluation of American Cancer Society and American Lung Association Smoking Cessation Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lando, Harry A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of the American Cancer Society's "FreshStart," the American Lung Association's "Freedom from Smoking," and a laboratory smoking cessation clinic. A one-year followup favored the more intensive laboratory and "Freedom from Smoking" clinics over the "FreshStart" method. (FMW)

  6. Comparative Evaluation of American Cancer Society and American Lung Association Smoking Cessation Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lando, Harry A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of the American Cancer Society's "FreshStart," the American Lung Association's "Freedom from Smoking," and a laboratory smoking cessation clinic. A one-year followup favored the more intensive laboratory and "Freedom from Smoking" clinics over the "FreshStart" method. (FMW)

  7. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  8. American Kinesiology Association: A National Effort to Promote Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE) and The American Kinesiology Association (AKA) should work together to help kinesiology thrive. Data are provided about kinesiology that reflects its visibility in PubMed and Google. Survey data from AKA show the rapid growth of the undergraduate major and graduate programs. In…

  9. The Sustainable Forestry Initiative of the American Forest & Paper Association

    Treesearch

    Chris Barneycastle

    2001-01-01

    The Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI)is a comprehensive program of forestry and conservation practices designed to ensure that future generations of Americans will have the same abundant forests that we enjoy today. The SFI was developed by the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA),the national trade group that represents forest and paper companies....

  10. American Kinesiology Association: A National Effort to Promote Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE) and The American Kinesiology Association (AKA) should work together to help kinesiology thrive. Data are provided about kinesiology that reflects its visibility in PubMed and Google. Survey data from AKA show the rapid growth of the undergraduate major and graduate programs. In…

  11. Risk Behaviors Associated with Cigarette Use among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.

    2005-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…

  12. Novel single nucleotide polymorphism associations with colorectal cancer on chromosome 8q24 in African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Sonia S.; Torres, Jada Benn; Hooker, Stanley; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Skol, Andrew D.; Ellis, Nathan A.; Kittles, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    Regions on chromosome 8q24 harbor susceptibility alleles for multiple cancers including colorectal (region 3) and prostate cancer (regions 1–4). The objectives of the present study were (i) to test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in region 4 are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in European or African Americans; (ii) to test whether 8q24 SNPs previously shown to be associated with colorectal and prostate cancer also show association in our multiethnic series and (iii) to test for association between 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and CRC in both the African American and European American cohorts. In total, we genotyped nine markers on 8q24 and 100 unlinked AIMs in 569 CRC cases and 439 controls (490 European Americans and 518 African Americans) obtained retrospectively from a hospital-based sample. We found rs7008482 in 8q24 region 4 to be significantly associated with CRC in European Americans (P = 0.03). Also in region 4, we found that a second SNP, rs16900305, trended toward association with CRC in African Americans. The rs6983267 in region 3, previously implicated in CRC risk, trended toward association with disease in European Americans but not in African Americans. Finally, none of the 100 AIMs tested for association reached statistical significance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In summary, these results are evidence that 8q24 region 4 contains novel CRC-associated alleles in European and African Americans. PMID:19520795

  13. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey California Automobile Association Original: 1932 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey California Automobile Association Original: 1932 Re-photo: January 1940 CONVENTO - VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  14. Discerning the Ancestry of European Americans in Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alkes L; Butler, Johannah; Patterson, Nick; Capelli, Cristian; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Scarnicci, Francesca; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Groop, Leif; Saetta, Angelica A; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Seligsohn, Uri; Waliszewska, Alicja; Schirmer, Christine; Ardlie, Kristin; Ramos, Alexis; Nemesh, James; Arbeitman, Lori; Goldstein, David B

    2008-01-01

    European Americans are often treated as a homogeneous group, but in fact form a structured population due to historical immigration of diverse source populations. Discerning the ancestry of European Americans genotyped in association studies is important in order to prevent false-positive or false-negative associations due to population stratification and to identify genetic variants whose contribution to disease risk differs across European ancestries. Here, we investigate empirical patterns of population structure in European Americans, analyzing 4,198 samples from four genome-wide association studies to show that components roughly corresponding to northwest European, southeast European, and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are the main sources of European American population structure. Building on this insight, we constructed a panel of 300 validated markers that are highly informative for distinguishing these ancestries. We demonstrate that this panel of markers can be used to correct for stratification in association studies that do not generate dense genotype data. PMID:18208327

  15. Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul

    2012-07-01

    Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect-sociocultural theory and general stress theory-to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among men. Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for women than men. Among women, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among men, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were nonexistent or trending in a negative direction, which counteracted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain the positive associations between acculturation and drinking. Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives appear to at least partially account for this effect

  16. Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Background Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect – sociocultural theory and general stress theory – to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed by using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among males. Methods Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. Results Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for females than males. Among females, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among males, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were non-existent or trending in a negative direction, which counter-acted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain positive associations between acculturation and drinking. Conclusions Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives

  17. American Exceptionalism and the American Surgical Association: The Rise of Surgery in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Ira; Lillemoe, Keith D

    2017-05-02

    To explore use of the notion of American exceptionalism by fellows of the American Surgical Association (ASA) (1880 through World War I) and how this proved instrumental in the rise of surgery in the United States. American exceptionalism is the belief that the United States is innately different from other nations because of its economic, geographic, political, religious, and social foundations. Although, currently, the concept of American exceptionalism implies superiority, in its original 19th century connotation, the idea referred to the distinctive character of America as a free nation. An analysis of published literature along with unpublished documents to provide new knowledge and unique insight into the use of American exceptionalism by members of the ASA as they promoted their specialty. Beginning with Samuel Gross's desire that the organization he founded represent "the genius of our republican institutions," to Frederick Dennis's declaration that "American surgery eclipses all other nations because of the wonderful adaptability of the American mind," plus Lewis Pilcher's explanation of how the "stimulating climate, prevailing religious tone, regard for learning, and pride of citizenship are the fruit of the American mind when turned to surgical problems," and ending with Edmond Souchon's 106 page article in the Transactions on surgical firsts, the ASA was the avenue that helped the nation's surgeons define and defend themselves. Use of the concept of American exceptionalism by fellows of the ASA was a key factor in the development of surgery in the United States.

  18. Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!): An Application of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7™ among Midwestern African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Brewer, LaPrincess C; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Dean, Patrick; Lackore, Kandace; Jenkins, Sarah; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2017-04-01

    African-Americans have a strikingly low prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health metrics of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 (LS7). This study was conducted to assess the impact of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention intervention on the knowledge and achievement of cardiovascular health metrics among a marginalized African-American community. Adult congregants (n = 37, 70 % women) from three African-American churches in Rochester, MN, participated in the Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!) program, a theory-based, culturally-tailored, 16-week education series incorporating the American Heart Association's LS7 framework. Feasibility testing included assessments of participant recruitment, program attendance, and retention. We classified participants according to definitions of ideal, intermediate, and poor cardiovascular health based on cardiac risk factors and health behaviors and calculated an LS7 score (range 0 to 14) at baseline and post-intervention. Knowledge of cardiac risk factors was assessed by questionnaire. Main outcome measures were changes in cardiovascular health knowledge and cardiovascular health components related to LS7 from baseline to post-intervention. Psychosocial measures included socioeconomic status, outlook on life, self-reported health, self-efficacy, and family support. Thirty-six out of 37 recruited participants completed the entire program including health assessments. Participants attended 63.5 % of the education series and attendance at each session was, on average, 62 % of those enrolled. There was a statistically significant improvement in cardiovascular health knowledge (p < 0.02). A higher percentage of participants meeting either ideal or intermediate LS7 score categories and a lower percentage within the poor category were observed. Higher LS7 scores correlated with higher psychosocial measures ratings. Although small, our study suggests that the FAITH! program

  19. Rare-Variant Association Analysis: Study Designs and Statistical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunggeung; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Lin, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive discovery of trait- and disease-associated common variants, much of the genetic contribution to complex traits remains unexplained. Rare variants can explain additional disease risk or trait variability. An increasing number of studies are underway to identify trait- and disease-associated rare variants. In this review, we provide an overview of statistical issues in rare-variant association studies with a focus on study designs and statistical tests. We present the design and analysis pipeline of rare-variant studies and review cost-effective sequencing designs and genotyping platforms. We compare various gene- or region-based association tests, including burden tests, variance-component tests, and combined omnibus tests, in terms of their assumptions and performance. Also discussed are the related topics of meta-analysis, population-stratification adjustment, genotype imputation, follow-up studies, and heritability due to rare variants. We provide guidelines for analysis and discuss some of the challenges inherent in these studies and future research directions. PMID:24995866

  20. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement.

    PubMed

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Goring, Simon J; Thurman, Andrew L; Cogbill, Charles V; Williams, John W; Mladenoff, David J; Peters, Jody A; Zhu, Jun; McLachlan, Jason S

    2016-01-01

    We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio) and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota). Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution) are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.

  1. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J.; Cogbill, Charles V.; Williams, John W.; Mladenoff, David J.; Peters, Jody A.; Zhu, Jun; McLachlan, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio) and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota). Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution) are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0. PMID:26918331

  2. Modeling the statistics of image features and associated text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Kobus; Duygulu, Pinar; Forsyth, David A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a methodology for modeling the statistics of image features and associated text in large datasets. The models used also serve to cluster the images, as images are modeled as being produced by sampling from a limited number of combinations of mixing components. Furthermore, because our approach models the joint occurrence image features and associated text, it can be used to predict the occurrence of either, based on observations or queries. This supports an attractive approach to image search as well as novel applications such a suggesting illustrations for blocks of text (auto-illustrate) and generating words for images outside the training set (auto-annotate). In this paper we illustrate the approach on 10,000 images of work from the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco. The images include line drawings, paintings, and pictures of sculpture and ceramics. Many of the images have associated free text whose nature varies greatly, from physical description to interpretation and mood. We incorporate statistical natural language processing in order to deal with free text. We use WordNet to provide semantic grouping information and to help disambiguate word senses, as well as emphasize the hierarchical nature of semantic relationships.

  3. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. 1984 Annual Report of the American Camping Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1984 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews trends and successes of the year. A preliminary message from ACA President Charles Kujawa recognizes the year's significant progress and indicates nine specific examples of success, including implementation of the Association Directions Study, approval of new camp standards,…

  5. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  6. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  7. 2005 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2005. The examples provided in this report are a small sampling of all that APA is doing to advance the discipline of psychology in an ever-changing world.

  8. Federal Legislative Policy of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Legislation Committee.

    The American Library Association's policy on federal legislation is based on its objectives of promoting and improving library service and librarianship. Representing those who use libraries as well as those who operate them, the Association is a source of information on libraries and information services for those concerned with formulating and…

  9. 2005 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2005. The examples provided in this report are a small sampling of all that APA is doing to advance the discipline of psychology in an ever-changing world.

  10. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  11. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  12. HPV Literacy and Associated Factors Among Hmong American Immigrants: Implications for Reducing Cervical Cancer Disparity.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Raiza; Simms, Tina; Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that certain minority and ethnic communities experience low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates despite a higher cervical cancer burden. HPV is known to be responsible for almost all cervical cancer cases. Hmong Americans, a growing Asian American population, appear to be at increased risk. The cervical cancer incidence rate among Hmong American women is three times higher than other Asian/Pacific Islanders and more than four times higher than Non-Hispanic Whites. Despite such alarming statistics, there is limited research focusing on HPV literacy and its associated factors in the Hmong American community. This study's objectives are to investigate: (1) the level of HPV knowledge among Hmong Americans; (2) HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates of Hmong Americans; and (3) factors associated with HPV literacy in the Hmong American community. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the study's theoretical framework. A self-administered paper and online health survey was completed by192 Hmong Americans living in a major metropolitan area in Minnesota. Results revealed a mean score of 4.76 (SD 1.67) for the 7-item questionnaire measuring HPV knowledge. The HPV vaccination initiation rate was 46.3 % (n = 56), with 32.7 % completing the recommended three doses. Multiple regression analysis found that participants' level of education, number of doctor visits, and cervical cancer screening literacy were significantly associated with HPV knowledge. This study's results indicate the important role of health providers in educating Hmong Americans patients about HPV and cervical cancer prevention to decrease the cervical cancer burden in this high-risk population.

  13. Analysis of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors for European-American and African-American populations in the state of Pennsylvania 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Gracely, Edward J; Newschaffer, Craig J; Liu, Longjian

    2013-01-01

    We examined the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated risk factors using statewide representative data from the Pennsylvania Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System. The data from 35,576 subjects aged ≥ 18 years participating in the Pennsylvania Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System in 2005, 2007, and 2009 were analyzed. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of CVD were computed. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine associations between the risk factors and CVD prevalence, with adjustment for confounding variables. The results showed that no significant changes in the prevalence of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke were observed in either European Americans or African Americans from 2005 to 2009 (p >0.05). African Americans had significantly greater CVD rates than European Americans. Although smoking rates significantly decreased, several other CVD risk factors (i.e., obesity, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) significantly increased from 2005 to 2009 in European Americans. Similar changes were observed in African Americans, although these changes did not reach statistical significance. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African Americans had a 35% greater risk of CVD. Education level less than high school, smoking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were significantly and positively associated with CVD. In conclusion, no significant achievements in CVD control and risk factor reduction were observed from 2005 to 2009 in Pennsylvania. Additional aggressive control of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes for both European and African Americans must be made to reduce the burden of CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Agricultural and food biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Christine; Earl, Robert

    2006-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that agricultural and food biotechnology techniques can enhance the quality, safety, nutritional value, and variety of food available for human consumption and increase the efficiency of food production, food processing, food distribution, and environmental and waste management. The American Dietetic Association encourages the government, food manufacturers, food commodity groups, and qualified food and nutrition professionals to work together to inform consumers about this new technology and encourage the availability of these products in the marketplace.

  16. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  17. A statistical approach to the temporal development of orbital associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastinen, D.; Kero, J.

    2016-01-01

    We have performed preliminary studies on the use of a Monte-Carlo based statistical toolbox for small body solar system dynamics to find trends in the temporal development of orbital associations. As a part of this preliminary study four different similarity functions where implemented and applied to the 21P/Giacobini-Zinner meteoroid stream, and resulting simulated meteor showers. The simulations indicate that the temporal behavior of orbital element distributions in the meteoroid stream and the meteor shower differ on century size time scales. The configuration of the meteor shower remains compact for a long time and dissipates an order of magnitude slower than the stream. The main effect driving the shower dissipation is shown to be the addition of new trails to the stream.

  18. Cancer Statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2015: Convergence of incidence between males and females

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Goding Sauer, Ann M.; Chen, Moon S.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30%–40% lower incidence and mortality rates than NHWs for all cancers combined, they have higher rates for some infection-related cancers (stomach, liver, nasopharynx).The aggregation of AANHPI subgroups conceals the diversity of these heterogeneous populations. AANHPI cancer rates vary by subgroup, with the lowest rates generally in Asian Indians/Pakistanis and the highest in Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Japanese (except for infection-related cancers). The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 due to declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. Liver cancer death rates among AANHPIs declined from 2003 to 2012, in contrast to increases in NHWs. Variation in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to risk factors including lifestyle factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. PMID:26766789

  19. American Podiatric Medical Association Best Walking City Competition, 2003.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Allan H; Tzamaras, George Paul; Scherer, Julia E

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the American Podiatric Medical Association conducted its second annual "Walking City Competition." The objective of the study was to update and expand on the results of a previous study conducted in 2002, taking into account a wider variety of measures of walking and walking conditions and identifying the best cities for walking in the United States on a regional basis.

  20. Position Papers of the American Association of Dental Schools[.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Position papers of the American Association of Dental Schools are presented concerning peer review in dentistry, individual and institutional freedoms and responsibilities, national health programs, the definition of interdisciplinary education, use of ionizing radiation in dental schools, and due process in student evaluation disputes. (MSE)

  1. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2011 Membership Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2013-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to gather information on general demographics, employment-related characteristics, licensing, and professional affiliations. The surveys are used in the development of national media opportunities and public policy initiatives to help increase recognition for the field of…

  2. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  3. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child's consumption of soda, diet soda, other...

  4. Associations among Asian Americans' Enculturation, Emotional Experiences, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Lai, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Using a computer-based text analysis of 218 Asian Americans' writing samples, the authors found that enculturation as well as use of negative emotion and positive emotion words were associated with depressive symptoms. Enculturation was also found to moderate the relation between use of negative emotion words and cognitive--affective depressive…

  5. Research on the History of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomison, Dennis

    A researcher on the history of the American Library Association (ALA) describes problems encountered on his project, important trends in ALA, weaknesses and benefits of ALA, and needs in the area of historical research. Some of the problems cited are the inadequacy of organization and housing of the ALA archives, the unevenness of the archival…

  6. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  7. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  8. American Association of Physics Teachers Annual Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Physics Teachers (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) mission is to enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching. Embracing the notion that physics understanding is critical to the wellbeing of society, AAPT is committed to serving its members and the larger community by promoting effectiveness in physics teaching for…

  9. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  10. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2011 Membership Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2013-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to gather information on general demographics, employment-related characteristics, licensing, and professional affiliations. The surveys are used in the development of national media opportunities and public policy initiatives to help increase recognition for the field of…

  11. American Osteopathic Association Commitment to Quality and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunanidas, Amelia G.; Burkhart, Diane N.

    2005-01-01

    The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) initiated programs to enhance quality for 54, 000 doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs) practicing in the United States. Seven core competencies are required in undergraduate and graduate medical education standards. They include osteopathic philosophy and osteopathic manipulative medicine, medical…

  12. Continuing Education Programs within the American Heart Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lembright, Katherine A.

    1970-01-01

    Because it believes the nurse can and must be a participant in the co-professional health team (doctor, nurse), the American Heart Association has become increasingly concerned with planning and carrying out activities that contribute to the continuing education of nurses. (PT)

  13. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  14. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  15. American Osteopathic Association Commitment to Quality and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunanidas, Amelia G.; Burkhart, Diane N.

    2005-01-01

    The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) initiated programs to enhance quality for 54, 000 doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs) practicing in the United States. Seven core competencies are required in undergraduate and graduate medical education standards. They include osteopathic philosophy and osteopathic manipulative medicine, medical…

  16. Creation of an American Holistic Nurses Association research consultation program.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sue; Clingerman, Evelyn; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla; Lange, Bernadette

    2012-12-01

    A goal of the American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) Research Committee is to prepare holistic nurses to conduct holistic nursing research. This article describes the creation of a Research Consultation Program and how the knowledge gained from the program will contribute to the development of a formal research mentor program.

  17. American Association of Physics Teachers Annual Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Physics Teachers (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) mission is to enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching. Aspiring to advance the greater good through physics, AAPT strives to be the leading voice, primary resource, advocate of choice, and driving force in physics education, serving professionals who teach physics…

  18. Position Papers of the American Association of Dental Schools[.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Position papers of the American Association of Dental Schools are presented concerning peer review in dentistry, individual and institutional freedoms and responsibilities, national health programs, the definition of interdisciplinary education, use of ionizing radiation in dental schools, and due process in student evaluation disputes. (MSE)

  19. American Burn Association Practice Guidelines: Burn Shock Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE American Burn Association...colloid or saline solutions. Clin Sci 1964; 26:429–43. 21. Markley K, Bocanegra M, Bazan A, et al. Clinical evaluation of saline solution therapy in

  20. The American Psychiatric Association and the history of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2011-09-01

    The history committee within the American Psychiatric Association was actively involved in the history of psychiatry in the early decades of the twentieth century, as well as from 1942 to 2009.This paper explores the role of this committee in the context of changes in the psychiatric profession over the twentieth century.

  1. American Counseling Association Branch Journals: Viable, Scholarly Means for Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, A. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the efficacy of publishing research, theoretically based articles, and in-the-field articles in refereed, professional branch journals of American Counseling Association (ACA). Addresses means and ways of writing successfully for publication. Presents ACA branch journals as alternative means for publishing and to encourage professional…

  2. American Dental Education Association Annual Proceedings, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Reports activities of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) from the end of the 2001 Annual Session and Exposition (March 9, 2001) through the 2002 Annual Session and Exposition (March 7, 2002). Consists of: president's annual report, president-elect's address, executive director's report, proceedings of the 2002 House of Delegates,…

  3. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2009 Membership Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2010-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to obtain a general profile of current members that includes basic demographics and client populations served by member art therapists, as well as licensure and professional activities. The results of the 2009 survey presented in this report suggest that, overall, the work…

  4. 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued it's efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological science and expertise to pressing social issues, fulfill the goals of APA's new strategic plan, and increase the public's understanding of psychology as a science and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline.

  5. Recommended Dietary Pattern to Achieve Adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Linda; Carson, Jo Ann S; Appel, Lawrence J; Burke, Lora E; Economos, Christina; Karmally, Wahida; Lancaster, Kristie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Johnson, Rachel K; Thomas, Randal J; Vos, Miriam; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2016-11-29

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction by providing more specific details for adopting evidence-based diet and lifestyle behaviors to achieve those goals. In addition, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued updated evidence relevant to reducing cardiovascular risk and provided additional recommendations for adopting healthy diet and lifestyle approaches. This scientific statement, intended for healthcare providers, summarizes relevant scientific and translational evidence and offers practical tips, tools, and dietary approaches to help patients/clients adapt these guidelines according to their sociocultural, economic, and taste preferences.

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutrition: obesity, reproduction, and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C

    2009-05-01

    Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.

  7. American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics in Under-Represented Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Freda; Zhang, Guo; Davey, Adam; Tan, Yin; Ma, Grace X

    2016-12-01

    The American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health score is based on 7 cardiovascular health metrics to measure progress toward their Impact Goal of reducing cardiovascular disease by 20 % before 2020. This study applied this construct to assess cardiovascular health in a sample of Asian Americans. Convenience sampling methods were used to enroll self-identified Asian American's over the age of 18 years who were attending community health fairs across the greater Philadelphia and urban areas of New Jersey. The heart health metrics of tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, and glucose were measured. In the greater sample (N = 541), 82 % were female, the mean age was 65.1 (SD = 15.5) years, 45 % were Vietnamese, 38 % were Chinese and 17 % were Korean. Prevalence of ideal heart health for the metrics of tobacco use (95 %) was high. Only 19.4 % achieved ideal levels of physical activity, 35.1 % for BMI, 28.9 % for glucose and 66 % for blood pressure. Dietary intake was ideal for 20.7 % of the sample. More years since migration and Korean race trended toward having a higher prevalence of poor health in some metrics. Most Asian Americans are not achieving ideal cardiovascular health for several of the metrics evaluated, with those residing in the United States for more than 13 years and Korean Americans being higher-risk groups. Targeted community based intervention approaches to improving and monitoring heart health in Asian American, and Asian American subgroups, are needed.

  8. Association between recognizing dementia as a mental illness and dementia knowledge among elderly Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-06-22

    To investigate whether older Chinese Americans perceive dementia as a mental illness and the relationship between such perception and their general understanding of dementia remains unclear. Our study aims to understand this relationship and its future implication on improving dementia literacy among ethnic minorities. Elderly Chinese American participants from the Greater Los Angeles were asked to complete an 11-item dementia questionnaire, following a community health seminar. Cross-sectional survey data was analyzed using standard statistical methods. The questionnaire received an 88.3% response rate. Among 316 responders, only 28.8% (n = 91) of elderly Chinese Americans identified dementia as a mental illness, and 71.2% (n = 225) did not recognize its mental disease origin. Furthermore, in comparison between these two groups, the first group demonstrated significantly higher level of baseline knowledge of the disease. This study reveals that only approximately 1 out of 4 older Chinese Americans recognized dementia as a mental illness, consistent with previous studies on Asian Americans. Our study however showed that when dementia was being perceived as a mental illness, such perception was associated with a higher level of baseline dementia understanding. The current study suggested the potential of improving older Chinese Americans dementia literacy by increasing awareness of its mental illness origin.

  9. Association between recognizing dementia as a mental illness and dementia knowledge among elderly Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether older Chinese Americans perceive dementia as a mental illness and the relationship between such perception and their general understanding of dementia remains unclear. Our study aims to understand this relationship and its future implication on improving dementia literacy among ethnic minorities. METHODS: Elderly Chinese American participants from the Greater Los Angeles were asked to complete an 11-item dementia questionnaire, following a community health seminar. Cross-sectional survey data was analyzed using standard statistical methods. RESULTS: The questionnaire received an 88.3% response rate. Among 316 responders, only 28.8% (n = 91) of elderly Chinese Americans identified dementia as a mental illness, and 71.2% (n = 225) did not recognize its mental disease origin. Furthermore, in comparison between these two groups, the first group demonstrated significantly higher level of baseline knowledge of the disease. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that only approximately 1 out of 4 older Chinese Americans recognized dementia as a mental illness, consistent with previous studies on Asian Americans. Our study however showed that when dementia was being perceived as a mental illness, such perception was associated with a higher level of baseline dementia understanding. The current study suggested the potential of improving older Chinese Americans dementia literacy by increasing awareness of its mental illness origin. PMID:27354966

  10. Heterogeneity in statin indications within the 2013 american college of cardiology/american heart association guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi V; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D; Lima, João A C; Nallamothu, Brahmajee; Murthy, Venkatesh L

    2015-01-01

    A standard ("core") implementation of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2013 lipid guidelines (based on 10-year risk) dramatically increases the statin-eligible population in older Americans, raising controversy in the cardiovascular community. The guidelines also endorse a more "comprehensive" risk approach based in part on lifetime risk. The impact of this broader approach on statin eligibility remains unclear. We studied the impact of 2 different implementations of the new guidelines ("core" and "comprehensive") using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although "core" guidelines led to 72.0 million subjects qualifying for statin therapy, the broader "comprehensive" application led to nearly a twofold greater estimate for statin-eligible subjects (121.2 million), with the greatest impact among those aged 21 to 45 years. Subjects indicated for statin therapy under comprehensive guidelines had a greater burden of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease than those not indicated for statins. In particular, men aged 21 to 45 years had a 3.13-fold increased odds of being eligible for statin therapy only under the "comprehensive" guidelines (vs standard "core" guidelines; 95% confidence interval 2.82 to 3.47, p <0.0001). There were no racial differences. In conclusion, the "comprehensive" approach to statin eligibility espoused by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2013 guidelines would increase the statin-eligible population to over 120 million Americans, particularly targeting younger men with high-risk factor burden.

  11. Poststroke Depression: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; El Husseini, Nada; Hackett, Maree L; Jorge, Ricardo E; Kissela, Brett M; Mitchell, Pamela H; Skolarus, Lesli E; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, Linda S

    2017-02-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is common, affecting approximately one third of stroke survivors at any one time after stroke. Individuals with PSD are at a higher risk for suboptimal recovery, recurrent vascular events, poor quality of life, and mortality. Although PSD is prevalent, uncertainty remains regarding predisposing risk factors and optimal strategies for prevention and treatment. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on the topic of PSD. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. Members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise and reviewed appropriate literature, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, and expert opinion. This multispecialty statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence and gaps in current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, outcomes, management, and prevention of PSD, and provides implications for clinical practice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Cervical arterial dissections and association with cervical manipulative therapy: a statement for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association.

    PubMed

    Biller, José; Sacco, Ralph L; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Fayad, Pierre; Long, Preston H; Noorollah, Lori D; Panagos, Peter D; Schievink, Wouter I; Schwartz, Neil E; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Thaler, David E; Tirschwell, David L

    2014-10-01

    Cervical artery dissections (CDs) are among the most common causes of stroke in young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this scientific statement is to review the current state of evidence on the diagnosis and management of CDs and their statistical association with cervical manipulative therapy (CMT). In some forms of CMT, a high or low amplitude thrust is applied to the cervical spine by a healthcare professional. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. Members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise and reviewed appropriate literature, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge. Patients with CD may present with unilateral headaches, posterior cervical pain, or cerebral or retinal ischemia (transient ischemic or strokes) attributable mainly to artery-artery embolism, CD cranial nerve palsies, oculosympathetic palsy, or pulsatile tinnitus. Diagnosis of CD depends on a thorough history, physical examination, and targeted ancillary investigations. Although the role of trivial trauma is debatable, mechanical forces can lead to intimal injuries of the vertebral arteries and internal carotid arteries and result in CD. Disability levels vary among CD patients with many having good outcomes, but serious neurological sequelae can occur. No evidence-based guidelines are currently available to endorse best management strategies for CDs. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatments are both used for prevention of local thrombus and secondary embolism. Case-control and other articles have suggested an epidemiologic association between CD, particularly vertebral artery dissection

  13. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy L; Tschann, Jeanne; Butte, Nancy F; Penilla, Carlos; Greenspan, Louise C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child's consumption of soda, diet soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, milk and water. The questions were adapted from the Youth/Adolescent FFQ. Children were weighed and measured. Data were collected on the following potential confounders: maternal BMI, household income, maternal education, maternal occupational status, maternal acculturation, child physical activity, child screen time and child fast-food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between servings (240 ml) of each beverage per week and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile). Participants were recruited from among enrolees of the Kaiser Permanente Health Plan of Northern California. Data were collected via an in-home assessment. Mexican American children (n 319) aged 8-10 years. Among participants, 20% were overweight and 31% were obese. After controlling for potential confounders, consuming more servings of soda was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1·29; P < 0·001). Consuming more servings of flavoured milk per week was associated with lower odds of obesity (OR = 0·88; P = 0·004). Consumption of other beverages was not associated with obesity in the multivariate model. Discouraging soda consumption among Mexican American children may help reduce the high obesity rates in this population.

  14. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the…

  15. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THE ASSOCIATION OF TESTOSTERONE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Neil; Guay, Andre; Dandona, Paresh; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Faiman, Charles; Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-09-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.

  16. A weighted U statistic for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changshuai; Elston, Robert C; Lu, Qing

    2016-07-20

    Converging evidence suggests that common complex diseases with the same or similar clinical manifestations could have different underlying genetic etiologies. While current research interests have shifted toward uncovering rare variants and structural variations predisposing to human diseases, the impact of heterogeneity in genetic studies of complex diseases has been largely overlooked. Most of the existing statistical methods assume the disease under investigation has a homogeneous genetic effect and could, therefore, have low power if the disease undergoes heterogeneous pathophysiological and etiological processes. In this paper, we propose a heterogeneity-weighted U (HWU) method for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity. HWU can be applied to various types of phenotypes (e.g., binary and continuous) and is computationally efficient for high-dimensional genetic data. Through simulations, we showed the advantage of HWU when the underlying genetic etiology of a disease was heterogeneous, as well as the robustness of HWU against different model assumptions (e.g., phenotype distributions). Using HWU, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of nicotine dependence from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environments dataset. The genome-wide analysis of nearly one million genetic markers took 7h, identifying heterogeneous effects of two new genes (i.e., CYP3A5 and IKBKB) on nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 77 FR 70446 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for Continuing CMS... Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for continued recognition as a... determined by CMS. American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASFs)...

  18. Statistical Characterization of Storm-Time GPS Total Electron Content Variations in the North American Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E. G.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Coster, A. J.; Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Maps of vertically-integrated total electron content (TEC) based on data collected by worldwide networks of ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are useful for characterizing large-scale structure in the Earth's ionosphere. Several previous event studies have used GPS TEC maps to monitor the dynamics of prominent storm-time ionospheric features, such as plumes of storm enhanced density (SED), the tongue of ionization (TOI), and polar cap patches. In this study, we focus on developing a statistical characterization of the storm-time response of GPS TEC in the North American sector. A superposed epoch analysis is carried out using GPS TEC variations collected over North America during 139 geomagnetic storms which occurred between 2001 and 2013. The epoch time used to order the data is the onset of the main phase determined by the Sym-H index. Clear seasonal variations in the TEC storm response are identified, such that summer events tend to be dominated by the negative (decrease) phase while winter events exhibit a stronger initial positive (increase) phase with minimal negative storm effects. We find no discernible difference between spring and fall equinox events with both being equal to the seasonal average. We also find a prominent magnetic declination effect such that stronger positive storm effects are observed in regions of negative declination (i.e. eastern North America).

  19. North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall and SST: A Statistical Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy; Yonekura, Emmi

    2013-01-01

    A statistical-stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to examine the relationship between climate and landfall rates along the North American Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The model draws on archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and one of two different measures of sea surface temperature (SST): 1) SST averaged over the NA subtropics and the hurricane season and 2) this SST relative to the seasonal global subtropical mean SST (termed relSST). Here, the authors focus on SST by holding ENSO to a neutral state. Jackknife uncertainty tests are employed to test the significance of SST and relSST landfall relationships. There are more TC and major hurricane landfalls overall in warm years than cold, using either SST or relSST, primarily due to a basinwide increase in the number of storms. The signal along the coast, however, is complex. Some regions have large and significant sensitivity (e.g., an approximate doubling of annual major hurricane landfall probability on Texas from -2 to +2 standard deviations in relSST), while other regions have no significant sensitivity (e.g., the U.S. mid-Atlantic and Northeast coasts). This geographic structure is due to both shifts in the regions of primary TC genesis and shifts in TC propagation.

  20. 2012 Annual report of the American Psychological Association.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Provides the 2012 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In 2012, APA celebrated its 120th anniversary. It has grown from its original 31 members to the largest association of psychologists in the United States and a worldwide leader within the discipline. This edition of the report introduces each directorate and office within APA and talks about their goals and objectives. the president of APA, Dr. Norman Anderson, also gives a brief report which updates you on the activities of the association during its 120th anniversary as the professional home for psychologists and an advocate for the discipline.

  1. Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension: Guidelines From the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    Abman, Steven H; Hansmann, Georg; Archer, Stephen L; Ivy, D Dunbar; Adatia, Ian; Chung, Wendy K; Hanna, Brian D; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Raj, J Usha; Cornfield, David; Stenmark, Kurt R; Steinhorn, Robin; Thébaud, Bernard; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Kuehne, Titus; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Friedberg, Mark K; Earing, Michael; Barst, Robyn J; Keller, Roberta L; Kinsella, John P; Mullen, Mary; Deterding, Robin; Kulik, Thomas; Mallory, George; Humpl, Tilman; Wessel, David L

    2015-11-24

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with diverse cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases in neonates, infants, and older children and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. However, current approaches to caring for pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension have been limited by the lack of consensus guidelines from experts in the field. In a joint effort from the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society, a panel of experienced clinicians and clinician-scientists was assembled to review the current literature and to make recommendations on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. This publication presents the results of extensive literature reviews, discussions, and formal scoring of recommendations for the care of children with pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B; Furie, Karen L; Iadecola, Costantino; Smith, Eric E; Waddy, Salina P; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Bae, Hee-Joon; Bauman, Mary Ann; Dichgans, Martin; Duncan, Pamela W; Girgus, Meighan; Howard, Virginia J; Lazar, Ronald M; Seshadri, Sudha; Testai, Fernando D; van Gaal, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Wasiak, Hank; Zerna, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA's Life's Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index <25 kg/m(2)) and 3 ideal health factors (untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, untreated total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, and fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL). In addition, in relation to maintenance of cognitive health, we recommend following previously published guidance from the AHA/American Stroke Association, Institute of Medicine, and Alzheimer's Association that incorporates control of cardiovascular risks and suggest social engagement and other related strategies. We define optimal brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA's Life's Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to

  3. 2009 American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Perros, P

    2010-08-01

    The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement may be coloured by pre-existing practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one's own practise.

  4. American Dental Association evidence-based dentistry website.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek

    2009-01-01

    In March 2009, the American Dental Association (ADA) launched a new evidence-based dentistry (EBD) website (ebd.ada.org). The site has been established to provide the dental profession with access to evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and is supported by a grant from the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research(Grant Number G08 LM008956).

  5. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; McDougall, Casey L; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with: 1) higher total physical activity levels, and 2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n=2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n=1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n=1,654) in Arizona. Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (P<.05). About 35% of English only speakers, 39% of American Indian/Alaska Native only speakers, and 39% of participants speaking both languages met the 150 minutes/week activity threshold. Odds of being sufficiently active were higher among bicultural respondents in both regions when compared to respondents endorsing only English, controlling for sociodemographic and health-related covariates (P<.05). Bicultural respondents among tribal members in South Dakota had significantly higher total physical activity, and higher levels of sufficient leisure-time activity in both South Dakota and Arizona, compared to those who spoke either language exclusively. Interventions that encourage American Indians to develop their bicultural efficacy and to draw on resources for healthy living that may be available in all the cultures with which they identify are recommended.

  6. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Glen E.; McDougall, Casey L.; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with (1) higher total physical activity levels and (2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n = 2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n = 1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n = 1,654) in Arizona. Results Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (p < 0.05). About 35% of English only speakers, 39% of American Indian/Alaska Native only speakers, and 39% of participants speaking both languages met the 150 minutes/week activity threshold. Odds of being sufficiently active were higher among bicultural respondents in both regions when compared to respondents endorsing only English, controlling for socio-demographic and health-related covariates (p < 0.05). Conclusion Bicultural respondents among tribal members in South Dakota had significantly higher total physical activity, and higher levels of sufficient leisure-time activity in both South Dakota and Arizona, compared to those who spoke either language exclusively. Interventions that encourage American Indians to develop their bicultural efficacy and to draw on resources for healthy living that may be available in all the cultures with which they identify are recommended. PMID:24620441

  7. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    PubMed

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention.

  8. National Association and Organization Reports. American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; American Booksellers Association; Association of Research Libraries; Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Council on Library and Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Maurice J.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael; Webster, Duane E.; Johnson, Richard; Smith, Kathlin

    2003-01-01

    Includes six reports from national associations and organizations. Highlights include annual meetings; government affairs; copyright; administration; diversity; new technologies; international programs; scholarly communication; information policy; access to information; preservation; statistics and measurement; digital libraries; economics of…

  9. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Bahn Chair, Rebecca S; Burch, Henry B; Cooper, David S; Garber, Jeffrey R; Greenlee, M Carol; Klein, Irwin; Laurberg, Peter; McDougall, I Ross; Montori, Victor M; Rivkees, Scott A; Ross, Douglas S; Sosa, Julie Ann; Stan, Marius N

    2011-06-01

    Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. This article describes evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that would be useful to generalist and subspeciality physicians and others providing care for patients with this condition. The development of these guidelines was commissioned by the American Thyroid Association in association with the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. The American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists assembled a task force of expert clinicians who authored this report. The task force examined relevant literature using a systematic PubMed search supplemented with additional published materials. An evidence-based medicine approach that incorporated the knowledge and experience of the panel was used to develop the text and a series of specific recommendations. The strength of the recommendations and the quality of evidence supporting each was rated according to the approach recommended by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Group. Clinical topics addressed include the initial evaluation and management of thyrotoxicosis; management of Graves' hyperthyroidism using radioactive iodine, antithyroid drugs, or surgery; management of toxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma using radioactive iodine or surgery; Graves' disease in children, adolescents, or pregnant patients; subclinical hyperthyroidism; hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy; and management of other miscellaneous causes of thyrotoxicosis. One hundred evidence-based recommendations were developed to aid in the care of patients with thyrotoxicosis and to share what the task force believes is current, rational, and optimal medical practice.

  10. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Rebecca S; Burch, Henry B; Cooper, David S; Garber, Jeffrey R; Greenlee, M Carol; Klein, Irwin; Laurberg, Peter; McDougall, I Ross; Montori, Victor M; Rivkees, Scott A; Ross, Douglas S; Sosa, Julie Ann; Stan, Marius N

    2011-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. This article describes evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that would be useful to generalist and subspeciality physicians and others providing care for patients with this condition. The development of these guidelines was commissioned by the American Thyroid Association in association with the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. The American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists assembled a task force of expert clinicians who authored this report. The task force examined relevant literature using a systematic PubMed search supplemented with additional published materials. An evidence-based medicine approach that incorporated the knowledge and experience of the panel was used to develop the text and a series of specific recommendations. The strength of the recommendations and the quality of evidence supporting each was rated according to the approach recommended by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Group. Clinical topics addressed include the initial evaluation and management of thyrotoxicosis; management of Graves' hyperthyroidism using radioactive iodine, antithyroid drugs, or surgery; management of toxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma using radioactive iodine or surgery; Graves' disease in children, adolescents, or pregnant patients; subclinical hyperthyroidism; hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy; and management of other miscellaneous causes of thyrotoxicosis. One hundred evidence-based recommendations were developed to aid in the care of patients with thyrotoxicosis and to share what the task force believes is current, rational, and optimal medical practice.

  11. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    published 3-D multi-beam data. The Niwa and Anderson models were compared with 3-D multi-beam data collected by Paramo and Gerlotto. The data were...submitted, refereed] Bhatia, S., T.K. Stanton, J. Paramo , and F. Gerlotto (under revision), “Modeling statistics of fish school dimensions using 3-D

  12. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    data. The Niwa and Anderson models were compared with 3-D multi-beam data collected by Paramo and Gerlotto. The data were consistent with the...Bhatia, S., T.K. Stanton, J. Paramo , and F. Gerlotto (under revision), “Modeling statistics of fish school dimensions using 3-D data from a

  13. Multiple phenotype association tests using summary statistics in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhonghua; Lin, Xihong

    2017-06-26

    We study in this article jointly testing the associations of a genetic variant with correlated multiple phenotypes using the summary statistics of individual phenotype analysis from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASs). We estimated the between-phenotype correlation matrix using the summary statistics of individual phenotype GWAS analyses, and developed genetic association tests for multiple phenotypes by accounting for between-phenotype correlation without the need to access individual-level data. Since genetic variants often affect multiple phenotypes differently across the genome and the between-phenotype correlation can be arbitrary, we proposed robust and powerful multiple phenotype testing procedures by jointly testing a common mean and a variance component in linear mixed models for summary statistics. We computed the p-values of the proposed tests analytically. This computational advantage makes our methods practically appealing in large-scale GWASs. We performed simulation studies to show that the proposed tests maintained correct type I error rates, and to compare their powers in various settings with the existing methods. We applied the proposed tests to a GWAS Global Lipids Genetics Consortium summary statistics data set and identified additional genetic variants that were missed by the original single-trait analysis. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Suicide among psychologists and a proposal for the American Psychological Association.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1989-02-01

    The response of the American Medical Association and of the American Psychiatric Association to suicide among their members is contrasted with the response of the American Psychological Association. It is suggested that an association should be concerned with suicide among its members and two proposals are suggested.

  15. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements.

  16. African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S.; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry. PMID:22235241

  17. African ancestry is associated with asthma risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carlos; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G N

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0-6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69-12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry.

  18. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amy L; Tschann, Jeanne; Butte, Nancy F; Penilla, Carlos; Greenspan, Louise C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Design Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child’s consumption of soda, diet soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, milk and water. The questions were adapted from the Youth/Adolescent FFQ. Children were weighed and measured. Data were collected on the following potential confounders: maternal BMI, household income, maternal education, maternal occupational status, maternal acculturation, child physical activity, child screen time and child fast-food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between servings (240 ml) of each beverage per week and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile). Setting Participants were recruited from among enrolees of the Kaiser Permanente Health Plan of Northern California. Data were collected via an in-home assessment. Subjects Mexican American children (n 319) aged 8–10 years. Results Among participants, 20% were overweight and 31% were obese. After controlling for potential confounders, consuming more servings of soda was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1·29; P < 0·001). Consuming more servings of flavoured milk per week was associated with lower odds of obesity (OR = 0·88; P = 0·004). Consumption of other beverages was not associated with obesity in the multivariate model. Conclusions Discouraging soda consumption among Mexican American children may help reduce the high obesity rates in this population. PMID:23308395

  19. Social, Economic and Health Characteristics of Older American Indians (Part 2 of 2). Statistical Reports on Older Americans, June 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Blanch S.

    In 1970 the Indian population of all ages was 763,000; 148,600 were 45 years of age or older and 43,800 were 65 years of age or older. Two-thirds of all older American Indian women and slightly more than one-third of the older men were either single, widowed, or divorced. Half of the older Indians received incomes below $1,408; this was 24% below…

  20. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    information on fish school distributions by monitoring the direction of birds returning to the colony or the behavior of other birds at sea through...active sonar. Toward this goal, fundamental advances in the understanding of fish behavior , especially in aggregations, will be made under conditions...relevant to the echo statistics problem. OBJECTIVES To develop new models of behavior of fish aggregations, including the fission/fusion process

  1. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    had access to trajectories of male moths finding a pheromone-emitting female; our goal was to quantify the mate-seeking behavior of these male moths ...turbulent environmental flows might be statistically summarized are known from fluid physics. Using the moth dataset, we developed new biomimetic...of a simplified behavior: location of the source of an odorant plume in a turbulent flow. The top plot shows movement of a male moth seeking a

  2. The IPA and the American Psychoanalytic Association: a perspective on the regional association agreement.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, R S

    1998-06-01

    Ever since 1938 the American Psychoanalytic Association has had a special autonomous relationship within the IPA accorded to no other component organisation. This Regional Association status has had two main features: (1) total internal control over training standards and membership criteria, with no accountability to the IPA; and (2) an 'exclusive franchise', so that the IPA was barred from recognising any other component within the United States. This unique Regional Association status reflected the resolution at the time (1938) of the long-standing controversy between the IPA and the American over the issue of 'lay analysis', and remained unaltered for half a century until, with the resolution of the 3 1/2-year long law-suit against the American (and secondarily against the IPA) in 1988, the Regional Association agreement was modified (but not totally abrogated) by the American's giving up the 'exclusive franchise' aspect (thus permitting IPA recognition of psychoanalytic groups in the US organised outside the American), but still retaining its internal full control over training and membership. The meanings and consequences for psychoanalysis of this special status of the American are explored.

  3. Statistics of Seismic Extremes and Associated Sequences (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.

    2009-12-01

    Regretfully, many seismological studies use methods of mathematical statistics, well-established in theory and other brunches of scientific knowledge, without enough testing the issues of applicability. As a result, the naïve or, conversely, delicately-designed models are erroneously considered nowadays to represent seismic phenomena, although evidently contradicting the best documented instrumental observations. Seismic recurrence is not stationary in time and have heterogeneous, possibly, fractal distribution in space. Earthquake size appears to follow power law statistics, i.e., the Gutenberg-Richter relation, so that a sample of seismic extremes at a given locality consists of a few, if any, events. Sequences of earthquakes from reliable instrumental catalogues in a given region are very short for finding “periodicities”, specifically, when compared to the recurrence time of significant seismic events. Therefore, a rigorous, practical approach to search of seismological relations (including earthquake precursors and scenarios) requires a critical investigation of data of different quality, collected in various conditions. In a lack of a critical statistical confirmation or rejection, many claims of a relation remain obscuring guidelines or limitations in modeling realistic sequences of simulated “seismic events”. The statistical evidence from a reach sample of global and regional catalogues of earthquakes presented in the paper illustrates the complexity of seismic statistics, well-established relations, obscuring erroneously accepted models, anecdotal cases of coincidental occurrence, etc.

  4. Generalization of Variants Identified by Genome-wide Association Studies for Electrocardiographic Traits in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Jeff, Janina M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Denny, Joshua C.; Kho, Abel N.; Ramirez, Andrea H.; Crosslin, David; Armstrong, Loren; Basford, Melissa A.; Wolf, Wendy A.; Pacheco, Jennifer A.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Roden, Dan M.; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Crawford, Dana C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements vary by ancestry. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci that contribute to ECG measurements; however most are performed in Europeans collected from population-based cohorts or surveys. The strongest associations reported are in NOS1AP with QT interval and SCN10A with PR and QRS durations. The extent to which these associations can be generalized to African Americans has yet to be determined. Using electronic medical records, PR and QT intervals, QRS duration, and heart rate were determined in 455 African Americans as part of the Vanderbilt Genome-Electronic Records Project and Northwestern University NUgene Project. We tested for an association between these ECG traits and >930K SNPs. We identified a total 36 novel associations with PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, and heart rate at p< 1.0 ×10−6. Using published GWAS data, we compared our results with those previously identified in other populations. Five associations originally identified in other populations generalized with respect to statistical significance and direction of effect. A total of 43 associations have a consistent direction of effect with European and/or Asian populations. This work provides a catalogue of generalized versus non-generalized associations, a necessary step in prioritizing GWAS-identified regions for further fine-mapping in diverse populations. PMID:23534349

  5. 75 FR 51464 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Continued Deeming Authority for... for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities' (AAAASF) request for continued recognition as a... granted to the American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities on November...

  6. 77 FR 37678 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From American Association for Accreditation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Continued Approval of Its Ambulatory Surgery Facilities Accreditation Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, HHS... application from the American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF)...

  7. Enrichment of statistical power for genome-wide association studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inheritance of most human diseases and agriculturally important traits is controlled by many genes with small effects. Identifying these genes, while simultaneously controlling false positives, is challenging. Among available statistical methods, the mixed linear model (MLM) has been the most fl...

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management.

    PubMed

    Seagle, Helen M; Strain, Gladys Witt; Makris, Angela; Reeves, Rebecca S

    2009-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that successful weight management to improve overall health for adults requires a lifelong commitment to healthful lifestyle behaviors emphasizing sustainable and enjoyable eating practices and daily physical activity. Given the increasing incidence of overweight and obesity along with the escalating health care costs associated with weight-related illnesses, health care providers must discover how to effectively treat this complex condition. Food and nutrition professionals should stay current and skilled in weight management to assist clients in preventing weight gain, optimizing individual weight loss interventions, and achieving long-term weight loss maintenance. Using the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for weight management. The evidence supporting the value of portion control, eating frequency, meal replacements, and very-low-energy diets are discussed as well as physical activity, behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Public policy changes to create environments that can assist all populations to achieve and sustain healthful lifestyle behaviors are also reviewed.

  9. Association between neighborhood context and smoking prevalence among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Namratha R; Wen, Ming; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2009-05-01

    To study neighborhood-level determinants of smoking among Asian Americans, we examined 3 neighborhood factors (ethnic enclave, socioeconomics, and perceived social cohesion) and smoking prevalence in a population-based sample. We linked data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey to tract-level data from the 2000 Census. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the associations between smoking and neighborhood-level factors, independent of individual factors. Twenty-two percent of 1693 Asian men and 6% of 2174 Asian women reported current smoking. Women living in an Asian enclave were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08, 0.88). Among men, higher levels of perceived neighborhood social cohesion were associated with lower odds of smoking (AOR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.61, 0.91). The association between contextual factors and smoking differed for men and women. For women, living in an Asian enclave may represent cultural behavioral norms. For men, neighborhood trust and cohesiveness may buffer stress. Smoking prevention and cessation interventions among Asian Americans may be more effective if they address contextual factors.

  10. IGESS: a statistical approach to integrating individual-level genotype data and summary statistics in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingwei; Ming, Jingsi; Cai, Mingxuan; Liu, Jin; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Xu, Zongben

    2017-09-15

    Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that a complex phenotype is often affected by many variants with small effects, known as 'polygenicity'. Tens of thousands of samples are often required to ensure statistical power of identifying these variants with small effects. However, it is often the case that a research group can only get approval for the access to individual-level genotype data with a limited sample size (e.g. a few hundreds or thousands). Meanwhile, summary statistics generated using single-variant-based analysis are becoming publicly available. The sample sizes associated with the summary statistics datasets are usually quite large. How to make the most efficient use of existing abundant data resources largely remains an open question. In this study, we propose a statistical approach, IGESS, to increasing statistical power of identifying risk variants and improving accuracy of risk prediction by i ntegrating individual level ge notype data and s ummary s tatistics. An efficient algorithm based on variational inference is developed to handle the genome-wide analysis. Through comprehensive simulation studies, we demonstrated the advantages of IGESS over the methods which take either individual-level data or summary statistics data as input. We applied IGESS to perform integrative analysis of Crohns Disease from WTCCC and summary statistics from other studies. IGESS was able to significantly increase the statistical power of identifying risk variants and improve the risk prediction accuracy from 63.2% ( ±0.4% ) to 69.4% ( ±0.1% ) using about 240 000 variants. The IGESS software is available at https://github.com/daviddaigithub/IGESS . zbxu@xjtu.edu.cn or xwan@comp.hkbu.edu.hk or eeyang@hkbu.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. American Podiatric Medical Association Best Walking City Competition, 2004.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Allan H; Tzamaras, George P; Scherer, Julia E; Haer, Amie

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the American Podiatric Medical Association conducted its third annual "Best Walking City Competition." This study improved on the 2002 and 2003 studies by increasing the number of cities competing for the title of "Best Walking City" and by including a variety of new measures of walking activities to provide a more comprehensive and equitable basis for comparing cities. The top 20 best walking cities in 2004 were identified from among the 200 largest cities across the United States. Lists of top cities were also developed by city population size and geographic region and by three different types of walking activities prevalent in each city.

  12. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2001-02. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 19.6%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $171 million on electronic…

  13. Novel Loci Associated with PR Interval in a Genome-Wide Association Study of Ten African American Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Anne M.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Evans, Daniel S.; Nalls, Michael A.; Smith, Erin N.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Alonso, Alvaro; Arking, Dan E.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bis, Josh C.; Chen, Wei; Deo, Rajat; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heiss, Gerardo; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Keating, Brendan J.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Yun; Limacher, Marian C.; Liu, Yongmei; Lubitz, Steven A.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Mehra, Reena; Meng, Yan A.; Newman, Anne B.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; North, Kari E.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quibrera, P. Miguel; Redline, Susan; Reiner, Alex P.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, J. Gustav; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Zhang, Zhu-ming; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Murray, Sarah S.; Evans, Michele K.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Magnani, Jared W.; Avery, Christy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The PR interval (PR) as measured by the resting, standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) reflects the duration of atrial/atrioventricular nodal depolarization. Substantial evidence exists for a genetic contribution to PR, including genome-wide association studies that have identified common genetic variants at nine loci influencing PR in populations of European and Asian descent. However, few studies have examined loci associated with PR in African Americans. Methods and Results We present results from the largest genome-wide association study to date of PR in 13,415 adults of African descent from ten cohorts. We tested for association between PR (ms) and approximately 2.8 million genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Imputation was performed using HapMap 2 YRI and CEU panels. Study-specific results, adjusted for global ancestry and clinical correlates of PR, were meta-analyzed using the inverse variance method. Variation in genome-wide test statistic distributions was noted within studies (lambda range: 0.9–1.1), although not after genomic control correction was applied to the overall meta-analysis (lambda: 1.008). In addition to generalizing previously reported associations with MEIS1, SCN5A, ARHGAP24, CAV1, and TBX5 to African American populations at the genome-wide significance level (P<5.0×10−8), we also identified a novel locus: ITGA9, located in a region previously implicated in SCN5A expression. The 3p21 region harboring SCN5A also contained two additional independent secondary signals influencing PR (P<5.0×10−8). Conclusions This study demonstrates the ability to map novel loci in African Americans as well as the generalizability of loci associated with PR across populations of African, European and Asian descent. PMID:23139255

  14. Symptom distress and its association with traditional Chinese medicine use in Chinese American women with cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Sun, Yiyuan; Louie, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    To identify symptom distress related to cancer for a group of Chinese American women in treatment, and to examine their use of various forms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their relationships to specific symptoms they identified. Cross-sectional, correlational. American Cancer Society Asian Initiatives support groups in the state of New York. 97 Chinese American women residing in New York with a mean age of 57 years; the time since diagnosis of cancer ranged from two months to 24 years. The type of diagnosis for the majority of women was breast cancer. A self-reported questionnaire including a demographic data form, a researcher-developed checklist for types of TCM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) were administered. The MSAS-SF has three subscales: global distress index, psychological symptom distress scale, and physical symptom distress scale. Symptoms, symptom distress, and types of TCM. The descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for data analysis. Chinese American women with cancer in treatment reported multiple symptoms, and the three MSAS-SF distress subscale scores indicated moderate symptom distress. Symptoms were positively associated with the use of TCM. Chinese American women in treatment for cancer reported multiple symptoms and moderate symptom distress. Participants with specific symptoms tended to use specific forms of TCM. High prevalence of psychological symptoms for Chinese American women with cancer suggests that oncology nurses should work with mental health providers for symptom management of this population. Oncology nurses also need to stay informed of the growing body of evidence on the benefits of TCM for patients with cancer. Future studies should include an emphasis on the improvement in methodologic quality for studies that investigate using TCM in participants with cancer.

  15. Application of Statistical Association Techniques for the NASA Document Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul E.; And Others

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to create a set of computer programs capable of practical associative processing of NASA's growing document collection, (2) to process the collection with these programs, exhibiting the achievement of a capability to perform associative search of the collection, and (3) to study the use of statistical…

  16. American woodcock (Scolopax minor) mortality associated with a reovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.

  17. Statistical Methods in Ai: Rare Event Learning Using Associative Rules and Higher-Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, V.; Shetty, S.; Iyengar, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    Rare event learning has not been actively researched since lately due to the unavailability of algorithms which deal with big samples. The research addresses spatio-temporal streams from multi-resolution sensors to find actionable items from a perspective of real-time algorithms. This computing framework is independent of the number of input samples, application domain, labelled or label-less streams. A sampling overlap algorithm such as Brooks-Iyengar is used for dealing with noisy sensor streams. We extend the existing noise pre-processing algorithms using Data-Cleaning trees. Pre-processing using ensemble of trees using bagging and multi-target regression showed robustness to random noise and missing data. As spatio-temporal streams are highly statistically correlated, we prove that a temporal window based sampling from sensor data streams converges after n samples using Hoeffding bounds. Which can be used for fast prediction of new samples in real-time. The Data-cleaning tree model uses a nonparametric node splitting technique, which can be learned in an iterative way which scales linearly in memory consumption for any size input stream. The improved task based ensemble extraction is compared with non-linear computation models using various SVM kernels for speed and accuracy. We show using empirical datasets the explicit rule learning computation is linear in time and is only dependent on the number of leafs present in the tree ensemble. The use of unpruned trees (t) in our proposed ensemble always yields minimum number (m) of leafs keeping pre-processing computation to n × t log m compared to N2 for Gram Matrix. We also show that the task based feature induction yields higher Qualify of Data (QoD) in the feature space compared to kernel methods using Gram Matrix.

  18. Recommended dietary pattern to achieve adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the America...

  19. Anxiety Reporting and Culturally Associated Interpretation Biases and Cognitive Schemas: A Comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, R. Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M.; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American…

  20. [American integumentary leishmaniasis associated with AIDS in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Romero, Héctor D; Taranto, Néstor J; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2004-01-01

    Migration of HIV infected individuals from cities to small towns and rural areas spreads AIDS among non urban population, superimposing HIV with other endemic or epidemic infections as parasitoses. This situation is a big challenge to public health because in most cases the association between these infections worsens both prognoses. We present here the first case in Argentina of AIDS associated to a mucocutaneous form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The patient was from Orán, an area where in the middle eighties, an epidemic outbreak took place. By now more than 2000 cases have been parasitologically confirmed in our Institute and the causing species were identified as Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amasonensis. Considering the existence of co-infection of HIV and Leishmania, it is recommended that in patients from endemic areas with records of cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers, even healed, leishmaniasis must be investigated, among other diseases.

  1. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Associations between residential segregation and smoking during pregnancy among urban African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bell, Janice F; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Mayer, Jonathan D; Almgren, Gunnar R; Huebner, Colleen E

    2007-05-01

    Approximately 10% of African-American women smoke during pregnancy compared to 16% of White women. While relatively low, the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy among African-American women exceeds the Healthy People 2010 goal of 1%. In the current study, we address gaps in extant research by focusing on associations between racial/ethnic residential segregation and smoking during pregnancy among urban African-American women. We linked measures of segregation to birth certificates and data from the 2000 census in a sample of US-born African-American women (n = 403,842) living in 216 large US Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Logistic regression models with standard errors adjusted for multiple individual observations within MSAs were used to examine associations between segregation and smoking during pregnancy and to control for important socio-demographic confounders. In all models, a u-shaped relationship was observed. Both low segregation and high segregation were associated with higher odds of smoking during pregnancy when compared to moderate segregation. We speculate that low segregation reflects a contagion process, whereby salutary minority group norms are weakened by exposure to the more harmful behavioral norms of the majority population. High segregation may reflect structural attributes associated with smoking such as less stringent tobacco control policies, exposure to urban stressors, targeted marketing of tobacco products, or limited access to treatment for tobacco dependence. A better understanding of both deleterious and protective contextual influences on smoking during pregnancy could help to inform interventions designed to meet Healthy People 2010 target goals.

  3. Associations between food insecurity and the severity of psychological distress among African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2017-01-31

    Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.

  4. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  5. 77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ..., March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La... Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and... Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National...

  6. Association of lifestyle and demographic factors with estrogenic and glucocorticogenic activity in Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Fejerman, L; Sanchez, S S; Thomas, R; Tachachartvanich, P; Riby, J; Gomez, S L; John, E M; Smith, M T

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer risk is higher in US-born than in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinas and also increases with greater length of US residency. It is only partially known what factors contribute to these patterns of risk. To gain new insights, we tested the association between lifestyle and demographic variables and breast cancer status, with measures of estrogenic (E) and glucocorticogenic (G) activity in Mexican American women. We used Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assays to measure E and G activity in total plasma from 90 Mexican American women, without a history of breast cancer at the time of recruitment, from the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. We tested associations of nativity, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with E and G activity using linear regression models. We did not find a statistically significant difference in E or G activity by nativity. However, in multivariable models, E activity was associated with Indigenous American ancestry (19% decrease in E activity per 10% increase in ancestry, P = 0.014) and with length of US residency (28% increase in E activity for every 10 years, P = 0.035). G activity was associated with breast cancer status (women who have developed breast cancer since recruitment into the study had 21% lower G activity than those who have not, P = 0.054) and alcohol intake (drinkers had 25% higher G activity than non-drinkers, P = 0.015). These associations suggest that previously reported breast cancer risk factors such as genetic ancestry and alcohol intake might in part be associated with breast cancer risk through mechanisms linked to the endocrine system.

  7. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals:...

  8. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ..., March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La... Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM...

  9. Preventing cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a common agenda for the American Cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Harmon; Kahn, Richard; Robertson, Rose Marie

    2004-07-01

    Collectively, cardiovascular disease (including stroke), cancer, and diabetes account for approximately two-thirds of all deaths in the U.S. and about US dollars 700 billion in direct and indirect economic costs each year. Current approaches to health promotion and prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes do not approach the potential of the existing state of knowledge. A concerted effort to increase application of public health and clinical interventions of known efficacy to reduce prevalence of tobacco use, poor diet, and insufficient physical activity-the major risk factors for these diseases-and to increase utilization of screening tests for their early detection could substantially reduce the human and economic cost of these diseases. In this article, the American Cancer Society, American Diabetes Association, and American Heart Association review strategies for the prevention and early detection of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, as the beginning of a new collaboration among the three organizations. The goal of this joint venture is to stimulate substantial improvements in primary prevention and early detection through collaboration between key organizations, greater public awareness about healthy lifestyles, legislative action that results in more funding for and access to primary prevention programs and research, and reconsideration of the concept of the periodic medical checkup as an effective platform for prevention, early detection, and treatment.

  10. COMBAT: A Combined Association Test for Genes Using Summary Statistics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghui; Huang, Jianfei; Liu, Yiyuan; Ma, Li; Potash, James B; Han, Shizhong

    2017-09-06

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used for identifying common variants associated with complex diseases. Traditional analysis of GWAS typically examines one marker at a time, usually single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify individual variants associated with a disease. However, due to the small effect sizes of common variants, the power to detect individual risk variants is generally low. As a complementary approach to SNP-level analysis, a variety of gene-based association tests have been proposed. However, the power of existing gene-based tests is often dependent on the underlying genetic models, and it is not known a priori which test is optimal. Here we propose a combined association test (COMBAT) for genes, which incorporates strengths from existing gene-based tests and shows higher overall performance than any individual test. Our method does not require raw genotype or phenotype data, but needs only SNP-level p-values and correlations between SNPs from ancestry-matched samples. Extensive simulations showed that COMBAT has an appropriate type I error rate, maintains higher power across a wide range of genetic models, and is more robust than any individual gene-based test. We further demonstrated the superior performance of COMBAT over several other gene-based tests through reanalysis of the meta-analytic results of GWAS for bipolar disorder. Our method allows for the more powerful application of gene-based analysis to complex diseases, which will have broad use given that GWAS summary results are increasingly publicly available. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.

  11. Position of the American Dietetic association: fat replacers.

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the majority of fat replacers, when used in moderation by adults, can be safe and useful adjuncts to lowering the fat content of foods and may play a role in decreasing total dietary energy and fat intake. Moderate use of low-calorie, reduced-fat foods, combined with low total energy intake, could potentially promote dietary intake consistent with the objectives of Healthy People 2010 and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans . The obesity epidemic in the nation has been attributed to energy imbalance, mainly because of increased food consumption and/or sedentary lifestyle, or both. Evidence suggests that lowering total energy intake along with a reduction in total fat intake can have a substantial impact on body weight and risk of chronic diseases. Fat replacers are used to provide some or all of the functional properties of fat, while providing fewer calories than the fat being replaced, and are used in a variety of products, from baked goods to frozen desserts. Fat replacers can be effective only if they lower the total caloric content of the food and if the consumer uses these foods as part of a balanced meal plan. Consumers should not be led to believe that fat- and calorie-reduced products can be consumed in unlimited amounts. Fat replacers are most useful when they help with calorie control and when their use encourages the consumption of foods delivering important nutrients.

  12. Characteristics of American Psychological Association Division 40 (clinical neuropsychology) Fellows.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; Collins, K C

    2011-11-01

    Fellow status is an honor bestowed on American Psychological Association (APA) members who have made unusual and outstanding contributions to the field of psychology that have had a national impact. Thus far no studies have examined the characteristics of the individuals who have received this honor. This study examined publicly available data for 157 Division 40 Fellows. Fellows comprise 3.7% of the 4273 members of the division compared to 5.7% of the entire APA membership. Fellows are predominantly male (73%). All but two fellows had earned a Ph.D. with the average time since granting of the doctoral degree of 17.1 ± 6 years (median=16 years) with a range of 7-40 years post-degree. Slightly over half of the fellows hold board certification (53%) in the American Board of Professional Psychology. The largest group of fellows reports their primary employment currently as a university-affiliated medical setting (48%). These data serve to characterize current Division 40 Fellows for the field of neuropsychology and may provide useful information to assist prospective fellow applicants.

  13. Fusing Data Mining, Machine Learning and Traditional Statistics to Detect Biomarkers Associated with Depression.

    PubMed

    Dipnall, Joanna F; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Dodd, Seetal; Jacka, Felice N; Meyer, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Atheoretical large-scale data mining techniques using machine learning algorithms have promise in the analysis of large epidemiological datasets. This study illustrates the use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection that took account of missing data and complex survey design to identify key biomarkers associated with depression from a large epidemiological study. The study used a three-step methodology amalgamating multiple imputation, a machine learning boosted regression algorithm and logistic regression, to identify key biomarkers associated with depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010). Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 67 biomarkers were analysed. Covariates in this study included gender, age, race, smoking, food security, Poverty Income Ratio, Body Mass Index, physical activity, alcohol use, medical conditions and medications. The final imputed weighted multiple logistic regression model included possible confounders and moderators. After the creation of 20 imputation data sets from multiple chained regression sequences, machine learning boosted regression initially identified 21 biomarkers associated with depression. Using traditional logistic regression methods, including controlling for possible confounders and moderators, a final set of three biomarkers were selected. The final three biomarkers from the novel hybrid variable selection methodology were red cell distribution width (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30), serum glucose (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.01) and total bilirubin (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.28). Significant interactions were found between total bilirubin with Mexican American/Hispanic group (p = 0.016), and current smokers (p<0.001). The systematic use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection, fusing data mining techniques using a machine learning algorithm with traditional statistical modelling, accounted for missing data and complex survey sampling methodology and

  14. Association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 with coronary calcification among American and Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    El-Saed, Aiman; Sekikawa, Akira; Zaky, Riad Wahid; Kadowaki, Takashi; Takamiya, Tomoko; Okamura, Tomonori; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously reported that the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) was substantially lower among Japanese than American men despite a less favorable profile of many traditional risk factors in Japanese men. OBJECTIVES To determine whether lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels are related to the difference in the prevalence of CAC between the two populations. METHODS A total of 200 men aged 40-49 were examined: 100 residents in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States, and 100 residents in Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan. Coronary calcium score (CCS) was evaluated by electron-beam tomography, Lp-PLA2 levels, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subclasses and other factors were assessed centrally in the United States. RESULTS Lp-PLA2 levels were higher among American than Japanese men (Mean±SD 301.7±82.6 versus 275.9±104.7 ng/mL, respectively, p=0.06). Among all Japanese men and those with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL, there was an inverse association of the prevalence of CCS>0 with the tertile groups of Lp-PLA2 levels (p=0.08 and p=0.03, respectively). American men did not have any association between CCS>0 with the tertile groups of Lp-PLA2 (p=0.62). Although Lp-PLA2 among both populations correlated positively with LDL and total cholesterol, American and Japanese men had different correlations with NMR lipoprotein subclasses. Reported high odds ratio for CCS>0 among American compared to Japanese men was not reduced after adjusting for Lp-PLA2 levels. CONCLUSION Lp-PLA2 may have different mechanisms of action among American and Japanese men. Lp-PLA2 levels can not explain the observed CAC differences between the two populations. PMID:18094516

  15. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    PubMed

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The American Medical Student Association's contributions to advancing primary care.

    PubMed

    Hedgecock, Joan; Steyer, Terrence E

    2008-11-01

    The American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Foundation is the programming arm of AMSA. The AMSA Foundation has administered several Title VII contracts designed to enhance the primary care education, leadership development, and cultural competence of the next generation of physicians, dentists, and other graduate-level health professionals. The authors discuss several AMSA programs developed with Title VII funding: Generalist Physicians in Training; Promoting, Reinforcing, and Improving Medical Education; National Primary Care Week; Leadership Seminar Series; and Achieving Diversity in Dentistry and Medicine. This article summarizes the work of these programs and discusses the impact that decreased funding has had on the training of our nation's future health professionals.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  17. 67 th annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association.

    PubMed

    Colca, Jerry R

    2007-10-01

    The 67 th meeting of the American Diabetes Association was held in Chicago on 22 - 26 June. This annual meeting continues to grow in size and scope and is a unique combination of basic science and medical science but also incorporates all aspects of healthcare and pharmaceutical business relating to the treatment of diabetes. The meeting was composed of general sessions, symposia summarizing the status of various fields of study and medical practice, together with both oral and poster presentations of new, previously unpublished research. The abstracts are published in Diabetes and a collection of the information can be found online with very useful summaries from the final day. These contain personalized summaries of key findings of the meetings as seen by key researches in the field. In this Meeting Highlights article, the key take-away messages are summarized from the author's point of view.

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: oral health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie C

    2007-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The American Dietetic Association supports the integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics and dental professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between nutrition and the integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a synergistic bidirectional relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and terminal systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact the functional ability to eat as well as diet and nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet may affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases. As we advance in our discoveries of the links between oral and nutrition health, practitioners of both disciplines must learn to provide screening, baseline education, and referral to each other as part of comprehensive client/patient care. Dietetics practice requires registered dietitians to provide medical nutrition therapy that incorporates a person's total health needs, including oral health. Inclusion of both didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in both dental and dietetic education programs. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics and dentistry in research, education, and delineation of health provider practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation.

  19. Obesity in American Indian and Mexican American Men and Women: Associations with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular autonomic control. Cardiovascular autonomic control, systolic and diastolic mean BP, and body mass index were obtained from one hundred thirty-two American Indian and Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Men had a significant greater systolic and diastolic BP and were more likely to develop systolic prehypertension and hypertension than women. Obese participants showed greater mean heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic BP than nonobese participants. Obese men also exhibited greater cardiac sympathetic activity and lower cardiovagal control than obese women. These results suggest that obesity and gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic control may contribute to risk for cardiovascular disorders in this sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans. PMID:24024026

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Bonnie L; Perkin, Judy E

    2003-09-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among dietetics professionals, academics, representatives of the agriculture and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technologic innovation and applications, and supporting further research. Numerous bacterial, viral, and chemical food and water threats exist with certain populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, those in institutionalized settings, and the immune compromised being at high risk. Recent outbreaks of food and waterborne disease and threats of bioterrorism have focused attention on the safety of US food and water systems. The US government and other entities have developed programs to address challenges associated with maintaining food and water safety. Safety initiatives such as the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis Critical Point (HACCP), revisions to the Food Code, and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations provide a framework to evaluate current and future challenges to the safety of food and water systems. Dietetics professionals should take a proactive role in ensuring that appropriate food and water safety practices are followed and can also assume major roles in food and water safety education and research.

  1. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.

  2. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Jeneka A.; O’Neil, Maya E.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; McWhirter, Ellen H.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented. PMID:24324283

  3. Factors influencing the decline in stroke mortality: a statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T; Roccella, Edward J; Deutsch, Anne F; Fornage, Myriam; George, Mary G; Howard, George; Kissela, Brett M; Kittner, Steven J; Lichtman, Judith H; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Schwamm, Lee H; Smith, Eric E; Towfighi, Amytis

    2014-01-01

    Stroke mortality has been declining since the early 20th century. The reasons for this are not completely understood, although the decline is welcome. As a result of recent striking and more accelerated decreases in stroke mortality, stroke has fallen from the third to the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. This has prompted a detailed assessment of the factors associated with the change in stroke risk and mortality. This statement considers the evidence for factors that have contributed to the decline and how they can be used in the design of future interventions for this major public health burden. Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair and co-chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiological studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on this document and approved the final version. The document underwent extensive American Heart Association internal peer review, Stroke Council leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. The decline in stroke mortality over the past decades represents a major improvement in population health and is observed for both sexes and for all racial/ethnic and age groups. In addition to the overall impact on fewer lives lost to stroke, the major decline in stroke mortality seen among people <65 years of age represents a reduction in years of

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  5. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON MENOPAUSE-2017 UPDATE.

    PubMed

    Cobin, Rhoda H; Goodman, Neil F

    2017-07-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Position Statement is designed to update the previous menopause clinical practice guidelines published in 2011 but does not replace them. The current document reviews new clinical trials published since then as well as new information regarding possible risks and benefits of therapies available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. AACE reinforces the recommendations made in its previous guidelines and provides additional recommendations on the basis of new data. A summary regarding this position statement is listed below: New information available from randomized clinical trials and epidemiologic studies reported after 2011 was critically reviewed. No previous recommendations from the 2011 menopause clinical practice guidelines have been reversed or changed. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, SERMs, and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. New recommendations in this position statement include: 1. the use of menopausal hormone therapy in symptomatic postmenopausal women should be based on consideration of all risk factors for

  6. Association between Obesity and History of Abuse among American Indians in Rural California.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Felicia; Stemmler, M Susan; Nandy, Karabi

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with obesity among American Indians. A cross-sectional survey of American Indian adults (N=459) was conducted at 13 rural reservation sites in California. Participants responded to a survey about their health and wellness perceptions. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to assess obesity. A predictive model for BMI was built using a generalized regression model. Having high blood pressure and having a history of verbal abuse in childhood were significant predictors of higher BMI. Participants with high blood pressure were likely to have 3.2 units of BMI higher on average than those who do not have high blood pressure (p-value <0.0001). Similarly, those with a history of childhood verbal abuse were likely to have 1.9 units higher BMI on average compared to those with no such history. Having a history of diabetes or sexual abuse in childhood trend towards increased BMI, although not statistically significant. Identifying childhood trauma and its impact on adult obesity rates among American Indians provides new avenues for intervention. Efforts to reduce over weight and obesity should include culturally sensitive interventions to ameliorate and repair what is lost through personal violations of stigma, abuse or neglect.

  7. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A.; Lambert, Sharon F.; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in grades 7 – 10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: (1) increasing, (2) decreasing, and (3) stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and were more likely to be in the increasing group. Results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years. PMID:24955844

  8. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  9. Association of Genetic Loci with Sleep Apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: The Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Goodloe, Robert; De, Gourab; Kowgier, Matthew; Weng, Jia; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Cade, Brian; Fulop, Tibor; Gharib, Sina A.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Hillman, David; Larkin, Emma K.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Li, Li; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Palmer, Lyle; Zee, Phyllis; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15) in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK) gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10−6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3) gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts. Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis. PMID:23155414

  10. Background Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in North American Residences (1990 – 2005): A Compilation of Statistics for Assessing Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical report presents a summary of indoor air studies that measured background concentrations of VOCs in the indoor air of thousands of North American residences and an evaluation and compilation of their reported statistical information.

  11. [Statistical validity of the Mexican Food Security Scale and the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale].

    PubMed

    Villagómez-Ornelas, Paloma; Hernández-López, Pedro; Carrasco-Enríquez, Brenda; Barrios-Sánchez, Karina; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Melgar-Quiñónez, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    This article validates the statistical consistency of two food security scales: the Mexican Food Security Scale (EMSA) and the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). Validity tests were conducted in order to verify that both scales were consistent instruments, conformed by independent, properly calibrated and adequately sorted items, arranged in a continuum of severity. The following tests were developed: sorting of items; Cronbach's alpha analysis; parallelism of prevalence curves; Rasch models; sensitivity analysis through mean differences' hypothesis test. The tests showed that both scales meet the required attributes and are robust statistical instruments for food security measurement. This is relevant given that the lack of access to food indicator, included in multidimensional poverty measurement in Mexico, is calculated with EMSA.

  12. Assessing statistical significance in multivariable genome wide association analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buzdugan, Laura; Kalisch, Markus; Navarro, Arcadi; Schunk, Daniel; Fehr, Ernst; Bühlmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Although Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) genotype a very large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the data are often analyzed one SNP at a time. The low predictive power of single SNPs, coupled with the high significance threshold needed to correct for multiple testing, greatly decreases the power of GWAS. Results: We propose a procedure in which all the SNPs are analyzed in a multiple generalized linear model, and we show its use for extremely high-dimensional datasets. Our method yields P-values for assessing significance of single SNPs or groups of SNPs while controlling for all other SNPs and the family wise error rate (FWER). Thus, our method tests whether or not a SNP carries any additional information about the phenotype beyond that available by all the other SNPs. This rules out spurious correlations between phenotypes and SNPs that can arise from marginal methods because the ‘spuriously correlated’ SNP merely happens to be correlated with the ‘truly causal’ SNP. In addition, the method offers a data driven approach to identifying and refining groups of SNPs that jointly contain informative signals about the phenotype. We demonstrate the value of our method by applying it to the seven diseases analyzed by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). We show, in particular, that our method is also capable of finding significant SNPs that were not identified in the original WTCCC study, but were replicated in other independent studies. Availability and implementation: Reproducibility of our research is supported by the open-source Bioconductor package hierGWAS. Contact: peter.buehlmann@stat.math.ethz.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153677

  13. Charting the Future of Cancer Health Disparities Research: A Position Statement from the American Association of Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute

    Cancer.gov

    The American Association for Cancer Research, American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and NCI present a unified strategy to promote cooperation in all areas of the cancer health disparities research community.

  14. The American Medical Association stake in the future of US health care: the American Medical Association plan for reform of the US health care system.

    PubMed

    Plested, William G

    2009-02-01

    This article discusses the need for health care reform. The American Medical Association has devised a plan that would allow all Americans to obtain health care coverage. This article discusses that plan and advocates for physicians and patients to demand meaningful health care reform from lawmakers.

  15. Some Prospects for the Future Elderly Population. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Donald G.

    This publication brings together a large number of facts and statistics about the country's growing population of older adults. Data indicate that regardless of their economic situation, the elderly population will not only be growing rapidly in the future but will be changing rapidly as well. The trend toward early retirement coupled with longer…

  16. Analysis of Multicultural Counseling Articles Published by the American Counseling Association July 1980 to June 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Elide M.; Veach, Laura J.

    The purpose of this research was to assess and analyze the frequency and trends of multicultural counseling articles in thirteen journals published by the American Counseling Association (ACA) from 1980 to 1996, with specific focus on four racial and ethnic groups prevalent in the United States: African American, Asian American, Latino, and Native…

  17. Crisis and Opportunity: The Founding of the Association of American Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    It is not a surprise that presidents of American colleges formed an association. What is cause for wonder is why it took them so long. By 1869, there were 563 colleges in this nation. Yet not until 1914 did a handful of presidents feel the need to band together and found the Association of American Colleges (AAC). The Association of American…

  18. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  19. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M; Shih, Regina A

    2016-01-01

    Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8-20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16-18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States.

  20. Map showing locations and statistical parameters of beach and offshore sand samples, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.; Carlson, D.V.; Sallenger, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, sand samples were collected from many of the beaches on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, and in July 1985, three bays were surveyed using side-scan sonar and shallow seismic profiling. During that second trip, scuba divers collected sand samples from the surveyed areas. Dingler and others (1986) describes the study; this report presents the grain-size and composition data for the onshore and offshore sand samples. Locations of the onshore samples are plotted on the map of the island, which is reproduced from Normark and others (1985); locations of most of the offshore samples and side-scan sonar interpretations made during the study are plotted on enlargements (A and B, respectively) of Fagaitua and Nua-seetaga Bays. Lam Yuen (1981), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1980), and Sea Engineering Services Inc. (1980) provide additional information pertaining to the island's beaches.

  1. Health record completion guidelines. American Health Information Management Association.

    PubMed

    DeVitt, M P; Haenke, B M; Picukaric, J M; Kerwin, J M; Hettel, S; Cameron, M; Testa, F A; Fainter, J; Feste, L

    1991-11-01

    It is a pleasure to introduce this important project report to the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) membership. Analyzing records for omissions, notifying physicians of needed information, counting delinquent records, and pursuing late documentation are some of the biggest chores in today's health information management departments. And they are chores that take time away from other priorities--managing, analyzing, and presenting health data, planning and implementing computerization, assessing and meeting customer needs. The heart of this statement is simple: it points out that there are other options to the traditional, detailed, record-by-record analysis. And those options may give us the results we need--timely and complete health records--while freeing up valuable staff time for other priorities. Take a serious look at the statement. If you are eager to make a change in your department's practices in records analysis and completion, it will back you up. If you are comparing the value of your department's records completion work to its benefit, this statement will give you ideas for change. And if you don't think you'd ever challenge tradition, this statement will give you food for thought. An added value to this statement is the fact that the ideas in it, and the very statement itself, are the product of our own profession. We are fortunate that leading-edge practitioners gave their expertise to the entire profession. The members of the strategy group for this project are listed above, we thank them for their wisdom.

  2. Encephalitis-Associated Hospitalizations among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Mehal, Jason M.; Holman, Robert C.; Vora, Neil M.; Blanton, Jesse; Gordon, Paul H.; Cheek, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Encephalitis produces considerable morbidity in the United States, but morbidity rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have not been described. Hospitalization records listing an encephalitis diagnosis were analyzed by using Indian Health Service direct/contract inpatient data. For 1998–2010, there were 436 encephalitis-associated hospitalizations among AI/AN people, an average annual age-adjusted hospitalization rate of 3.1/100,000 population. The rate for infants (11.9) was more than double that for any other age group. Death occurred for 4.1% of hospitalizations. Consistent with reports for the general U.S. population, the rate was high among infants and most (53.9%) hospitalizations were of unexplained etiology. The average annual rate during the study period appeared lower than for the general U.S. population, due particularly to lower rates in the elderly. Future community-based surveillance and mortality studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine reasons underlying the low rates of encephalitis in AI/AN people. PMID:24515941

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition misinformation.

    PubMed

    Ayoob, Keith-Thomas; Duyff, Roberta L; Quagliani, Diane

    2002-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that food and nutrition misinformation can have harmful effects on the health and economic status of consumers. It is the role of nationally credentialed dietetics professionals to advocate for and promote sound, science-based nutrition information to the public, function as primary nutrition educators to health professionals, and actively counter and correct food and nutrition misinformation. The federal government has recognized the strong link between nutrition and health in recent years. Consumers are taking greater responsibility for self-care and are hungry for food and nutrition information, creating opportunities for nutrition misinformation, health fraud, and quackery to flourish. The media are consumers' leading source of nutrition information, but news reports rarely provide enough context for consumers to interpret the advice given. Promoters turn preliminary findings into sales pitches with baseless claims, often for the sole purpose of economic gain. Effective nutrition communication is consumer focused and presented with sufficient context to allow consumers to weigh the information and determine whether it applies to his or her unique needs. Nationally credentialed dietetics professionals are best prepared to communicate sound advice and scientific advances about nutrition. These dietetics professionals have a responsibility to take an active role in providing accurate, easily understood food and nutrition information, interpreting emerging research for media and consumers and encouraging consumers to look for credentialed dietetics professionals as nutrition experts.

  4. Association between prostate cancer in black Americans and an allele of the PADPRP pseudogene locus on chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, J.A.; Suarez, B.K.; Donis-Keller, H.

    1996-02-01

    Black American men have a higher incidence of cancer of the prostate (CAP), multiple myeloma, and lung cancer than do white American men. The basis for these differences no doubt includes environmental influences, because American blacks have also been found to have a higher incidence of CAP than do African blacks. However, genetic factors may play a role as well. For example, Lyn et al. reported an increase in the frequency of an allele of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) pseudogene locus on chromosome 13 in black Americans with CAP, suggesting the presence of a disease-susceptibility locus. Since only nine CAP patients were studied, proof of the significance of the finding for the general population of black Americans will rely on independent replication of the result and studies with larger sample sizes. We have doubled the number of black American CAP patients studied at the PADPRP pseudogene locus on chromosome 13 and compared them with white Americans with CAP, along with reference samples. In addition, we have determined allele frequencies by using a larger number of white individuals, from the CEPH reference pedigree resource, and a larger number of black Americans than previously reported, which may reflect more accurately the allele frequencies in these populations. We also find a statistically significant association between an allele at the PADPRP pseudogene locus and CAP in black Americans; however, it is not the same allele reported by Lyn et al. Furthermore, we tested CAP tumor DNA for chromosome 13 PADPRP pseudogene region deletions. In contrast to the report of Bhatia et al., we found no evidence for deletions that would suggest the presence of a tumor-suppressor gene in this region of chromosome 13. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2009-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients

  6. Associations between central nervous system serotonin, fasting glucose, and hostility in African American females.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Stephen H; Georgiades, Anastasia; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John C; Siegler, Ilene C; Matson, Wayne R; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Grichnik, Katherine; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Williams, Redford B; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Surwit, Richard S

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown an association between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women. Central nervous system serotonin activity is implicated both in metabolic processes and in hostility related traits. The purpose of this study is to determine whether central nervous system serotonin influences the association between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women. The study consisted of 119 healthy volunteers (36 African American women, 27 White women, 21 White males, and 35 African American males, mean age 34 ± 8.5 years). Serotonin related compounds were measured in cerebrospinal fluid. Hostility was measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Hostility was associated with fasting glucose and central nervous system serotonin related compounds in African American women only. Controlling for the serotonin related compounds significantly reduced the association of hostility to glucose. The positive correlation between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women can partly be explained by central nervous system serotonin function.

  7. Associations between Central Nervous System Serotonin, Fasting Glucose and Hostility in African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Stephen H.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Brummett, Beverly H.; Barefoot, John C.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Matson, Wayne R.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Grichnik, Katherine; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Williams, Redford B.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Surwit, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown an association between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women. Central nervous system serotonin activity is implicated both in metabolic processes and in hostility related traits. Purpose To determine whether central nervous system serotonin influences the association between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women. Methods The study consisted of 119 healthy volunteers (36 African American women, 27 white women, 21 white males, and 35 African American males, mean age 34±8.5 years). Serotonin metabolites were measured in cerebrospinal fluid. Hostility was measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Results Hostility was associated with fasting glucose and central nervous system serotonin metabolites in African American women only. Controlling for the serotonin metabolites significantly reduced the association of hostility to glucose. Conclusions The positive correlation between hostility and fasting glucose in African American women can partly be explained by central nervous system serotonin function. PMID:24806470

  8. Utilization of the American Telemedicine Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Antoniotti, Nina; Bernard, Jordana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) Standards and Guidelines Committee develops practice standards and guidelines. Key to the Committee's mission is dissemination so the standards can be used in the practice of telemedicine. Over a 2-year period, when a standards document was accessed from the ATA Web site, a short survey was completed, but it did not assess how the documents were used once downloaded. A more formal survey was conducted to determine the impact ATA standards and guidelines are having on healthcare delivery via telemedicine. Materials and Methods: A survey was developed and distributed via SurveyMonkey to 13,177 ATA members and nonmembers in November 2011. Results were compiled and analyzed after a 90-day open period for responses to be submitted. Results: The majority of respondents (96%) believe the practice of telemedicine/telehealth should have standards and guidelines and that the ATA and other professional societies/associations should be responsible for developing them. The top uses of guidelines include guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research. Respondents indicating a need for standards and guidelines said the ATA (78.7%) and other professional societies/associations (74.5%) should be responsible for development. When asked to list specific practice guidelines or standards they are using for telehealth, the majority (21.5%) are using in-house (e.g., hospital, company)-developed guidelines, followed by those from professional associations/societies (20.4%) and those developed by the ATA (18.2%). Conclusions: Overall, the survey results indicate guidelines documents developed by the ATA and other professional societies and those developed in-house are being regularly accessed and used in both public and private sectors. Practitioners of telemedicine believe that standards and guidelines are needed for guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research

  9. Relationships between Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Statistics and Bibliometric Indicators: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed 2005-2006 Web of Science bibliometric data from institutions belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and corresponding ARL statistics to find any associations between indicators from the two data sets. Principal components analysis on 36 variables from 103 universities revealed obvious associations between…

  10. Relationships between Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Statistics and Bibliometric Indicators: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed 2005-2006 Web of Science bibliometric data from institutions belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and corresponding ARL statistics to find any associations between indicators from the two data sets. Principal components analysis on 36 variables from 103 universities revealed obvious associations between…

  11. "Going to town": Large-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.

    PubMed

    Bulkes, Nyssa Z; Tanner, Darren

    2016-08-05

    An idiom is classically defined as a formulaic sequence whose meaning is comprised of more than the sum of its parts. For this reason, idioms pose a unique problem for models of sentence processing, as researchers must take into account how idioms vary and along what dimensions, as these factors can modulate the ease with which an idiomatic interpretation can be activated. In order to help ensure external validity and comparability across studies, idiom research benefits from the availability of publicly available resources reporting ratings from a large number of native speakers. Resources such as the one outlined in the current paper facilitate opportunities for consensus across studies on idiom processing and help to further our goals as a research community. To this end, descriptive norms were obtained for 870 American English idioms from 2,100 participants along five dimensions: familiarity, meaningfulness, literal plausibility, global decomposability, and predictability. Idiom familiarity and meaningfulness strongly correlated with one another, whereas familiarity and meaningfulness were positively correlated with both global decomposability and predictability. Correlations with previous norming studies are also discussed.

  12. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses: Seventy-Five Years of Education, Practice, and Research.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Joy E

    2017-04-01

    For the past 75 years, the American Association of Industrial Nurses, and later the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, has advocated for occupational and environmental health nurses by supporting quality undergraduate and graduate education in the specialty and certification through the American Board of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., and providing funding for and dissemination of occupational health nursing research as well as by developing occupational health nursing practice standards, competencies, and code of ethics.

  13. Fusing Data Mining, Machine Learning and Traditional Statistics to Detect Biomarkers Associated with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dipnall, Joanna F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atheoretical large-scale data mining techniques using machine learning algorithms have promise in the analysis of large epidemiological datasets. This study illustrates the use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection that took account of missing data and complex survey design to identify key biomarkers associated with depression from a large epidemiological study. Methods The study used a three-step methodology amalgamating multiple imputation, a machine learning boosted regression algorithm and logistic regression, to identify key biomarkers associated with depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009–2010). Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 67 biomarkers were analysed. Covariates in this study included gender, age, race, smoking, food security, Poverty Income Ratio, Body Mass Index, physical activity, alcohol use, medical conditions and medications. The final imputed weighted multiple logistic regression model included possible confounders and moderators. Results After the creation of 20 imputation data sets from multiple chained regression sequences, machine learning boosted regression initially identified 21 biomarkers associated with depression. Using traditional logistic regression methods, including controlling for possible confounders and moderators, a final set of three biomarkers were selected. The final three biomarkers from the novel hybrid variable selection methodology were red cell distribution width (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30), serum glucose (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.01) and total bilirubin (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.28). Significant interactions were found between total bilirubin with Mexican American/Hispanic group (p = 0.016), and current smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion The systematic use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection, fusing data mining techniques using a machine learning algorithm with traditional statistical modelling, accounted for missing data and

  14. Association Of Church-Sponsored Activity Participation And Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity In African American Protestants, National Survey Of American Life, 2001–2003

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jerome; Belay, Brook; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Dietz, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examines the relationships between participation in the African American church and overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2). Design: This cross-sectional analysis was based on the National Survey of American Life 2001–2003 and included 2,689 African American Protestant (AAP) adults. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overweight/obesity. Two practices were examined – frequency of participation in church activities (excluding services) and frequency of church service attendance. Each practice was analyzed in separate models. Each model included the following covariates: age, marital status, education, poverty, smoking, and region of country. We also adjusted models for sex. Results After adjustment, African American Protestant men (AAPM) who participated in church activities at least weekly were more likely to be overweight/obese (aOR=2.17; 95% CI=1.25, 3.77) compared to AAPM who did not participate in church activities. There was no statistically significant association between overweight/obesity and participation in church activities for AAPW. There was no association between overweight/obesity and attendance of church services for AAP men and women combined. Conclusions For AAPM, participation in church activities was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Further studies are required to determine why this association occurs in AAPM but not AAPW. Studies looking at the wider application of the several successful health initiatives targeting the AAP community should also be considered. PMID:23914418

  15. Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Cooke, Daniel L; Feldmann, Edward; Sheehan, Jason P; Torner, James C

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this statement is to review the current data and to make suggestions for the diagnosis and management of both ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. The writing group met in person and by teleconference to establish search terms and to discuss narrative text and suggestions. Authors performed their own literature searches of PubMed, Medline, or Embase, specific to their allocated section, through the end of January 2015. Prerelease review of the draft statement was performed by expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. The focus of the scientific statement was subdivided into epidemiology; diagnosis; natural history; treatment, including the roles of surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and embolization; and management of ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. Areas requiring more evidence were identified. Brain arteriovenous malformations are a relatively uncommon but important cause of hemorrhagic stroke, especially in young adults. This statement describes the current knowledge of the natural history and treatment of patients with ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations, suggestions for management, and implications for future research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. American Association of Women in Community and Junior Colleges Quarterly; Vol. XVI, Nos. 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAWCJC Quarterly, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The American Association of Women in Community and Junior Colleges (AAWCJC), an affiliated council of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC), produces the "Quarterly" to disseminate information pertinent to the AAWCJC membership and to provide a forum for the discussion of current issues and events. Each issue of the…

  17. The American Association for Agricultural Education: Our Powerful Professional Organization Made Up of Remarkable Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Gregory Thompson presented the 2015 AAAE [American Association for Agricultural Education] Distinguished Lecture at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Agricultural Education in San Antonio, Texas in May, 2015. The article is a philosophical work based upon the author's experiences in the agricultural education profession.

  18. Six new species of anoetid mites associated with North American scolytidae

    Treesearch

    J.P. Woodring; John C. Moser

    1970-01-01

    Only one species of Anoetidae was previously recorded associated with North American Scolytidae. Five new species of Anoetus and one new species of Bonomoia associated with North American bark beetles are described. Two nomen novum (due to homonymy) in the genus Anoetus are proposed. Anoetus varia...

  19. The American Association for Agricultural Education: Our Powerful Professional Organization Made Up of Remarkable Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Gregory Thompson presented the 2015 AAAE [American Association for Agricultural Education] Distinguished Lecture at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Agricultural Education in San Antonio, Texas in May, 2015. The article is a philosophical work based upon the author's experiences in the agricultural education profession.

  20. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C

    2009-04-01

    All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wood, O B; Bruhn, C M

    2000-02-01

    Food irradiation has been identified a sa safe technology to reduce the risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling, and preparation. Food irradiation's history of scientific research , evaluation, and testing spans more than 40 countries around the world and it has been endorsed or support by numerous national and international food and organizations and professional groups. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organism. Often referred to as "cold pasteurization," food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. Food irradiation does not replace proper food production, processing, handling, or preparation, nor can it enhance the quality of or prevent contact with foodborne bacteria after irradiation. In the United States, manufacturers are required to identify irradiated food sold to consumers with an international symbol (Radura) and and terminology describing the process on product labels. In addiction, food irradiation facilities are thoroughly regulated and monitored for worker and environmental safety. Members of The American Dietetic Association (ADA) and other food, nutrition, and health professionals have a responsibility to educate consumers, food processors, manufacturers and retailers about the safety and application of the technology. When consumers are educated about food irradiation, many prefer irradiated products because of their increased safety. It is the position of ADA that food irradiation enhances the safety and quality of the food supply and helps protect consumers from foodborne illness. The ADA encourages the government, food manufactures, food commodity groups, and qualified food and nutrition professionals to work together to educate consumers about this additional food safety tool and make this choice

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition misinformation.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian

    2006-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that food and nutrition misinformation can have harmful effects on the health, well-being, and economic status of consumers. Nationally credentialed dietetics professionals working in health care, academia, public health, the media, government, and the food industry are uniquely qualified to advocate for and promote science-based nutrition information to the public, function as primary nutrition educators to health professionals, and actively correct food and nutrition misinformation. Enormous scientific advances have been made in the area of food and nutrition, leading to a fine-tuning of recommendations about healthful eating. Consumers have become increasingly aware of the nutrition-health link and reliant on nutrition information to base their decisions, and have assumed partial responsibility for changing their eating behaviors. Unfortunately, these same trends also create opportunities for food and nutrition misinformation to flourish. News reports rarely provide enough context for consumers to interpret or apply the advice given, and preliminary findings often attract unmerited and misleading attention. Effective nutrition communication must be consumer-friendly and contain sufficient context to allow consumers to consider the information and determine whether it applies to their unique health and nutritional needs. Consistent with ADA's organizational vision that members "are the leading source of nutrition expertise," ADA recognizes its responsibility to help consumers identify food and nutrition misinformation in the following ways: (a) ADA members should provide consumers with sound, science-based nutrition information and help them to recognize misinformation; (b) ADA members need to be the primary source of sound, science-based nutrition information for the media and to inform them when misinformation is presented; and (c) ADA members should continue to diligently work with other health care

  4. 76 FR 66929 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; The American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Approval of Deeming Authority for Rural... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for recognition as a... of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF's) request for deeming authority for RHCs. This notice...

  5. Mining a clinical data warehouse to discover disease-finding associations using co-occurrence statistics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Markatou, Marianthi; Melton, Genevieve B; Chiang, Michael F; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    This paper applies co-occurrence statistics to discover disease-finding associations in a clinical data warehouse. We used two methods, chi2 statistics and the proportion confidence interval (PCI) method, to measure the dependence of pairs of diseases and findings, and then used heuristic cutoff values for association selection. An intrinsic evaluation showed that 94 percent of disease-finding associations obtained by chi2 statistics and 76.8 percent obtained by the PCI method were true associations. The selected associations were used to construct knowledge bases of disease-finding relations (KB-chi2, KB-PCI). An extrinsic evaluation showed that both KB-chi2 and KB-PCI could assist in eliminating clinically non-informative and redundant findings from problem lists generated by our automated problem list summarization system.

  6. Mining a clinical data warehouse to discover disease-finding associations using co-occurrence statistics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui; Markatou, Marianthi; Melton, Genevieve B.; Chiang, Michael F.; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    This paper applies co-occurrence statistics to discover disease-finding associations in a clinical data warehouse. We used two methods, χ2 statistics and the proportion confidence interval (PCI) method, to measure the dependence of pairs of diseases and findings, and then used heuristic cutoff values for association selection. An intrinsic evaluation showed that 94 percent of disease-finding associations obtained by χ2 statistics and 76.8 percent obtained by the PCI method were true associations. The selected associations were used to construct knowledge bases of disease-finding relations (KB-χ2, KB-PCI). An extrinsic evaluation showed that both KB-χ2 and KB-PCI could assist in eliminating clinically non-informative and redundant findings from problem lists generated by our automated problem list summarization system. PMID:16779011

  7. A Robust Statistical Method for Association-Based eQTL Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Minghui; Jia, Tianye; Wang, Lin; Leach, Lindsey; Hackett, Christine; Marshall, David; Luo, Zewei

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been well established that theoretical kernel for recently surging genome-wide association study (GWAS) is statistical inference of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between a tested genetic marker and a putative locus affecting a disease trait. However, LD analysis is vulnerable to several confounding factors of which population stratification is the most prominent. Whilst many methods have been proposed to correct for the influence either through predicting the structure parameters or correcting inflation in the test statistic due to the stratification, these may not be feasible or may impose further statistical problems in practical implementation. Methodology We propose here a novel statistical method to control spurious LD in GWAS from population structure by incorporating a control marker into testing for significance of genetic association of a polymorphic marker with phenotypic variation of a complex trait. The method avoids the need of structure prediction which may be infeasible or inadequate in practice and accounts properly for a varying effect of population stratification on different regions of the genome under study. Utility and statistical properties of the new method were tested through an intensive computer simulation study and an association-based genome-wide mapping of expression quantitative trait loci in genetically divergent human populations. Results/Conclusions The analyses show that the new method confers an improved statistical power for detecting genuine genetic association in subpopulations and an effective control of spurious associations stemmed from population structure when compared with other two popularly implemented methods in the literature of GWAS. PMID:21858027

  8. Native American Perceptions of the National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics: In Their Own Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Plemons, Bradford W.; Starr, Edward; Reyes, Raymond; Fleming, Candace; Latimer, Anna; Trimble, Joseph E.

    The National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics (NANACOA) initiated a strategy in 1995 to evaluate their programs and prevention efforts. The design and methodology of the project incorporated a "naturalistic" approach to help preserve cultural integrity and respect multiple perspectives. Data were gathered from…

  9. [Cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to the recent statement from the American Heart Association/American Diabetes Association].

    PubMed

    Avogaro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    There is a clear epidemiologic association between glycemic control and cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence of a microvascular benefit by lowering glycated hemoglobin <7% while acknowledging lack of proven macrovascular benefits. It is therefore relevant, in all diabetic patients, to control all major cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. These risk factors, easily measurable, account for 90% of acute myocardial infarction. In this review, the update on prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association is discussed and commented.

  10. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. PMID:23819044

  11. The application of the entropy-based statistic for genomic association study of QTL.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Li, Yumei; Liu, Zaiming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2008-03-01

    An entropy-based statistic T(PE) has been proposed for genomic association study for disease-susceptibility locus. The statistic T(PE) may be directly adopted and/or extended to quantitative-trait locus (QTL) mapping for quantitative traits. In this article, the statistic T(PE) was extended and applied to quantitative trait for association analysis of QTL by means of selective genotyping. The statistical properties (the type I error rate and the power) were examined under a range of parameters and population-sampling strategies (e.g., various genetic models, various heritabilities, and various sample-selection threshold values) by simulation studies. The results indicated that the statistic T(PE) is robust and powerful for genomic association study of QTL. A simulation study based on the haplotype frequencies of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of angiotensin-I converting enzyme genes was conducted to evaluate the performance of the statistic T(PE) for genetic association study.

  12. From association to prediction: statistical methods for the dissection and selection of complex traits in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantification of genotype-to-phenotype associations is central to many scientific investigations, yet the ability to obtain consistent results may be thwarted without appropriate statistical analyses. Models for association can consider confounding effects in the materials and complex genetic inter...

  13. Genome-wide association study of platelet aggregation in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Rehan; Becker, Lewis C; Becker, Diane M; Faraday, Nauder; Yanek, Lisa R; Leal, Suzanne M; Shaw, Chad; Mathias, Rasika; Suktitipat, Bhoom; Bray, Paul F

    2015-05-30

    We have previously shown that platelet aggregation has higher heritability in African Americans than European Americans. However, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of platelet aggregation in African Americans has not been reported. We measured platelet aggregation in response to arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, or epinephrine by optical aggregometry. The discovery cohort was 825 African Americans from the GeneSTAR study. Two replication cohorts were used: 119 African Americans from the Platelet Genes and Physiology Study and 1221 European Americans from GeneSTAR. Genotyping was conducted with Illumina 1 M arrays. For each cohort, age- and sex-adjusted linear mixed models were used to test for association between each SNP and each phenotype under an additive model. Six SNPs were significantly associated with platelet aggregation (P<5×10(-8)) in the discovery sample. Of these, three SNPs in three different loci were confirmed: 1) rs12041331, in PEAR1 (platelet endothelial aggregation receptor 1), replicated in both African and European Americans for collagen- and epinephrine-induced aggregation, and in European Americans for ADP-induced aggregation; 2) rs11202221, in BMPR1A (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type1A), replicated in African Americans for ADP-induced aggregation; and 3) rs6566765 replicated in European Americans for ADP-induced aggregation. The rs11202221 and rs6566765 associations with agonist-induced platelet aggregation are novel. In this first GWAS of agonist-induced platelet aggregation in African Americans, we discovered and replicated, novel associations of two variants with ADP-induced aggregation, and confirmed the association of a PEAR1 variant with multi-agonist-induced aggregation. Further study of these genes may provide novel insights into platelet biology.

  14. Perceived environmental church support is associated with dietary practices among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Condrasky, Margaret D

    2011-06-01

    A unique strength of the African-American community is the importance of church and faith. Interventions promoting health might want to build on these strengths by developing faith-based interventions that encourage churches to create an environment that supports behavior change. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived environmental church support for healthy eating and intake of fruit and vegetables and fat- and fiber-related behaviors, and to examine whether these relationships differ by sex. The design was a cross-sectional study in which participants completed self-report dietary and perceived church support measures before initiation of an intervention. Relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption, fat- and fiber-related behaviors, and perceived church support (eg, total, written informational, spoken informational, instrumental [fruit and vegetable consumption only]), along with Support×Sex interactions were examined. Participants were 1,136 African-American church members from four geographically defined districts in South Carolina. Statistical analyses included regression models controlling for sex, age, years of education, health rating, and body mass index using SAS PROC MIXED. A separate model was conducted for each measure of perceived church support and each type of healthy eating index. Perceived total church support and perceived written and spoken informational church support were associated with considerably higher fruit and vegetable intake and more favorable fiber-related behaviors, whereas only perceived total and perceived written informational support were associated with more low-fat dietary behaviors. Perceived instrumental church support was not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. No sex differences were found. The social and physical church environment can be an important factor influencing the dietary habits of its members. Future faith-based interventions should further explore

  15. Association between SLC2A9 transporter gene variants and uric acid phenotypes in African American and white families

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Mariza; Matsumoto, Martha; Mosley, Tom H.; Kardia, Sharon; Turner, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. SLC2A9 gene variants associate with serum uric acid in white populations, but little is known about African American populations. Since SLC2A9 is a transporter, gene variants may be expected to associate more closely with the fractional excretion of urate, a measure of renal tubular transport, than with serum uric acid, which is influenced by production and extrarenal clearance. Methods. Genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the SLC2A9 gene were obtained in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy cohorts. The associations of SNPs with serum uric acid, fractional excretion of urate and urine urate-to-creatinine ratio were assessed with adjustments for age, sex, diuretic use, BMI, homocysteine and triglycerides. Results. We identified SLC2A9 gene variants that were associated with serum uric acid in 1155 African American subjects (53 SNPs) and 1132 white subjects (63 SNPs). The most statistically significant SNPs in African American subjects (rs13113918) and white subjects (rs11723439) were in the latter half of the gene and explained 2.7 and 2.8% of the variation in serum uric acid, respectively. After adjustment for this SNP in African Americans, 0.9% of the variation in serum uric acid was explained by an SNP (rs1568318) in the first half of the gene. Unexpectedly, SLC2A9 gene variants had stronger associations with serum uric acid than with fractional excretion of urate. Conclusions. These findings support two different loci by which SLC2A9 variants affect uric acid levels in African Americans and suggest SLC2A9 variants affect serum uric acid level via renal and extrarenal clearance. PMID:21186168

  16. Meta-analysis for Discovering Rare-Variant Associations: Statistical Methods and Software Programs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Zheng; Lin, Dan-Yu

    2015-07-02

    There is heightened interest in using next-generation sequencing technologies to identify rare variants that influence complex human diseases and traits. Meta-analysis is essential to this endeavor because large sample sizes are required for detecting associations with rare variants. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of statistical methods for meta-analysis of sequencing studies for discovering rare-variant associations. Specifically, we discuss the calculation of relevant summary statistics from participating studies, the construction of gene-level association tests, the choice of transformation for quantitative traits, the use of fixed-effects versus random-effects models, and the removal of shadow association signals through conditional analysis. We also show that meta-analysis based on properly calculated summary statistics is as powerful as joint analysis of individual-participant data. In addition, we demonstrate the performance of different meta-analysis methods by using both simulated and empirical data. We then compare four major software packages for meta-analysis of rare-variant associations-MASS, RAREMETAL, MetaSKAT, and seqMeta-in terms of the underlying statistical methodology, analysis pipeline, and software interface. Finally, we present PreMeta, a software interface that integrates the four meta-analysis packages and allows a consortium to combine otherwise incompatible summary statistics.

  17. Stimulant dependence and stimulant-associated psychosis: clinical characteristics and age of onset in a native American community sample.

    PubMed

    Gilder, David A; Gizer, Ian R; Lau, Philip; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-01-01

    Native Americans experience some of the highest rates of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) stimulant dependence (SD) of all US ethnic groups. The present report examined the clinical characteristics and age of onset of stimulant use, SD, remission from SD, and stimulant-associated psychosis (SAP) in a Native American community sample. Demographic information, stimulant (methamphetamine or cocaine) use, and lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) psychiatric disorder diagnoses were assessed in 858 Native Americans. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations of demographic, stimulant use, and psychiatric disorder variables with SD, remission from SD, and SAP. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to assess time from first use to the onset of SD. The overall rate of SD was 33%, of remission from SD 73%, and of SAP 17%. Stimulant dependence was associated with older age, less current annual household income, fewer lifetime years of education, intravenous stimulant use, and earlier age of first stimulant use. Remission from SD was associated with older age, currently being married, and never having used stimulants intravenously. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (assessed as a lifetime disorder), increased number of years of daily stimulant use, and intravenous use were independently associated with SAP. Younger age at first use was significantly associated with shorter survival to the onset of SD. Stimulant dependence is prevalent in this population and is associated with less income and education and an earlier age at first use. Intravenous stimulant use adds additional risk for SD, nonremission, and psychosis.

  18. Management of Cardiac Involvement Associated With Neuromuscular Diseases: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Brian; Mahle, William T; Auerbach, Scott; Clemens, Paula; Domenighetti, Andrea A; Jefferies, John L; Judge, Daniel P; Lal, Ashwin K; Markham, Larry W; Parks, W James; Tsuda, Takeshi; Wang, Paul J; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2017-08-24

    For many neuromuscular diseases (NMDs), cardiac disease represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of cardiac disease in NMDs is made challenging by the broad clinical heterogeneity that exists among many NMDs and by limited knowledge about disease-specific cardiovascular pathogenesis and course-modifying interventions. The overlay of compromise in peripheral muscle function and other organ systems, such as the lungs, also makes the simple application of endorsed adult or pediatric heart failure guidelines to the NMD population problematic. In this statement, we provide background on several NMDs in which there is cardiac involvement, highlighting unique features of NMD-associated myocardial disease that require clinicians to tailor their approach to prevention and treatment of heart failure. Undoubtedly, further investigations are required to best inform future guidelines on NMD-specific cardiovascular health risks, treatments, and outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Factors Associated with Successful Functioning in American Indian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silmere, Hile; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2006-01-01

    This study examines environmental and cultural factors related to successful functioning in a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths. The success index included seven indicators: good mental health, being alcohol and drug free, absence of serious misbehavior, clean police record, good grades, positive psychosocial functioning, and…

  20. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: a review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Mike; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun-Young; Lim, Young-Kwon; Prabhat

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to review statistical methods, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends related to temperature extremes, with a focus upon extreme events of short duration that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The statistics, dynamics, and modeling sections of this paper are written to be autonomous and so can be read separately. Methods to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperature events are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplement more straightforward analyses. Various LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale structures, are associated with extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the synoptics and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the associated LSMPs is incomplete. Systematic studies of: the physics of LSMP life cycles, comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages, and LSMP properties are needed. Generally, climate models capture observed properties of heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreak frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Modeling studies have identified the impact of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs to more specifically understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated. The paper concludes with unresolved issues and research questions.

  1. North American Extreme Temperature Events and Related Large Scale Meteorological Patterns: A Review of Statistical Methods, Dynamics, Modeling, and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, William J., Jr.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review statistical methods, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends related to temperature extremes, with a focus upon extreme events of short duration that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The statistics, dynamics, and modeling sections of this paper are written to be autonomous and so can be read separately. Methods to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperature events are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplement more straightforward analyses. Various LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale structures, are associated with extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the synoptics and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the associated LSMPs is incomplete. Systematic studies of: the physics of LSMP life cycles, comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages, and LSMP properties are needed. Generally, climate models capture observed properties of heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreak frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Modeling studies have identified the impact of large-scale circulation anomalies and landatmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs to more specifically understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated. The paper concludes with unresolved issues and research questions.

  2. Association between asthma and obesity among immigrant Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Benjamin J; Scroggins, Christy M; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2014-11-26

    Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime asthma and obesity, whereas among Korean immigrants, a positive association was found between lifetime asthma and overweight status (standard BMI cutoffs). Routine screening for this comorbidity is warranted among immigrant Asian Americans.

  3. Are CRIS Cluster Patterns Differentially Associated with African American Enculturation and Social Distance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…

  4. Years in the Life: Former Presidents Reflect on the American Association of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleazer, Jr., Edmund A.; Parnell, Dale; Pierce, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Pays tribute to the one hundred-year anniversary of the American community college. Presents the reflections of three former American Association of Community College presidents--Edmund Gleazer, Jr., Dale Parnell, and David Pierce--on history, leadership, and changes at the organization. (CJW)

  5. Years in the Life: Former Presidents Reflect on the American Association of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleazer, Edmund J., Jr.; Parnell, Dale; Pierce, David R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers the reflections of three past presidents of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) during the year of the American community college's 100th anniversary. President emeritus Edmund J. Gleazer, Jr., describes some of the changes that altered the AACC during the years 1951-1981. In 1951, when Gleazer was hired as…

  6. Years in the Life: Former Presidents Reflect on the American Association of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleazer, Jr., Edmund A.; Parnell, Dale; Pierce, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Pays tribute to the one hundred-year anniversary of the American community college. Presents the reflections of three former American Association of Community College presidents--Edmund Gleazer, Jr., Dale Parnell, and David Pierce--on history, leadership, and changes at the organization. (CJW)

  7. Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrient Density: Meeting Nutrient Goals within Calorie Needs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although nutrient density is a core nutrition concept of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, there is currently no scientifically valid definition for either nutrient density or nutrient-dense food. The purposes of this American Dietetic Association Practice Paper are to summarize the current...

  8. Linkage analysis followed by association show NRG1 associated with cannabis dependence in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shizhong; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Kranzler, Henry R.; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background A genetic contribution to cannabis dependence (CaD) has been established, but susceptibility genes for CaD remain largely unknown. Methods We employed a multi-stage design to identify genetic variants underlying CaD. We first performed a genomewide linkage scan for CaD in 384 African-American (AA) and 354 European-American (EA) families ascertained for genetic studies of cocaine and opioid dependence. We then conducted association analysis under the linkage peak, first using data from a genomewide association study from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE), followed by replication studies of prioritized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in independent samples. Results We identified the strongest linkage evidence with CaD (lod=2.9) on chromosome 8p21.1 in AAs. In the association analysis of the SAGE sample under the linkage peak, we identified one SNP (rs17664708) associated with CaD in both AAs (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.02, OR=2.93, 95% CI=1.47–5.85, P=0.0022) and EAs (MAF=0.096, OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.05–1.81, P=0.02). This SNP, located at NRG1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, was prioritized for further study. We replicated the association of rs17664708 with CaD in an independent sample of AAs (MAF=0.013, OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.23–6.45, P=0.0068). The joint analysis of the two AA samples demonstrated highly significant association between rs17664708 and CaD with adjustment for either global (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.42–3.85, P=0.00044) or local ancestry (OR=2.33, 95% CI=1.39–3.91, P=0.00075). Conclusions Our study shows that NRG1 is probably a susceptibility gene for CaD, based on convergent evidence of linkage and replicated associations in two independent AA samples. PMID:22520967

  9. Breastfeeding associated with higher lung function in African American youths with asthma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G

    2016-12-08

    In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV(1)% predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p < 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, breastfeeding was associated with a 3.58% point increase in FEV1% predicted (p = 0.01) and a 21% reduction in asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV1% predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.

  10. Longitudinal Gender Disparity in Female Urology Resident Primary Authorship at an American Urological Association Sectional Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony R; Kocher, Neil J; Klausner, Adam P; Raman, Jay D

    2017-08-22

    To further evaluate the academic representation of female urology residents in the United States, we reviewed abstracts from the Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association (MA-AUA) sectional meetings to determine if the recent increase in the number of female urology residents mirrored an increase in this group's abstract authorship. Full text abstracts from the MA-AUA meetings were analyzed from 2008-2014 excluding one joint section meeting. First-author gender was determined by querying publicly available institutional websites, social media platforms, and the U.S. News & World Report. First-author gender was indeterminable in 10 abstracts based on search criteria and these were excluded. Individual abstracts were broadly categorized based on keywords into one of several topics. Chi-squared statistical tests examined the relationship between first-authorship gender, publication year, and abstract category. The number of female urology residents in the MAAUA increased over the study period. A total of 484 abstracts were analyzed. Three hundred ninety-three abstracts (81%) included a male first-author, whereas 81 abstracts (17%) included a female first-author. Female first authorship ranged between 13% and 25% annually. Comparison of male-to-female first authorship was statistically significant at all years evaluated (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between male and female first authorship in all topic categories (P<0.01) except Education/Other (P=0.56). Despite continued gains and increasing female representation within urology, these data highlight significantly fewer female first-authors at the regional Mid-Atlantic section meetings. Larger studies are necessary to identify contributing factors and further areas for improvement toward decreasing gender imbalances within the academic community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Weighted pedigree-based statistics for testing the association of rare variants.

    PubMed

    Shugart, Yin Yao; Zhu, Yun; Guo, Wei; Xiong, Momiao

    2012-11-24

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, researchers are now generating a deluge of data on high dimensional genomic variations, whose analysis is likely to reveal rare variants involved in the complex etiology of disease. Standing in the way of such discoveries, however, is the fact that statistics for rare variants are currently designed for use with population-based data. In this paper, we introduce a pedigree-based statistic specifically designed to test for rare variants in family-based data. The additional power of pedigree-based statistics stems from the fact that while rare variants related to diseases or traits of interest occur only infrequently in populations, in families with multiple affected individuals, such variants are enriched. Note that while the proposed statistic can be applied with and without statistical weighting, our simulations show that its power increases when weighting (WSS and VT) are applied. Our working hypothesis was that, since rare variants are concentrated in families with multiple affected individuals, pedigree-based statistics should detect rare variants more powerfully than population-based statistics. To evaluate how well our new pedigree-based statistics perform in association studies, we develop a general framework for sequence-based association studies capable of handling data from pedigrees of various types and also from unrelated individuals. In short, we developed a procedure for transforming population-based statistics into tests for family-based associations. Furthermore, we modify two existing tests, the weighted sum-square test and the variable-threshold test, and apply both to our family-based collapsing methods. We demonstrate that the new family-based tests are more powerful than corresponding population-based test and they generate a reasonable type I error rate.To demonstrate feasibility, we apply the newly developed tests to a pedigree-based GWAS data set from the Framingham Heart

  12. Statistical challenges for genome-wide association studies of suicidality using family data

    PubMed Central

    Lasky-Su, Jessica; Lange, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of suicide is complex in nature with both environmental and genetic causes that are extremely diverse. This extensive heterogeneity weakens the relationship between genotype and phenotype and as a result, we face many challenges when studying the genetic etiology of suicide. We are now in the midst of a genetics revolution, where genotyping costs are decreasing and genotyping speed is increasing at a fast rate, allowing genetic association studies to genotype thousands to millions of SNPs that cover the entire human genome. As such, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now the norm. In this article we address several statistical challenges that occur when studying the genetic etiology of suicidality in the age of the genetics revolution. These challenges include 1) the large number of statistical tests; 2) complex phenotypes that are difficult to quantify; and 3) modest genetic effect sizes. We address these statistical issues in the context of family-based study designs. Specifically we discuss several statistical extensions of family-based association tests (FBATs) that work to alleviate these challenges. As our intention it to describe how statistical methodology may work to identify disease variants for suicidality, we avoid the mathematical details of the methodologies presented. PMID:20447807

  13. Association of school dropout with recent and past injecting drug use among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Obot, I S; Anthony, J C

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesized that, among African American adults, starting and maintaining injecting drug use (IDU) would be associated with dropping out of high school, and that starting and stopping IDU would be associated with earning the general equivalency diploma (GED) after school dropout. Drawn from the 1991-1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), the nationally representative sample of African Americans consisted of 117 recent and 109 past IDUs. Conditional multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the hypothesized associations. African American high school dropouts and GED holders were 2-3 times more likely to have started and maintained IDU, as compared to high school graduates. Earning the GED was associated with starting and then stopping IDU. These findings merit further investigation because they might have significant public health implications for the prevention of IDU among African Americans.

  14. TODAY: EPA Administrator to Give Keynote Remarks at American Association of Port Authorities Spring Meeting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy will give keynote remarks at the Spring Meeting of the American Association of Port Authorities. Administrator McCarthy will discuss the benefits of pollution

  15. The American Heart Association and Heart Health Education in the Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevis, Betty

    1979-01-01

    Several of the American Heart Association's education programs are described. The newest program is Heart Health Education in the Young, designed to stress the importance of early risk factor education. (JMF)

  16. 2007 American Coal Ash Association membership directory as of June 21, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    A listing of names, addresses, contact numbers and websites is given for 101 members of the American Coal Ash Association. Honorary members are also named. Included are power generation companies, combustion by-product manufacturers and university departments.

  17. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. The American Heart Association and Heart Health Education in the Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevis, Betty

    1979-01-01

    Several of the American Heart Association's education programs are described. The newest program is Heart Health Education in the Young, designed to stress the importance of early risk factor education. (JMF)

  19. Modification of the American Public Health Association procedure for counting yeast and mold in cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Powers, E M; Ay, C C; Eckfeldt, G A; Rowley, D B

    1971-01-01

    The American Public Health Association method for counting low numbers of yeast and mold in cottage cheese was unsatisfactory due to altered pH of the culture medium. A modification of this method is presented.

  20. Obesity-Associated Hypertension: the Upcoming Phenotype in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne

    2017-05-01

    The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.

  1. Statistical properties of measures of association and the Kappa statistic for assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data using double sampling

    Treesearch

    Mohammed A. Kalkhan; Robin M. Reich; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1996-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the statistical properties of measures of association and the Kappa statistic under double sampling with replacement. Three error matrices representing three levels of classification accuracy of Landsat TM Data consisting of four forest cover types in North Carolina. The overall accuracy of the five indices ranged from 0.35...

  2. Association of TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms with reduced acute insulin response in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Nicholette D; Lehtinen, Allison B; Langefeld, Carl D; Campbell, Joel K; Haffner, Steven M; Norris, Jill M; Bergman, Richard N; Goodarzi, Mark O; Rotter, Jerome I; Bowden, Donald W

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation at the transcription factor 7-like 2 locus has been linked to type 2 diabetes in predominantly European-derived populations. The biological basis of these associations remains to be determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate previously associated variants for association with measures of glucose homeostasis in Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans and determine the biological mechanism(s) through which these variants exert their effect. This study was the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRAS-FS). The IRAS-FS is a community-based study of Hispanic-Americans (San Antonio, TX, and San Luis Valley, CO) and African-Americans (Los Angeles, CA). A total of 1040 Hispanic-American and 500 African-American individuals from the IRAS-FS formed the basis of this study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES(S): The primary glucose homeostasis phenotypes of interest in this study were derived from the frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test and include insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, and disposition index. In Hispanic-Americans, significant evidence of association was observed between single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs7903146 and rs112255372 with reduced insulin secretion as measured by acute insulin response and adjusted for the degree of insulin sensitivity (P = 0.032 and 0.036, respectively). Other quantitative measures, e.g. insulin sensitivity or disposition index, were not associated with the single nucleotide polymorphisms examined. In African-Americans there was no evidence of association observed. These results suggest that transcription factor 7-like 2 variants could play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the Hispanic-American population through a mechanism involving insulin secretion.

  3. A statistical analysis of the association between tropical cyclone intensity change and tornado frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical cyclones often produce tornadoes that have the potential to compound the injury and fatality counts and the economic losses associated with tropical cyclones. These tornadoes do not occur uniformly through time or across space. Multiple statistical methods were used in this study to analyze the association between tropical cyclone intensity change and tornado frequency. Results indicate that there is an association between the two and that tropical cyclones tend to produce more tornadoes when they are weakening, but the association is weak. Tropical cyclones can also produce a substantial number of tornadoes when they are relatively stable or strengthening.

  4. Usability of American Nurses Association State Web Sites: A Follow-up Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gina; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Alexander, Gregory L; Wilson, Melissa A; Becker, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    The American Nurses Association supports professional nurses through Web sites administered by state nursing associations, providing important information for current and potential members. Optimal usability of these Web sites is critical for nurses to obtain the information they seek. Heuristic evaluations are general criteria used to evaluate the usability of technology such as Web sites. A study published in 2014, using heuristic criteria from Nielsen's 10 principles and Health on The Web, evaluated 27 state nursing Web sites to identify usability concerns that could prevent nurses from obtaining accurate information regarding state nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to conduct a second heuristic evaluation to assess for changes in a subset of 12 Web sites. The analysis comparing the evaluation from 2012 to 2014 found that mean scores increased and variance decreased; however, no statistically significant difference was found between the two studies. Scores increased in 2014 for "help users to diagnose, and recover from errors," "match between the system and real world," and "consistency and standards." Scores decreased due to absence of mission statements and identification of intended audience. Ideally, Web site designers will use the feedback from this study and make changes that improve their usability to provide information to nurses.

  5. From association to prediction: statistical methods for the dissection and selection of complex traits in plants.

    PubMed

    Lipka, Alexander E; Kandianis, Catherine B; Hudson, Matthew E; Yu, Jianming; Drnevich, Jenny; Bradbury, Peter J; Gore, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of genotype-to-phenotype associations is central to many scientific investigations, yet the ability to obtain consistent results may be thwarted without appropriate statistical analyses. Models for association can consider confounding effects in the materials and complex genetic interactions. Selecting optimal models enables accurate evaluation of associations between marker loci and numerous phenotypes including gene expression. Significant improvements in QTL discovery via association mapping and acceleration of breeding cycles through genomic selection are two successful applications of models using genome-wide markers. Given recent advances in genotyping and phenotyping technologies, further refinement of these approaches is needed to model genetic architecture more accurately and run analyses in a computationally efficient manner, all while accounting for false positives and maximizing statistical power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L.; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S.; Carty, Cara L.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A.; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rosse, Stephanie A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Willer, Cristen J.; Wilson, James G.; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E−06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E−07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E−08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E−10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E−09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r2 with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low

  7. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S; Carty, Cara L; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L; Nickerson, Deborah A; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rosse, Stephanie A; Rotter, Jerome I; Willer, Cristen J; Wilson, James G; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-12-15

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E-06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E-07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E-08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E-10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E-09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r(2) with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low-frequency variants

  8. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous

  10. Highlights of the hotline sessions presented at the scientific sessions 2008 of the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Möllmann, Helge; Nef, Holger; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Summaries and commentaries on trials presented at the hotline sessions of the scientific sessions 2008 of the American Heart Association in New Orleans have been generated from the oral presentations and the webcasts of the American Heart Association. The following papers are discussed: APPROACH, ATLAS, BACH, BICC, HF-ACTION, I-PRESERVE, JPAD, JUPITER, Mass-DAC, Physicians' Health Study II, SEARCH, tailored clopidogrel loading to prevent stent thrombosis, and TIMACS.

  11. 2015 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Focused Update of the 2013 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Regarding Endovascular Treatment: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Powers, William J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Biller, José; Coffey, Christopher S; Hoh, Brian L; Jauch, Edward C; Johnston, Karen C; Johnston, S Claiborne; Khalessi, Alexander A; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Meschia, James F; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a focused update of the current recommendations for the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. When there is overlap, the recommendations made here supersede those of previous guidelines. This focused update analyzes results from 8 randomized, clinical trials of endovascular treatment and other relevant data published since 2013. It is not intended to be a complete literature review from the date of the previous guideline publication but rather to include pivotal new evidence that justifies changes in current recommendations. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Manuscript Oversight Committee. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Recommendations follow the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association methods of classifying the level of certainty of the treatment effect and the class of evidence. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 6 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the selection of patients with acute ischemic stroke for endovascular treatment, for the endovascular procedure, and for systems of care to facilitate endovascular treatment. Certain endovascular procedures have been demonstrated to provide clinical benefit in selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. Systems of care should be organized to facilitate the delivery of this care. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. A Fast Implementation of a Scan Statistic for Identifying Chromosomal Patterns of Genome Wide Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Jacobsen, Douglas M; Turner, Stephen T; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2009-03-15

    In order to take into account the complex genomic distribution of SNP variations when identifying chromosomal regions with significant SNP effects, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association scan statistic was developed. To address the computational needs of genome wide association (GWA) studies, a fast Java application, which combines single-locus SNP tests and a scan statistic for identifying chromosomal regions with significant clusters of significant SNP effects, was developed and implemented. To illustrate this application, SNP associations were analyzed in a pharmacogenomic study of the blood pressure lowering effect of thiazide-diuretics (N=195) using the Affymetrix Human Mapping 100K Set. 55,335 tagSNPs (pair-wise linkage disequilibrium R(2)<0.5) were selected to reduce the frequency correlation between SNPs. A typical workstation can complete the whole genome scan including 10,000 permutation tests within 3 hours. The most significant regions locate on chromosome 3, 6, 13 and 16, two of which contain candidate genes that may be involved in the underlying drug response mechanism. The computational performance of ChromoScan-GWA and its scalability were tested with up to 1,000,000 SNPs and up to 4,000 subjects. Using 10,000 permutations, the computation time grew linearly in these datasets. This scan statistic application provides a robust statistical and computational foundation for identifying genomic regions associated with disease and provides a method to compare GWA results even across different platforms.

  13. ARPEL: A regional petroleum association serving the Latin American oil industry since 1965

    SciTech Connect

    Brussoni, A.

    1993-12-31

    Established in 1965 as a non-governmental international organization aimed to foster the information exchange, cooperation and mutual assistance among its member companies, as well as to promote the economic integration of the Latin American petroleum Sector. Its original name standing for `Association for Reciprocal Assistance of Latin American State Oil Companies` was modified in May, 1993 simultaneously with its by-laws for `Association for Reciprocal Assistance of Latin American Oil Companies`, responding to the sweeping changes of the oil sector in the region. Since May the membership has been opened to the private regional companies.

  14. Statistical Methods Used in "American Educational Research Journal,""Journal of Educational Psychology," and "Sociology of Education" from 1972 through 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Nancy J.; And Others

    The use of particular statistical methods over time was studied in a review of publications from the disciplines of education, psychology, and sociology. Publications studied were the: (1) "American Educational Research Journal"; (2) "Journal of Educational Psychology"; and (3) "Sociology of Education". A total of 221…

  15. Statistical Methods Used in "American Educational Research Journal,""Journal of Educational Psychology," and "Sociology of Education" from 1972 through 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Nancy J.; And Others

    The use of particular statistical methods over time was studied in a review of publications from the disciplines of education, psychology, and sociology. Publications studied were the: (1) "American Educational Research Journal"; (2) "Journal of Educational Psychology"; and (3) "Sociology of Education". A total of 221…

  16. Evaluating the American Nurses Association's arguments against nurse participation in assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This discussion paper critically assesses the American Nurses Association's stated arguments against nurse participation in assisted suicide, as found in its current (2013) position statement. Seven distinct arguments can be gleaned from the American Nurses Association's statement, based on (1) the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements and its injunction against nurses acting with the sole intent to end life, (2) the risks of abuse and misuse of assisted suicide, (3) nursing's social contract or covenant with society, (4) the contention that nurses must not harm their patients, (5) the sanctity of life, (6) the traditions of nursing, and (7) the fundamental goals of nursing. Each of these arguments is evaluated, and none are found to be convincing. This is crucial because the American Nurses Association's official stance on nurse participation in assisted suicide can have significant consequences for the well-being of nurses who care for patients in jurisdictions in which assisted suicide is legally available. The American Nurses Association should therefore have a strong and convincing justification for opposing the practice, if it is to take such a position. That it fails to evince such a justification in its official statement on the matter places a burden on the American Nurses Association to more strongly justify its position, or else abandon its stance against nurse participation in assisted suicide.

  17. Associations Between Genomic Variants in Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes and Alcohol Symptomatology in American Indians and European Americans: Distinctions and Convergence.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Gizer, Ian R; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-10-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been observed in some Native American populations than other ethnic groups such as European Americans (EAs) in the United States. Previous studies have shown that variation in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes may affect the risk for development of AUD and that the prevalence of these variants differs depending on the ancestral origins of a population. In this study, we assessed sequencing variants in the ADH genomic region (ADH1-7) and tested for their associations with AUD phenotypes in 2 independent populations: an American Indian (AI) community sample and an EA cohort from the San Francisco Family Alcohol Study. Association tests were conducted for both common and rare variants using sequencing data for 2 phenotypes: the number of alcohol-related life events and the count of alcohol dependence drinking symptoms. A regularized regression method was used to select the best set of ADH variants associated with phenotypes. Variance component model was incorporated in all analyses to leverage the admixture and relatedness. Two variants near ADH4 and 2 near ADH1C exhibited significant associations with AUD in AIs; no variant was significant in EAs. Common risk variants in AIs were either absent from or much less frequent in EAs. The feature selection method selected mostly distinct yet often colocated subsets of ADH variants to be associated with AUD phenotypes between the 2 cohorts. In the rare-variant analyses, the only association was observed between the whole region and the alcohol-related life events in AIs. Our results suggest that ADH variants, both common and rare, are more likely to impact risk for alcohol-related symptomatology in this AI population than in this EA sample, and ADH variants that might affect AUD are likely different but convergent on similar regions between the 2 populations. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. A Study of Color Association Differences between Americans and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    In intercultural communication, linguistic competence must be accompanied by an understanding of the associations that the speakers share. For communicating in a foreign language, the most important kind of association is indicative association, which is related to the literature, customs, and history of a people. When Japanese people communicate…

  19. A Comprehensive Genetic Association Study of Alzheimer Disease in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Mark W.; Schu, Matthew; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Buros, Jacki; Green, Robert C.; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Shatz, Rhonna; Borenstein, Amy; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the association of genetic variation with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans, including genes implicated in recent genome-wide association studies of whites. Design We analyzed a genome-wide set of 2.5 million imputed markers to evaluate the genetic basis of AD in an African American population. Subjects Five hundred thirteen well-characterized African American AD cases and 496 cognitively normal African American control subjects. Setting Data were collected from multiple sites as part of the Multi-Institutional Research on Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) Study and the Henry Ford Health System as part of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease Among African Americans (GenerAAtions) Study. Results Several significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). After adjusting for the confounding effects of APOE genotype, one of these SNPs, rs6859 in PVRL2, remained significantly associated with AD (P=.0087). Association was also observed with SNPs in CLU, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A, ABCA7, and CD33, although the effect direction for some SNPs and the most significant SNPs differed from findings in data sets consisting of whites. Finally, using the African American genome-wide association study data set as a discovery sample, we obtained suggestive evidence of association with SNPs for several novel candidate genes. Conclusions Some genes contribute to AD pathogenesis in both white and African American cohorts, although it is unclear whether the causal variants are the same. A larger African American sample will be needed to confirm novel gene associations, which may be population specific. PMID:22159054

  20. A comprehensive genetic association study of Alzheimer disease in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Logue, Mark W; Schu, Matthew; Vardarajan, Badri N; Buros, Jacki; Green, Robert C; Go, Rodney C P; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O; Shatz, Rhonna; Borenstein, Amy; Cupples, L Adrienne; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Fallin, M Daniele; Baldwin, Clinton T; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the association of genetic variation with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans, including genes implicated in recent genome-wide association studies of whites. We analyzed a genome-wide set of 2.5 million imputed markers to evaluate the genetic basis of AD in an African American population. Five hundred thirteen well-characterized African American AD cases and 496 cognitively normal African American control subjects. Data were collected from multiple sites as part of the Multi-Institutional Research on Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) Study and the Henry Ford Health System as part of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease Among African Americans (GenerAAtions) Study. Several significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). After adjusting for the confounding effects of APOE genotype, one of these SNPs, rs6859 in PVRL2, remained significantly associated with AD (P = .0087). Association was also observed with SNPs in CLU, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A, ABCA7, and CD33, although the effect direction for some SNPs and the most significant SNPs differed from findings in data sets consisting of whites. Finally, using the African American genome-wide association study data set as a discovery sample, we obtained suggestive evidence of association with SNPs for several novel candidate genes. Some genes contribute to AD pathogenesis in both white and African American cohorts, although it is unclear whether the causal variants are the same. A larger African American sample will be needed to confirm novel gene associations, which may be population specific.

  1. 78 FR 27995 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the U.S. Army... human remains and associated funerary objects to the lineal descendants, Indian tribes, or Native...

  2. 78 FR 27994 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... transfer of control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request...

  3. 78 FR 25470 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Parkway has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, published in a Notice... human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the U.S. Department of the Interior...

  4. 78 FR 27992 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  5. Bayesian Test for Colocalisation between Pairs of Genetic Association Studies Using Summary Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Giambartolomei, Claudia; Vukcevic, Damjan; Schadt, Eric E.; Franke, Lude; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Wallace, Chris; Plagnol, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Genetic association studies, in particular the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have provided a wealth of novel insights into the aetiology of a wide range of human diseases and traits, in particular cardiovascular diseases and lipid biomarkers. The next challenge consists of understanding the molecular basis of these associations. The integration of multiple association datasets, including gene expression datasets, can contribute to this goal. We have developed a novel statistical methodology to assess whether two association signals are consistent with a shared causal variant. An application is the integration of disease scans with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) studies, but any pair of GWAS datasets can be integrated in this framework. We demonstrate the value of the approach by re-analysing a gene expression dataset in 966 liver samples with a published meta-analysis of lipid traits including >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Combining all lipid biomarkers, our re-analysis supported 26 out of 38 reported colocalisation results with eQTLs and identified 14 new colocalisation results, hence highlighting the value of a formal statistical test. In three cases of reported eQTL-lipid pairs (SYPL2, IFT172, TBKBP1) for which our analysis suggests that the eQTL pattern is not consistent with the lipid association, we identify alternative colocalisation results with SORT1, GCKR, and KPNB1, indicating that these genes are more likely to be causal in these genomic intervals. A key feature of the method is the ability to derive the output statistics from single SNP summary statistics, hence making it possible to perform systematic meta-analysis type comparisons across multiple GWAS datasets (implemented online at http://coloc.cs.ucl.ac.uk/coloc/). Our methodology provides information about candidate causal genes in associated intervals and has direct implications for the understanding of complex diseases as well as the design of drugs to

  6. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history

    PubMed Central

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation. PMID:12883579

  7. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history.

    PubMed

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D

    2003-04-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.

  8. Lack of Association between SLC30A8 Variants and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Manju; Peralta, Juan Manuel; Diego, Vincent; Dyer, Thomas D.; Goring, Harald; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter 8 which is involved in packaging and release of insulin. Evidence for the association of SLC30A8 variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconclusive. We interrogated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around SLC30A8 for association with T2D in high-risk, pedigreed individuals from extended Mexican American families. This study of 118 SNPs within 50 kb of the SLC30A8 locus tested the association with eight T2D-related traits at four levels: (i) each SNP using measured genotype approach (MGA); (ii) interaction of SNPs with age and sex; (iii) combinations of SNPs using Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide (BQTN) analyses; and (iv) entire gene locus using the gene burden test. Only one SNP (rs7817754) was significantly associated with incident T2D but a summary statistic based on all T2D-related traits identified 11 novel SNPs. Three SNPs and one SNP were weakly but interactively associated with age and sex, respectively. BQTN analyses could not demonstrate any informative combination of SNPs over MGA. Lastly, gene burden test results showed that at best the SLC30A8 locus could account for only 1-2% of the variability in T2D-related traits. Our results indicate a lack of association of the SLC30A8 SNPs with T2D in Mexican American families. PMID:27896278

  9. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    DOE PAGES

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; ...

    2015-05-22

    This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature extremes. Our specific focus is upon extreme events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic tomore » planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in extreme temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so

  10. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun -Young; Lim, Young -Kwon; Prabhat, -

    2015-05-22

    This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature extremes. Our specific focus is upon extreme events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in extreme temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so more

  11. Risk factors associated with West Nile virus mortality in American Crow populations in Southern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Bélanger, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America, a number of public health authorities designated the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) a sentinel for WNV detection. Although preliminary studies have suggested a positive association between American Crow mortality and increased risk of WNV infection in humans, we still know little about dynamic variation in American Crow mortality, both baseline levels and mortality associated with WNV. We hypothesized that the complex social behavior of American Crows, which is shaped by age and seasonal factors, influences both baseline mortality and WNV mortality in American Crow populations. We examined American Crow mortality data from Quebec for the 2005 WNV surveillance year, which lasted from 5 June to 17 September 2005. The variables of interest were age, gender, body condition index, time of year, and land cover. We used a log-linear model to examine baseline mortality. Logistic regression and general linear regression models were constructed to examine variables associated with mortality due to WNV. We found that both age and time of year were key variables in explaining baseline mortality. These two variables were also risk factors for WNV mortality. The probability that a carcass tested positive for WNV increased with the age of the dead bird and as summer progressed. WNV-positive carcasses also had a lower body condition index than WNV-negative carcasses. We believe that the first major wave of American Crow mortality observed in the early summer of 2005 was the result of natural mortality among young American Crows. Because this mortality was not linked to WNV, it appears that American Crow may not be a good species for early detection of WNV activity. Our data also suggest that second-year American Crows play a major role in propagating WNV during their movements to urban land covers during midsummer.

  12. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Method: Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. Results: The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. Conclusions: The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits. PMID:16183984

  13. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association.

    PubMed

    Neuman, M D; Bitton, A; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits.

  14. In utero exposure to pets is associated with asthma and wheezing in Mexican American children.

    PubMed

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; Kunzweiler, Colin; Combs, Angela M T; Persky, Victoria W

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations of in utero and early life exposure to cats/dogs and birds with the risk of lifetime doctor-diagnosed asthma and other respiratory conditions in a sample of Mexican American (MA) children 4-18 years of age. This study is a population-based cross-sectional investigation of 1816 MA children. We conducted multiple logistic models examining the relationship of asthma and wheezing with exposures to cats/dogs and birds in utero, infancy and at the time of the survey adjusted for country of birth, family history of asthma/allergies, antibiotics use in infancy and other covariates. In adjusted analyses, in utero exposure to cats/dogs and birds jointly was associated with increased odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-6.23), ever wheezing (aOR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.11-3.46) and current exercise-induced wheezing (aOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.27-7.85) compared to children not exposed to these pets in utero. Children who were exposed to both cats/dogs and birds in utero had an elevated, albeit statistically non-significant, odds of current wheezing. Exposures in infancy and at the time of the survey to cats/dogs and birds were not associated with asthma or wheezing. In utero exposure to pets might be associated with an increased risk of asthma and respiratory conditions in a sample of non-affluent MA children.

  15. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS) who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African-American females had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  16. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology.

  17. Nursing students' attitudes toward statistics: Effect of a biostatistics course and association with examination performance.

    PubMed

    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Panagiotarou, Aliki; Malja, Alvaro; Tahirai, Daniela; Zykai, Rountina; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    Although statistical knowledge and skills are necessary for promoting evidence-based practice, health sciences students have expressed anxiety about statistics courses, which may hinder their learning of statistical concepts. To evaluate the effects of a biostatistics course on nursing students' attitudes toward statistics and to explore the association between these attitudes and their performance in the course examination. One-group quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design. Undergraduate nursing students of the fifth or higher semester of studies, who attended a biostatistics course. Participants were asked to complete the pre-test and post-test forms of The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS)-36 scale at the beginning and end of the course respectively. Pre-test and post-test scale scores were compared, while correlations between post-test scores and participants' examination performance were estimated. Among 156 participants, post-test scores of the overall SATS-36 scale and of the Affect, Cognitive Competence, Interest and Effort components were significantly higher than pre-test ones, indicating that the course was followed by more positive attitudes toward statistics. Among 104 students who participated in the examination, higher post-test scores of the overall SATS-36 scale and of the Affect, Difficulty, Interest and Effort components were significantly but weakly correlated with higher examination performance. Students' attitudes toward statistics can be improved through appropriate biostatistics courses, while positive attitudes contribute to higher course achievements and possibly to improved statistical skills in later professional life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  19. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  20. The association of African Americans' perceptions of neighborhood crime and drugs with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Simning, Adam; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Conwell, Yeates

    2012-07-01

    Many African Americans are socioeconomically disadvantaged and live in neighborhoods containing chronic sources of stress. Although environmental stressors can contribute to the development of mental illness, there is a paucity of national studies examining the association of neighborhood crime and drug problems with psychiatric disorders. This study aims to determine if higher levels of perceived neighborhood problems are associated with greater prevalence of 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders among African Americans. To do so, we used cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life, which interviewed a nationally representative sample of 3,570 African Americans. Of these African Americans, nearly 20 and 40% reported that crime and drug use are problems in their neighborhoods, respectively. Respondents reporting high levels of perceived neighborhood crime or drug problems are 1.5-2.9 times more likely to have a 12-month psychiatric disorder and 1.4-2.1 times more likely to have a lifetime psychiatric disorder compared to the other respondents. After accounting for sociodemographics and chronic disease, neighborhood crime remains associated with 12-month mood, 12-month substance use, and lifetime substance use disorders, whereas neighborhood drug problems remain significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime anxiety and substance use disorders. Among African Americans perceived neighborhood problems are widespread and positively associated with psychiatric disorders. Consideration of neighborhood context is important to more comprehensively understand mental illness and its treatment in this population.

  1. Admixture in Hispanic Americans: its impact on ITGAM association and implications for admixture mapping in SLE.

    PubMed

    Molineros, J E; Kim-Howard, X; Deshmukh, H; Jacob, C O; Harley, J B; Nath, S K

    2009-07-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects minorities, such as Hispanic Americans (HA). Prevalence of SLE is 3-5 times higher in HA than in European-derived populations and have more active disease at the time of diagnosis, with more serious organ system involvement. HA is an admixed population, it is possible that there is an effect of admixture on the relative risk of the disease. This admixture can create substantial increase of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in both magnitude and range, which can provide a unique opportunity for admixture mapping. The main objectives of this study are to (a) estimate hidden population structure in HA individuals; (b) estimate individual ancestry proportions and its impact on SLE risk; (c) assess impact of admixture on ITGAM association, a recently identified SLE susceptibility gene; and (d) estimate power of admixture mapping in HA. Our dataset contained 1125 individuals, of whom 884 (657 SLE cases and 227 controls) were self-classified as HA. Using 107 unlinked ancestry informative markers (AIMs), we estimated hidden population structure and individual ancestry in HA. Out of 5671 possible pairwise LD, 54% were statistically significant, indicating recent population admixture. The best-fitted model for HA was a four-population model with average ancestry of European (48%), American-Indian (AI) (40%), African (8%) and a fourth population (4%) with unknown ancestry. We also identified significant higher risk associated with AI ancestry (odds ratio (OR)=4.84, P=0.0001, 95% CI (confidence interval)=2.14-10.95) on overall SLE. We showed that ITGAM is associated as a risk factor for SLE (OR=2.06, P=8.74 x 10(-5), 95% CI=1.44-2.97). This association is not affected by population substructure or admixture. We have shown that HA have great potential and are an appropriate population for admixture mapping. As expected, the case-only design is more powerful than case-control design, for any given admixture proportion or

  2. Comparison of three summary statistics for ranking genes in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Freytag, Saskia; Bickeböller, Heike

    2014-05-20

    Problems associated with insufficient power have haunted the analysis of genome-wide association studies and are likely to be the main challenge for the analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Ranking genes according to their strength of association with the investigated phenotype is one solution. To obtain rankings for genes, researchers can draw from a wide range of statistics summarizing the relationships between variants mapped to a gene and the phenotype. Hence, it is of interest to explore the performance of these statistics in the context of rankings. To this end, we conducted a simulation study (limited to genes of equal sizes) of three different summary statistics examining the ability to rank genes in a meaningful order. The weighted sum of squared marginal score test (Pan, 2009), RareCover algorithm (Bahtia et al., 2010) and the elastic net regularization (Zou and Hastie, 2005) were chosen, because they can handle common as well as rare variants. The test based on the score statistic outperformed both other methods in almost all investigated scenarios. It was the only measure to consistently detect genes with interacting causal variants. However, the RareCover algorithm proved better at identifying genes including causal variants with small effect sizes and low minor allele frequency than the weighted sum of squared marginal score test. The performance of the elastic net regularization was unimpressive for all but the simplest scenarios. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Expanding the statistical toolbox: Analytic approaches for cohort studies with healthcare-associated infectious outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Rebecca A.; Lessler, Justin; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a leading cause of adverse patient outcomes. Further elucidation of the etiology of these infections and the pathogens that cause them has been a primary goal of research in infection control and healthcare epidemiology. Longitudinal studies, in particular, afford a range of statistical methods to better understand the process of pathogen acquisition or HAI development. This review intends to convey the scope of available statistical methodology. Recent findings Despite the range of methods available, logistic regression remains the dominant statistical approach in use. Poisson regression, survival methods, and mechanistic (mathematical) models remain underutilized. Recent studies that use these approaches are looking beyond associations to answer questions about the timing, duration, and mechanism of infectious risk. Summary Logistic regression remains an important approach to the study of healthcare associated infections, but in the context of cohort studies, it is most appropriate for short observation periods, where mechanism is not of primary interest. Additional statistical methodologies are available to build upon risk factor analysis to better inform the process of risk and infection in the hospital setting. PMID:26098502

  4. Statistical properties of MHD fluctuations associated with high speed streams from HELIOS 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavassano, B.; Dobrowolny, H.; Fanfoni, G.; Mariani, F.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    Helios 2 magnetic data were used to obtain several statistical properties of MHD fluctuations associated with the trailing edge of a given stream served in different solar rotations. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the variance matrix, total power and degree of compressibility of the fluctuations were derived and discussed both as a function of distance from the Sun and as a function of the frequency range included in the sample. The results obtained add new information to the picture of MHD turbulence in the solar wind. In particular, a dependence from frequency range of the radial gradients of various statistical quantities is obtained.

  5. Classification of generalized quantum statistics associated with the exceptional Lie (super)algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Stoilova, N. I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    2007-04-15

    Generalized quantum statistics (GQS) associated with a Lie algebra or Lie superalgebra extends the notion of para-Bose or para-Fermi statistics. Such GQS have been classified for all classical simple Lie algebras and basic classical Lie superalgebras. In the current paper we finalize this classification for all exceptional Lie algebras and superalgebras. Since the definition of GQS is closely related to a certain Z grading of the Lie (super)algebra G, our classification reproduces some known Z gradings of exceptional Lie algebras. For exceptional Lie superalgebras such a classification of Z gradings has not been given before.

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  8. The 2016 American Orthopaedic Association-Japanese Orthopaedic Association Traveling Fellowship.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sumon; Cho, Samuel K; Freedman, Brett A; Firoozabadi, Reza

    2017-06-07

    The American Orthopaedic Association-Japanese Orthopaedic Association (AOA-JOA) Traveling Fellowship, which began in 1992 as a collaborative effort between the 2 orthopaedic communities, is aimed at fostering leadership among early-career surgeons through clinical, academic, and cultural exchange. Over 3 weeks, we experienced an extraordinary journey that led us across nearly 800 miles of the picturesque Japanese countryside, with stops at 6 distinguished academic centers. The opportunity to become personally acquainted with orthopaedic leaders in Japan, learn from their experiences, and immerse ourselves in the ancient and storied culture of a beautiful country was one that we will not soon forget. Along the way, we accumulated a wealth of information while enjoying the legendary hospitality of the Japanese people. There is a ubiquitous challenge in delivering cost-effective, accessible health care while maintaining a commitment to education and research. The U.S. orthopaedic community may take solace in the fact that our Japanese colleagues stand with us as partners in this pursuit, and our relationship with them continues to grow stronger through endeavors such as the AOA-JOA Traveling Fellowship. We look forward to honoring our Japanese colleagues in 2017 when we host them in the United States.

  9. Familial Hypercholesterolemia and the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines: Myths, Oversimplification, and Misinterpretation Versus Facts.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Joshua W; Stone, Neil J; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2015-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition resulting in severe, lifelong elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a marked increased risk of early-onset coronary disease. FH is treatable when identified, yet is vastly under-recognized and undertreated. Although the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of cholesterol presented a paradigm shift, we believe that there have been serious oversimplifications, misinterpretations, and erroneous reporting about the current ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines that have contributed to suboptimal care for these subjects. In summary, the ACC/AHA guidelines place tremendous emphasis on the identification of patients with FH, the initiation of high-intensity statin therapy, the need to obtain follow-up lipid values to assess the efficacy and compliance to lifestyle and medical therapy, and the role of nonstatin drugs when needed for optimal care of the individual patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. APOL1 nephropathy risk variants are associated with altered high-density lipoprotein profiles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Zhi, Degui; Limdi, Nita; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Sale, Michèle M.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Two independent coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1), G1 and G2, strongly associate with nephropathy in African Americans; associations with cardiovascular disease are more controversial. Although APOL1 binds plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), data on APOL1 risk variant associations with HDL subfractions are sparse. Methods Two APOL1 G1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the G2 insertion/deletion polymorphism were genotyped in 2010 Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study participants with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based lipoprotein subfraction measurements. Linear regression was used to model associations between numbers of APOL1 G1/G2 risk variants and HDL subfractions, adjusting for demographic, clinical and ancestral covariates. Results Female sex and higher percentage of African ancestry were positively associated with the number of APOL1 G1/G2 risk alleles. In the unadjusted analysis, mean (standard error) small HDL concentrations (μmol/L) for participants with zero, one and two G1/G2 risk alleles were 19.0 (0.2), 19.7 (0.2) and 19.9 (0.4), respectively (P = 0.02). Adjustment for age, sex, diabetes and African ancestry did not change the results but strengthened the statistical significance (P = 0.004). No significant differences in large or medium HDL, very low-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations were observed by APOL1 genotype. Conclusions Greater numbers of APOL1 G1/G2 risk alleles were associated with higher small HDL particle concentrations in African Americans. These results may suggest novel areas of investigation to uncover reasons for the association between APOL1 risk variants with adverse outcomes in African Americans. PMID:26152403

  11. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy--American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    This white paper is the culmination of a 5-year commitment by the Task Force on Professionalism to study and promote pharmacy student professionalism. The Task Force is a collaborative effort involving the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy (APhA-ASP) and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Council of Deans (AACP-COD). The two primary goals of the Task Force are to raise awareness and to lead action on the issue of pharmacy student professionalism. The intended audience for this white paper is the entire pharmacy profession, as each member plays an important role in the development of professionalism, whether he or she is a pharmacy educator, student, practitioner, association executive, or state board member. The discussion and recommendations presented herein are intended to assist these parties as they participate in the development of professional attitudes and behaviors among future pharmacists.

  12. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-02-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds. The writing committee found strong evidence that silent cerebrovascular disease is a common problem of aging and that silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are associated with future symptomatic stroke risk independently of other vascular risk factors. In patients with cerebral microbleeds, there was evidence of a modestly increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke but little prospective evidence on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulation. There were no randomized controlled trials targeted specifically to participants with silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke. Primary stroke prevention is indicated in patients with silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, or microbleeds. Adoption of standard terms and definitions for silent cerebrovascular disease, as provided by prior American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statements and by a consensus group, may facilitate diagnosis and communication of findings from radiologists to clinicians.

  13. CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING: A CONSENSUS CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vivian A; Grunberger, George; Anhalt, Henry; Bailey, Timothy S; Blevins, Thomas; Garg, Satish K; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Orzeck, Eric A; Roberts, Victor Lawrence; Tamborlane, William

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use continue to hamper adoption of this valuable technology for the management of diabetes. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology convened a public consensus conference February 20, 2016, to review available CGM data and propose strategies for expanding CGM access. Conference participants agreed that evidence supports the benefits of CGM in type 1 diabetes and that these benefits are likely to apply whenever intensive insulin therapy is used, regardless of diabetes type. CGM is likely to reduce healthcare resource utilization for acute and chronic complications, although real-world analyses are needed to confirm potential cost savings and quality of life improvements. Ongoing technological advances have improved CGM accuracy and usability, but more innovations in human factors, data delivery, reporting, and interpretation are needed to foster expanded use. The development of a standardized data report using similar metrics across all devices would facilitate clinician and patient understanding and utilization of CGM. Expanded CGM coverage by government and private payers is an urgent need. CGM improves glycemic control, reduces hypoglycemia, and may reduce overall costs of diabetes management. Expanding CGM coverage and utilization is likely to improve the health outcomes of people with diabetes. A1C = glycated hemoglobin AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASPIRE = Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin Response CGM = continuous glucose monitoring HRQOL = health-related quality of life ICER = incremental cost-effectiveness ratio JDRF = Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation MARD = mean absolute relative difference MDI = multiple daily injections QALY = quality-adjusted life years RCT = randomized, controlled trial SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR = Sensor

  14. American Indian Voluntary Associations in Greater Los Angeles: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramstedt, Wayne

    With its large and heterogeneous Indian population, the Los Angeles area offers an excellent opportunity to study patterns in the origin, growth, and structure of Indian voluntary associations, and the leisure time institutions. Since the 1920's more than 100 Indian voluntary associations formed in the area. Established groups influenced the…

  15. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  16. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93.

    PubMed

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Bonutti, Faustino; Msaki, Peter; Kazema, R

    2011-07-01

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates)) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly.

  17. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Tappen, Ruth; Engstrom, Gabriella; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups. Participants and methods Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics). Results Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0), having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013), back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8), feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7), and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6) were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups. Conclusion Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging. PMID:26604718

  18. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) that 5% of children have ADHD 1 . ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition: DSM-5. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Top of ...

  19. A weighted U-statistic for genetic association analyses of sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changshuai; Li, Ming; He, Zihuai; Vsevolozhskaya, Olga; Schaid, Daniel J; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    With advancements in next-generation sequencing technology, a massive amount of sequencing data is generated, which offers a great opportunity to comprehensively investigate the role of rare variants in the genetic etiology of complex diseases. Nevertheless, the high-dimensional sequencing data poses a great challenge for statistical analysis. The association analyses based on traditional statistical methods suffer substantial power loss because of the low frequency of genetic variants and the extremely high dimensionality of the data. We developed a Weighted U Sequencing test, referred to as WU-SEQ, for the high-dimensional association analysis of sequencing data. Based on a nonparametric U-statistic, WU-SEQ makes no assumption of the underlying disease model and phenotype distribution, and can be applied to a variety of phenotypes. Through simulation studies and an empirical study, we showed that WU-SEQ outperformed a commonly used sequence kernel association test (SKAT) method when the underlying assumptions were violated (e.g., the phenotype followed a heavy-tailed distribution). Even when the assumptions were satisfied, WU-SEQ still attained comparable performance to SKAT. Finally, we applied WU-SEQ to sequencing data from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), and detected an association between ANGPTL 4 and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  20. Gene- and pathway-based association tests for multiple traits with GWAS summary statistics.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Il-Youp; Pan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    To identify novel genetic variants associated with complex traits and to shed new insights on underlying biology, in addition to the most popular single SNP-single trait association analysis, it would be useful to explore multiple correlated (intermediate) traits at the gene- or pathway-level by mining existing single GWAS or meta-analyzed GWAS data. For this purpose, we present an adaptive gene-based test and a pathway-based test for association analysis of multiple traits with GWAS summary statistics. The proposed tests are adaptive at both the SNP- and trait-levels; that is, they account for possibly varying association patterns (e.g. signal sparsity levels) across SNPs and traits, thus maintaining high power across a wide range of situations. Furthermore, the proposed methods are general: they can be applied to mixed types of traits, and to Z-statistics or P-values as summary statistics obtained from either a single GWAS or a meta-analysis of multiple GWAS. Our numerical studies with simulated and real data demonstrated the promising performance of the proposed methods.

  1. The Potential for Enhancing the Power of Genetic Association Studies in African Americans through the Reuse of Existing Genotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; John, Esther M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the feasibility of reusing existing control data obtained in genetic association studies in order to reduce costs for new studies. We discuss controlling for the population differences between cases and controls that are implicit in studies utilizing external control data. We give theoretical calculations of the statistical power of a test due to Bourgain et al (Am J Human Genet 2003), applied to the problem of dealing with case-control differences in genetic ancestry related to population isolation or population admixture. Theoretical results show that there may exist bounds for the non-centrality parameter for a test of association that places limits on study power even if sample sizes can grow arbitrarily large. We apply this method to data from a multi-center, geographically-diverse, genome-wide association study of breast cancer in African-American women. Our analysis of these data shows that admixture proportions differ by center with the average fraction of European admixture ranging from approximately 20% for participants from study sites in the Eastern United States to 25% for participants from West Coast sites. However, these differences in average admixture fraction between sites are largely counterbalanced by considerable diversity in individual admixture proportion within each study site. Our results suggest that statistical correction for admixture differences is feasible for future studies of African-Americans, utilizing the existing controls from the African-American Breast Cancer study, even if case ascertainment for the future studies is not balanced over the same centers or regions that supplied the controls for the current study. PMID:20824062

  2. Quick Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... population, or about 25 million Americans, has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past ... by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) tinnitus prevalence was obtained from the 2008 National Health ...

  3. Hepatitis C virus in Mexican Americans: a population-based study reveals relatively high prevalence and negative association with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watt, G P; Vatcheva, K P; Beretta, L; Pan, J J; Fallon, M B; McCormick, J B; Fisher-Hoch, S P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Mexican Americans living in South Texas. We tested plasma for the presence of HCV antibody from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC), a randomized, population-based cohort in an economically disadvantaged Mexican American community on the United States/Mexico border with high rates of chronic disease. A weighted prevalence of HCV antibody of 2·3% [n = 1131, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-3·4] was found. Participants with diabetes had low rates of HCV antibody (0·4%, 95% CI 0·0-0·9) and logistic regression revealed a statistically significant negative association between HCV and diabetes (OR 0·20, 95% CI 0·05-0·77) after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. This conflicts with reported positive associations of diabetes and HCV infection. No classic risk factors were identified, but important differences between genders emerged in analysis. This population-based study of HCV in Mexican Americans suggests that national studies do not adequately describe the epidemiology of HCV in this border community and that unique risk factors may be involved.

  4. Transferability and fine mapping of genome-wide associated loci for lipids in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bentley, Amy R; Meilleur, Katherine G; Doumatey, Ayo P; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Huang, Hanxia; Herbert, Alan; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F; Rotimi, Charles N

    2012-09-21

    A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B). Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits.

  5. Factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among treatment-seeking African American light smokers

    PubMed Central

    Faseru, Babalola; Choi, Won S.; Krebill, Ron; Mayo, Matthew S.; Nollen, Nicole L.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Methods Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified. Results Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population. PMID:21816543

  6. Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. Methods: Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. Results: Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P < 0.0001) and wake up time (P < 0.0001), shorter sleep duration (P < 0.01), and increased daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001). Living in areas with greater ONL also increased the dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and quality (P < 0.0001) and the likelihood of having a diagnostic profile congruent with a circadian rhythm disorder (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although they improve the overall safety of people and traffic, nighttime lights in our streets and cities are clearly linked with modifications in human sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL. Citation: Ohayon MM, Milesi C. Artificial outdoor nighttime lights associate with altered sleep behavior in the american general population. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1311–1320. PMID:27091523

  7. More powerful genetic association testing via a new statistical framework for integrative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sihai D.; Cai, T. Tony; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-01-01

    Integrative genomics offers a promising approach to more powerful genetic association studies. The hope is that combining outcome and genotype data with other types of genomic information can lead to more powerful SNP detection. We present a new association test based on a statistical model that explicitly assumes that genetic variations affect the outcome through perturbing gene expression levels. It is shown analytically that the proposed approach can have more power to detect SNPs that are associated with the outcome through transcriptional regulation, compared to tests using the outcome and genotype data alone, and simulations show that our method is relatively robust to misspecification. We also provide a strategy for applying our approach to high-dimensional genomic data. We use this strategy to identify a potentially new association between a SNP and a yeast cell’s response to the natural product tomatidine, which standard association analysis did not detect. PMID:24975802

  8. More powerful genetic association testing via a new statistical framework for integrative genomics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sihai D; Cai, T Tony; Li, Hongzhe

    2014-12-01

    Integrative genomics offers a promising approach to more powerful genetic association studies. The hope is that combining outcome and genotype data with other types of genomic information can lead to more powerful SNP detection. We present a new association test based on a statistical model that explicitly assumes that genetic variations affect the outcome through perturbing gene expression levels. It is shown analytically that the proposed approach can have more power to detect SNPs that are associated with the outcome through transcriptional regulation, compared to tests using the outcome and genotype data alone, and simulations show that our method is relatively robust to misspecification. We also provide a strategy for applying our approach to high-dimensional genomic data. We use this strategy to identify a potentially new association between a SNP and a yeast cell's response to the natural product tomatidine, which standard association analysis did not detect.

  9. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  10. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2013-09-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (~5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < 0.01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use.

  11. Factors Associated with HPV Vaccination among Cambodian American Teenagers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Kim, Minjin; Kiang, Peter; Shi, Ling; Tan, Kevin; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2016-11-01

    Parents have general influence over their children's health and health behavior. However, given the dearth of specific literature regarding knowledge level and social and cultural factors influencing HPV vaccination behaviors among Cambodian American (CA) parent, it is difficult to develop an effective, evidence-based public health HPV vaccination program. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the HPV vaccine uptakes among CA teenagers and to examine factors influencing HPV vaccine uptakes. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design and a combination of network and targeted sampling methods were used. CA mothers (n = 130) completed a health survey through face-to-face interviews in either English or Khmer language. Girls vaccination rates were 29% while that of boys was 16%. Awareness and knowledge of HPV among CA mothers was very low, and many believed that their daughters, who speak English and were educated in the U.S., had more knowledge about health than they did. Logistic regression analysis showed that CA girls had significantly higher odds of vaccination when their mothers possessed a higher level of English reading ability and had greater awareness and knowledge of HPV. The strikingly low rates of HPV vaccination among CA girls and boys underscore the need to improve vaccination outreach, education, and uptake. The findings can be used to develop targeted public health HPV vaccination programs for CAs, which will reduce cervical cancer disparities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of genome-wide association-identified variants for atrial fibrillation in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Jessica T; Jeff, Janina M; Brown, Nancy J; Pretorius, Mias; Okafor, Henry E; Darbar, Dawood; Roden, Dan M; Crawford, Dana C

    2012-01-01

    Despite a greater burden of risk factors, atrial fibrillation (AF) is less common among African Americans than European-descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for AF in European-descent populations have identified three predominant genomic regions associated with increased risk (1q21, 4q25, and 16q22). The contribution of these loci to AF risk in African American is unknown. We studied 73 African Americans with AF from the Vanderbilt-Meharry AF registry and 71 African American controls, with no history of AF including after cardiac surgery. Tests of association were performed for 148 SNPs across the three regions associated with AF, and 22 SNPs were significantly associated with AF (P<0.05). The SNPs with the strongest associations in African Americans were both different from the index SNPs identified in European-descent populations and independent from the index European-descent population SNPs (r(2)<0.40 in HapMap CEU): 1q21 rs4845396 (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.67, P = 0.003), 4q25 rs4631108 (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.59-7.42, P = 0.002), and 16q22 rs16971547 (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.46-45.4, P = 0.016). Estimates of European ancestry were similar among cases (23.6%) and controls (23.8%). Accordingly, the probability of having two copies of the European derived chromosomes at each region did not differ between cases and controls. Variable European admixture at known AF loci does not explain decreased AF susceptibility in African Americans. These data support the role of 1q21, 4q25, and 16q22 variants in AF risk for African Americans, although the index SNPs differ from those identified in European-descent populations.

  13. 77 FR 44255 - Medicare Program; Application by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for Continued Recognition as a National Accreditation Organization for Accrediting Entities To Furnish Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training AGENCY: Centers for... approval of an application from the American Association of Diabetes Educators for continued recognition...

  14. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article…

  16. Longitudinal Associations between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article…

  17. Six new species of anoetid mites associated with North American scolytidae

    Treesearch

    J.P. Woodring; J.C. Moser

    1970-01-01

    Only one species of anoetidae was previously recorded associated with North American Scolytidae. Five new species of Anoetus and one new species of Bonomoia associated with North America bark beetles are described. Two varia is distinguished from A. gordius a European species restricted to Ips laricis...

  18. Valuation and the American Evaluation Association: Helping 100 Flowers Bloom, or at Least Be Understood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The author explores the challenges encountered when organizations attempt to facilitate evaluation and improvement through policy statements of professional associations. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is used as an example. Various AEA statements are described as general and avoiding particular value preferences. The author concludes…

  19. Officers, Boards, Committees, and Representatives of the American Psychological Association, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.

  20. A Collective Biography of the Founders of the American Association of University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Alberta J.

    2013-01-01

    This archival study used constructivist grounded theory to document the educational and professional lives of seventeen women who founded the Association of Collegiate Alumnae (ACA) in 1881, which later became known as the American Association of University Women (AAUW). This study resulted in a collective biography of the seventeen women which…

  1. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Suicidal Ideation: A Multicampus, National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.

    2011-01-01

    Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…

  2. "Apathetic, Active, or Antagonistic": A History of the American Sociological Association's Involvement in High School Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCesare, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The role that the American Sociological Association (ASA) has historically played in reforming high school sociology courses has been alternately apathetic, active, or antagonistic. Apathy marked the time period between 1905 and about 1960, and again during most of the 1970s and 1980s. The Association played a much more active role during the New…

  3. 77 FR 68825 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects in the Control of... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Coolidge, AZ. The human remains and...

  4. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The ] human remains were removed from...

  5. 77 FR 11583 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. The human remains and cultural items were removed from the vicinity of...

  6. Faculty Status of Theological Librarians in the American Theological Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Ann L.

    This paper is the result of a survey of the institutional members of the American Theological Library Association. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) defines faculty status as: (1) freedom to exercise independent judgment in performance of professional duties and a formal method of performance review, (2) adoption of an…

  7. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Suicidal Ideation: A Multicampus, National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.

    2011-01-01

    Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…

  8. American Association of Dental Schools 1998-99 Annual Proceedings (March 6, 1998-March 10, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Schools include the president's annual report, president-elect's and executive director's addresses, a summary of proceedings, the revised constitution, a list of competencies for entry into the dental hygiene profession, association bylaws, member administrators,…

  9. Social and Psychological Factors Associated with AIDS Risk Behaviors among Low Income, Urban, African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maureen M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied factors associated with sexual intercourse and substance use among young, low income, African-American adolescents. Found that sexual activity was associated with parental conflict and having sexually active friends. Boys reported less parental monitoring and family and community support than girls and were more likely to report sexual…

  10. American Nurses' Association considers endorsing presidential candidate in 1988 election.

    PubMed

    Schlepp, S

    1987-03-01

    Political action committees are a means for individuals to join together so they have some clout in the political process, Symons said. The most important function of ANA-PAC is that it "builds a perception of nurses being politically powerful," Symons said. "And that is more important than a single piece of legislation that ANA-PAC has been involved with." All funds used to contribute to political campaigns come from voluntary donations to ANA-PAC from members of state nurses' associations. Federal law prohibits ANA-PAC from soliciting funds from outside the state nurses' associations.

  11. Fungi associated with the North American spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis

    Treesearch

    Diana L. Six; Barbara J. Bentz

    2003-01-01

    Fungi were isolated from individual Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) collected from six populations in Alaska, Colorado, Utah, and Minnesota, U.S.A. In all populations, Leptographium abietinum (Peck) Wingfield was the most commonly isolated mycelial fungus (91-100% of beetles). All beetles in all populations were associated with yeasts and some with only yeasts (0-5%)....

  12. 2011 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…

  13. 2011 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…

  14. Impact of genotyping errors on statistical power of association tests in genomic analyses: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lin; Sun, Ning; Mane, Shrikant; Sayward, Fred; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Cho, Kelly; Pyarajan, Saiju; Aslan, Mihaela; Miller, Perry; Harvey, Philip D.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Concato, John; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    A key step in genomic studies is to assess high throughput measurements across millions of markers for each participant’s DNA, either using microarrays or sequencing techniques. Accurate genotype calling is essential for downstream statistical analysis of genotype-phenotype associations, and next generation sequencing (NGS) has recently become a more common approach in genomic studies. How the accuracy of variant calling in NGS-based studies affects downstream association analysis has not, however, been studied using empirical data in which both microarrays and NGS were available. In this article, we investigate the impact of variant calling errors on the statistical power to identify associations between single nucleotides and disease, and on associations between multiple rare variants and disease. Both differential and nondifferential genotyping errors are considered. Our results show that the power of burden tests for rare variants is strongly influenced by the specificity in variant calling, but is rather robust with regard to sensitivity. By using the variant calling accuracies estimated from a substudy of a Cooperative Studies Program project conducted by the Department of Veterans Affairs, we show that the power of association tests is mostly retained with commonly adopted variant calling pipelines. An R package, GWAS.PC, is provided to accommodate power analysis that takes account of genotyping errors (http://zhaocenter.org/software/). PMID:28019059

  15. Associations between plasma DDE levels and immunologic measures in African-American farmers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Martin, Stephen A; Longnecker, Matthew P; Sandler, Dale P; Germolec, Dori R

    2004-07-01

    Experimental studies in rodents demonstrate evidence of immunosuppressive effects of dietary exposure to DDT [2,2-bis((italic)p(/italic)-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], but human data pertaining to immunomodulating effects of DDT exposure are limited. In this study we examined the association between the persistent organochlorine breakdown product 1,1-dichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene p,p'-DDE) and immunologic measures using blood samples in a relatively highly exposed population of farmers in the United States. Levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG and the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in relation to plasma p,p'-DDE levels were evaluated in samples from 137 African-American male farmers (30-88 years of age; median, 64 years). Participants were recruited through black churches in four rural counties in eastern North Carolina. Data collection included a telephone interview pertaining to farming practices and health history, and one blood sample was collected from each participant. Linear and logistic regression, adjusting for age, cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking status, and years of any kind of pesticide use, was used to assess the association between immunologic parameters and plasma levels of p,p'-DDE. The median plasma p,p'-DDE concentration was 7.7 microg/L (range, 0.6-77.4 microg/L). There was no association between p,p'-DDE and IgA in any of the models. IgG levels decreased with increasing p,p'-DDE levels, with a statistically significant decrease of approximately 50% in the highest two categories of exposure (greater than or equal to 6.0 microg/L) compared with values of < 3.0 microg/L. Sixteen (12%) were positive for antinuclear antibodies. The prevalence of antinuclear antibodies was somewhat elevated in the highest category of p,p'-DDE exposure (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-11.3; for > or = 12.0 microg/L compared with < 3.0 microg/L p,p'-DDE), but this difference was not statistically significant. These

  16. Variables associated with obesity among African-American women in Omaha.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Shirley A

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a health disparity related to environmental, social, and physical health issues, including ethnicity, education, and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among obesity, age, education, and socioeconomic status and the relationship between obesity and depression among African-American women living in Omaha, Nebraska. A convenience sample of 378 African-American women completed the African-American Female Health Survey, which included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Body mass index (BMI) was used to measure obesity. Results indicated that 87% of the women were overweight; mean BMI was 32.78 with high cardiovascular disease risks. There was a statistically significant and positive relationship between depression and BMI (r = .201, p < .01). Occupational therapists may provide primary, secondary, and tertiary intervention through culturally relevant and meaningful health education programs.

  17. Genetic variation in the raptor gene is associated with overweight but not hypertension in American men of Japanese ancestry.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brian J; Carnes, Bruce A; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A; He, Qimei; Grove, John S; Masaki, Kamal H; Elliott, Ayako; Willcox, Donald C; Allsopp, Richard; Willcox, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is pivotal for cell growth. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR complex I (Raptor) is a unique component of this pro-growth complex. The present study tested whether variation across the raptor gene (RPTOR) is associated with overweight and hypertension. We tested 61 common (allele frequency ≥ 0.1) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that captured most of the genetic variation across RPTOR in 374 subjects of normal lifespan and 439 subjects with a lifespan exceeding 95 years for association with overweight/obesity, essential hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension. Subjects were drawn from the Honolulu Heart Program, a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for phenotypes relevant to conditions of aging. Hypertension status was ascertained when subjects were 45-68 years old. Statistical evaluation involved contingency table analysis, logistic regression, and the powerful method of recursive partitioning. After analysis of RPTOR genotypes by each statistical approach, we found no significant association between genetic variation in RPTOR and either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension. Models generated by recursive partitioning analysis showed that RPTOR SNPs significantly enhanced the ability of the model to accurately assign individuals to either the overweight/obese or the non-overweight/obese groups (P = 0.008 by 1-tailed Z test). Common genetic variation in RPTOR is associated with overweight/obesity but does not discernibly contribute to either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Association between Copy Number Variation Losses and Alcohol Dependence across African American and European American Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Alvaro Emilio; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor Manuel; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American population. Methods This study considers two CNV datasets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands and specific losses in CNV regions. Results Results from the discovery dataset showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53x10−3). An overlapping CNV region from the validation dataset exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9×10−3) in our discovery dataset. Although not observed in the validation dataset, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Conclusions

  19. A genetic association study of activated partial thromboplastin time in European Americans and African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Cushman, Mary; Pankow, James S; Basu, Saonli; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R; Tang, Weihong

    2015-04-15

    Reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a risk marker for incident and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Genetic factors influencing aPTT are not well understood, especially in populations of non-European ancestry. The present study aimed to identify aPTT-related gene variants in both European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). We conducted a genetic association study for aPTT in 9719 EAs and 2799 AAs from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium candidate gene array, the analyses were based on ∼50 000 SNPs in ∼2000 candidate genes. In EAs, the analyses identified a new independent association for aPTT in F5 (rs2239852, P-value = 1.9 × 10(-8)), which clusters with a coding variant rs6030 (P-value = 7.8 × 10(-7)). The remaining significant signals were located on F5, HRG, KNG1, F11, F12 and ABO and have been previously reported in EA populations. In AAs, significant signals were identified in KNG1, HRG, F12, ABO and VWF, with the leading variants in KNG1, HRG and F12 being the same as in the EAs; the significant variant in VWF (rs2229446, P-value = 1.2 × 10(-6)) was specific to the AA sample (minor allele frequency = 19% in AAs and 0.2% in EAs) and has not been previously reported. This is the first study to report aPTT-related genetic variants in AAs. Our findings in AAs demonstrate transferability of previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG and F12 in EAs. We also identified new associations at F5 in EAs and VWF in AAs that have not been previously reported for aPTT.

  20. A genetic association study of activated partial thromboplastin time in European Americans and African Americans: the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Cushman, Mary; Pankow, James S.; Basu, Saonli; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.; Tang, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a risk marker for incident and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Genetic factors influencing aPTT are not well understood, especially in populations of non-European ancestry. The present study aimed to identify aPTT-related gene variants in both European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). We conducted a genetic association study for aPTT in 9719 EAs and 2799 AAs from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium candidate gene array, the analyses were based on ∼50 000 SNPs in ∼2000 candidate genes. In EAs, the analyses identified a new independent association for aPTT in F5 (rs2239852, P-value = 1.9 × 10−8), which clusters with a coding variant rs6030 (P-value = 7.8 × 10−7). The remaining significant signals were located on F5, HRG, KNG1, F11, F12 and ABO and have been previously reported in EA populations. In AAs, significant signals were identified in KNG1, HRG, F12, ABO and VWF, with the leading variants in KNG1, HRG and F12 being the same as in the EAs; the significant variant in VWF (rs2229446, P-value = 1.2 × 10−6) was specific to the AA sample (minor allele frequency = 19% in AAs and 0.2% in EAs) and has not been previously reported. This is the first study to report aPTT-related genetic variants in AAs. Our findings in AAs demonstrate transferability of previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG and F12 in EAs. We also identified new associations at F5 in EAs and VWF in AAs that have not been previously reported for aPTT. PMID:25552651

  1. Statistical power of model selection strategies for genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheyang; Zhao, Hongyu

    2009-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aim to identify genetic variants related to diseases by examining the associations between phenotypes and hundreds of thousands of genotyped markers. Because many genes are potentially involved in common diseases and a large number of markers are analyzed, it is crucial to devise an effective strategy to identify truly associated variants that have individual and/or interactive effects, while controlling false positives at the desired level. Although a number of model selection methods have been proposed in the literature, including marginal search, exhaustive search, and forward search, their relative performance has only been evaluated through limited simulations due to the lack of an analytical approach to calculating the power of these methods. This article develops a novel statistical approach for power calculation, derives accurate formulas for the power of different model selection strategies, and then uses the formulas to evaluate and compare these strategies in genetic model spaces. In contrast to previous studies, our theoretical framework allows for random genotypes, correlations among test statistics, and a false-positive control based on GWAS practice. After the accuracy of our analytical results is validated through simulations, they are utilized to systematically evaluate and compare the performance of these strategies in a wide class of genetic models. For a specific genetic model, our results clearly reveal how different factors, such as effect size, allele frequency, and interaction, jointly affect the statistical power of each strategy. An example is provided for the application of our approach to empirical research. The statistical approach used in our derivations is general and can be employed to address the model selection problems in other random predictor settings. We have developed an R package markerSearchPower to implement our formulas, which can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network

  2. Fate of abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the American association of clinical anatomists.

    PubMed

    Furness, Hugh; Miller, George W; Putt, Oliver; Lewis, Thomas L

    2017-03-01

    A recent study examined the rate of full-length research paper publication following abstract presentation at the British association of clinical anatomists (BACA) annual meetings. The accepted standard for research dissemination is peer-reviewed publication following presentation at a national or international meeting. The study objectives were quantitative assessment of the abstracts presented at the American Association of Clinical Anatomists' (AACA) annual meetings with regards to the rate of subsequent full-length publication and comparison to BACA publication rates. All abstracts presented at the AACA annual meetings between 2003 and 2010 were analysed. MEDLINE was searched to identify peer-reviewed publications arising from each presented abstract. In total, 1,120 abstracts were presented with 22.9% (n = 257) subsequently published as full-length research papers. The mean number of abstracts presented each year was 140.0 ± 35.9. The median time to publication was 16 months. Chi-squared analysis showed the publication rate of abstracts presented at AACA (22.9%) was not statistically significantly different to BACA (20.4%) (P = 0.09). A total of 11.3% (n = 29) of the articles were published as full-length research articles before presentation as an abstract at an AACA meeting compared to 5.4% of abstracts presented at a BACA meeting. These rates are lower but comparable to those of surgical specialty meetings. Further work should try to identify any concerning reasons for the reduced rate of abstract publication in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 30:140-144, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of statistics for candidate-gene association studies using cases and parents

    SciTech Connect

    Schaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. )

    1994-08-01

    Studies of association between candidate genes and disease can be designed to use cases with disease, and in place of nonrelated controls, their parents. The advantage of this design is the elimination of spurious differences due to ethnic differences between cases and nonrelated controls. However, several statistical methods of analysis have been proposed in the literature, and the choice of analysis is not always clear. The authors review some of the statistical methods currently developed and present two new statistical methods aimed at specific genetic hypotheses of dominance and recessivity of the candidate gene. These new methods can be more powerful than other current methods, as demonstrated by simulations. The basis of these new statistical methods is a likelihood approach. The advantage of the likelihood framework is that regression models can be developed to assess genotype-environment interactions, as well as the relative contribution that alleles at the candidate-gene locus make to the relative risk (RR) of disease. This latter development allows testing of (1) whether interactions between alleles exist, on the scale of log RR, and (2) whether alleles originating from the mother or father of a case impart different risks, i.e., genomic imprinting. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Twentieth anniversary of American Vascular Association/Lifeline Foundation: a celebration.

    PubMed

    Pearce, William H; Mannick, John A; Clowes, Alexander W; Yao, James S T

    2008-06-01

    The American Vascular Association/Lifeline Foundation is celebrating its 20th anniversary this year. This remarkable two-decade journey represents a cumulative effort by the leaders and members of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS). For the historical record, we would like to chart the sequence of events leading to various programs. In 1986, the Executive Council of SVS approved the formation of an Education/Research Foundation, from which the Lifeline Foundation evolved, with the mission to support the career development of young research-oriented vascular surgeons. Since that time, Lifeline has awarded 141 Student Fellowships, 21 Wylie Traveling Fellowships, 17 Mentored Clinical Scientist Development (K08) Awards, and three Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development (K23) Awards. In 2001, the American Vascular Association (AVA) was established under the aegis of American Association for Vascular Surgery (formerly International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery-North American Chapter). In 2004, with the merger of the SVS and the American Association of Vascular Surgery into a single entity (SVS), Lifeline and the AVA merged into a single foundation, the AVA. As AVA/Lifeline is poised to launch a campaign for an endowment fund, we hope this report will let the members of the SVS know what has been accomplished, what we plan to do, and, most importantly, what we need to do in the future.

  5. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children.

  6. End-stage renal disease in African Americans with lupus nephritis is associated with APOL1.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Barry I; Langefeld, Carl D; Andringa, Kelly K; Croker, Jennifer A; Williams, Adrienne H; Garner, Neva E; Birmingham, Daniel J; Hebert, Lee A; Hicks, Pamela J; Segal, Mark S; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Brown, Elizabeth E; Alarcón, Graciela S; Costenbader, Karen H; Comeau, Mary E; Criswell, Lindsey A; Harley, John B; James, Judith A; Kamen, Diane L; Lim, S Sam; Merrill, Joan T; Sivils, Kathy L; Niewold, Timothy B; Patel, Neha M; Petri, Michelle; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D; Salmon, Jane E; Tsao, Betty P; Gibson, Keisha L; Byers, Joyce R; Vinnikova, Anna K; Lea, Janice P; Julian, Bruce A; Kimberly, Robert P

    2014-02-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that exhibits familial aggregation and may progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). LN is more prevalent among African Americans than among European Americans. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) nephropathy risk alleles G1/G2, common in African Americans and rare in European Americans, contribute to the ethnic disparity in risk. APOL1 G1 and G2 nephropathy alleles were genotyped in 855 African American SLE patients with LN-ESRD (cases) and 534 African American SLE patients without nephropathy (controls) and tested for association under a recessive genetic model, by logistic regression. Ninety percent of the SLE patients were female. The mean ± SD age at SLE diagnosis was significantly lower in LN-ESRD cases than in SLE non-nephropathy controls (27.3 ± 10.9 years versus 39.5 ± 12.2 years). The mean ± SD time from SLE diagnosis to development of LN-ESRD in cases was 7.3 ± 7.2 years. The G1/G2 risk alleles were strongly associated with SLE-ESRD, with 25% of cases and 12% of controls having 2 nephropathy alleles (odds ratio [OR] 2.57, recessive model P = 1.49 × 10(-9)), and after adjustment for age, sex, and ancestry admixture (OR 2.72, P = 6.23 × 10(-6)). The age-, sex-, and admixture-adjusted population attributable risk for ESRD among patients with G1/G2 polymorphisms was 0.26, compared to 0.003 among European American patients. The mean time from SLE diagnosis to ESRD development was ∼2 years earlier among individuals with APOL1 risk genotypes (P = 0.01). APOL1 G1/G2 alleles strongly impact the risk of LN-ESRD in African Americans, as well as the time to progression to ESRD. The high frequency of these alleles in African Americans with near absence in European Americans explains an important proportion of the increased risk of LN-ESRD in African Americans. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of

  7. Efficient Statistical Method for Association Analysis of X-Linked Variants.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heejin; Park, Taesung; Won, Sungho

    2017-08-16

    Unlike the gene-poor Y chromosome, the X chromosome contains over 1,000 genes that are essential for viability of cells. Females have 2 X chromosomes, and thus female X-linked gene expression would be expected to be twice that of males. To adjust this imbalance, one of the 2 X-linked genes is often inactivated, and this is known as X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). However, recent studies described that a gene can be nonrandomly selected for inactivation from 2 X-linked genes and that XCI is not observed in some X-linked genes. Since this complex biological process has prevented efficient statistical association analyses, we propose a new statistical method against this uncertain biological process. The proposed method consists of 2 steps. First, p values for various biological processes are calculated and then combined into a single p value with the modified Fisher method and a minimum p value. Our simulation results show that the proposed method is generally the most statistically efficient and is not sensitive to the unknown biological model. Therefore, we can conclude that the proposed approaches are robust against the various XCI processes for testing the association of X-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms with the disease of interest and the proposed method is a practical solution. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. An Adaptive Association Test for Multiple Phenotypes with GWAS Summary Statistics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Bai, Yun; Pan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    We study the problem of testing for single marker-multiple phenotype associations based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics without access to individual-level genotype and phenotype data. For most published GWASs, because obtaining summary data is substantially easier than accessing individual-level phenotype and genotype data, while often multiple correlated traits have been collected, the problem studied here has become increasingly important. We propose a powerful adaptive test and compare its performance with some existing tests. We illustrate its applications to analyses of a meta-analyzed GWAS dataset with three blood lipid traits and another with sex-stratified anthropometric traits, and further demonstrate its potential power gain over some existing methods through realistic simulation studies. We start from the situation with only one set of (possibly meta-analyzed) genome-wide summary statistics, then extend the method to meta-analysis of multiple sets of genome-wide summary statistics, each from one GWAS. We expect the proposed test to be useful in practice as more powerful than or complementary to existing methods.

  9. Efficient Calculation of P-value and Power for Quadratic Form Statistics in Multilocus Association Testing

    PubMed Central

    TONG, LIPING; YANG, JIE; COOPER, RICHARD S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY We address the asymptotic and approximate distributions of a large class of test statistics with quadratic forms used in association studies. The statistics of interest take the general form D = XT AX, where A is a general similarity matrix which may or may not be positive semi-definite, and X follows the multivariate normal distribution with mean μ and variance matrix Σ, where Σ may or may not be singular. We show that D can be written as a linear combination of independent chi-square random variables with a shift. Furthermore, its distribution can be approximated by a chi-square or the difference of two chi-square distributions. In the setting of association testing, our methods are especially useful in two situations. First, when the required significance level is much smaller than 0.05 such as in a genome scan the estimation of p-values using permutation procedures can be challenging. Second, when an EM algorithm is required to infer haplotype frequencies from un-phased genotype data the computation can be intensive for a permutation procedure. In either situation, an efficient and accurate estimation procedure would be useful. Our method can be applied to any quadratic form statistic and therefore should be of general interest. PMID:20529017

  10. Racial influences associated with weight-related beliefs in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Malpede, Christie Z; Greene, Lori E; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Jefferson, Wendy K; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D

    2007-01-01

    This study examines African American and Caucasian women's perception of how race affects their weight. Structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique (NGT) were conducted with four groups of African American women (n = 30) and four groups of Caucasian women (n = 30). Participants generated responses to the question, "How does being a Black/White woman affect your weight?" The African American groups generated 48 unique ideas, including unhealthy food preparation, poor food selection habits, lack of exercise, stress, increased risk of chronic diseases, and associated medical costs; the Caucasian groups produced 32 responses, including distorted expectations of perfect body type, success depended on thinness and beauty, social pressures, media, and men's preferences. Results suggest that the African American women focused on food choices and health consequences while the Caucasian women emphasized body size and aesthetics. The observed differences support a need for culturally specific interventions that promote good eating patterns and healthy body shapes.

  11. Association of Socioeconomic Status and CKD among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Crook, Errol D.; Sims, Mario; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Flessner, Michael F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2010-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is recognized as a key social environmental factor because it has implications for access to resources that help individuals care for themselves and others. Few studies have examined the association of SES with CKD in high-risk populations. Study Design Single-site longitudinal population-based cohort Setting and Participants The data for this study were drawn from the baseline examination of the Jackson Heart Study. The analytic cohort consisted of 3,430 African American men and women living in the tri-county area of the Jackson, Mississippi metropolitan areas with complete data to determine CKD status. Predictor High SES (defined as having a family income at least 3.5 times the poverty level or having at least one undergraduate degree) Outcomes and Measurements CKD (defined as the presence of albuminuria or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2). Associations were explored through bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for CKD and cardiovascular disease risk factors as well as demographic factors. Results The prevalence of CKD in the Jackson Heart Study was 20% (865/3430 participants). The proportion of the Jackson Heart Study cohort with albuminuria and decreased eGFR was 12.5% (429/3430 participants) and 10.1% (347/3430 participants) respectively. High SES was inversely associated with CKD. The odds of having CKD were 41% lower for affluent participants than their less affluent counterparts. There were no statistically significant interactions between sex and education or income although subgroup analysis showed that high income was associated with CKD among male (OR 0.47, CI 0.23–0.97) but not female (OR 0.64, CI 0.40–1.03) participants. Limitations Models were estimated using cross-sectional data. Conclusion CKD is associated with SES. Additional research is needed to elucidate the impact of wealth and social contexts in which individuals are

  12. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  13. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  14. Analysis of Bidirectional Associative Memory using Self-consistent Signal to Noise Analysis and Statistical Neurodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shouno, Hayaru; Kido, Shoji; Okada, Masato

    2004-09-01

    Bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a kind of an artificial neural network used to memorize and retrieve heterogeneous pattern pairs. Many efforts have been made to improve BAM from the the viewpoint of computer application, and few theoretical studies have been done. We investigated the theoretical characteristics of BAM using a framework of statistical-mechanical analysis. To investigate the equilibrium state of BAM, we applied self-consistent signal to noise analysis (SCSNA) and obtained a macroscopic parameter equations and relative capacity. Moreover, to investigate not only the equilibrium state but also the retrieval process of reaching the equilibrium state, we applied statistical neurodynamics to the update rule of BAM and obtained evolution equations for the macroscopic parameters. These evolution equations are consistent with the results of SCSNA in the equilibrium state.

  15. The differential association between education and infant mortality by nativity status of Chinese American mothers: a life-course perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Keith, Louis G

    2011-05-01

    Integrating evidence from demography and epidemiology, we investigated whether the association between maternal achieved status (education) and infant mortality differed by maternal place of origin (nativity) over the life course of Chinese Americans. We conducted a population-based cohort study of singleton live births to US-resident Chinese American mothers using National Center for Health Statistics 1995 to 2000 linked live birth and infant death cohort files. We categorized mothers by nativity (US born [n = 15 040] or foreign born [n = 150 620]) and education (≥ 16 years, 13-15 years, or ≤ 12 years), forming 6 life-course trajectories. We performed Cox proportional hazards regressions of infant mortality. We found significant nativity-by-education interaction via stratified analyses and testing interaction terms (P < .03) and substantial differentials in infant mortality across divergent maternal life-course trajectories. Low education was more detrimental for the US born, with the highest risk among US-born mothers with 12 years or less of education (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.39; 95% confidence interval = 1.33, 4.27). Maternal nativity and education synergistically affect infant mortality among Chinese Americans, suggesting the importance of searching for potential mechanisms over the maternal life course and targeting identified high-risk groups and potential downward mobility.

  16. The Differential Association Between Education and Infant Mortality by Nativity Status of Chinese American Mothers: A Life-Course Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Louis G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Integrating evidence from demography and epidemiology, we investigated whether the association between maternal achieved status (education) and infant mortality differed by maternal place of origin (nativity) over the life course of Chinese Americans. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study of singleton live births to US-resident Chinese American mothers using National Center for Health Statistics 1995 to 2000 linked live birth and infant death cohort files. We categorized mothers by nativity (US born [n = 15 040] or foreign born [n = 150 620]) and education (≥ 16 years, 13–15 years, or ≤ 12 years), forming 6 life-course trajectories. We performed Cox proportional hazards regressions of infant mortality. Results. We found significant nativity-by-education interaction via stratified analyses and testing interaction terms (P < .03) and substantial differentials in infant mortality across divergent maternal life-course trajectories. Low education was more detrimental for the US born, with the highest risk among US-born mothers with 12 years or less of education (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.39; 95% confidence interval = 1.33, 4.27). Conclusions. Maternal nativity and education synergistically affect infant mortality among Chinese Americans, suggesting the importance of searching for potential mechanisms over the maternal life course and targeting identified high-risk groups and potential downward mobility. PMID:21088264

  17. Game Related Statistics Discriminating Between Starters and Nonstarters Players in Women'S National Basketball Association League (WNBA).

    PubMed

    Gòmez, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibàñez, Sergio-José

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women's basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women's National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters' players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key pointsThe players' game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women's basketball.The results of this work help to point out the different player's performance described in women's basketball compared with men's basketball.The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team's performance in different game contexts.Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses.

  18. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1995-12-06

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.

  19. A GENOME WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDY FOR DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY GENES IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Caitrin W.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; An, S. Sandy; Cooke, Jessica N.; Hester, Jessica M.; Wing, Maria R.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Blevins, Rebecca A.; Lu, Lingyi; Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 chip to identify genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Association analysis was performed adjusting for admixture in 965 type 2 diabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 1029 African Americans without type 2 diabetes or kidney disease as controls. The top 724 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of association to diabetic nephropathy were then genotyped in a replication sample of an additional 709 type 2 diabetes-ESRD patients and 690 controls. SNPs with evidence of association in both the original and replication studies were tested in additional African American cohorts consisting of 1246 patients with type 2 diabetes without kidney disease and 1216 with non-diabetic ESRD to differentiate candidate loci for type 2 diabetes-ESRD, type 2 diabetes, and/or all-cause ESRD. Twenty-five SNPs were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes-ESRD in the genome-wide association and initial replication. Although genome-wide significance with type 2 diabetes was not found for any of these 25 SNPs, several genes, including RPS12, LIMK2, and SFI1 are strong candidates for diabetic nephropathy. A combined analysis of all 2890 patients with ESRD showed significant association SNPs in LIMK2 and SFI1 suggesting that they also contribute to all-cause ESRD. Thus, our results suggest that multiple loci underlie susceptibility to kidney disease in African Americans with type 2 diabetes and some may also contribute to all-cause ESRD. PMID:21150874

  20. A functional U-statistic method for association analysis of sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sneha; Tong, Xiaoran; Lu, Qing

    2017-08-29

    Although sequencing studies hold great promise for uncovering novel variants predisposing to human diseases, the high dimensionality of the sequencing data brings tremendous challenges to data analysis. Moreover, for many complex diseases (e.g., psychiatric disorders) multiple related phenotypes are collected. These phenotypes can be different measurements of an underlying disease, or measurements characterizing multiple related diseases for studying common genetic mechanism. Although jointly analyzing these phenotypes could potentially increase the power of identifying disease-associated genes, the different types of phenotypes pose challenges for association analysis. To address these challenges, we propose a nonparametric method, functional U-statistic method (FU), for multivariate analysis of sequencing data. It first constructs smooth functions from individuals' sequencing data, and then tests the association of these functions with multiple phenotypes by using a U-statistic. The method provides a general framework for analyzing various types of phenotypes (e.g., binary and continuous phenotypes) with unknown distributions. Fitting the genetic variants within a gene using a smoothing function also allows us to capture complexities of gene structure (e.g., linkage disequilibrium, LD), which could potentially increase the power of association analysis. Through simulations, we compared our method to the multivariate outcome score test (MOST), and found that our test attained better performance than MOST. In a real data application, we apply our method to the sequencing data from Minnesota Twin Study (MTS) and found potential associations of several nicotine receptor subunit (CHRN) genes, including CHRNB3, associated with nicotine dependence and/or alcohol dependence. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. The dietary inflammatory index is associated with colorectal cancer in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Steck, Susan E; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2015-06-14

    Diet is a strong moderator of systemic inflammation, an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). The dietary inflammatory index (DII) measures the inflammatory potential of individuals' diets. The association between the DII and incident CRC was examined, using the National Institutes of Health-American Associations of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study individuals (n 489,422) aged 50-74 years at recruitment, starting between 1995-6, and followed for a mean of 9·1 (sd 2·9) years. Baseline data from a FFQ were used to calculate the DII; higher scores are more pro-inflammatory, and lower scores are more anti-inflammatory. First, primary CRC diagnoses were identified through linkage to state cancer registries. Anatomic location and disease severity also were examined. Cox proportional hazards models estimated CRC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI using quartile 1 as the referent. DII quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 was associated with CRC risk among all subjects (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·28, 1·53; P for trend < 0·01). Statistically significant associations also were observed for each anatomic site examined, for moderate and poorly differentiated tumours, and at each cancer stage among all subjects. Effects were similar when stratified by sex; however, results were statistically significant only in males. The only result reaching statistical significance in females was risk of moderately differentiated CRC tumours (DII quartile 4 v. quartile 1 HR 1·26, 95% CI 1·03, 1·56). Overall, the DII was associated with CRC risk among all subjects. The DII may serve as a novel way to evaluate dietary risk for chronic disorders associated with inflammation, such as CRC.

  2. Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Inflammation Predict Preterm Birth: Heightened Risk among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Blair, Lisa M; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Christian, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    Poor sleep promotes inflammation. In turn, inflammation is a causal mechanism in term as well as preterm parturition. In the United States, a persistent racial disparity in preterm birth exists, with African Americans showing ∼1.5 times greater risk. This study examined associations among sleep quality, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and length of gestation in a racially diverse sample of 138 pregnant women. Observational. Women completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other psychosocial and behavioral measures during midpregnancy. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by high-sensitivity assays. Birth outcomes were determined via medical record review. Among African American women (n = 79), shorter gestation was predicted by poorer overall sleep (rs = -0.35, P = 0.002) as well the following PSQI subscales: subjective sleep quality (rs = -0.34, P = 0.002), sleep latency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02), and sleep efficiency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02). African American women with poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) had 10.2 times the odds of preterm birth compared to those with good sleep quality. In contrast, among European American women (n = 53), gestational length was not significantly predicted by sleep quality (Ps > 0.12). Bootstrapping analyses showed that, among African Americans, IL-8 significantly mediated the association between sleep quality and length of gestation (indirect effect estimate -0.029; 95% confidence interval -0.06, -0.002). The data provide novel evidence that African American women exhibit greater inflammation in response to sleep disturbance than European American women and these effects correspond with length of gestation. Racial differences in susceptibility to sleep induced immune dysregulation may contribute to marked racial disparities in preterm birth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Factors associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen research among Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wanzhen; Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-04-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  4. Cigarette smoking and the association with serous ovarian cancer in African American women: African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Abbott, Sarah; Qin, Bo; Peres, Lauren Cole; Moorman, Patricia G; Wallace, Kristin; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Paddock, Lisa E; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Alberg, Anthony J; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for mucinous ovarian cancer (OvCa) in Caucasians. Whether a similar association exists in African Americans (AA) is unknown. We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident OvCa in AA women across 11 geographic locations in the US. A structured telephone interview asked about smoking, demographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) were estimated from 613 cases and 752 controls using unconditional logistic regression in multivariable adjusted models. Associations were greater in magnitude for serous OvCa than for all OvCa combined. Compared to never smokers, increased risk for serous OvCa was observed for lifetime ever smokers (1.46, 1.11-1.92), former smokers who quit within 0-2 years of diagnosis (5.48, 3.04-9.86), and for total pack-years smoked among lifetime ever smokers (0-5 pack-years: 1.79, 1.23-2.59; >5-20 pack-years: 1.52, 1.05-2.18; >20 pack-years: 0.98, 0.61-1.56); however, we observed no dose-response relationship with increasing duration or consumption and no significant associations among current smokers. Smoking was not significantly associated with mucinous OvCa. Associations for all OvCa combined were consistently elevated among former smokers. The proportion of ever smokers who quit within 0-2 years was greater among cases (23%) than controls (7%). Cigarette smoking may be associated with serous OvCa among AA, which differs from associations reported among Caucasians. Exposure misclassification or reverse causality may partially explain the absence of increased risk among current smokers and lack of dose-response associations. Better characterization of smoking patterns is needed in this understudied population.

  5. Genetic and environmental factors are associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Joyanna G; Tang, Wenbo; Hootman, Katie C; Brannon, Patsy M; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Harris, Tamara B; Garcia, Melissa; Lohman, Kurt; Liu, Yongmei; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Siscovick, David S; Cassano, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is prevalent in African Americans, but predictors of vitamin D status are understudied compared to Caucasian populations. We investigated whether certain environmental and genetic factors are predictors of circulating 25(OH)D in 989 elderly African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Regression analysis estimated the cross-sectional association of nongenetic (environmental) factors with 25(OH)D. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 25(OH)D in Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were analyzed for association with serum 25(OH)D, including analyses of all imputed SNPs in identified genomic regions. Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) evaluated the association of all (genome-wide) genotyped SNPs with serum 25(OH)D in the Health ABC Study with replication in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Gender, study site, season of blood draw, body mass index, dietary supplement use, dairy and cereal consumption, Healthy Eating Index score, and walking >180 min/wk were associated with 25(OH)D (P < 0.05), jointly explaining 25% of the variation in circulating 25(OH)D. Multivitamin supplement use was the strongest predictor of circulating 25(OH)D, and supplement users had a 6.3-μg/L higher serum 25(OH)D concentration compared with nonusers. Previous GWAS-identified gene regions were not replicated in African Americans, but the nonsynonymous rs7041 SNP in group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein) was close to significance thresholds (P = 0.08), and there was evidence for an interaction between this SNP and use of multivitamin supplements in relation to serum 25(OH)D concentration (P = 0.04). Twenty-three percent (95% CI: 0%, 52%) of the variation in serum 25(OH)D was explained by total genetic variation in a pooled GCTA of 2087 Health ABC Study and MESA African-American participants, but population substructure

  6. Association between cardiovascular fitness and metabolic syndrome among American workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John E; Cutrono, Stacy E; Hodgson, Nicole; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J

    2015-02-01

    To explore the association between cardiovascular fitness and metabolic syndrome across occupational groups using a nationally representative sample of the US population. Respondents aged 18 to 49 years from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were evaluated for cardiovascular fitness and classified with regard to metabolic syndrome. Comparisons were made across 40 occupational categories. For all occupations with and without metabolic syndrome, the estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was 38.8 mL/kg/min (standard error = 0.5) and 41.1 mL/kg/min (standard error = 0.2), respectively. The estimated VO2max was higher for those without metabolic syndrome for most occupational groups, particularly for sales supervisors and proprietors, sales representatives, finance, business, and commodities, and freight, stock, and material movers. Low estimated VO2max among workers with metabolic syndrome can be addressed, in part, by workplace interventions designed to increase fitness. This study identifies priority occupational groups for these interventions.

  7. End-Stage Renal Disease in African Americans With Lupus Nephritis Is Associated With APOL1

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Barry I.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Andringa, Kelly K.; Croker, Jennifer A.; Williams, Adrienne H.; Garner, Neva E.; Birmingham, Daniel J.; Hebert, Lee A.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Segal, Mark S.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Comeau, Mary E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Lim, S. Sam; Merrill, Joan T.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Patel, Neha M.; Petri, Michelle; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D.; Salmon, Jane E.; Tsao, Betty P.; Gibson, Keisha L.; Byers, Joyce R.; Vinnikova, Anna K.; Lea, Janice P.; Julian, Bruce A.; Kimberly, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that exhibits familial aggregation and may progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). LN is more prevalent among African Americans than among European Americans. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) nephropathy risk alleles G1/G2, common in African Americans and rare in European Americans, contribute to the ethnic disparity in risk. Methods APOL1 G1 and G2 nephropathy alleles were genotyped in 855 African American SLE patients with LN-ESRD (cases) and 534 African American SLE patients without nephropathy (controls) and tested for association under a recessive genetic model, by logistic regression. Results Ninety percent of the SLE patients were female. The mean ± SD age at SLE diagnosis was significantly lower in LN-ESRD cases than in SLE non-nephropathy controls (27.3 ± 10.9 years versus 39.5 ± 12.2 years). The mean ± SD time from SLE diagnosis to development of LN-ESRD in cases was 7.3 ± 7.2 years. The G1/G2 risk alleles were strongly associated with SLE-ESRD, with 25% of cases and 12% of controls having 2 nephropathy alleles (odds ratio [OR] 2.57, recessive model P = 1.49 × 10−9), and after adjustment for age, sex, and ancestry admixture (OR 2.72, P = 6.23 × 10−6). The age-, sex-, and admixture-adjusted population attributable risk for ESRD among patients with G1/G2 polymorphisms was 0.26, compared to 0.003 among European American patients. The mean time from SLE diagnosis to ESRD development was ~2 years earlier among individuals with APOL1 risk genotypes (P = 0.01). Conclusion APOL1 G1/G2 alleles strongly impact the risk of LN-ESRD in African Americans, as well as the time to progression to ESRD. The high frequency of these alleles in African Americans with near absence in European Americans explains an important proportion of the increased risk of LN-ESRD in African Americans. PMID:24504811

  8. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P.; Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J.; Bressert, E.; Povich, M. S.; Sherman, R.; Schawinski, K.; Wolf-Chase, G.

    2012-08-10

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% {+-} 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% {+-} 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  9. Are well functioning civil registration and vital statistics systems associated with better health outcomes?

    PubMed

    Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Lopez, Alan D; Mikkelsen, Lene; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Wilmoth, John; Setel, Philip W

    2015-10-03

    In this Series paper, we examine whether well functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are associated with improved population health outcomes. We present a conceptual model connecting CRVS to wellbeing, and describe an ecological association between CRVS and health outcomes. The conceptual model posits that the legal identity that civil registration provides to individuals is key to access entitlements and services. Vital statistics produced by CRVS systems provide essential information for public health policy and prevention. These outcomes benefit individuals and societies, including improved health. We use marginal linear models and lag-lead analysis to measure ecological associations between a composite metric of CRVS performance and three health outcomes. Results are consistent with the conceptual model: improved CRVS performance coincides with improved health outcomes worldwide in a temporally consistent manner. Investment to strengthen CRVS systems is not only an important goal for individuals and societies, but also a development imperative that is good for health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association of diabetes and obesity with prostate cancer aggressiveness among Black Americans and White Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saira; Cai, Jianwen; Nielsen, Matthew E; Troester, Melissa A; Mohler, James L; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Hendrix, Laura H; Farnan, Laura; Olshan, Andrew F; Bensen, Jeannette T

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the role of race in the association of diabetes and obesity with prostate cancer aggressiveness. Here we evaluate the independent association between diabetes and obesity with prostate cancer aggressiveness in White Americans and Black Americans. Our cross-sectional, case-only study consisted of 1,058 White Americans and 991 Black Americans from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer (PCaP) project. Diabetes status was determined by self-report. Obesity was determined using body mass index and calculated based on anthropometric measurements. High aggressive prostate cancer was defined as Gleason sum ≥8, or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/ml, or Gleason sum = 7 and clinical stage cT3-cT4. The association between diabetes and obesity with high aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Diabetes was not associated with high aggressive prostate cancer in the overall sample (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.79, 1.37), White Americans (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.65, 1.57) or Black Americans (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.75, 1.53). Obesity, independent of diabetes, was positively associated with high aggressive prostate cancer in White Americans (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14, 3.43), but not in the overall sample (OR 1.37; 95% CI 0.99, 1.92) or Black Americans (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.71, 1.67). Diabetes was not associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness, overall, or in either race group. Obesity, independent of diabetes, was associated with high aggressive prostate cancer only in White Americans.

  11. Sex-related differences in habitat associations of wintering American Kestrels in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfino, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used roadside survey data collected from 19 routes over three consecutive winters from 200708 to 200910 to compare habitat associations of male and female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) in the Central Valley of California to determine if segregation by sex was evident across this region. As a species, American Kestrels showed positive associations with alfalfa and other forage crops like hay and winter wheat, as well as grassland, irrigated pasture, and rice. Habitat associations of females were similar, with female densities in all these habitats except rice significantly higher than average. Male American Kestrels showed a positive association only with grassland and were present at densities well below those of females in alfalfa, other forage crops, and grassland. Males were present in higher densities than females in most habitats with negative associations for the species, such as orchards, urbanized areas, and oak savannah. The ratio of females to males for each route was positively correlated with the overall density of American Kestrels on that route. Our findings that females seem to occupy higher quality habitats in winter are consistent with observations from elsewhere in North America. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. Lack of Association of the APOL1 G3 Haplotype in African Americans with ESRD.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Nicholette D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Lea, Janice P; Okusa, Mark D; Kimberly, Robert P; Bowden, Donald W; Freedman, Barry I

    2015-05-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 variants are strongly associated with progressive nondiabetic nephropathy in populations with recent African ancestry. Selection for these variants occurred as a result of protection from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Resequencing of this region in 10 genetically and geographically distinct African populations residing in HAT endemic regions identified eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strong linkage disequilibrium and comprising a novel G3 haplotype. To determine whether the APOL1 G3 haplotype was associated with nephropathy, G1, G2, and G3 SNPs and 70 ancestry informative markers spanning the genome were genotyped in 937 African Americans with nondiabetic ESRD, 965 African Americans with type 2 diabetes-associated ESRD, and 1029 non-nephropathy controls. In analyses adjusting for age, sex, APOL1 G1/G2 risk (recessive), and global African ancestry, the G3 haplotype was not significantly associated with ESRD (P=0.05 for nondiabetic ESRD, P=0.57 for diabetes-associated ESRD, and P=0.27 for all-cause ESRD). We conclude that variation in APOL1 G3 makes a nominal, if any, contribution to ESRD in African Americans; G1 and G2 variants explain the vast majority of nondiabetic nephropathy susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. The association between income, education, and experiences of discrimination in older African American and European American patients.

    PubMed

    Halanych, Jewell H; Safford, Monika M; Shikany, James M; Cuffee, Yendelela; Person, Sharina D; Scarinci, Isabel C; Kiefe, Catarina I; Allison, Jeroan J

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has adverse effects on health outcomes, as does low income and education, but the relationship between discrimination, income, and education is not well characterized. In this study, we describe the associations of discrimination with income and education in elderly African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). Cross-sectional observational study involving computer-assisted telephone survey. Southeastern United States. AA and EA Medicare managed care enrollees. Discrimination was measured with the Experience of Discrimination (EOD) scale (range 0-35). We used zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine the association between self-reported income and education and 1) presence of any discrimination and 2) intensity of discrimination. Among 1,800 participants (45% AA, 56% female, and mean age 73 years), EA reported less discrimination than AA (4% vs. 47%; P < .001). AA men reported more discrimination and more intense discrimination than AA women (EOD scores 4.35 vs. 2.50; P < .001). Both income and education were directly and linearly associated with both presence of discrimination and intensity of discrimination in AA, so that people with higher incomes and education experienced more discrimination. In adjusted models, predicted EOD scores among AA decreased with increasing age categories (3.42, 3.21, 2.99, 2.53; P < .01) and increased with increasing income (2.36, 3.44, 4.17; P < .001) and education categories (2.31, 3.09, 5.12; P < .001). This study suggests future research should focus less on differences between racial/ethnic groups and more on factors within minority populations that may contribute to healthcare disparities.

  14. Associations Between Adolescents’ Perceived Discrimination and Prosocial Tendencies: The Mediating Role of Mexican American Values

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P.; Carlo, Gustavo; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences with perceived discrimination (e.g., perceptions of being treated unfairly due to race or ethnicity) are expected to impact negatively youths’ prosocial development. However, resilience often occurs in light of such experiences through cultural factors. The current longitudinal study examined the influence of perceived discrimination on the emergence of Mexican American adolescents’ later prosocial tendencies, and examined the mediating role of Mexican American values (e.g., familism, respect, and religiosity). Participants included 749 adolescents (49 % female) interviewed at 5th, 7th, and 10th grade. Results of the current study suggested that, although perceived discrimination was associated negatively with some types of prosocial tendencies (e.g., compliant, emotional, and dire) and related positively to public prosocial helping, the associations were mediated by youths’ Mexican American values. Directions for future research are presented and practical implications for promoting adolescents’ resilience are discussed. PMID:23152074

  15. Does Place of Education Matter? Contextualizing the Education and Health Status Association Among Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    WALTON, EMILY; TAKEUCHI, DAVID T.; HERTING, JERALD R.; ALEGRÍA, MARGARITA

    2009-01-01

    The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian Americans depends on whether they receive the bulk of their education in the United States or abroad. Compared to the schooling received in the United States, being educated in a foreign country does not result in the same health payoffs for increasing educational attainment. Analysis of an extensive set of mediators indicates that a foreign education restricts economic opportunities, limits positive social interaction, and inhibits English language proficiency. We discuss the implications for Asian Americans, a group composed largely of immigrants who received their education outside the United States. PMID:19835099

  16. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Does place of education matter? Contextualizing the education and health status association among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T; Herting, Jerald R; Alegría, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian Americans depends on whether they receive the bulk of their education in the United States or abroad. Compared to the schooling received in the United States, being educated in a foreign country does not result in the same health payoffs for increasing educational attainment. Analysis of an extensive set of mediators indicates that a foreign education restricts economic opportunities, limits positive social interaction, and inhibits English language proficiency. We discuss the implications for Asian Americans, a group composed largely of immigrants who received their education outside the United States.

  18. Predicting adsorption isotherms using a two-dimensional statistical associating fluid theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alejandro; Castro, Martin; McCabe, Clare; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    A molecular thermodynamics approach is developed in order to describe the adsorption of fluids on solid surfaces. The new theory is based on the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range [A. Gil-Villegas et al., J. Chem. Phys. 106, 4168 (1997)] and uses a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the properties of adsorbed fluids. The theory is tested against Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions is achieved. Additionally the authors use the new approach to describe the adsorption isotherms for nitrogen and methane on dry activated carbon.

  19. Predicting adsorption isotherms using a two-dimensional statistical associating fluid theory.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alejandro; Castro, Martin; McCabe, Clare; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2007-02-21

    A molecular thermodynamics approach is developed in order to describe the adsorption of fluids on solid surfaces. The new theory is based on the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range [A. Gil-Villegas et al., J. Chem. Phys. 106, 4168 (1997)] and uses a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the properties of adsorbed fluids. The theory is tested against Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions is achieved. Additionally the authors use the new approach to describe the adsorption isotherms for nitrogen and methane on dry activated carbon.

  20. ARL Statistics, 1990-91. A Compilation of Statistics from the One Hundred and Nineteen Members of the Association of Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Sarah M., Comp.; Finer, Eileen, Comp.

    This report presents statistics on the 107 university libraries and 12 independent research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 1990-91 fiscal year. Data are reported in alphabetical and rank order on collections (volumes in library, gross and net volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  1. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  2. ANCA-associated vasculitis in Hispanic Americans: an unrecognized severity.

    PubMed

    Sreih, Antoine G; Mandhadi, Ranadeep; Aldaghlawi, Fadi; Khan, Asad; Irshad, Vajiha; Finn, Katherine; Block, Joel A

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to compare the severity and outcomes of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) between Hispanics and Caucasians living in the same geographical area. All patients diagnosed with AAV at two academic institutions in Chicago from January 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively and prospectively identified. Disease activity was measured with the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), and disease damage was measured with the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI). Student's t test and chi-square tests were employed; p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Seventy patients with AAV were identified; 15 patients were excluded. Fifty-five patients were included in the study: 23 Hispanics and 32 Caucasians, 35 patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), 12 with microscopic polyangiitis, 7 with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and 1 with renal-limited vasculitis. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanics had a higher BVAS at presentation (16.3 ± 7.6 versus 10.7 ± 7.5, p = 0.006), a higher VDI at presentation (2.90 ± 1.50 versus 2.06 ± 1.30, p = 0.030), and a cumulative VDI (3.90 ± 1.70 versus 2.50 ± 1.90, p = 0.010). Renal involvement was more common among Hispanics (85 % of Hispanics versus 48 % of Caucasians, p = 0.01). Seventy percent of Hispanics had acute renal failure (mean creatinine = 3.37 ± 4.4 mg/dl) of whom seven (50 %) required dialysis, versus 25 % of Caucasians (mean creatinine = 1.78 ± 1.57 mg/dl, p = 0.03) and only two requiring dialysis. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanics with AAV present with more severe disease and higher damage indices. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings and delineate the respective roles of environment and genetics in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  3. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Thompson, Ian; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Wolf, J. Stuart; Sartor, Oliver; Klein, Eric; Hahn, Carol; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Faraday, Martha M.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  4. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea; Vissenberg, Kris; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2016-04-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for amplifying the genomic DNA and cDNA at the beginning of intron 2 of AP TYRP1 revealed the presence of a large insertion of approximately eight kb. The insertion most likely disrupts different elements necessary for the splicing of intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene. In AP RNAseq data indicate, however, the presence of the wild-type (wt) transcript at very low levels and Western blot reveals three products when using an antibody raised against middle part of the TYRP1 protein. One individual from another brown mink phenotype-commercially named Dawn-was also investigated at the molecular level by long-range PCR and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown.

  5. ARL Preservation Statistics, 1997-98: A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blixrud, Julia C., Comp.; Hipps, Kaylyn, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; O'Connor, Michael, Comp.

    This document presents data from 118 U.S. and Canadian research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 1997-98 fiscal year. Since 1987-88, the number of preservation programs managed by a preservation administrator has grown irregularly from 66 to around 80 in more recent years. A fluctuating growth…

  6. ARL Preservation Statistics, 2005-06. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents data from 123 U.S. and Canadian research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 2005-2006 fiscal year. Since 1987-1988, the number of preservation programs managed by a preservation administrator has grown 66 to as many as 80 in more recent years, with 77 in 2005-2006. Shifting…

  7. ARL Preservation Statistics, 2004-05. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents data from 123 U.S. and Canadian research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 2004-2005 fiscal year. Since 1987-1988, the number of preservation programs managed by a preservation administrator has grown 66 to as many as 80 in more recent years, with 74 in 2004-2005. Shifting…

  8. Association of Sickle Cell Trait With Hemoglobin A1c in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Mary E; Wellenius, Gregory A; Sumner, Anne E; Correa, Adolfo; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Liem, Robert I; Wilson, James G; Sacks, David B; Jacobs, David R; Carson, April P; Luo, Xi; Gjelsvik, Annie; Reiner, Alexander P; Naik, Rakhi P; Liu, Simin; Musani, Solomon K; Eaton, Charles B; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2017-02-07

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reflects past glucose concentrations, but this relationship may differ between those with sickle cell trait (SCT) and those without it. To evaluate the association between SCT and HbA1c for given levels of fasting or 2-hour glucose levels among African Americans. Retrospective cohort study using data collected from 7938 participants in 2 community-based cohorts, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). From the CARDIA study, 2637 patients contributed a maximum of 2 visits (2005-2011); from the JHS, 5301 participants contributed a maximum of 3 visits (2000-2013). All visits were scheduled at approximately 5-year intervals. Participants without SCT data, those without any concurrent HbA1c and glucose measurements, and those with hemoglobin variants HbSS, HbCC, or HbAC were excluded. Analysis of the primary outcome was conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine the association of SCT with HbA1c levels, controlling for fasting or 2-hour glucose measures. Presence of SCT. Hemoglobin A1c stratified by the presence or absence of SCT was the primary outcome measure. The analytic sample included 4620 participants (mean age, 52.3 [SD, 11.8] years; 2835 women [61.3%]; 367 [7.9%] with SCT) with 9062 concurrent measures of fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. In unadjusted GEE analyses, for a given fasting glucose, HbA1c values were statistically significantly lower in those with (5.72%) vs those without (6.01%) SCT (mean HbA1c difference, -0.29%; 95% CI, -0.35% to -0.23%). Findings were similar in models adjusted for key risk factors and in analyses using 2001 concurrent measures of 2-hour glucose and HbA1c concentration for those with SCT (mean, 5.35%) vs those without SCT (mean, 5.65%) for a mean HbA1c difference of -0.30% (95% CI, -0.39% to -0.21%). The HbA1c difference by SCT was greater at higher fasting (P = .02 for interaction) and 2-hour (P = .03) glucose

  9. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of Older Adults: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society: Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-11-01

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults aged 75 and older. Despite the effect of CVD on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, individuals aged 75 and older have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older adults with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older adults typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision-making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, a detailed review was conducted of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA) guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older adults. A pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision-making in older adults with CVD was found, as well as a paucity of data on the effect of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on outcomes that are particularly important to older adults, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older adults representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older adults in the study design. The results of these studies will provide the foundation for

  10. African American ethnicity is not associated with development of Barrett's oesophagus after erosive oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Alkaddour, Ahmad; McGaw, Camille; Hritani, Rama; Palacio, Carlos; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Munoz, Juan Carlos; Vega, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is the primary risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma; erosive oesophagitis is considered an intermediate step with Barrett's oesophagus development potential upon healing. Barrett's oesophagus occurs in 9-19% following erosive oesophagitis but minimal data exists in African Americans. The study aim was to determine if ethnicity is associated with Barrett's oesophagus formation following erosive oesophagitis. Retrospective review of endoscopies from September 2007 to December 2012 was performed. Inclusion criteria were erosive oesophagitis on index endoscopy, repeat endoscopy ≥6 weeks later and non-Hispanic white or African American ethnicity. Barrett's oesophagus frequency following erosive oesophagitis by ethnicity was compared. A total of 14,303 patients underwent endoscopy during the study period; 1636 had erosive oesophagitis. Repeat endoscopy was performed on 125 non-Hispanic white or African American patients ≥6 weeks from the index procedure. Barrett's oesophagus occurred in 8% of non-Hispanic whites while no African American developed it on repeat endoscopy following erosive oesophagitis (p=0.029). No significant difference was seen between ethnic groups in any clinical parameter assessed. African American ethnicity appears to result in decreased Barrett's oesophagus formation following erosive oesophagitis. Further investigation to demonstrate factors resulting in decreased Barrett's oesophagus formation among African Americans should be performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Association between copy number variation losses and alcohol dependence across African American and European American ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Alvaro E; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor M; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu

    2014-05-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American (AA) population. This study considers 2 CNV data sets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands, and specific losses in CNV regions. Results from the discovery data set showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53 × 10(-3) ). An overlapping CNV region from the validation data set exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid, and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9 × 10(-3) ) in our discovery data set. Although not observed in the validation data set, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Overall, our study provides

  12. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  13. On the association of young star clusters and their parental clouds: a statistical fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetem, A.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Fernandes, B.; Santos-Silva, T.

    2014-10-01

    We present a study of 21 young star clusters aiming to characterize their association to dense clouds. The structure of the clouds was evaluated by means of the Q statistical fractal analysis, designed to compare their geometric structure with the spatial distribution of the cluster members. The sample was selected from the study by Santos-Silva and Gregorio-Hetem (2012, A&A, 547, A107) that evaluated the radial density profile of the stellar superficial distribution of the young clusters. The fractal dimension and other statistical parameters of most of the sample indicate that there is a good cloud-cluster correlation, when compared to other works based on an artificial distribution of points (Lomax et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 627). As presented in a previous work (Fernandes et al. 2012, A&A, 541, A95 ), the cluster NGC 6530 is the only object of our sample that presents anomalous statistical behaviour. The fractal analysis shows that this cluster has a centrally concentrated distribution of stars that differs from the substructures found in the density distribution of the cloud projected in the A_{V} map, suggesting that the original cloud geometry was changed by the cluster formation.

  14. Descriptors of American Physical Therapy Association physical therapist members' reading of professional publications.

    PubMed

    Carter, Russell E; Stoecker, Judith

    2006-11-01

    One of the components of evidence-based practice (EBP) is reading the literature. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to determine which publications are read most frequently by physical therapists (PTs), 2) to identify employment and education characteristics related to reading patterns, and 3) to determine how PTs use information gained from reading professional publications. A survey was constructed, pretested, revised, and then mailed to a random sample of 1,000 physical therapists, 500 from the general American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) membership and 500 from the combined Geriatric and Orthopedic section memberships. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. After all mailings, 43.3% of the sample responded. Of those responding, 66.3% were employed as clinicians, 14.7% as clinician-administrators, 6% as educators, and 4.9% as administrators. Overall, and for clinicians, the two most frequently read professional publications were non peer-reviewed. For clinician groups "patient management" was among the top two most selected uses of information from reading professional publications. Educators and those with an advanced doctorate indicated "class lectures" as either their second most frequently selected use or tied for first with "keeping current." Only educators and those with or pursuing an advanced doctorate reported using information from reading professional publications for "research ideas" or "research methods" among their top five uses. Slightly more than 10% of the respondents cited a peer-reviewed published article as having been most influential on their practice. Non peer-reviewed professional publications appear to serve as a more frequent source of information for "patient management" than do peer-reviewed publications. Efforts to increase the use of EBP need to be explored and evaluated for impact on physical therapists' practice.

  15. Inaugural address of the 162nd president of the American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ronald M

    2007-12-01

    On June 26, 2007, Ronald M. Davis, MD, was inaugurated as the 162nd president of the American Medical Association at an ornate ceremony in the Grand Ballroom of the Hilton Chicago Hotel. He is the first AMA president to be board-certified in preventive medicine. After Dr. Davis completed the Epidemic Intelligence Service program and the preventive medicine residency program at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, he served as director of CDC's Office on Smoking and Health and then as medical director of the Michigan Department of Public Health. Since 1995, he has served as director of the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. By tradition, the presidents of state medical societies and the leaders of a few other medical organizations sit on the dais during the AMA president's inaugural speech. Reflecting Dr. Davis's interest in strengthening the partnership between clinical medicine and public health, he invited leaders of seven preventive medicine and public health organizations to join him on the dais during his address: the Aerospace Medical Association, the American Association of Public Health Physicians, the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the American College of Preventive Medicine, the American Public Health Association, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, and the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Dr. Davis's inaugural address appears below, except for a portion at the beginning in which he gave tribute to many family members, friends, and colleagues for their support through the years. This portion of his speech can be found on the Journal's website at www.ajpm-online.net.

  16. Diagnosis of stable ischemic heart disease: summary of a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American Association for Thoracic Surgery/Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association/Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Fihn, Stephan D; Williams, Sankey; Dallas, Paul; Owens, Douglas K; Shekelle, Paul

    2012-11-20

    The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), American Heart Association (AHA), American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons to help clinicians diagnose known or suspected stable ischemic heart disease. Literature on this topic published before November 2011 was identified by using MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsychINFO, AMED, and SCOPUS. Searches were limited to human studies published in English. This guideline grades the evidence and recommendations according to a translation of the ACCF/AHA grading system into ACP's clinical practice guidelines grading system. This guideline includes 28 recommendations that address the following issues: the initial diagnosis of the patient who might have stable ischemic heart disease, cardiac stress testing to assess the risk for death or myocardial infarction in patients diagnosed with stable ischemic heart disease, and coronary angiography for risk assessment.

  17. Position Papers of the American Association on Mental Deficiency 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association on Mental Deficiency, Washington, DC.

    Presented are the American Association on Mental Deficiency's position papers regarding the rights of retarded persons. Included are statements on the following topics: basic rights (such as freedom of choice and the right to the least restrictive individually appropriate housing); work by residents in private and public institutions (including…

  18. Summary of the American Camping Association Camp Ecological Training Project, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluchel, Robert W.; Gregory, Charles A.

    Briefly summarized is the American Camping Association's Camp Ecological Training Project, its goals, accomplishments, problems, and future potential as seen by the first two Itinerant Ecologists who participated in the project. Creation of an ecological awareness and conservation consciousness were the major goals of the project. To accomplish…

  19. How Is Postsecondary Education Associated with Membership in the American Corporate Elite?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Molly C.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the discussion around the value of a college degree and associated career advantages by considering how postsecondary education contributes to the attainment of the most powerful and prestigious positions in the American corporate world. Guided by a conceptual framework informed by status attainment, power elite, and…

  20. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  1. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  2. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  3. 78 FR 53149 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Continued Approval of American Osteopathic Association/Healthcare...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    .... SUMMARY: This final notice announces our decision to approve American Osteopathic Association/Healthcare... forth at Sec. 488.4 and Sec. 488.8(d)(3). The regulations at Sec. 488.8(d)(3) require accrediting... no less than a 30-day public comment period. At the end of the 210-day period, we must publish a...

  4. Politics, Operant Conditioning, Galileo, and the American Psychological Association's Response to Rind et al. (1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses controversy surrounding a 1998 article on the effects of child sexual abuse, which resulted in official condemnation by Congress and actions by the American Psychological Association to assuage Congressional critics. Written from the perspective of a psychologist serving in Congress, this article discusses political and organizational…

  5. Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

  6. American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

    2012-01-01

    The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the…

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  8. The History and Development of the Alabama Division of the American Rehabilitation Counseling Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Mary Anne

    2007-01-01

    The Alabama Division of the American Rehabilitation Association is an organization committed to representing those counselors who work in the field of rehabilitation across the state. The division is focused on offering leadership within the field of rehabilitation counseling, promoting professional development opportunities for counselors, and…

  9. ATLAS. Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies. [Newsletter] Volume 3, Number 1. October, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, Brooklyn, NY.

    The October 1973 issue of ATLAS, a newsletter for the Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, is entered into the ERIC system on a one time basis to acquaint teachers with this resource. This issue reports summer activities and reviews new materials in this subject area. The events of the 1973 summer ATLAS-Fulbright Seminar to Mexico…

  10. Nontenured Assistant Professors as American Counseling Association Division Presidents: The New Look of Leadership in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Donna M.; Dollarhide, Colette T.; McCallum, Leah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of 6 nontenured assistant professors who were serving or had recently served as presidents-elect or presidents of American Counseling Association divisions. The participants described their motivation for serving in these capacities and shared the experiences of serving while faced with the traditional…

  11. AERA Code of Ethics: American Educational Research Association Approved by the AERA Council February 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) articulates a common set of values upon which education researchers build their professional and scientific work. The Code is intended to provide both the principles and the rules to cover professional situations encountered by education researchers. It has as its primary…

  12. Association of American Universities Policy Recommendations for President-Elect Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this document, the Association of American Universities offers a series of research and technology policy recommendations that would help our nation to continue its global pre-eminence in science and high technology, improve the quality of life and national security of our citizens, and speed our nation's economic recovery. After policy…

  13. Standards for Day and Resident Camps: The Accreditation Programs of the American Camping Association. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The purpose of this manual is to educate camp directors and camp personnel regarding government-recognized standard practices and procedures followed within the camp industry. These standards also provide a basis for voluntary accreditation of camps by the American Camping Association (ACA) beyond the minimum requirements of licensing. The manual…

  14. Evaluation Use: Results from a Survey of U.S. American Evaluation Association Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Dreolin N.; Christie, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional survey on evaluation use completed by 1,140 U.S. American Evaluation Association members. This study had three foci: evaluators' current attitudes, perceptions, and experiences related to evaluation use theory and practice, how these data are similar to those reported in a previous study…

  15. An Examination of the Association between Demographic and Educational Factors and African American Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…

  16. Content Analysis of 32 Years of American Counseling Association Convention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Schmidt, Lisa L. L.

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis of American Counseling Association convention sessions offered from 1977 to 2008 was conducted. The intent was to identify changes and trends in the counseling profession. Content of more than 15,000 sessions, including educational programs, keynote presentations, and training sessions, was assigned to 1 of 86 categories. A…

  17. The Human Ecology of the American Educational Research Association. Report No. 261.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, James M., Jr.

    The concepts and methods of human ecology are applied to the geographic distribution of members of the American Educational Research Association. State characteristics are measured by five factors: (1) large-scale agriculture; (2) population size; (3) affluence-urbanization; (4) white predominance; (5) emphasis on specialized agriculture. City…

  18. American Association of Colleges of Nursing Annual State of the Schools, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    This annual report highlights the initiatives of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing to help member schools meet the nation's demand for innovative and expanded nursing care. Information is provided in the broad areas of: the state of the schools, leading through task force initiatives, working together to advance nursing education,…

  19. American Association of Colleges of Nursing Annual State of the Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    This annual report highlights the initiatives of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing to help member schools meet the nation's demand for innovative and expanded nursing care. Information is provided in the broad areas of: the state of the schools, setting curriculum standards, working together to advance nursing education, pursuing…

  20. American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) Proceedings (New Orleans, Louisiana, December 10-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Education Research Association.

    This document contains 14 research paper presentations and 5 "mini-tips" from the 1998 American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) annual meeting. The first section includes three papers on international and distance education: "Determining Success of Vocational Students Enrolled in Distance Education Courses"…